Lingua e traduzione per l'impresa internazionale - EN IT LEZIONE 5 DOTT.SSA FEDERICA PIERANTOZZI
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Assignment Discursively describe the advertisement (category, sub-genre…) and describe the creative use of language and visuals Keep it short (250 words) Translate it!
Description Identify category and sub-genre This advertisement promotes a bottle of Mc Ilhenny Tabasco Sauce, then it is a product and commercial advertisement since it aims to sell a food product. It is a soft-sell advertisement because it does not ask the reader to take action directly, but it aims to appeal to those who love spicy food.
Description Describe the attention-seeking device(s) The attention-seeking device is the image of the bottle standing in the middle of the page on a red background, whose colour has been taken from the sauce. It is represented like a fire extinguisher tank showing the typical handle, lever, and hose. The combination of the product with a fire-related object and the background create a metaphor that represents the comparison between the fire and the sauce, whose spicy flavour feels like having the mouth on fire. That is, we need to be careful with it, as we would do with a fire that has to be extinguished.
Description Mention the copy As far as the text is concerned, the copy is composed of a headline (“Beware the heat”) and a sub-headline (“Little bottle. Big flavour”). Besides, by warning the reader to be careful with the heat, the copy emphasizes the meaning of the metaphor, and explains that despite of the small-sized bottle, the flavour is intense and explosive like a fire.
Description Speak of any further information Finally, we can add something about the creative use of language. In the sub-headline we find a parallelism where the adjective-noun structure is reproduced twice. The wordplay is made stronger by the use of opposite adjectives in two implicitly coordinated sentences.
Homework Can you spot any creative uses of language? Please, revise your translation according to what we said today.
Homework Can you spot any creative uses of language? Translate it.
Last time, we talked about… Motivation Julianne House (overt/covert translation and cultural filters) Creative use of language Emotional language
Translation analysis Molina, L., Hurtado Albir A., Translation techniques revisited: a dynamic and functionalist approach, META, 47, 4 The categories used to analyse translations allow us to study the way the translation works
Translation techniques and process Molina and Albir say: Disagreement and confusion in definitions provided by scholars. Sometimes different labels are confused and overlap They offer a review of definitions and their own classification of techniques Case study: Arabic translation of A Hundred Years of solitude by Gabriel Garcìa Marquez
Translation techniques and process Translation techniques: how micro-units of the TT function in relation to the corresponding unit of the ST Translation process: how the translation is approached at a macro-level (method and strategies)
Process and result METHOD (interpretative-communicative) PROCESS (decision level) STRATEGIES (search for information) RESULT TECHNIQUES (practical level)
Validity of translation techniques It depends on: Text genre (letter, advertisement…) Type of translation (technical, literal…) Mode of translation (written, sight translation, interpretation…) Purpose of translation Audience Method chosen (interpretative-communicative…)
A focus on techniques Translation technique: the result of a conscious or unconscious choice made by the translator Molina and Albir list 17 techniques Focus on 10/17 useful techniques for advertising translation
Foreignization vs. domestication Foreignization (estraniamento): staying closer to the SC, thus “sending the reader abroad” (Venuti, 1999) Domestication (addomesticamento): going closer to the TC (adapting the text), thus “bringing the author back home” (Venuti, 1999)
Classification proposal 1. Adaptation 2. Amplification and reduction 3. Borrowing (pure or naturalised) 4. Calque 5. Compensation 6. Description 7. Established equivalent 8. Literal translation 9. Modulation 10. Transposition
Adaptation Replace a ST cultural element with one from the TC Domesticating technique
Amplification vs. reduction Amplification Reduction Introduction of details that Omission of details that are are not formulated in ST considered redundant e.g. Ramadan, the Muslim e.g. Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting month of fasting Domesticating techniques
Borrowing Pure Naturalised Taking a word or an Taking a word or an expression straight from expression straight from another language another language but adapting it to spelling and grammar of the TC e.g. lobby e.g. chattare Foreignizing technique Domesticating technique
Calque Literal translation of a word or phrase (lexical or structural) e.g. skyscraper = grattacielo basketball = pallacanestro railway = ferrovia Foreignizing technique
Compensation Introduction of information or stylistic effect of the ST in another place in the TT because it is not possible to reproduce it in the same place as in the original e.g. Tangled. Rapunzel. L’intreccio della torre. Domesticating technique
Description Replace of a term or expression with a description of its form or function e.g. Panettone = traditional Italian Christmas cake Domesticating technique
Established equivalent Use of an expression recognized by dictionaries or language use as equivalent to the ST expression e.g. They are as like as two peas. Sono come due gocce d’acqua. A piece of cake. Un gioco da ragazzi. Domesticating technique
Literal translation Word for word translation of a sentence or clause in which the form of ST coincide in function and meaning with TT e.g. State cercando un partner? Are you looking for a partner? Not to be confused with an ESTABLISHED EQUIVALENT Foreignizing technique
Modulation Change in the point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the ST. It can be lexical, grammatical or structural. e.g. You are going to have a child. Stai per diventare padre. It is not difficult to make a choice. Scegliere è facile. Tip: useful when the translation does not sound good! Domesticating technique
Transposition Change in grammatical category of a word e.g. He will soon be back. Tornerà presto. Domesticating technique
Figure of speech (FoS) https://excellence-in-literature.com/figures-speech- schemes-tropes/ Trope: an artful deviation from the ordinary or principal signification of a word. A trope uses a word in an unusual or unexpected way. Scheme: an artful deviation from the ordinary arrangements of words, a creative alteration in the usual order of words.
Resemblance or relationship https://www.britannica.com/art/figure-of-speech Metaphor: the comparison is implicit (e.g. sei una volpe) Simile: the comparison is explicit (e.g. sei come una volpe) Synecdoche: name a part to refer to the whole (e.g. molte bocche da sfamare, le quattro ruote) Metonymy: name one thing to refer to another that is closely related to the first (e.g il Pentagono, “Ascolto Jovanotti”, “Bevi un bicchiere con me?”) Personification: reference to abstractions or inanimate objects as if they were a person (e.g. la notte porta consiglio)
Emphasis or understatement Hyperbole: deliberate exaggeration (e.g. I have a million things to do) Litotes: adding emphasis by negating the contrary (e.g. I’m not too bad) Rhetorical questions: questions that do not really need an answer (e.g. Are you kidding me?) Antithesis: opposite terms or ideas are placed in sharp juxtaposition (e.g. little bottle. Big flavour) Oxymoron: a self-contradicting word or group of words (e.g Bittersweet) Irony: the real meaning is concealed or contradicted (e.g. That was very smart!)
Figures of sound Alliteration: repetition of the same sound or stressed syllables at the beginning of the word (e.g. She sells seashells by the seashore) Do you remember consonance and assonance? Rhyme: repetition at the end of the sentence or word (e.g. Chilling! Thrilling! Bracing!) Anaphora: repetition of word or phrase at the beginning of several clauses or sentences (e.g. For everything there is a season, and a time, for every matter under heaven: a time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up – Ecclesiae, Old Testament)
Verbal games Paronomasia (pun): a humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest different meanings or applications (e.g. "Thai Me Up“ - Thai restaurant in Manhattan) Anagram: a word formed with the letters of another word in a different order (e.g. neat, a net – Cambridge dictionary)
Repetition Pleonasm: use of more words than needed to express a meaning (e.g. Kick it with your feet – Cambridge dictionary) Antimetabole (chiasmus): repetition of a word or sentence in a reverse order for emphasis (e.g. Qualità senza risparmio o risparmio senza qualità? - Sole)
Homework Discursively describe this advertisement. Translate it. Comment on your translation choices. Please, refer to the translation techniques we discussed together.
Today, we talked about… Translation analysis Molina and Hurtado Albir Method, strategies and techniques Some useful techniques Tropes and schemes
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