Main Report: From Quota Affirmation to Helping Female Candidates Win in the 2019 Legislative Elections - The Indonesian Institute

 
Volume XII, No. 2 - March 2018
                                                           ISSN 1979-1976

Monthly Review on Economic, Legal, Security, Political, and Social Affairs

                                                           Main Report:
From Quota Affirmation to Helping Female Candidates Win
                          in the 2019 Legislative Elections
                                                            The Economy
                             Monitoring the 16th Economic Policy Package 
             Challenges in Enhancing the Role of E-Commerce in Indonesia 
                                                                    Politics
                               The Threats of Hate Speech in Political Years 
           Criticizing the Rule Prohibiting Campaign in the Period after the 
                         Parties Contesting the 2019 Elections are Verified
                                                                      Social
                         Identifying Work Motivation of Health Workers 
                                            in Indonesian Remote Areas
                     Protecting Women from Sexual Harassment in KRL 
           Problems Facing the KLJ (Jakarta Senior Citizen Card) in 2018 
ISSN 1979-1976

                                                                     CONTENTS

FOREWORD .................................................................        1
MAIN REPORT
From Quota Affirmation to Helping Female Candidates
Win in the 2019 Legislative Elections ...................................         2
THE ECONOMY
Monitoring the 16th Economic Policy Package.......................                5
Challenges in Enhancing the Role of E-Commerce in Indonesia                       9
POLITICS
The Threats of Hate Speech in Political Years........................            12
Criticizing the Rule Prohibiting Campaign in the Period after
the Parties Contesting the 2019 Elections are Verified.............              15
SOCIAL
Identifying Work Motivation of Health Workers in Indonesian
Remote Areas..................................................................   19
Protecting Women from Sexual Harassment in KRL.............                      22
Problems Facing the KLJ (Jakarta Senior Citizen Card) in 2018                    25
INSTITUTIONAL PROFILE............................................                28
RESEARCH PROGRAMS, SURVEY AND EVALUATION.                                        30
PUBLIC DISCUSSION.....................................................           33
TRAINING & WORKING GROUP FACILITATION..........                                  34
Contributors :
Adinda Tenriangke Muchtar ( Coordinator ), Arfianto Purbolaksono,
Endah Setyaningsih, Fadel Basrianto, Riski Wicaksono, Umi Lutfiah.
Editor: Awan Wibowo Laksono Poesoro
FOREWORD

Gender inequality in our legislative bodies is an unsolved problem. This has
resulted in women becoming less involved in policy-making and in policies that
are not gender sensitive. The main report of the March 2018 edition of the
Indonesian Update raises this issue. In relation to the International Women’s
Day, it calls on political parties to support female legislative candidates.

On the economy, the Indonesian Update discusses “the Challenges to Improve
the Roles of E-Commerce in Indonesia and “the 16th Economic Package”. On
political affairs, it talks about “Criticizing the Rule Prohibiting Campaign in the
Period after the Parties Contesting the 2019 Elections are Verified” and “the
Threats of Using Hate Speech in Political Campaigns”.

On social affairs, it discusses “the provision of women-only railway carriages”
and the launch of the Jakarta Senior Citizen Cards. It also talks about financial
and non-financial motives for health workers to work in remote places.

The regular publication of the Indonesian Update with its actual themes is
expected to help policy makers in government and business environment -- as
well as academics, think tanks, and other elements of civil society, both within
and outside the country, to get the actual information and contextual analysis
of economic, legal, political, cultural and social developments in Indonesia, as
well as to understand the public policy in Indonesia.

Happy Reading.

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                      1
Main Report

    From Quota Affirmation to Helping Female
Candidates Win in the 2019 Legislative Elections

 Currently, gender inequality in our Parliament is still an unresolved
 problem. In the 2014 elections, the number of women who become
 members of the House of Representatives was only 17.32 percent
 of the total number of members of the House of Representatives.
 This figure was lower than that of the 2009 General Election, which
 was at a women representation level of 17.86 percent.
 According to international standards, women’s representation
 level in our Parliament is too low. At the ASEAN level, the level
 of representation of our women is currently in the sixth position.
 The first position is occupied by the Philippines, whose female
 representation reaches a level 29.50 percent. Compared to the
 global level with an average representation level of 23.60 percent, we
 are also far below (Tirto.id, 07/09/2017). Therefore, it is necessary
 to review the strategy of increasing women’s representation
 within our parliamentary bodies. Moreover, the 2019 elections are
 approaching.
 The Urgency to Increase Women’s Participation
 The issue of gender inequality within our representative institutions
 has further implications. According to Melani, the Chair of the
 Presidium of Women’s Caucus in the Parliament of the Republic of
 Indonesia (KPPRI), currently, there are many laws produced by the
 Parliament, whose drafting did not optimally involve women. This
 has led to many issues that do not gender sensitive (KoranJakarta.
 com, 16/11/2017).
 One example of the seriousness of legislative work that is related
 to women’s issues is the deliberation of the Bill on the Elimination
 of Sexual Violence. This Bill has not been passed even though it
 has been included in Prolegnas since 2016. However, until the third

                The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                          2
Main Report

session of the House of Representatives ended, the bill has not
passed. Meanwhile, according to the data collected by the Ministry
of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection (KPP-PA), the
number of cases of sexual violence each year had increased by 10
percent (Okezone.com, 30/05/2016).
The marginalization of women’s issues in the legislative processes
was also evident when the House of Representatives prioritized
the passing of the Revision of the MD3 Law rather than finishing
the Sexual Violence Bill. Therefore, increasing the representation
of women has become an urgent need.
Ending the 30 Percent Debate
The efforts to increase women’s representation in the Parliament
have actually been initiated through legislations that provide political
affirmation to women. It started from Law Number 31 Year 2002 on
Political Parties to the amendment of Law no. 7 of 2017 on General
Elections. The legislations require that political parties have at
least 30 percent of women in the party leadership. In addition, the
General Elections Commission has also issued a regulation that in
the lists of candidates in electoral regions, there should be at least
30 percent of women. This means that there should be one female
candidate in every legislative candidates.
The reason for setting a threshold of at least 30 percent is based on
the research by the United Nations (UN). According to the UN, a
percentage of 30 percent is a minimal threshold that can decide a
policy that can bring about a change.
In other words, the current legislation are adequate to increase
the number of women’s representation in the DPR. On that basis,
the writer considers that the issue of low level of representation
of women is not due to the low quota of women, but due to the
parties not giving political space for women to become female
legislative candidates.
In the 2009 General Elections, the total number of nominations of
women candidates in the House of Representatives reached a level
of 33.6 percent. In the 2014 elections, the figure rose to a level of 37
percent. However, the total number of representatives decreased,
from 17.86 percent in the 2009 elections to 17.32 percent in the 2014
elections (Ardiansa, 2016). The data indicated that the increased
number of female candidates did not necessarily increase women’s
representation directly.

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Main Report

The seriousness of political parties in helping women legislative
candidates to win can be questioned as the parties only involve
women as administrators or as candidates but only for the sake of
formality. This has something to do with the law stipulating that
parties that can qualify as electoral participants are parties that
have at least 30 percent level of women’s representation in the
ranks of the central board of political parties. In fact, they often
recruit women only to meet the requirement of the registration
processes. This can be done by recruiting women who are close to
party officials.
In other words, most political parties still do not see women’s
representation as a party’s need and only see women as burdens.
This can also be seen from the representation and the number of
women in political parties. The results of the KPU verification on
02 February 2018 on the decision of political parties participating in
the 2019 General Elections 2019 show the percentage of women in
each political party. From the data, only one new political party, the
Indonesian Solidarity Party, which has the highest level of female
representation (66 percent) compared to the other political parties.

                       Source: Antara news/KPU

The paradigm of representation as being a party’s expenses
contributes to the low level of electability of women candidates.
With the paradigm of women as a complementary requirement,
female legislative candidates are only placed at the bottom of the
candidate lists. The first priorities are still candidates who usually
have more resources. According to a research by Puskapol UI, in the
2009 and 2014 elections, as many as 60 percents of the candidates
at the top of the candidate lists won the legislative elections.

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Main Report

Secondly, there are no adequate supports from political parties          It is time we choose a
                                                                         more progressive way
to help female legislative candidates win the elections. Female
                                                                         of improving women’s
candidates must map and gather their sympathizers. Third, political      representation in the
parties often recruit women candidates without considering the           House.
capacity of candidates, as the recruitments are only intended to
qualify to participate in elections. The female candidates lack both
capital resources and social capital. As a result, it is not uncommon
for women candidates to get the least number of votes as they do
not have supporters. Therefore, there should be a fresh strategy to
increase women’s representation.

From the Affirmation of Quotas Moved to Help Women Win
the Elections
Considering the above data, it is necessary to propose further
ways to increase women’s representation in the DPR. After the
legislations that ensure that political parties involve women as much
as possible (30 percent) and after the KPU regulations that also
require that political parties nominate women in every electoral
area, with a minimum nomination level of 30 percent, it is time for
us to have the next strategy.
A further strategy to increase the level of the election of female
candidates is to provide incentives for political parties whose the
numbers of elected female candidates are at the highest level. The
incentives should not be material incentives but opportunities to
lead discussions in the DPR, especially those related to women’s
issues. They can inject the party agenda items into the policy-
making processes.
With such incentives, the involvements of women in political
parties are no longer perceived as burdens but as a party’s necessity.
In fact, if these incentives are to be standardized as legal norms,
political parties will be competing to increase the election of their
female legislative candidates.
On the other hand, this approach can bring women legislators
closer to the drafting of legislation related to women’s issues in the
DPR. Of course, this way can be realized if there is a political will
between the election organizers, the House of Representatives,
and the government. Civil society groups are needed to continue to
put some pressure on the implementation of this idea.

- Fadel Basrianto -

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                                                                                          5
The Economy

          Monitoring the 16th Economic Policy Package

The Government is currently in the process of formulating the 16th
Economic Policy Package. According to the Coordinator of the
Special Staff Members to the Minister of Economic Affairs, Edy
Putra Irawady, the Government is focusing on completing the parts
of the economic policy package that are related to the export and
import trade systems. He added that one of the things set out in the
policy package was the elimination of the recommendations on the
imports of industrial raw materials (kontan.co.id, 1/29).

In addition, the Deputy for Macroeconomic and Financial of the
Minister of Economic Affairs, Iskandar Simorangkir, stated that in
the policy package existing and new export-based industries exist-
ing that will invest in the country will be given incentives, such as
tax allowance and tax holiday. As a requirement, new companies
should provide many new jobs, high investment, and the use of the
latest technology that is able to create added values (kontan.co.id,
25/02).

The Jokowi-JK government economic policies
So far, the Jokowi-JK government has issued 15 policy packages in
the economic field. However, some parties argue that the imple-
mentations of the policy packages still have not been optimal. Ac-
cording to a statement form Sanny Iskandar, the secretary of the
Indonesian Employers Association (Apindo), packages that have
been issued by the government have not been effective, because
there is a weak level of coordination between ministries and local
government (kontan.co. id, 30/8/2017).

The author considers that the economic policy has bring a signifi-
cant impact on the rise of Indonesia’s ranking in the ease of doing
business index (EoDB). According to the 2018 World Bank survey
on EoDB Index, Indonesia ranks 72nd out of 190 countries, improv-
ing 42 ranks compared to that in 2015 (rank 114 out of 189). How-

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
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The Economy

ever, the increasing level of ease of doing business in the country
has not been accompanied by the improving economic growth.
In the last three years, 2015-2017, the average rate of economic
growth has not been able to reach the targets. In addition, accord-
ing to BPS data, the Indonesian economy at the end of 2017 grew
by 5.07%, or only increased by 0.79% over the previous year.
Furthermore, labor absorption level is also still low, particularly
from foreign investment. According to the data of the Investment
Coordinating Board (BKPM), in 2015 investment provided jobs for
about 900 thousand people; in 2016, investment only provided jobs
for around 700 thousand people; and by June 2017, investment has
provided jobs for 350 thousand people.
Moreover, the low rate of economic growth has occurred partly
because of the low level of productivity in the country. See the dia-
gram below.

            Source : Badan Pusat Statistik 2017, data processed

The agricultural sector is one of the export sectors in Indonesia.
However, the productivity of the sector in 2017 is still very low,
which is only at a level of 2%. Agriculture is the largest sector that
can absorb workers, as many as 33.36 million according to the data
in August 2017 (http://epublikasi.setjen.pertanian.go.id, 12/1/2017).
The sector that has the highest export contribution is the process-
ing industry, at a level of 75% . This was followed by the mining
sector (14%) and the oil sector (9%).

Indonesia’s exports and imports still have many problems that at-
tract complaints from businesses. The obstacles include: time con-
straints and the cost and administrative management of import-ex-
port licensing documents. In addition, there are restrictive policies
on the imports of certain raw materials, so the policies can be bur-

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                         7
The Economy

densome for some local businesses that utilize imported raw mate-        Incentives for businesses
rials in the production processes.                                       and investors, the
                                                                         ease of doing business,
Recommendations                                                          the review on some
                                                                         restrictions on some
                                                                         types of imported
The author argues that the government’s plans to publish the 16          raw materials, the
Economic Package will include the introduction of appropriate            improved coordination
import-export steps. At the moment, the current exports and im-          amongst the central
ports systems are still problematic in the implementations. Thus,        government’s ministries,
the presence of this policy package is expected to make an incentive     and the coordination
for businesses and investors in order to raise the productivity and      between the central
                                                                         and local governments
competitiveness of the domestic market. In addition, the ease of
                                                                         are essential in
doing business in the country will be able to increase the coopera-      implementing an
tion in the international trade, as market shares expands.               effective economic policy
                                                                         package.
Therefore, there needs to be a review on the policy of banning
some types of imported raw materials. There is also Trade Minister
Regulation No. 30 /M-DAG/PER/5/2017 that restricts the imports
of horticultural products, such as vegetables and fruits. The restric-
tions on imported goods are sometimes required in order not to shut
down the domestic market, but the mechanism of the implementa-
tions should be reviewed, taking into account various aspects, such
as the number of requests, the agricultural climate in the country
and the availability of stocks of raw materials.

Furthermore, at the same time the central government should also
improve and strengthen the coordination between ministries as well
as the coordination between the central and local governments re-
garding the implementation of policy packages. For example, there
should be an integrated database system from the central to local
governments to accommodate all the information and procedures
of the policies that are implemented.

The existence of an integrated information system is expected to
facilitate each area to prepare and implement the appropriate policy
packages. These policy recommendations should be carefully con-
sidered in the implementation of the 16 Economic Policy Package.

- Riski Wicaksono -

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
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The Economy

                         Challenges in Enhancing the Role of
                                   E-Commerce in Indonesia

On July 21, 2017, President Jokowi signed Presidential Decree
(Perpres) No. 74 l/2017 on the National Road Map-Based Elec-
tronic Trading System (Road Map E-Commerce) for 2017-2019
(http://setkab.go.id, 10/8/2017). According to Article 3 Perpres No.
74/2017, the E-Commerce Road map aims to provide a strategic
direction and guidance in accelerating the implementation of the
National electronic-based trading system.

The Perpres issuance showed the the government’s optimism to-
wards the role of e-commerce in supporting the national economy.
According to 2016 economic census by BPS, the number of busi-
nesses involved in e-commerce experienced growth of a level of
around 17% over the last ten years. The number had reached a level
of 26.2 million units (http://liputan6.com, 20/5/2017). The upward
trend in electronic transactions is predicted to continue to rise as
the internet network facilities in the country grow.

According to survey results by Indonesian Internet Service Provid-
ers Association (APJII) in 2017, the total number of internet users
reached a level of 143.26 million, and the value increased by 7.96%
if compared to the previous year. In addition, the average internet
user community is dominated by the young age group (ie 19-35
years), with a level portion of 49.52% (Data APJJI, 2017).

Better internet access is suspected to be one of the important fac-
tors for the increased activities through online transactions. The
condition is reinforced by the findings of the Social Research and
Monitoring Soclab.co, in which of the total Internet users in 2015,
as many as 77% were looking for product information and online
shopping (http://tribunnews.com, 2/20/2017).

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The Economy

Challenges for the Government

The government’s move to issue Perpres No. 74 of 2017 on E-Com-
merce Road Map for 2017-2019 should be appreciated. The Perpres
is expected to optimize and monitor the role of e-commerce in In-
donesia. However, so far there are still some challenges faced by
the government. According to the opinion of Suhariyanto, the head
of BPS, the BPS has not found a formula to accurately collect data
related to the values and volume of transactions, the sellers, the
buyers, investment, payment methods, manpower and technology
(https://www.viva.co.id, 2/14/2018).

Meanwhile, the Indonesia E-Commerce Association (idEA), has
expressed its fears of the perpetrators of e-commerce. This has
been caused by several things. First, those e-commerce establish-
ments are not yet public companies, which are not required to
provide personal data. Secondly, if the data are released, there are
worries that they will have difficulties in finding funds from inves-
tors. Third, in relation to taxation, it is feared that data given by the
perpetrators of e-commerce can be accessed by the tax authorities
so that it can be used to determinate tax loopholes (https://ekonomi.
akurat.co/id,12/16/2017).

Taxation has also become one of the challenges for the tax authori-
ties, because e-commerce is a unique business that has many busi-
ness models. According to Taxation Regulation SE-62/PJ/2013,
e-commerce is classified in four models, including: online market-
place, classified ads and and online retail. In addition, because the
transactions are done through the virtual world, the challenge is to
determine the exact amount of tax.

Recommendations

Based on previous exposures, the author argues that in order to op-
timize the role of e-commerce, the government, in this case the
BPS, should immediately undertake a data collection on the activi-
ties of e-commerce. The data can be used as an analysis for the
direction of economic policy. For example, they can be used to anal-
yse the contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the level of
absorption of the labor force, the level of competitiveness, and the
contribution to tax revenues.

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                                                                            10
The Economy

Then, in realizing the Road Map E-Commerce, the equality of the       E-commerce should
internet network infrastructure throughout Indonesia needs to.        be managed properly
good. According to the 2017 data, currently the majority of inter-    in order for the
net users are concentrated in Java region, at a level of 58.08%. If   e-commerce to become
these conditions are allowed, the inequality gap between Java re-     a new potential
                                                                      to contribute to
gion and the region outside will be higher.                           the economy. This
                                                                      management will
Furthermore, local governments also have a role in developing the     include activities such
SMEs businesses through e-commerce; for example by facilitat-         as collecting data
ing the establishments of start-ups, the ease of access to credit,    of e-commerce, the
marketing, as well as the ease of doing business through policies     facilitation of start-up
that protect economic freedom and support entrepreneurship. In        businesses, the ease of
                                                                      access to credit, and the
the era of digital economy, currently e-commerce provides a great
                                                                      facilitation of marketing
opportunity to enhance the competitiveness and development of         products in order
local SMEs. In the end, through e-commerce, local SMEs will also      to contribute to the
be able to improve the regional economy.                              economy.

- Riski Wicaksono -

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                     11
Politics

             The Threats of Hate Speech in Political Years

The Directorate of Cybercrime of the Indonesian National Police
(INP) Criminal Investigation Department and the Directorate of
Special Security of the INP Intelligence and Security Agency man-
aged to unravel the syndicate that had been spreading provocative
issues and hate speech on social media. The syndicate is called the
Family of the Muslim Cyber Army (MCA) (kompas.com, 26/2).

The arrest of the members of the MCA group is one of the Police’s
responses to the increase in the frequency of hate speech on social
media today. Previously, according to an annual report of Amnesty
International on the human rights situation in the world, through-
out 2017 the number of political practices of using hateful speech
is increasing worldwide. This has led to violations of human rights.

Hate speech has a variety of definitions fom various sources. In
general, a speech of hatred can be interpreted as active prejudice
active or prejudice that appears in the public domain by means of
speeches, campaigns, banners / pamphlets, sermons / religious lec-
tures, social media, and speeches in the demonstrations that have
attacked primordial,tribal, religious issues and also beliefs, races,
and groups (Syahayani, 2015).

According to Amnesty International, Indonesia’s political practic-
es of using hateful speech are done through a number of issuess.
The first issue is the allegations of the resurrection of the PKI.
Second,the speech of hatred that is based on religious sentiments,
which started to heat up since the elections in DKI in 2017. In ad-
dition, Amnesty International Indonesia also predicts that hatred
speech willstill occur in 2018-2019. In 2018, there will be simultane-
ous direct local elections in 171 regions. Meanwhile, in 2019 there
will be legislative elections (Pileg) and the elections of the President
and Vice-President (Kompas.com, 22/2).

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                                                                           12
Politics

Agreeing with these predictions, the author believes that getting
closer to the elections, the frequency of speech of hatred will in-
crease. This is because the hatred speech will be used to be one
of thecampaign strategies to attack and bring down political oppo-
nents.

Hatred speech and acts of intolerance first emerged in the 2014
presidential elections. One of the examples is an ad titled ‘rest in
peace’ Jokowi. In the ad, Jokowiwas said to have died on May 4,
2014 at 15:30 pm. The ad maker also wrote down the name of Ir.
Hambertus Joko Widodo and Hong Liong Oey. There was also the
issue of stating Prabowo of having psychiatric disorders.

Hatred speech had then increased prevalently during the 2017
elections in Jakarta. Starting from the blasphemy case involving
incumbent Governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok alias), which
spurredthe increase in the frequency of hate speech that was linked
to racial issues during the election in DKI Jakarta in 2017. After the
political commotion, the 2017 Democracy Index of the Economist
Intelligence Unit reported that Indonesia dropped 20 positions in
the rankings from number 48 to 68 (dw.com, 2/2).

Article 69 b, Act No. 10/2016 on the Elections of Governors, Re-
gents, Mayors and Article 280 c, Act No. 7/2017 state that cam-
paigns should not be done by way of insulting someone, race, eth-
nicity, religion, groups and other candidates and participants.

According to the author, the use of hate speech in campaigns will
be detrimental to voters. As we all know, campaigns are impor-
tant activities that take place during political contestations. Citing
Pfau and Parrot (in Gun Gun Heryanto, 2013) , the purpose of cam-
paigns is to influence the target audience. In addition to influencing
the communities to choose a candidate, campaigns are also means
of political education for the communities.

Therefore, according to the author, first, it is very important to re-
mind regional head candidates or parties participating in the 2019
Elections 2019 to create educative political campaigns. Campaigns
should educate the voters about the views and ideas of the partici-
pants of the elections. The debates over views and ideas are aimed
at improving public awareness about democracy. Therefore, the
campaign should be done as political education in order to establish
a more democratic society that respects diversity.

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Politics

Second, the electoral administrative agencies, the KPU and Bawas-      The use of hatred
lu, in cooperation with the INP should give firm punishments for       speech is not a good
candidates, political parties, campaign teams and support team of      political education.
volunteers that use hatred speech in their campaigns.                  Voters must be clever
                                                                       and wise in digesting
                                                                       the information and in
Third, encourage the State Cyber and Code Agency (BSSN) to             casting their votes.
strengthen the coordination of relevant institutions in order to
strictly control the disseminators of hate speech through social me-
dia. Thefirst step to do is to monitor the accounts on social media
that spread hate speech. If it is proved legally that these accounts
bring negative impacts, then BSSN together with law enforcement
officials must carry out legal processes that are transparent, ac-
countable, and firm, while at the same time continuing to protect
the principle of the freedom of expression of every citizen.

- Arfianto Purbolaksono -

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
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Politics

                  Criticizing the Rule Prohibiting Campaign
                  in the Period after the Parties Contesting
                              the 2019 Elections are Verified

The General Elections Commission (KPU) has issued a rule prohib-
iting political parties to conduct political campaign in print media,
electronic mass media, on the internet and rallies for 7 months,
from February 17th 2018 to 23 September 2018. The ban is a de-
rivative of a campaign provision stipulated in Article 276 Paragraph
2 of Act No. 7/2017 on the General Elections.

The article regulates that election campaigns as referred to in Ar-
ticle 275 Paragraph 1 Letters f and g are carried out for 21 (twenty
one) days and end with the start of the Quiet Period. The campaign
methods as referred to in Article 275 are:
• closed meetings;
• face-to-face meetings;
• the distribution of campaign materials to the public;
• the installation of props in public places;
• social media;
• advertising in print media, electronic mass media, and on the
    Internet;
• general meetings;
• the candidate pair debates on programs; and
• other activities that do not violate the ban on election campaign
    and the provisions of the legislation.

Wahyu Setiawan, a KPU Commissioner, explained that the policy
was taken as a form of justice for all political parties participating in
the 2019 General Elections. Therefore, not all political parties have
access to campaigns, particularly in the mass media (liputan6.com,
27/2).

The supervision will be carried out by the Campaign Task Force
consisting of KPU RI, Bawaslu RI, KPI RI and the Press Council.

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Politics

They will set up rules and oversee the media campaign on televi-
sion, in print media, online, and on radio (mediaindonesia.com, 27 /
2).

The Polemics over the Commission’s Rule

The rule has drawn protests from new political parties in Indone-
sia. The Secretary General of the Indonesian Solidarity Party (PSI),
Raja Juli Antoni, has criticized the new rule of the campaigns. Ac-
cording to him, the provision has made the PSI as a new party not
having sufficient opportunities to promote the party to prospective
voters (kompas.com, 26/2).

A similar thing has also been expressed by the Garuda Party. Ga-
ruda Party Secretary General Abdullah Mansuri said that the new
provision is unfair for new political parties. According to him, Garu-
da Party requires a sufficient time to ward off a variety of slanders
directed towards his party (kompas.com, 26/2).

The author argues that it is natural that political parties object to
the Commission’s decision, especially the long period of banning
campaigns in the media. Except for Perindo Party, new parties like
PSI, the Working Party, and the Garuda Party will need a longer
campaign period than the old parties.

This was reflected in a survey on the electability of political par-
ties in Indonesia, which was released in February 2018 by Indone-
sia Poltracking. In the survey, Perindo had the highest electability
amongst the new parties with 2.1 percent. It was followed by PSI
with a 1.1 percent. While in this survey, Working Party and the Par-
ty Garuda did not enter the list of parties chosen by the public.

Furthermore, a there is a second survey by Populi Center that was
released on February 28, 2018. The survey results were not much
different from those of Indonesia Poltracking survey. Perindo Party
was a new party that had the highest level of electability by gaining
3.9 percent of votes. This was followed by PSI with 0.3 percent and
0.1 percent gain Working Party. Meanwhile, Garuda Party does not
enter the list of political parties that support the community.

According to the results of two surveys, it is clear that public sup-
port for the new parties is still very low, with the exception of Per-
indo Party, which is supported by the mass media network through
MNC Group.

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                         16
Politics

Furthermore, according to the author, in this rule, there is the un-
clear use of social media for the benefits of the campaignz. If we
look at Article 275 and 276 of Law No. 7 In 2017, social media is
media that is not prohibited in the time before entering the election
campaigns. Thus, political parties can conduct political campaigns
through social media.

The Commission has stated that campaign using mass media is pro-
hibited before the campaign to achieve justice for all parties. Ac-
cording to the author, campaigns that use different social media
campaigns through conventional mass media such as print, televi-
sion, and radio, actually make the competition fairer and more open
among the participants of the 2019 Elections.

Campaigns using Social Media

Andrew Chadwick (2006) mentions that there are three points on
how to use the Internet, Social media today can affect the land-
scape of political parties. Chadwick said that the Internet increased
the party competition. Small parties or new parties that have limited
resources can take advantage of social media as a medium, which is
cheap, and also more accessible. They can compete with major par-
ties that have stronger resources. The Internet allows small political
parties to reach out to potential supporters .

Second, social media can enhance people’s interactions with politi-
cal parties and candidates. The public has more access to the as-
pirations of the political parties and candidates. At the same time,
political parties and candidates can coordinate their supports more
easily and quickly mobilize them; for example, at the time of the
campaign.

The third one is institutional adaptation. The institutional adapta-
tion is the shift of political activities to the Internet. Political parties
and candidates can take advantage of the Internet to reproduce the
same trend as in off-line politics. Via the internet, political parties
and candidates can prepare more effective communication strate-
gies.

Noted

Based on the findings and opinions above, there are some decisions
related to the campaign ban in the lead-up to the 2019 elections.
First, the KPU and Bawaslu need to examine the role of the cam-

                The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                               17
Politics

paign and allow campaigns through social media. This is because          Using social media in
social media is an alternative media channel that can be used by         campaigns is different
all parties. Thus, this can address the concerns over the issue of       with campaigns via
injustice.                                                               conventional mass
                                                                         media, such as print
                                                                         media, television, and
Second, the Campaign Task Foce as mentioned above should begin           radio. Campaigns
to keep an eye on social media accounts across various platforms         through social media
officially owned by political parties. The should not contain hate       actually open fairer
speech and hoax and that may cause material and non-material             competitions that are
losses.                                                                  open to all participants
                                                                         of the 2019 elections.
Third, political parties should not only take advantage of social me-
dia by using the traditional media approach of one-way communi-
cations. Political parties and candidates need to use social media in-
teractively. Furthermore, political parties need to have social media
contents that are informative, accurate, educational, engaging and
interactive

- Arfianto Purbolaksono -

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                        18
Social

         Identifying Work Motivation of Health Workers
                           in Indonesian Remote Area

Access to health professionals and healthcare services for every hu-
man being in the world is essential. In Indonesia, health profession-
als are defined as doctors, dentists, specialists, nurses, midwives,
nutritionists, pharmacists, and other health workers. Health work-
ers are ‘the spearheads’ in achieving health development goals, par-
ticularly in the implementations of healthcare services.

However, to date, an equal distribution of health workers has not
been achieved in many countries in the world, including Indonesia.
As a result, it affects the access to basic healthcare services. WHO
(2012) pointed out the importance of managing health workers, es-
pecially in the remote areas in order to enhance the health status of
a community.

In Indonesia, according to Indonesia’s Ministry of Health Decree
number 949/2007, there are two categories of areas; namely, re-
mote and very remote areas. These areas are defined based on their
geographical locations, the area’s access to transportation and their
social economy. According to UNFPA (2011), less than 50% of the
total population lived in urban areas, which meant that more than
60% of the total population lived in rural areas. Yet, the availability
of health professionals in rural areas was lower than in urban areas.

DKI Jakarta has the highest ratio of physicians to population (38.27
doctors per 100,000 population) and Lampung has the lowest ratio
of physicians to population (10.44 physicians per 100,000 popula-
tion). For dentists, the latest figures indicate a high ratio of den-
tists to population in DKI Jakarta (10.11 per 100,000 population)
and the lowest is in Maluku (1.67 dentists per 100,000 population).
The areas that have met the national standards in terms of the ratio
of nurses to population are DKI Jakarta, East Kalimantan, Kepu-
lauan Bangka Belitung, Aceh, Maluku, Sulawesi Utara, Bengkulu
and Jambi. The lowest ratio of nurses to population can be found in
Lampung (49.44 nurses per 100,000 population).

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                          19
Social

For midwives, several areas in Indonesia that have met the national
standards in terms of the ratio of midwives to population are Aceh,
Bengkulu, Maluku Utara and Jambi. On the other hand, West Jawa
has the lowest ratio of midwives to population. This situation indi-
cates that there are still substantial staffing gaps or inconsistency in
the availability of health workers in Indonesia. As a result, the ef-
fort in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity will
remain compromised.

Therefore, it is important to understand the key factors that can
attract and retain health workers in remote areas, thus unequal dis-
tribution can be addressed. Some studies in Indonesia and other
countries indicate that one of the key factors that attract health
workers in remote areas is generous financial incentives provided by
the government or management (Efedi et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2015;
Freshywot et al., 2010;).

The government of Indonesia has introduced various policies in or-
der to improve the distribution of health workers by providing gen-
erous financial incentives, particularly for the nationally contracted
based health workers (Pegawai Tidak Tetap or PTT). The more
difficult an area for a health worker to access, the higher the incen-
tives offered to work there (See Table 1).

   Table 1. Monthly Salary and Incentives for Nationally
             Contracted Based Health Workers

Focusing solely on financial incentives policies, such as generous sal-
ary, retirement package, and financial allowance, is not considered
as an effective approach to attract health workers to remote post-
ings, as well as retaining them in workplaces. Some studies point
out that non-financial incentives have potential to attract as well
as retain health workers in remote areas. These include self-actual-
ization, career development, training, support from management,

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                           20
Social

good working condition, support from the community, personal              Health workers are
motivation, and culture as well as belief systems (Setyaningsih,          motivated to work
2017; Jack et al., 2013; Zinnen et al. 2012; Doloe et al., 2010; Pena     and stay in their
et al., 2010; and Dieleman et al., 2003).                                 workplaces because
                                                                          of a combination
                                                                          of factors, such as
It can be concluded that health workers are motivated to work and         a combination of
stay in their workplaces because of a combination of factors, such        financial and non-
as a combination of financial and non-financial incentives. Work          financial incentives.
motivation is complex as it involves transactional process between        Work motivation is
personal and environmental factors. In order to understand the            complex as it involves
complexity of the work motivation, some studies have categorized          transactional process
                                                                          between personal and
three key factors that attract and retain health workers in remote
                                                                          environmental factors.
areas; namely, personal factors (personal characteristics and the ca-
pacity of the candidate), organizational factors (salary, allowance,
and advancement opportunity), and societal factors (culture and
belief systems).

Thus, there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach of crafting a policy or
strategy in order to attract and retain health workers in remote ar-
eas. Rather, it is important to consider the local context that might
improve the effectiveness of recruiting and retaining health workers,
particularly in undesired areas. Therefore, the government of Indo-
nesia needs to develop policies that encompass these three main
factors (i.e. personal, organisational, and societal factors). Based on
the above explanations, I would like to recommend a strategy that
might attract and retain health workers in remote areas. It focuses
on four aspects that I call the ‘LIVE’ approach – Local hire; Invest-
ing in career options; Value and beliefs; Evolution of training system
for health workers.

- Endah Setyaningsih - Research Associate The Indonesian
Institute -

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                       21
Social

                                         Protecting Women from
                                        Sexual Harassment in KRL

In May 2013, Kereta Khusus Wanita (the women-only railway trains,
or KKW) officially had been eliminated by PT. KCJ (KAI Commuter
Jabodetabek). The decision had been taken because the number
of passengers increased significantly during pick hours (http://www.
bbc.com, 19/2/2018). The two women-only railway cars will still be
provided in each train, at the front and at the rear of the train.

The Increasing Number of KRL Passengers

The Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) informed
that the female passengers were at the level of 46.5 percent (Jour-
nal of Economics and Business Aseanomics Vol. 2 No.1 Jan-Jun
2017). Graphic 1 gives us information that 45 percent of passengers
were women. So, we can get the comparison between the num-
bers of male and women passengers

Graphic 1. Total Number of Passengers and Women Passen-
            gers in KRL Jabodetabek 2006-2017

                           *in thousand
             Source: https://www.bps.go.id, 15/2/2018

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                       22
Social

Until August 2017, PT KCJ had had 758 trains with two wom-
en-only wagons in each train. With the average growth of passen-
gers of around 13.8 percent per year, PT KCJ has targeted to have
around 1.450 trains in 2019 (www.krl.co.id, 15/2/2018). Therefore,
PT KCJ has to invest a lot in the procurement of more trains.

The anticipation of the spikes in the number of passengers will be
done by having KRLs that have twelve wagons. Until 2018, there
have been sixteen trains that have twelve wagons. Unfortunately,
the addition of train wagon is not accompanied by the addition of
women-only wagon in each train. The special women wagons are
still two for each train. If we look at the comparison of male and fe-
male passengers, we can see that the number of women-only wag-
ons currently available is very unreasonable.

The Danger for Women Passengers

The presence of women-only passenger cars is one of the commit-
ments and efforts by PT KCJ to minimize the physical contacts be-
tween male and female passengers. In fact, there are many female
passengers who choose to use regular wagons because they feel
uncomfortable in the women-only wagon. This feeling appears for
several reasons, such as the women-only wagons are too crowded,
so crude actions amongst female passengers are difficult to avoid.
Many female passengers are too selfish, often arguing for seats, and
not even giving seats for priority passengers.

The female passengers feel not to use women-only wagons, and
prefer to choose the regular wagons. It is not impossible that their
choice is very risky considering the regular wagons will be very full,
especially at the pick hours.

One of the risks if women use the regular wagons is the cases of
sexual violence, including physical, verbal, gestures, written or
pictorial, and also psychological and emotional abuse (Draft RUU
Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual, 20/2/2018). In 2015, the cases
of sexual harassments in KRL reached third teen cases. It reached
twelve cases in 2017, and two cases have already happened in the
beginning of this year (www.kompasiana.com, 15/2/2018).

What we have to know is that numbers above only include the cas-
es that have been reported to the officers, not including cases that
are unknown and not reported for many reasons, such as shame,
fear, or unwillingness to follow relatively long reporting procedures.

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                         23
Social

Recommendations                                                        Sexual harassment
                                                                       often haunts women
An appreciation should be given to PT KCJ because it has been          passengers in KRL.
trying to provide KKW and women-only wagons, although the ex-          Some of the things
                                                                       needed to deal with the
istence of KKW has been abolished and number of the women-only
                                                                       problems are provide
wagons are still limited. PT KCJ must be consistent in preventing      KKW, increasing the
cases of sexual violence occurring within train wagons. Some of the    number of the women-
things that can be done are to re-provide KKW.                         only wagons, increasing
                                                                       security by adding
If the KKW is considered to reducing the quota of regular trains,      officers and installing
then PT KCJ should add women-only wagons in every available            CCTV cameras. The
                                                                       awareness of society
train. The comparison of the number of passengers by sex should
                                                                       is also needed. In
be the basis for calculating the number of women-only wagons. The      addition, the Bill on
more number of female passengers, the more number of women-            Sexual Violence should
only wagons we should have.                                            be passed as soon as
                                                                       possible.
About regulation aspect, the government should pass the Bill on
the Sexual Harassments as soon as possible. This is because the
law will protect all groups from sexual violence. This RUU is dif-
ferent from the current UU Child Protection, which specifically
protects children from sexual violence (http://megapolitan.kompas.
com/, 20/2/2018).

A supervision can also be increased by adding the number of officers
in each train. In addition, CCTV cameras can be installed in every
wagon. The cameras are expected to monitor the situations inside
the wagons. If sexual violence happens on the train, the CCTV re-
cords can be used as a piece of evidence and also an early detection
for efforts to prevent the occurrence of sexual violence cases.

The society must also participate in preventing cases of sexual vio-
lence. For example, if we as passengers see the incidents of harass-
ments, then we must dare to report to the officers, including if we
become victims. Do not be afraid to participate as a witness or even
participate in preventing sexual harassment. Passengers must also
respect and protect each other to minimize any kind of sexual vio-
lence.

- Umi Lutfiah -

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                     24
Social

                                     Problems Facing the KLJ
                         (Jakarta Senior Citizen Card) in 2018

On December 21st, 2017 the Government of Jakarta symbolically
launched KLJ on the National Social Solidarity (HKSN) Day at the
National Monument, Central Jakarta. On that occasion, it was
mentioned that in 2018 KLJ would be distributed to 14.520 elderly
people from the lowest 10 percent of the income group (the poor-
est) who had already been registered with the Integrated Data Base
(BDT) (http://megapolitan.kompas.com,21/12/2017).

In January 2018, KLJ had started with the 2018 APBD funds of DKI
Jakarta. The form of assistance is a cash assistance of Rp 600,000
per month. It can be taken in Bank DKI or through an ATM. The
mentoring and monitoring of the program will be carried out from
the city level to the village level. To date, there are 3,063 elderly
people who do not get KLJ because the BDT have not been up-
dated and due to the lack of budget.

Clarify Requirements
The Jakarta Government states that the program is intended for
the elderly people in the age of over 60 years with the economic
status of the poorest (10 percent lowest), who do not have a regular
income, who suffer a chronic pain, and who suffer psychological or
a physical problem.

These requirements should get verification from the provincial gov-
ernment. One of these requirements must be met in order to get
the KLJ. In addition, the provincial government should determine
a verification standard for the poorest economic status (10 percent
lowest). For example, the government can set the income range
of Rp 2,000,000 to Rp 3,000,000 per month as a benchmark for
whether an elderly people can get KLJ or not. A clear definition will
facilitate the enumeration officers, especially those who carry out
registration at the urban village level. This is done to find a list of
potential misstatements and misplaced program objectives.

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                          25
Social

The definitions of chronic pains should also be clarified. Which
chronic pains should be included in the list. It would be better if the
government gives guidance on what diseases that are categorized
as chronic disease.

The next definitions are the psychological and physically problems.
What is meant by psychologically and physically displaced. Should
the definitions include elderly people who are not taken care of by
their family and also elderly people who suffer a mental disorder.
What about the neglected elderly people who live in nursing homes
owned by the government and the private sector. Are they eligible
to get the KLJ?

Updating the Integrated Data Base (BDT)

The Jakarta government mentioned that BDT used the 2017 da-
tabase. However, the reality is not like that. Citizen have com-
plained about not being registered in the BDT. This is the most
widely recorded complaint filed with the Jakarta Social Affairs.
The provincial government explained that this was due to the fact
that the BDT used the 2015 database (http://megapolitan.kompas.
com,21/12/2017).

During the 2015-2018 period, many things can happen. There could
be elderly people who might have died. In addition, it is possible that
there could be elderly people who have experienced a shift in their
economic status. There could be elderly people who in 2015 were
in the medium economic conditions but later in 2018 have fallen into
the lowest economic group.

The data for the KLJ program should be always updated in order for
the date to be valid for achieving the targets of the program. Updat-
ing the data should be done by the government. The government
should not only expect elderly people to register at village office.
There should be special officer to record data of the elderly people
door to door. The data collection processes should involve human
resources in the village office, who will coordinate with the Local
Social Service officers. This can better ensure that the elderly who
have been registered are entitled to receive KLJ. This can make it
easier for the elderly people because they do not need to mobilize.

               The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                          26
Social

Coordinating with the Social Ministry                                 Verivying KLJ
                                                                      requirements,
The government’s programs should not overlap with each other.         updating the BDT,
Avoiding overlaps will make the target coverage broader. Members      and coordinating with
                                                                      the Ministry of Social
of PKH (Program Keluarga Harapan) do not need to be re-enrolled
                                                                      Affairs should be done
in the KLJ Program. It is known that in 2018 the provincial govern-   before the realization of
ment will provide 14,520 KLJ with a total budget of Rp 104 billion.   the KLJ Program.
Of the 17,583 poorest elderly people who have enrolled in the BDT,
there are 3,063 elderly people who cannot accept KLJ (http://www.
harianumum.com,19/01/2018; http://bdt.tnp2k.go.id,13/ 2/2018). If
these data of PKH Elderly program can be integrate in to the BDT,
the number of the elderly people who have not yet benefitted from
KLJ can be reduced.

Recommendations

The elderly people have high expectations of the KLJ program.
Before launching the program, the government should make some
improvements immediately: such as verifications the requirements
of the program, updating the BDT with direct data collecting, and
incorporating the PKH Elderly People program data to avoid over-
lapping.

- Umi Lutfiah -

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                     27
Institutional Profile

The Indonesian Institute (TII) ) is a Center for Public Policy
Research that was established on 21 October 2004 by a group of
young, dynamic activists and intellectuals. TII is an independent,
non-partisan, non-profit institution, whose main funding stems
from grants and contributions from foundations, companies, and
individuals.

TII has the aim of becoming a main research center in Indonesia for
public policy matters and has committed to giving contributions to
the debates over public policies and to improving the quality of the
planning and results of public policy by promoting good governance
principles and public participation in the policy processes in
Indonesia.

TII’s visions vision is to help the central and local governments
produce public policies in Indonesia that highly uphold human rights
and rule of law, as well as involving the participation of various
stakeholders and practicing democratic and good governance
principles.

TII’s mission is to conduct reliable research that is independent
and non-partisan and to channel the research to the policy-makers,
the private sector, and academia in order to improve the quality of
Indonesian policy-making processes.

TII also assumes the role of disseminating ideas to the society so
that they are well informed about the policies that will have good
impacts on the people’s lives. In other words, TII has a position to
support the democratization process and public policy reforms, as it
will be involved in the processes.

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                       28
Institutional Profile

The scope of the research and review on public policies undertaken
by TII includes economic, social, and political factors. The main
activities have been conducted in order to achieve the vision and
mission based on research, surveys, facilitation and advocacy
through training and working groups, public discussions, public
education, weekly editorial articles (“Wacana TII”), monthly
analysis (“Update Indonesia” and “The Indonesian Update”),
annual analysis (“Indonesian Report”), and monthly discussion
forums (“The Indonesian Forum”).

                     Contact Details :
The Indonesian Institute, Center for Public Policy Research
                  Network Plus Building
                     Jalan Jaksa No.4
              Kec Menteng Kel Kebon Sirih
                  Jakarta Pusat – 10340
           contact@theindonesianinstitute.com
             www.theindonesianinstitute.com

              The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                      29
Research Programs, Survey, dan Evaluation

                   RESEARCH ON ECONOMIC AFFAIRS

The economy tends to be used as an indicator of the success of the
government as a policy-maker. The economy plays an important role
as one of the fundamentals of national development. Limited resources
have often caused the government to face obstacles in implementing
economic policies that will optimally benefit the people. The increase in
the quality of the people’s critical thinking has forced the government to
conduct comprehensive studies in every decision-making process. In fact,
the studies will not be stopped when the policy is already in place. Studies
will be continued until the policy evaluation process.

 The implementation of regional autonomy that is based on Law No.
32 Year 2004 has demanded bottom-up planning processes, which are
participatory in development process. However, fiscal decentralization
is still seen crucial particularly for people living in the regions. This can
be seen from the high number of gap, poverty, and unemployment.
Therefore, there is a need for effective policy formula, which has the right
targets.

TII has research focus on fiscal decentralization and sustainable
development issues. Fiscal decentralization issues will focus on the
discussion on financial matters, corruption, and development of local
infrastructure development. With regard to sustainable development, TII
focuses on productivity, competitiveness, infrastructure development and
development gap. On poverty issues, TII focuses its research on social
protection, human resources and employment, and government subsidy
policies.

 The TII Economic Research Division is present for those who are
interested in the conditions of the economy. The results of the research
are intended to assist policy-makers, regulators, and donor agencies in
making decisions. The research that TII offers: (1) Economic Policy
Analysis; (2) Regional and Sectoral Prospects; and (3) Program
Evaluation.

                The Indonesian Update — Volume XII, No.2 - March 2018
                                                                                30
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