PHYSICAL EDUCATION GCSE (9-1) - Specification

 
PHYSICAL EDUCATION GCSE (9-1) - Specification
GCSE (9-1)
Specification

PHYSICAL
EDUCATION
J587
For first assessment in 2018

Version 1.2 (August 2018)

                               ocr.org.uk/gcsephysicaleducation
PHYSICAL EDUCATION GCSE (9-1) - Specification
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Contents

          Support and Guidance                                                                  ii
          Assessment Preparation and Analysis Service                                          iii

 1        Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education?                                  1
          1a.        Why choose an OCR qualification?                                          1
          1b.        Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education?                       2
          1c.        What are the key features of this specification?                          3
          1d.        How do I find out more information?                                       3

 2        The specification overview                                                            4
          2a.        OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education (J587)                              4
          2b.        Content of GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education (J587)                         5
          2c.1.      Content of Physical factors affecting performance (01)                     6
          2c.2.      Content of Socio-cultural issues and sports psychology (02)               16
          2d.        Content for non-exam assessment: Performance in physical education (03)   23
          2e.        Prior knowledge, learning and progression                                 23

 3        Assessment of GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                       24
          3a.        Forms of assessment                                                       24
          3b.        Assessment objectives (AO)                                                24
          3c.        Assessment availability                                                   25
          3d.        Retaking the qualification                                                25
          3e.        Assessment of extended response                                           25
          3f.        Non-exam assessment (NEA)                                                 26
          3g.        Synoptic assessment                                                       26
          3h.        Calculating qualification results                                         26

 4        Admin: what you need to know                                                         27
          4a.        Pre-assessment                                                            27
          4b.        Special consideration                                                     28
          4c.        External assessment arrangements                                          28
          4d.        Admin of non-exam assessment                                              29
          4e.        Results and certificates                                                  30
          4f.        Post-results services                                                     30
          4g.        Malpractice                                                               30

 5        Appendices                                                                           31
          5a.        Grade descriptors                                                         31
          5b.        Overlap with other qualifications                                         32
          5c.        Accessibility                                                             32
          5d.        Use of data requirement                                                   32

          		         Summary of updates                                                        33

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                      i
Support and Guidance
Introducing a new specification brings challenges for      will grow throughout the lifetime of the specification,
implementation and teaching, but it also opens up new      they include:
opportunities. Our aim is to help you at every stage. We
are working hard with teachers and other experts to        ••    Delivery Guides
bring you a package of practical support, resources and    ••    Transition Guides
training.                                                  ••    Topic Exploration Packs
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Subject Advisors                                           We also work with a number of leading publishers who
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to centres including specification and non-exam            For more information on our publishing partners and
assessment advice, updates on resource developments        their resources visit:
and a range of training opportunities.                     ocr.org.uk/qualifications/gcse-and-a-level-reform/
                                                           publishing-partners
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qualifications during their development.
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You can contact our Physical Education Subject Advisors    digital training or search for training materials, you can
for specialist advice, guidance and support:               find what you’re looking for all in one place at the CPD
                                                           Hub: cpdhub.ocr.org.uk
01223 553998
PE@OCR.org.uk
                                                           An introduction to new specifications
@OCR_PhysEd
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Teaching and learning resources
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Our resources are designed to provide you with a           qualifications.
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to support your teaching style and your particular
                                                           updates at: ocr.org.uk/updates
students. The resources are a body of knowledge that

                                                                                                               © OCR 2016
  ii                                                                                       GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
Assessment Preparation and Analysis Service
Along with subject-specific resources and tools, you’ll     focus on skills development, professional guidance for
also have access to a selection of generic resources that   teachers and results data analysis.

                                                              ExamBuilder
                                                              Enabling you to build, mark and assess tests
                                                              from OCR exam questions and produce a
                                                              complete mock GCSE or A Level exam.
                                                              Find out more at ocr.org.uk/exambuilder

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             Skills Guides                                                              Active Results
             These guides cover topics that                                             Our free online results analysis
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             of qualifications, for example                                             performance of individual students
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             and research.                                                              details, please refer to
             Download the guides at                                                     ocr.org.uk/activeresults
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  © OCR 2016
  GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                                      iii
© OCR 2016
iv   GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1          Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1)
           in Physical Education?

1a. Why choose an OCR qualification?
Choose OCR and you’ve got the reassurance that
you’re working with one of the UK’s leading exam
                                                         We provide a range of support services designed to
                                                         help you at every stage, from preparation through
                                                                                                                    1
boards. Our new OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical               to the delivery of our specifications. This includes:
Education course has been developed in consultation
with teachers, employers and Higher Education to         •	A wide range of high-quality creative resources
provide learners with a qualification that’s relevant       including:
to them and meets their needs.                              •	Delivery Guides
                                                            •	Transition Guides
We’re part of the Cambridge Assessment Group,               •	Topic Exploration Packs
Europe’s largest assessment agency and a                    •	Lesson Elements
department of the University of Cambridge.                  •	. . . and much more.
Cambridge Assessment plays a leading role in
developing and delivering assessments throughout         •	Access to Subject Advisors to support you
the world, operating in over 150 countries.                 through the transition and throughout the
                                                            lifetime of the specifications.
We work with a range of education providers,
including schools, colleges, workplaces and other        •	CPD/Training for teachers to introduce the
institutions in both the public and private sectors.        qualifications and prepare you for first
Over 13,000 centres choose our A Levels, GCSEs              teaching.
and vocational qualifications including Cambridge
Nationals and Cambridge Technicals.                      •	Active Results – our free results analysis
                                                            service to help you review the performance
Our specifications                                          of individual learners or whole schools.

We believe in developing specifications that help you    •     ExamBuilder – our free online past papers
bring the subject to life and inspire your learners to         service that enables you to build your own
achieve more.                                                  test papers from past OCR exam questions.

We’ve created teacher-friendly specifications based      All GCSE (9–1) qualifications offered by OCR are
on extensive research and engagement with the            accredited by Ofqual, the Regulator for qualifications
teaching community. They’re designed to be               offered in England. The accreditation number for OCR’s
straightforward and accessible so that you can tailor    GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education is QN: 601/8442/5.
the delivery of the course to suit your needs. We aim
to encourage learners to become responsible for their
own learning, confident in discussing ideas,
innovative and engaged.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                1
1b. Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education?
    This practical and engaging course has been                This course will prepare learners for the further
    developed after feedback from teachers and other           study of PE or sports science courses as well as
1   key stakeholders, ensuring an inclusive specification      other related subject areas such as psychology,
    that will allow all learners to achieve their potential.   sociology and biology. Learners will also develop the
                                                               transferable skills that are in demand by further
    The content has been designed to allow learners to         education, Higher Education and employers in all
    study Physical Education (PE) in an academic setting,      sectors of industry.
    allowing them to critically analyse and evaluate
    physical performance and apply their experience of         This specification will create confident, independent
    practical activities in developing their knowledge and     thinkers and effective decision makers who can
    understanding of the subject.                              operate effectively as individuals or as part of a
                                                               team – all skills that will enable them to stand out
    The examined components will provide the                   and effectively promote themselves as they progress
    knowledge and understanding which underpin the             through life.
    non-exam assessment (NEA). The NEA within this
    specification allows learners to explore a range of        With all topic areas of the specification being
    activities in the role of performer, including both        compulsory, OCR is aware of the need for
    team and individual activities. Learners will also         comprehensive resources covering all areas.
    analyse and evaluate performance in a chosen               Our resourcing provision will support you fully
    activity as part of their NEA.                             in your teaching of this qualification.

    Aims and learning outcomes

    GCSE (9–1) study in Physical Education should be           •	perform effectively in different physical
    broad, coherent and practical, encourage learners to          activities by developing skills and techniques
    be inspired, motivated and challenged by the subject          and selecting and using tactics, strategies and/
    and enable them to make informed decisions about              or compositional ideas
    further learning opportunities and career pathways.
                                                               •	develop their ability to analyse and evaluate
    GCSE (9–1) specifications in Physical Education will          to improve performance in physical activity and
    equip learners with the knowledge, understanding,             sport
    skills and values to develop and maintain their
    performance in physical activities and understand the      •	understand the contribution which physical
    benefits to health, fitness and well-being. This will         activity and sport make to health, fitness and
    require them to:                                              well-being

    •	develop theoretical knowledge and                       •	understand key socio-cultural influences which
       understanding of the factors that underpin                 can affect people’s involvement in physical
       physical activity and sport and use this                   activity and sport.
       knowledge to improve performance

    •	understand how the physiological and
       psychological state affects performance in
       physical activity and sport

                                                                                                                 © OCR 2016
    2                                                                                        GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1c.        What are the key features of this specification?
The key features of OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical      •	learners will see ‘where they fit in’ with
Education for you and your learners are:                 physical activity and sport and how to improve
                                                         their performance                                     1
•	a straightforward structure with clear focused
   content                                            •	a use of data element, enabling learners to
                                                         develop their knowledge and understanding
•	improved support, resources and teacher               of subject specific skills
   guidance
                                                      •	a clear basis and a good introduction for those
•	a wide variety of practical activities to choose      learners who wish to move on to AS or A Level
   from in the NEA component                             in Physical Education.

•	learners are introduced to a wide range of
   topics enabling them to fully experience the
   subject

1d. How do I find out more information?
If you are already using OCR specifications you can   Want to find out more?
contact us at: www.ocr.org.uk
                                                      Ask a Subject Advisor:
If you are not already a registered OCR centre then
you can find out more information on the benefits     Email:PE@ocr.org.uk
of becoming one at: www.ocr.org.uk If you are not
yet an approved centre and would like to become one   Teacher support: 01223 553998
go to: www.ocr.org.uk

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                           3
2       The specification overview

    2a. OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education (J587)
    Learners must complete all components (01, 02 and 03) to be awarded the OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical
    Education.

        Content Overview                                    Assessment Overview
2
                                              Physical factors affecting
                                                    performance
3        Applied anatomy and                             (01)                              30%
              physiology                               60 marks                           of total
           Physical training
                                                        1 hour                             GCSE
                                                    written paper

                                              Socio-cultural issues and
                                                 sports psychology
        Socio-cultural influences
                                                        (02)                               30%
           Sports psychology
          Health, fitness and                          60 marks                           of total
               well-being                               1 hour                             GCSE
                                                    written paper

                                               Performance in physical
            Practical activity                       education
                                                       (03)*                               40%
              assessment
        Analysing and Evaluating                       80 marks                           of total
          Performance (AEP)                     non-exam assessment
                                                                                           GCSE
                                                       (NEA)

    * Indicates inclusion of synoptic assessment.
    Learners who are retaking the qualification may carry forward their result for the non-exam assessment
    component. See section 4a for more details.

                                                                                                               © OCR 2016
    4                                                                                      GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
2b. Content of GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education (J587)
The content of OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education    3.2   Analysing and Evaluating Performance (AEP),
is divided into three components. Each component is            task-based NEA.
further sub divided into topic areas and the detailed
content associated with those topics.                    The content of this specification uses practical
                                                         examples from physical activities and sports to
Component 01: Physical factors affecting                 show how theory can be applied and to reinforce
performance                                              understanding. Areas of the specification where this       2
                                                         may be assessed are marked with the following
1.1     Applied anatomy and physiology                   symbol:
1.2     Physical training.

Component 02: Socio-cultural issues and sports
psychology

2.1     Socio-cultural influences                        This specification contains the use of data analysis
2.2     Sports psychology                                skills, which are spread across the components and
2.3     Health, fitness and well-being.                  topics. Areas of the specification where this may be
                                                         assessed are marked with the following symbol:
Component 03: Performance in physical education
(NEA)

3.1     Performance of three activities taken from the
        two approved lists*.

        •	one from the ‘individual’ list
        •	one from the ‘team’ list
        •	one other from either list.

* The approved lists can be found in section 2d
and Section 2e of the ‘OCR GCSE (9–1) guide to
NEA in PE’.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                5
2c.1. Content of Physical factors affecting performance (01)
    Component 01, Physical factors affecting                   Learners are required to develop knowledge and
    performance, introduces and explores some of the           understanding of data analysis in relation to key
    physical factors which underpin participation and          areas of physical activities and sports.
    performance in physical activities and sports.
                                                               Learners should be able to:
    Learners will start to explore the ways in which parts
2   of the human body work and function during physical        •	demonstrate an understanding of how data are
    activity and the physiological adaptations that can           collected – both qualitative and quantitative
    occur due to diet and training. Learners will also
    develop their knowledge and understanding of the           •	present data, including graphs and tables
    principles of training, why we train in different ways
    and how training plans can be made to optimise             •	analyse and evaluate data, including graphs
    results.                                                      and tables.

    The study of these topics will aid learners in the         Areas of the specification which allow for this to be
    development of both their own practical performance        included within teaching and where it may be
    and that of others.                                        examined are marked with the following symbol:

    In many areas of this specification, it is expected that
    practical examples from physical activities and sports
    will be used to show how theoretical concepts can be
    applied and to reinforce understanding. Areas of the
    specification where this may be examined are marked
    with the following symbol:

    1.1     Applied anatomy and physiology

    Learners will develop knowledge and understanding          Learners will develop the ability to collect and use
    of the basic structures and functions of body systems      data, analyse movement and apply their knowledge
    that are particularly important to physical activities     and understanding, using examples from physical
    and sports.                                                activity and sport.

    They will also study the short and long-term effects of
    exercise on these systems, and how these effects can
    impact on physical fitness and performance.

                                                                                                                  © OCR 2016
    6                                                                                         GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1.1.a.        The structure and function of the skeletal system

Learners will be able to name and locate the major        elbow, shoulder and hip. Knowledge will be
bones of the body and be able to apply examples of        developed of the types of movement at hinge joints
how the skeletal system allows the functions such as      and ball and socket joints, as well as being able to
posture and protection.                                   apply these movements to examples from physical
                                                          activities and sports.
Learners will be able to identify major joints along
with the associated articulating bones in the knee,                                                                  2
  Topic area                             Learners must:
  Location of major bones                •	know the name and location of the following bones in the
                                            human body:
                                            •	cranium
                                            •	vertebrae
                                            •	ribs
                                            •	sternum
                                            •	clavicle
                                            •	scapula
                                            •	pelvis
                                            •	humerus
                                            •	ulna
                                            •	radius
                                            •	carpals
                                            •	metacarpals
                                            •	phalanges
                                            •	femur
                                            •	patella
                                            •	tibia
                                            •	fibula
                                            •	tarsals
                                            •	metatarsals.
  Functions of the skeleton              •	understand and be able to apply examples of how the skeleton
                                            provides or allows:
                                            •	support
                                            •	posture
                                            •	protection
                                            •	movement
                                            •	blood cell production
                                            •	storage of minerals.
  Types of synovial joint                •	know the definition of a synovial joint
                                         •	know the following hinge joints:
                                            •	knee – articulating bones – femur, tibia
                                            •	elbow – articulating bones – humerus, radius, ulna
                                         •	know the following ball and socket joints:
                                            •	shoulder – articulating bones – humerus, scapula
                                            •	hip – articulating bones – pelvis, femur.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                 7
Topic area                          Learners must:
        Types of movement at hinge joints   •	know the types of movement at hinge joints and be able to
        and ball and socket joints             apply them to examples from physical activity/sport:
                                               •	flexion
                                               •	extension
                                            •	know the types of movement at ball and socket joints and be
                                               able to apply them to examples from physical activity/sport:
2                                              •	flexion
                                               •	extension
                                               •	rotation
                                               •	abduction
                                               •	adduction
                                               •	circumduction.
        Other components of joints          •	know the roles of:
                                               •	ligament
                                               •	cartilage
                                               •	tendons.

    1.1.b.      The structure and function of the muscular system

    Learners will develop their knowledge of the location    the roles of muscles as agonists, antagonists, fixators
    of the major muscle groups and be able to apply          and also how they operate as antagonistic pairs, again
    muscle use to examples from physical activities and      by applying to examples from physical activities and
    sport. Learners will also develop their knowledge of     sports.

        Topic area                          Learners must:
        Location of major muscle groups     •	know the name and location of the following muscle groups in
                                               the human body and be able to apply their use to examples
                                               from physical activity/sport:
                                               •	deltoid
                                               •	trapezius
                                               •	latissimus dorsi
                                               •	pectorals
                                               •	biceps
                                               •	triceps
                                               •	abdominals
                                               •	quadriceps
                                               •	hamstrings
                                               •	gluteals
                                               •	gastrocnemius.
        The roles of muscle in movement     •	know the definitions and roles of the following and be able to
                                               apply them to examples from physical activity/sport:
                                               •	agonist
                                               •	antagonist
                                               •	fixator
                                                    –	antagonistic muscle action.

                                                                                                               © OCR 2016
    8                                                                                      GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1.1.c.       Movement analysis

Learners will develop their knowledge of the three        Learners will know the three planes of movement
classes of lever and will be able to use examples from    and be able to give examples of these levers from
physical activities and sport to show where these         different physical activities and sports. Frontal,
levers might operate to produce movement. Learners        transverse and longitudinal axes of rotation will be
will become aware of the mechanical advantage             recognised by learners who will be able to apply
provided by levers in movement.                           these to examples from physical activities and sports.
                                                                                                                       2
  Topic area                             Learners must:
  Lever systems                          •	know the three classes of lever and their use in physical
                                            activity and sport:
                                            •	1st class
                                                 –	neck
                                            •	2nd class
                                                 –	ankle
                                            •	3rd class
                                                 –	elbow
                                         •	know the definition of mechanical advantage.
  Planes of movement and axes            •	know the location of the planes of movement in the body and
  of rotation                               their application to physical activity and sport:
                                            •	frontal
                                            •	transverse
                                            •	sagittal
                                         •	know the location of the axes of rotation in the body and their
                                            application to physical activity and sport:
                                            •	frontal
                                            •	transverse
                                            •	longitudinal.

1.1.d.        The cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Learners will develop their knowledge and                 the role of the respiratory muscles and alveoli
understanding of the structure and function of the        during breathing, along with an understanding
cardiovascular system. Blood vessels and blood            of key definitions.
cells with their pathway through the heart will be
understood along with definitions of key cardiac          Learners will also be able to define aerobic and
terms. Learners will understand the pathway               anaerobic exercise and be able to give practical
of air through the respiratory system and know            examples of aerobic and anaerobic activities.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                   9
Topic area                       Learners must:
     Structure and function of the    •	know the double-circulatory system (systemic and pulmonary)
     cardiovascular system            •	know the different types of blood vessel:
                                         •	arteries
                                         •	capillaries
                                         •	veins
                                      •	understand the pathway of blood through the heart:
2                                        •	atria
                                         •	ventricles
                                         •	bicuspid, tricuspid and semilunar valves
                                         •	septum and major blood vessels:
3                                            –	aorta
                                             –	pulmonary artery
                                             –	vena cava
                                             –	pulmonary vein
                                      •	know the definitions of:
                                         •	heart rate
                                         •	stroke volume
                                         •	cardiac output
                                      •	know the role of red blood cells.
     Structure and function of the    •	understand the pathway of air through the respiratory system:
     respiratory system                  •	mouth
                                         •	nose
                                         •	trachea
                                         •	bronchi
                                         •	bronchiole
                                         •	alveoli
                                      •	know the role of respiratory muscles in breathing:
                                         •	diaphragm
                                         •	intercostals
                                      •	know the definitions of:
                                         •	breathing rate
                                         •	tidal volume
                                         •	minute ventilation
                                      •	understand about alveoli as the site of gas exchange.
     Aerobic and anaerobic exercise   •	know the definitions of:
                                         •	aerobic exercise
                                         •	anaerobic exercise
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of aerobic and anaerobic
                                         activities in relation to intensity and duration.

                                                                                                       © OCR 2016
    10                                                                             GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1.1.e.        Effects of exercise on body systems

Learners will develop their knowledge and                 Learners will be able to collect and use data in this
understanding of the short and long-term effects          section related to both short-term and long-term
of exercise on muscles and bones, the heart and           effects of exercise.
the respiratory system. They will be able to apply
understanding of these effects to examples from a
range of physical activities and sports.
                                                                                                                       2
  Topic area                            Learners must:
  Short-term effects of exercise        •     understand the short-term effects of exercise on:
                                              •	muscle temperature
                                              •	heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output
                                              •	redistribution of blood flow during exercise
                                              •	respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation
                                              •	oxygen to the working muscles
                                              •	lactic acid production
                                        •     be able to apply the effects to examples from physical activity/
                                              sport
                                        •     be able to collect and use data relating to short-term effects of
                                              exercise.
  Long-term (training) effects of       •     understand the long-term effects of exercise on:
  exercise                                    •	bone density
                                              •	hypertrophy of muscle
                                              •	muscular strength
                                              •	muscular endurance
                                              •	resistance to fatigue
                                              •	hypertrophy of the heart
                                              •	resting heart rate and resting stroke volume
                                              •	cardiac output
                                              •	rate of recovery
                                              •	aerobic capacity
                                              •	respiratory muscles
                                              •	tidal volume and minute volume during exercise
                                              •	capilliarisation
                                        •     be able to apply the effects to examples from physical activity/
                                              sport
                                        •     be able to collect and use data relating to long-term effects of
                                              exercise.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                  11
1.2      Physical training

    Learners will develop their knowledge and                    Learners will also be able to apply their knowledge
    understanding of the components of fitness                   of training principles to personal exercise/training
    required for physical activities and sports and              programmes to improve fitness, along with the
    how each can be measured.                                    knowledge of how to optimise training and helping
                                                                 to prevent injury.

2
    1.2.a.     Components of fitness

    Learners will develop their knowledge and                    activities and sports. Learners will also develop their
    understanding of the components of fitness, including        knowledge of suitable tests for each component.
    cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance,
    speed, strength, flexibility and agility. Learners will be   Learners will be able to collect and use data related to
    able to define each component and be able to apply           the identified components of fitness.
    using a range of practical examples from physical

     Topic area                        Learners must
     Components of fitness             Know the following components of fitness:
                                       •	cardiovascular endurance/stamina
                                            •	know the definition of cardiovascular endurance/stamina
                                            •	be able to apply practical examples where this component is
                                                 particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                            •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                                 –	Cooper 12 minute run/walk test
                                                 –	multi-stage fitness test
                                       •	muscular endurance
                                            •	know the definition of muscular endurance
                                            •	be able to apply practical examples where this component is
                                                 particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                            •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                                 –	press-up test
                                                 –	sit-up test
                                       •	speed
                                            •	know the definition of speed
                                            •	be able to apply practical examples where this component is
                                                 particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                            •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                                 –	30m sprint test
                                       •	strength
                                            •	know the definition of strength
                                            •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                                 particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                            •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                                 –	grip strength dynamometer test
                                                 –	1 Repetition Maximum (RM)

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    12                                                                                          GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
Topic area                       Learners must
  Components of fitness cont.      •	power
                                      •	know the definition of power
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	‘standing jump’ or ‘vertical jump’ tests
                                   •	flexibility
                                      •	know the definition of flexibility
                                                                                                                      2
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	‘sit and reach’ test
                                   •	agility
                                      •	know the definition of agility
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	Illinois agility test
                                   •	balance
                                      •	know the definition of balance
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	‘stork stand’ test
                                   •	co-ordination
                                      •	know the definition of co-ordination
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	‘wall throw’ test
                                   •	reaction time
                                      •	know the definition of reaction time
                                      •	be able to apply practical examples of where this component is
                                            particularly important in physical activity and sport
                                      •	know suitable tests for this component, including:
                                            –	reaction time ruler test
                                   •	be able to collect and use data relating to the components of fitness.

1.2.b.        Applying the principles of training

Learners will develop their knowledge and                  training using the FITT principle and different types of
understanding of the principles of training.               training.
They will be able to define each principle and
                                                           Learners will develop their knowledge and
be able to apply each to personal exercise/
                                                           understanding of the key components and physical
training programmes. Learners will develop their
                                                           benefits of the warm up and cool down applied to
knowledge and understanding of how to optimise
                                                           physical activities and sports.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                 13
Topic area               Learners must:
     Principles of training   •    know the following definitions of principles of training and be able
                                   to apply them to personal exercise/training programmes:
                                   •	specificity
                                   •	overload
                                   •	progression
                                   •	reversibility.
2    Optimising training      •    know the definition of the elements of FITT (Frequency, Intensity,
                                   Time, Type) and be able to apply these elements to personal
                                   exercise/training programmes
                              •    know different types of training, definitions and examples of:
                                   •	continuous
                                   •	fartlek
                                   •	interval
                                        –	circuit training
                                        –	weight training
                                        –	plyometrics
                                        –	HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training).
                              •    understand the key components of a warm up and be able to
                                   apply examples:
                                   •	pulse raising
                                   •	mobility
                                   •	stretching
                                   •	dynamic movements
                                   •	skill rehearsal
                              •    know the physical benefits of a warm up, including effects on:
                                   •	warming up muscles/preparing the body for physical activity
                                   •	body temperature
                                   •	heart rate
                                   •	flexibility of muscles and joints
                                   •	pliability of ligaments and tendons
                                   •	blood flow and oxygen to muscles
                                   •	the speed of muscle contraction
                              •    understand the key components of a cool down and be able to
                                   apply examples:
                                   •	low intensity exercise
                                   •	stretching
                              •    know the physical benefits of a cool down, including:
                                   •	helps the body’s transition back to a resting state
                                   •	gradually lowers heart rate
                                   •	gradually lowers temperature
                                   •	circulates blood and oxygen
                                   •	gradually reduces breathing rate
                                   •	increases removal of waste products such as lactic acid
                                   •	reduces the risk of muscle soreness and stiffness
                                   •	aids recovery by stretching muscles.

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    14                                                                          GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
1.3.c.       Preventing injury in physical activity and training

Learners will develop their knowledge and                     know how risks can be minimised by using
understanding of how to prevent injury when                   appropriate equipment, clothing, correct lifting
participating in physical activities and sport.               techniques, using the warm up and cool down
The potential hazards will be known in a range of             and an appropriate level of competition.
physical activities and sports settings. Learners will

  Topic area                                 Learners must:
                                                                                                                      2
  Prevention of injury                       •     understand how the risk of injury in physical activity and
                                                   sport can be minimised and be able to apply examples,
                                                   including:
                                                   •	personal protective equipment
                                                   •	correct clothing/footwear
                                                   •	appropriate level of competition
                                                   •	lifting and carrying equipment safely
                                                   •	use of warm up and cool down
                                             •     know potential hazards in a range of physical activity and
                                                   sport settings and be able to apply examples, including:
                                                   •	sports hall
                                                   •	fitness centre
                                                   •	playing field
                                                   •	artificial outdoor areas
                                                   •	swimming pool.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                 15
2c.2. Content of Socio-cultural issues and sports psychology (02)
    In Component 02, Socio-cultural issues and sports          health, fitness and well-being. The physical,
    psychology, learners will develop their knowledge of       emotional and social aspects will be understood as
    socio-cultural influences that impact on participation     well as the consequences of a sedentary lifestyle.
    and performance in physical activities and sports.         Learners will also develop their knowledge and
    Learners will also develop their knowledge and             understanding of energy use along with diet,
    understanding of how sport impacts on society.             nutrition and hydration.
2   Engagement patterns of different social groups will
    be understood by learners, along with strategies to        In many areas of the specification, it is expected that
    promote participation with practical examples.             practical examples from physical activities and sports
    The commercialisation of physical activities and           will be used to show how theory can be applied and
    sports will be understood, including the influences of     to reinforce understanding. Areas of the specification
    sponsorship and the media. Learners will also develop      where this may be examined are marked with the
    their knowledge and understanding of ethical and           following symbol:
    socio-cultural issues in physical activities and sports.

    Learners will develop their knowledge and
    understanding of sports psychology theories
    related to acquiring movement skills and optimising
    performance. Learners will be able to reflect on their     Learners will develop the ability to collect and use
    own learning and performance of physical activities        data using examples from physical activities and
    and sports skills to recognise the key psychological       sports. Areas of the specification where this may be
    concepts affecting performance.                            examined are marked with the following symbol:

    Learners will develop their knowledge and
    understanding of the benefits of participating in
    physical activities and sports to their

    2.1     Socio-cultural influences

    Physical activities and sports play an integral part of    commercialism and the media on physical activities
    society in the UK. In this topic, learners will develop    and sports.
    their knowledge and understanding of the factors
    that continue to impact on physical activities and         The ethical and socio-cultural issues in physical
    sports in the UK today. Learners will be introduced        activities and sports will enable learners to develop
    to engagement patterns of different social groups          their understanding of sportsmanship, gamesmanship
    in physical activities and sports. Learners will           and deviance in sport along with being able to apply
    develop their understanding of the influences of           theories to practical examples from physical activities
                                                               and sports.

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    16                                                                                        GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
2.2.a. Engagement patterns of different social groups in physical activities and sports

Learners will develop their knowledge and                   in society will be understood, along with strategies to
understanding of current participation trends using a       promote participation, using practical examples from
range of valid and respected sources. The factors           physical activities and sports.
affecting participation for a range of different groups

  Topic area                               Learners must:                                                              2
  Physical activity and sport in the UK    •    be familiar with current trends in participation in physical
                                                activity and sport:
                                                •	using different sources (such as Sport England, National
                                                     Governing Bodies (NGBs) and Department of Culture,
                                                     Media and Sport (DCMS))
                                                •	of different social groups
                                                •	in different physical activities and sports.

  Participation in physical activity and   •    understand how different factors can affect participation,
  sport                                         including:
                                                •	age
                                                •	gender
                                                •	ethnicity
                                                •	religion/culture
                                                •	family
                                                •	education
                                                •	time/work commitments
                                                •	cost/disposable income
                                                •	disability
                                                •	opportunity/access
                                                •	discrimination
                                                •	environment/climate
                                                •	media coverage
                                                •	role models
                                           •    understand strategies which can be used to improve
                                                participation:
                                                •	promotion
                                                •	provision
                                                •	access
                                           •    be able to apply examples from physical activity/sport to
                                                participation issues.

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GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                  17
2.1.b.    Commercialisation of physical activity and sport

    Learners will develop their knowledge and                 the influences of the media with examples showing
    understanding of the commercialisation of physical        the positive and negative effects on participation and
    activity and sport including sponsorship, along with      performance in physical activities and sports.

     Topic area                             Learners must:
2    Commercialisation of sport             •      understand the influence of the media on the
                                                   commercialisation of physical activity and sport:
                                                   •	different types of media
                                                       –    social
                                                       –    internet
                                                       –    TV/visual
                                                       –    newspapers/magazines.
                                            •      know the meaning of commercialisation, including sport,
                                                   sponsorship and the media (the golden triangle):
                                                   •	positive and negative effects of the media on
                                                       commercialisation
                                                   •	be able to apply practical examples to these issues.
                                            •      understand the influence of sponsorship on the
                                                   commercialisation of physical activity and sport:
                                                   •	positive and negative effects of sponsorship on
                                                       commercialisation
                                                   •	be able to apply practical examples to the issue of
                                                       sponsorship.

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    18                                                                                      GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
2.1.c.       Ethical and socio-cultural issues in physical activity and sport

Learners will develop their knowledge and                 reasons why sports performers use drugs will
understanding of ethics in sport including definitions    be understood along with reasons for player
of the key terms of sportsmanship, gamesmanship           violence with practical examples in physical
and deviance. The effects of drugs in sport and the       activities and sports.

  Topic area                             Learners must:                                                           2
  Ethics in sport                        •     know and understand:
                                               •	the value of sportsmanship
                                               •	the reasons for gamesmanship and deviance in sport.
                                         •     be able to apply practical examples to these concepts.

  Drugs in sport                         •     know and understand the reasons why sports performers use
                                               drugs
                                         •     know the types of drugs and their effect on performance:
                                               •	anabolic steroids
                                               •	beta blockers
                                               •	stimulants
                                         •     give practical examples of the use of these drugs in sport.
                                         •     know and understand the impact of drug use in sport:
                                               •    on performers
                                               •    on sport itself.
  Violence in sport                      •     know and understand the reasons for player violence
                                         •     give practical examples of violence in sport.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                             19
2.2     Sports psychology

    Learners will develop their knowledge and                 Learners will develop their knowledege and
    understanding of the psychological factors that           understanding of guidance and feedback that affects
    can affect performers. They will also develop their       the learning and performance of movement skills.
    knowledge and understanding of how movement
    skills are learned and performed in physical              Learners will be able to identify key terms and
    activities and sports.                                    describe psychological concepts, using practical
2                                                             examples from their own performances. Learners
    The characteristics and classification of skilful         will show that they can explain and evaluate sports
    movement will be understood, along with the role          psychology theories and principles and be able to

3   of goal setting and mental preparation to improve
    performance in physical activites and sports.
                                                              apply theory to practice.

     Topic area                    Learners must:
     Characteristics of skilful    •      know the definition of motor skills
     movement                      •      understand and be able to apply examples of the characteristics of skilful
                                          movement:
                                          •	efficiency
                                          •	pre-determined
                                          •	co-ordinated
                                          •	fluent
                                          •	aesthetic.
     Classification of skills      •      know continua used in the classification of skills, including:
                                          •	simple to complex skills (difficulty continuum)
                                          •	open to closed skills (environmental continuum)
                                   •      be able to apply practical examples of skills for each continuum along
                                          with justification of their placement on both continua.
     Goal setting                  •      understand and be able to apply examples of the use of goal setting:
                                          •	for exercise/training adherence
                                          •	to motivate performers
                                          •	to improve and/or optimise performance
                                   •      understand the SMART principle of goal setting with practical examples
                                          (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Recorded, Timed)
                                   •      be able to apply the SMART principle to improve and/or optimise
                                          performance.

     Mental preparation            •      know mental preparation techniques and be able to apply practical
                                          examples to their use:
                                          •	imagery
                                          •	mental rehearsal
                                          •	selective attention
                                          •	positive thinking.

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    20                                                                                       GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
Topic area                       Learners must:
  Types of guidance                •    understand types of guidance, their advantages and disadvantages, and
                                        be able to apply practical examples to their use:
                                        •	visual
                                        •	verbal
                                        •	manual
                                        •	mechanical.
  Types of feedback                •    understand types of feedback and be able to apply practical examples to         2
                                        their use:
                                        •	intrinsic
                                        •	extrinsic
                                        •	knowledge of performance
                                        •	knowledge of results
                                        •	positive
                                        •	negative.

2.3        Health, fitness and well-being

Learners will develop their knowledge and                    Learners will develop their knowledge and
understanding of the benefits of participating in            understanding of diet and nutrition. Learners
physical activities and sport to health, fitness and         will understand the main components of a balanced
well-being as well as having a clear definition of           diet, including the effects of these components and
health and fitness. Learners will know about the             hydration on performers using a range of examples
physical, emotional and social benefits as well as           from physical activities and sports.
the consequences of a sendentary lifestyle.

  Topic area                       Learners must:
  Health, fitness and              •    know what is meant by health, fitness and well-being
  well-being                       •    understand the different health benefits of physical activity and
                                        consequences of a sedentary lifestyle:
                                        •	physical:
                                            –	injury
                                            –	coronary heart disease (CHD)
                                            –	blood pressure
                                            –	bone density
                                            –	obesity
                                            –	Type 2 diabetes
                                            –	posture
                                            –	fitness
                                        •	emotional:
                                            –	self-esteem/confidence
                                            –	stress management
                                            –	image

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                   21
Topic area            Learners must:
     Health, fitness and        •	social:
     well-being cont.                –	friendship
                                     –	belonging to a group
                                     –	loneliness
                           •    be able to apply the above to different age groups
                           •    be able to respond to data about health, fitness and well-being
2    Diet and nutrition    •    know the definition of a balanced diet
                           •    know the components of a balanced diet
                                •	carbohydrates
                                •	proteins
                                •	fats
                                •	minerals
                                •	vitamins
                                •	fibre
                                •	water and hydration
                           •    understand the effect of diet and hydration on energy use in physical
                                activity
                           •    be able to apply practical examples from physical activity and sport to
                                diet and hydration.

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    22                                                                             GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
2d. Content for non-exam assessment: Performance in physical
    education (03)
In Component 03, Performance in physical education,         final marks – for example, they may not enter marks
learners are internally assessed through the NEA            for both singles and doubles tennis.
in performing three practical activities and one
performance analysis task.                                  Learners may not enter marks for variations of the

Practical performances
                                                            same sport – so they may not complete two forms of
                                                            dance or Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens and use                2
                                                            marks for both towards their final grade.
For the practical performances approved activities list,
see sections 2d and 2e of the ‘OCR GCSE (9–1) guide         Any learner(s) using a combination of activities within
to NEA in Physical Education’.                              this component that is in breach of the specification
                                                            requirements may have part or all of their practical
Learners can only be assessed in the role of                marks discounted from their overall assessment.
player/performer.
                                                            Analysing and Evaluating Performance (AEP)
Learners are required to demonstrate effective
                                                            In addition to three practical performances, learners
performance, the use of tactics or techniques and
                                                            are required to demonstrate their ability to analyse
the ability to observe the rules and conventions
                                                            and evaluate their own performance in order to:
under applied conditions.
                                                            •	analyse aspects of personal performance in a
This component is internally marked using the                  practical activity
assessment criteria found in section 2b.2. of the
‘OCR GCSE (9–1) guide to NEA in Physical Education’.        •	evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the
                                                               performance
Learners must perform in three practical activities,
one from the ‘individual’ list, one from the ‘team’ list,   •	produce an action plan which aims to improve
and one other from either list.                                the quality and effectiveness of the
                                                               performance.
Learners may not enter marks for the same sport twice.
                                                            Teachers must refer to and follow the ‘OCR GCSE
Learners cannot use assessments in both ‘team’ and          (9–1) guide to NEA in Physical Education’ for further
‘individual’ versions of the same sport towards their       detail on this area of assessment.

2e. Prior knowledge, learning and progression
•	No prior knowledge, skills, understanding or             •	This qualification is therefore suitable for
   learning of the subject is required.                        learners intending to pursue AS or A levels,
                                                               Higher Education or any career for which an
•	Throughout the course of study learners are                 understanding of the human body or human
   encouraged to develop an awareness of the                   behaviour is desirable.
   role of physical education in society and its
   application to many situations.                          •	This qualification provides a suitable
                                                               introduction to further study in social sciences,
                                                               or as part of a course of general education.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                    23
3       Assessment of GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education

    3a. Forms of assessment
    OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education consists of       These components assess AO1, AO2 and AO3 and are
    two components that are externally assessed and one      each worth 30% of the total GCSE (9–1). There are
    component that is internally assessed by the centre      60 marks available for each of Components 01 and 02.
    and externally moderated by OCR.
                                                             Component 03 will be assessed via NEA, which will
    Components 01 (Physical factors affecting                include both performance and performance analysis.
    performance) and 02 (Socio-cultural issues and           This component assesses AO4 and is worth 40% of
    sports psychology) will be assessed using a mixture of   the total GCSE (9–1). There are 80 marks available for
    objective response and multiple choice questions,        Component 03.

3   short answers and extended response items.

    3b. Assessment objectives (AO)
    There are four assessment objectives in OCR’s GCSE       Learners are expected to demonstrate their ability to:
    (9–1) in Physical Education. These are detailed in the
    table below.

                                                Assessment Objectives

                   Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the factors that underpin performance and
         AO1
                   involvement in physical activity and sport.
                   Apply knowledge and understanding of the factors that underpin performance and involvement
         AO2
                   in physical activity and sport.
                   Analyse and evaluate the factors that underpin performance and involvement in physical
         AO3
                   activity and sport.
                   •	Demonstrate and apply relevant skills and techniques in physical activity and sport.
         AO4
                   •	Analyse and evaluate performance.

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    24                                                                                     GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
AO weightings in OCR GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education

The relationship between the assessment objectives and the components are shown in the following table:

                                                      % of overall GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education (J587)
                         Component
                                                         AO1            AO2            AO3             AO4

  01: Physical factors affecting performance             12.5           10               7.5             0
  02: Socio-cultural issues and sports psychology        12.5           10               7.5             0
  03: Performance in physical education                   0              0               0              40             3
  Total                                                  25%            20%             15%             40%

3c.        Assessment availability
There will be                                             This specification will be certificated from the June
                                                          2018 examination series onwards.
•	one examination series available each year in
   May/June to all learners.

All components must be taken in the same
examination series at the end of the course.

3d. Retaking the qualification
Learners can retake the qualification as many times       retake the non-exam assessment (NEA) or
as they wish. Learners must retake all examined           carry forward (re-use) their most recent result
components but they can choose to either                  (see Section 4a).

3e. Assessment of extended response
The assessment materials for this qualification           coherent line of reasoning and marks for extended
provide learners with the opportunity to demonstrate      responses are integrated into the marking criteria.
their ability to construct and develop a sustained and

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                  25
3f.     Non-exam assessment (NEA)
    Full details for the completion and administration     OCR’s GCSE (9–1) Physical Education guide to
    of the NEA for OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical            non-exam assessment (NEA).
    Education can be found in the accompanying

    3g.     Synoptic assessment
    •	Synoptic assessment is the learner’s                •	Learners are encouraged to think holistically
       understanding of the connections between               and develop their skills of thinking as a
3      different elements of the subject. It involves
       the explicit drawing together of knowledge,
                                                              practitioner of Physical Education.

       skills and understanding within different parts     •	Synoptic assessment is included in
       of the GCSE (9–1) course.                              Component 03.

    •	The emphasis on synoptic assessment is to
       encourage the understanding of Physical
       Education as a discipline.

    3h. Calculating qualification results
    A learner’s overall qualification grade for OCR’s      will then be compared to the qualification level grade
    GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education will be calculated    boundaries for the entry option taken by the learner
    by adding together their marks from the three          and for the relevant exam series to determine the
    components taken to give their total mark. This mark   learner’s overall qualification grade.

                                                                                                             © OCR 2016
    26                                                                                   GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
4          Admin: what you need to know

The information in this section is designed to give an       More information about the processes and deadlines
overview of the processes involved in administering          involved at each stage of the assessment cycle can be
this qualification so that you can speak to your exams       found in the Administration area of the OCR website.
officer. All of the following processes require you to
submit something to OCR by a specific deadline.              OCR’s Admin overview is available on the OCR website
                                                             at http://www.ocr.org.uk/administration.

4a. Pre-assessment
Estimated entries

Estimated entries are your best projection of the            should be submitted to OCR by the specified
number of learners who will be entered for a                 deadline. They are free and do not commit your
qualification in a particular series. Estimated entries      centre in any way.
                                                                                                                       4
Final entries

Final entries provide OCR with detailed data for             Final entries must be submitted to OCR by the
each learner, showing each assessment to be taken.           published deadlines or late entry fees will apply.
It is essential that you use the correct entry code,
considering the relevant entry rules and ensuring that       All learners taking a GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
you choose the entry option for the moderation you           must be entered for one of the following entry
intend to use.                                               options:

           Entry option                                            Components

  Entry code         Title         Code        Title                                 Assessment type

  J587 A             Physical        01        Physical factors affecting            External assessment
                     Education                 performance
                                     02        Socio-cultural and psychological      External assessment
                                               issues in physical education
                                     03        Performance in physical education     (NEA) Non-exam assessment
                                                                                     (Moderation)
  J587 C*            Physical        01        Physical factors affecting            External assessment
                     Education                 performance
                     (carried
                                     02        Socio-cultural and psychological      External assessment
                     forward)
                                               issues in physical education
                                     80        Performance in physical education     (NEA) Non-exam assessment
                                                                                     (Carried forward)

*Entry option J587 C should only be selected for learners who are retaking the qualification who want to carry
forward their mark for the non-exam assessment.

© OCR 2016
GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education                                                                                  27
4b. Special consideration
    Special consideration is a post-assessment               Detailed information about eligibility for special
    adjustment to marks or grades to reflect temporary       consideration can be found in the JCQ publication
    injury, illness or other indisposition at the time the   A guide to the special consideration process.
    assessment was taken.

    4c.     External assessment arrangements
    Regulations governing examination arrangements are       Calculators are subject to the rules in the document
    contained in the JCQ Instructions for conducting         Instructions for Conducting Examinations published
    examinations. Learners are permitted to use a            annually by JCQ (www.jcq.org.uk).
    scientific or graphical calculator for Component 01.

4   Head of Centre Annual Declaration

    The Head of Centre is required to provide a              Any failure by a centre to provide the Head of Centre
    declaration to the JCQ as part of the annual NCN         Annual Declaration will result in your centre status
    update, conducted in the autumn term, to confirm         being suspended and could lead to the withdrawal of
    that the centre is meeting all of the requirements       our approval for you to operate as a centre.
    detailed in the specification.

    Private candidates

    Private candidates may enter for OCR assessments.        OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education requires
                                                             learners to complete non-examined assessment. This
    A private candidate is someone who pursues a course      is an essential part of the course and will allow
    of study independently but takes an examination or       learners to develop skills for further study or
    assessment at an approved examination centre. A          employment.
    private candidate may be a part-time student,
    someone taking a distance learning course, or            Private candidates need to contact OCR approved
    someone being tutored privately. They must be based      centres to establish whether they are prepared to
    in the UK.                                               host them as a private candidate. The centre may
                                                             charge for this facility and OCR recommends that the
                                                             arrangement is made early in the course.

                                                             Further guidance for private candidates may be found
                                                             on the OCR website: http://www.ocr.org.uk.

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    28                                                                                     GCSE (9–1) in Physical Education
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