POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...

 
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
POWER AND
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering,
Computer and Mathematical Sciences

adelaide.edu.au
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword                                        1   Sustainable Energy Systems Design                        24
Preface                                         2   Collaborations and Successes                             25
                                                    Context Now                                              25
Introduction                                    5
Background                                      6   Energy Cybersecurity and Platforms                       26
Electricity Market                              6   Collaborations and Successes                             27
Energy Vectors Generation and Utilisation       6   Context Now                                              27
South Australian Government                     6   Appendix 1 – Domain Expertise                            28
Non-renewable Resources                         7   Electrical Power Engineering                             29
ECMS as an Energy Systems Leader                9   Energy Supply                                            30
                                                    Energy Vectors Generation and Utilisation                32
Electrical Power Engineering                   12   Energy Storage Solutions                                 33
Collaborations and Successes                   12   Modelling, Optimisation and Machine Learning
Context Now                                    13   for Energy Systems                                       35
Energy Supply                                  14   Sustainable Energy Systems Design                        36
Collaborations and Successes                   14   Energy Cybersecurity and Platforms                       38
Context Now                                    15   Appendix 2 – Australian Non Renewable Energy Resources   40
Energy Vectors Generation and Utilisation      16   Australian School of Petroleum and Energy Resources      41
Collaborations and Successes                   17   Appendix 3 – Key Institutes and Centres                  42
Context Now                                    17   The Institute for Mineral and Energy Resources           43
Energy Storage Solutions                       18   The Centre for Energy Technology                         43
                                                    Centre for Materials in Energy and Catalysis             43
Collaborations and Successes                   18
                                                    The South Australian Centre for Geothermal
Context Now                                    20
                                                    Energy Research                                          43
Modelling, Optimisation and Machine Learning
for Energy Systems                             22   Appendix 4 – Energy Capability                           44
                                                    University-Wide Capability                               45
Collaborations and Successes                   22
Context Now                                    23
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
FOREWORD
TODAY’S ENERGY MARKET IS EVOLVING AT
A RAPID PACE AND FOCUSED RESEARCH IS
CRITICALLY NEEDED TO MODERNIZE THE WAYS
WE GENERATE, DISTRIBUTE, AND MANAGE
TODAY’S ENERGY—BOTH ON THE ELECTRICITY
GRID AND AS WELL AS IN GAS PIPELINES.

Electrification is a pervasive phenomenon that is driving change —                        Professor Derek Abbott was with the
this occurs in everything from end-user products, advanced power
electronics switching and smart control systems on the grid, to                           General Electric Company (GEC), London,
renewable sources of energy with marginal operating costs. These                          UK, from 1978 to 1986 and has since
factors have transformed the grid into a dynamic place.
                                                                                          been with University of Adelaide.
Whilst this presents engineering challenges, it also creates exciting
opportunities for Australia. An energy policy vision for Australia
                                                                                          His interests are in multidisciplinary applications
is the intentional over-installation of renewables that will not
                                                                                          of electrical and electronic engineering, complex
only reduce the need for storage but will create excess electricity
                                                                                          systems, and energy policy.
at marginal operating cost. This oversupply can then open up
opportunities for economic generation of alternative energy vectors                       He is an Honorary Fellow of Engineers Australia,
such as hydrogen for both local industry and mass export.                                 Fellow of the Institute of Physics (IoP), UK, and a
This document consolidates the considerable engineering expertise                         Fellow of the IEEE, USA. He has won a number
we have in the energy sector for both meeting such vision and also                        of awards, including the South Australian Tall
assisting with needed transitional solutions as Australia presses                         Poppy Award for Science (2004), the David
towards its energy future.                                                                Dewhurst Medal (2015), the Barry Inglis Medal
                                                                                          (2018), and the M. A. Sargent Medal (2019) for
Professor Derek Abbott, Convener                                                          eminence in engineering.

                                                                        Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   1
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
PREFACE
                          The University of Adelaide     I am delighted to have this opportunity
                                                         outline South Australia’s role in our nation’s
                          is an important contributor    energy future, as it is well-aligned to the
                                                         University’s expertise.
                          to the scientific process      Our State is committed to deliver affordable,
                                                         reliable, secure and clean electricity supplies
                          of identifying solutions to    in a transitioning national energy market.
                                                         Without a doubt, South Australia is leading
                          deliver forward thinking       the clean energy transition—even in a world-
                          technical, economic, social,   wide context.
                                                         Given the challenges we have faced, the world
                          and environmental outcomes     is paying close attention to our remarkably
                                                         fast transition. They are also paying particular
                          for Australia and on the       attention to how we are responding to and
                                                         addressing those challenges. Our technological
                          international stage.           advancements, coupled with our abundant
                                                         wind and sun, provide us with huge
                                                         opportunities both locally and globally.

2   Power and Renewable Energy
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
Australia is well on the way to achieving              storage, demand management, and supply
                                                   net 100% renewables by the early 2030s.                integration initiatives. Our $50 million Grid
                                                   Our renewable assets will not only provide             Scale Storage Fund aims to bring forward
                                                   us with affordable clean energy—they will              investment in new storage technologies capable
                                                   also provide new opportunities trade and               of addressing the intermittency of our State’s
                                                   economic growth, including in the growing              increasing renewable electricity supply.
                                                   field of renewable hydrogen production.                Neoen’s expansion of its Hornsdale Power
                                                   While there is plenty of upside, some of the           Reserve is the first project to be supported
                                                   changes occurring in South Australia also              from this fund with $15 million awarded for
                                                   present significant challenges to SA and to            the delivery of additional services to improve
                                                   the existing management of the national                network security. With the first 100 MW or
                                                   energy market.                                         129 MWh of storage capacity, developed by
                                                                                                          Neoen and Tesla under the previous state
                                                   The so-called duck curve in our energy
                                                                                                          government, we will now support the 50%
                                                   generation is created by the extremely
                                                                                                          expansion of The Big Battery near Jamestown,
                                                   high penetration of rooftop solar in South
                                                                                                          which will be another Australian-first.
                                                   Australia. This curve represents high levels of
                                                   solar PV generation leading to low demand              I expect this expansion to lead to significant
                                                   from the grid during the day, followed                 savings for consumers by allowing South
                                                   by lower PV generation and a pick-up in                Australia to integrate even more renewable
                                                   consumption during the evening. Keeping                energy into our energy system. It will
                                                   pace with the increasing number of solar               also be a world-leading demonstration of
                                                   panel owners connecting to the grid has also           how battery storage can provide inertia,
                                                   created challenges for network operators—              protecting the security of the grid by keeping
                                                   both at a transmission and distribution                frequency consistent. This is inertia that used
                                                   level—in trying to manage customers’ needs.            to be provided by power stations such as
                                                                                                          Northern and Playford.
                                                   South Australia is working to address these
                                                   issues, as well as increasing our connection           The 50 MW or 65 MWh expansion will
                                                   with the rest of the grid so we can both               enable a much faster response time to system
                                                   improve reliability locally and create                 disturbances such as network faults and
                                                   export opportunities.                                  trips. Within milliseconds, the Hornsdale
                                                                                                          Power Reserve can stabilise the grid, avoid
                                                   In partnership with industry and market
                                                                                                          price volatility in the market and reduce the
                                                   bodies, our plan includes:
                                                                                                          risks of blackouts. This expansion will also
                                                   • Support for a $1.5 billion interconnector            help develop markets for these other services,
                                                     to NSW;                                              helping to get more batteries into the system
                                                   • A $50 million Grid Scale Storage Fund;               more quickly. The State Government is
                                                                                                          currently engaged in negotiations with the
                                                   • The largest planned per capita rollout of
                                                                                                          other shortlisted applicants for the Grid
                                                     home batteries in the world through the
                                                                                                          Scale Storage Fund and I look forward to
                                                     $200 million Home Battery Scheme and
                                                                                                          making more announcements about these
                                                     the Tesla VPP;
                                                                                                          projects very soon.
                                                   • New approaches to managing demand;
                                                                                                          Increasing storage at a household level is
                                                   • Accelerating gas exploration to improve              also being rolled out. South Australian
                                                     supply; and                                          households have already made a significant
                                                   • Seizing the huge opportunities created by            investment in rooftop solar, with one third of
Today, South Australia generates more than           the emerging global market for hydrogen.             homes now generating their own solar power.
half of its electricity from renewable sources,    Firstly, to improve reliability and increase           The $100 million Home Battery Scheme
compared to the turn of the century when           our capacity to export requires improved               is an Australian-first, designed to optimise
wind and solar contributed less than one per       connection to the National Electricity                 these investments by encouraging the uptake
cent to our energy mix.                            Market. Project EnergyConnect—otherwise                of household storage technologies. This scheme
                                                   known as the SA-NSW interconnector—is                  gives all grid-connected South Australians
South Australia now has a remarkable                                                                      an opportunity to access subsidies of up to
portfolio of renewable generation assets           the most advanced project in the Australian
                                                   Energy Market Operator’s Integrated System             $6,000 towards the cost of a home battery
and storage assets that are emerging quickly.                                                             that can reduce their power bills, together
We have 21 large-scale wind farms as well          Plan. The South Australian Government
                                                   has underwritten $14 million of early work             with $100 million in low-interest loans. As
as two large-scale solar farms in operation                                                               of November 2019, more than 4,600 South
across the State.                                  by ElectraNet and TransGrid to expedite
                                                   delivery of Project EnergyConnect as soon              Australian homes have had new batteries
In terms of large-scale storage, we have Neoen’s   as possible.                                           installed or are awaiting installation.
Hornsdale Power Reserve and ElectraNet’s                                                                  Another success story is the South Australian
battery at Dalrymple on the Yorke Peninsula.       Renewable energy developers are already
                                                   lining up to take advantage of new renewable           Virtual Power Plant. The South Australian
We also have Infigen’s battery at Lake                                                                    Government and retailer Energy Locals both
Bonney in the SE and Nexif’s battery at            energy zones along the interconnector route.
                                                   If regulatory and development approvals                support the Tesla Virtual Power Plant (VPP).
Lincoln Gap near Port Augusta being built                                                                 The VPP comprises a network of home solar
and soon to come online.                           line up, we can expect the first stage of the
                                                   project to be up and running as early as 2022.         photovoltaic and Tesla Powerwall battery
With more than another 40 wind, solar,                                                                    systems across the state working collectively
and energy storage projects currently              Other steps are being progressed to address            to generate electricity at the same rate as
under development or construction, South           our supply and demand issues with a mix of             a power station. We have installed more

                                                                       Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   3
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
than 900 systems so far, with participants         The Plan for Accelerating Exploration Gas          more reliable and cleaner energy? The
achieving a 29% saving on their energy bills,      grant program—or PACE Gas—has brought              Essential Services Commission of South
compared to standing market contracts. The         forward investment in the Cooper Basin and         Australia recently reported South Australian
project continues to break new ground, as          supported the renaissance of the onshore           consumers are already beginning to benefit
the first VPP registered to participate in the     Otway Basin.                                       from some of these energy initiatives.
Australian Energy Market Operator’s VPP                                                               The report showed that average annual
                                                   Together, the new supply brought forward
Demonstrations. This programme shows the                                                              residential electricity market offer prices fell
                                                   by PACE Gas grants is helping to keep
capacity for consumers’ rooftop solar and                                                             by 3% in the 12 months to 30 June 2019.
                                                   downward pressure on gas prices and
battery storage systems to provide scalable                                                           This is equivalent to an average annual bill
                                                   provide new competitive sources of supply
energy to deliver network services.                                                                   reduction of $62 for a customer on a market
                                                   for local users such as power plant operators.
                                                                                                      offer. Moreover, the Australian Energy
And it is already earning its stripes. In          South Australia is also in prime position to
                                                                                                      Regulator (AER) confirmed that South
October this year, the Kogan Creek coal            be the hydrogen export centre of Australia.
                                                                                                      Australia’s 2019 electricity costs are lower
power station in Queensland tripped off            In September, Adelaide hosted the 8th
                                                                                                      than they were in 2018.
unexpectedly, causing the power system             International Conference on Hydrogen
frequency to drop below acceptable                 Safety, the ideal venue to have launched our       As a government, we have set an ambitious
operational levels. South Australia’s VPP          Hydrogen Action Plan for South Australia.          target of accelerating annual Gross State
detected the frequency drop and responded                                                             Product growth to three per cent by focusing
                                                   The Hydrogen Plan sets out a vision for
immediately to inject power into the grid and to                                                      on nine key sectors of the economy. There
                                                   leveraging our wind, sun, land, infrastructure
assist in the return to normal system frequency.                                                      is much more to do. Investment in low cost
                                                   and skills to become a world-class renewable
                                                                                                      and affordable energy will be a key factor in
This is another example of the leading-edge        hydrogen supplier of choice. We already have
                                                                                                      generating the jobs, infrastructure, skills and
innovation that puts South Australia at the        a suite of renewable hydrogen production
                                                                                                      innovation needed to achieve our economic
forefront of energy transformation. The            projects under development in South Australia,
                                                                                                      growth objectives. Notwithstanding the
first two phases of the VPP, totalling 1,100       including a plan to blend hydrogen into the
                                                                                                      fact that significant challenges exist, South
connected homes, is drawing to a close. Work       domestic gas distribution network. The first
                                                                                                      Australia’s energy future is bright. Our
is underway to design a phase three that           of these breakthrough hydrogen projects is
                                                                                                      emergence as a clean energy transition leader on
involves connecting at total of 50,000 homes       on track to begin operation next year.
                                                                                                      the global stage is creating new opportunities
to the VPP, harnessing a generating capacity       Our focus will be on supporting existing and       for investment, growth and jobs.
equivalent to a 250 MW power station.              new renewable hydrogen projects in South
                                                                                                      I hope I have provided some insight into
Storage is only part of the solution—we also       Australia to build on the domestic use of
                                                                                                      our vision, our successes, and the many
need to address when and how we use our            renewable hydrogen as a stepping-stone to
                                                                                                      opportunities we are seeking to grasp as a
energy and better match our demand and             exports. Hydrogen exports are modelled
                                                                                                      State as we continue on the path to becoming a
supply. South Australia is now routinely           to provide $4 billion in economic benefits
                                                                                                      world leader in the clean energy transformation.
setting new records for low grid demand            and 7,000 jobs to Australia by 2040. We are
                                                                                                      I am delighted that the foregoing document
due to the penetration of solar PV. Our            determined that South Australia will become
                                                                                                      outlines tremendous expertise, vision, and
$11 million Demand Management Trials               a very prominent part of this emerging and
                                                                                                      capability that exists at the University of
program is designed to demonstrate how             very real opportunity.
                                                                                                      Adelaide, which is in perfect alignment with
new technologies can play an important             We will export renewable hydrogen to our           the State’s strategic direction.
role in making the grid more efficient, while      trading partners in Asia, who are already
rewarding consumers for managing their             looking towards hydrogen consumption as
own demand.                                        a key part of their own energy transitions—
Several projects have already been funded          but they cannot make green hydrogen
under the program, including:                      themselves. As part of the action plan,
                                                   we have committed to a landmark study
• A trial looking at how existing air
                                                   of existing and potential infrastructure
  conditioners can be optimised to better
                                                   required for an international-scale renewable
  manage peak demand;
                                                   hydrogen export value chain. The resulting
• Looking at how small commercial energy           tool and prospectus will provide interested
  users can maximise their investment in           parties with a solid base of information they
  backup generators while helping to make          need to develop hydrogen production and
  energy more secure and reliable for all          export infrastructure in South Australia.
  consumers; and
                                                   South Australia is a large state with remote
• Investigating how permanent automated            communities, prospective mineral regions,
  demand response can save customers               and long transport routes, and so hydrogen
  money on their power bill by having a large      is also an exciting flexible fuel for our future
  appliance in their home turn up, down, on        domestic use. At the 2019 COAG Energy
  or off, based on real time wholesale prices.     Council meeting in Perth, Australia’s
While half of our generation is from               National Hydrogen Strategy, written by
renewable energy, South Australia still relies     Chief Scientist Dr Alan Finkel, was adopted
on natural gas to play a vital role in our         by all states and the Commonwealth. South
energy transition. Gas prices continue to          Australia will become a producer, consumer
challenge electricity affordability. The State     and exporter of green hydrogen and green
                                                   ammonia in the not too distant future.             Hon Dan van Holst Pellekaan MP
Government’s response to tight demand for
                                                                                                      Minister for Energy and Mining
natural gas has been to accelerate investment      So what progress is there so far on our main
in new supplies that producers must offer          objectives in this area of more affordable,
first to local customers.

4   Power and Renewable Energy
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
INTRODUCTION
                                                At the national level, we find an interplay            and complexity of the energy network,
                                                between (i) the politics of National Energy            which in turn has led to challenges around
Concerns about                                  Policy, (ii) changes in market dynamics
                                                driven by short-term supply demand
                                                                                                       robustness and network predictability.
                                                                                                       While the Government seeks to address
anthropogenic climate                           imbalances, and (iii) shifts in net baseload           the rising cost of electricity and energy
                                                versus distributed and intermittent electrical
change have driven                              energy supply.
                                                                                                       generators and distributors look to manage
                                                                                                       an increasingly complex energy mix, a
increased focus on                              Against this backdrop there exists an increase         variety of new companies are looking to
the technologies for                            in wind and solar energy utilisation, the use          South Australia for the manufacture and
                                                of batteries and pumped hydroelectricity.              deployment of greener and more sustainable
generating, distributing                        Moreover, there is an increasing interest              energy generation and storage solutions
and utilising energy                            and technological progression in future                (such as Tesla, Sonnen, GFG Alliance).
                                                energy and fuel sources such as hydrogen,
toward a greener and more                       concentrated solar thermal and biomass.
                                                                                                       It is likely within the next few years that
                                                                                                       South Australia will inflect to a position
resilient future.                               There is an increasing awareness across
                                                industry, government and the general public
                                                                                                       where the majority of its electrical supply is
                                                                                                       generated from distributed sources—such as
                                                that energy systems require “big picture”              photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind generated
                                                analysis and strategic thinking in order to            power—with attendant risks created by the
                                                ensure network reliability, affordability, and         physical network moving beyond the known
                                                lower emissions.                                       parameters of current network modelling.
The focus on environmentally sustainable
sources of energy and fuels is driving global   Locally, South Australia’s adoption of                 The Faculty of Engineering, Computer
energy agendas and underpinning major           renewable energy generation and storage                and Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) can
industrial, technological and infrastructure    technologies over the past decade, has                 position the University of Adelaide as a
decision-making around our energy future.       created opportunities to take world-leading            leader in the transitioning energy landscape.
                                                initiatives in renewable energy solutions. This
                                                has necessarily increased the heterogeneity

                                                                    Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   5
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
BACKGROUND
Over the last decade, South Australia has positioned itself
as a global leader in the adoption of renewable electricity
through a strong domestic uptake of rooftop and
commercial scale photovoltaics, the deployment of wind
turbine farms across the state and, more recently, the
diversification of utility-scale solar thermal and energy
storage projects.

This progressive stance on renewable energy      Energy Vectors Generation
has attracted a number of global energy
                                                 and Utilisation
companies to the State to develop, test and
operationalise their technologies, as well       The move to close the cycles of energy
as creating a wider commercial ecosystem         resources requires us to think of means to
supporting the establishment and growth of       generate energy vectors such as hydrogen,        South Australian Government
renewable energy SMEs.                           ammonia, syngas, liquefied natural gas           The South Australian Government has shown
                                                 (LNG) and bio-fuels that can store, transfer     commitment to the energy sector strategically,
Electricity Market                               and release energy in an efficient and cost      socially and economically, as more companies
                                                 competitive manner.                              look to work with the State in deploying
This rapid evolution of the renewable
energy market has raised a number of new         Closing the cycle requires future energy         renewable technologies from the domestic
challenges to address in order to ensure a       vectors to be carbon neutral when generated      through to utility scale solutions. The
clear pathway to stable, integrated, efficient   and utilized. This can potentially be achieved   Government leads and coordinates a broad
and affordable electricity generation,           through capturing of emitted carbon from         range of cross-portfolio renewable energy and
distribution and storage.                        fossil based fuels, either before it is used     energy storage projects. Areas of focus include:
                                                 or capturing the carbon from large industrial    • Large scale renewable energy generation
The National Electricity Market (NEM) has        systems, sequester it or converted back
changed significantly as coal-fired generation                                                      and storage, such as wind, solar PV,
                                                 to fuel.                                           bioenergy, battery, pumped hydro, solar
plants have been retired and replaced with
wind and PV generation, while the use of         An alternative approach is the direct              thermal and thermal storage;
battery storage is growing rapidly.              utilization of renewable energy sources for      • Integrated electricity management through
                                                 all sectors especially when they coincide          a Virtual Power Plant model;
Recent reviews of the NEM have determined        with the geographical location where they
that Australia needs to increase system          are being generated. This is particularly        • Behind-the-meter energy production such
security and stability to ensure future          pertinent for concentrating solar energy,          as rooftop solar, bioenergy, distributed
reliability to all customers and stakeholders.   where thermal energy can potentially replace       storage, energy efficiency and demand
The power system underpinning the NEM            the use of fuels as the source of heat for         management;
now needs to respond to a more dynamic,          industrial processes or power generation.        • Hydrogen production, domestic use and
intermittent and technologically diverse                                                            for export;
electricity generation landscape. There is       There are major opportunities for Australia
a critical need for adequate energy storage      to develop technologies and approaches that      • Uptake of zero carbon emission vehicles
solutions, such as batteries and pumped          allow the cost effective generation of energy      and investment in charging and refuelling
hydroelectricity, to be integrated in to the     vectors, such as hydrogen and its derivatives      infrastructure;
current electricity network.                     that can be transported and utilized in          • Supply chain development of low carbon
                                                 different parts of the country or as an export     technologies; and,
The Australian Energy Market Operator            commodity in the future.
(AEMO) acknowledge the NEM needs                                                                  • Research and industry partnerships in low
to be more actively managed, and there           Australia’s abundance of renewable energy          carbon technologies.
is increased need for fast-start and rapid-      is a major advantage that can only be fully
                                                 utilized when effective energy vectors are       Major projects currently underway in South
response technologies to accommodate                                                              Australia include:
changes in renewable energy output and           used to transport this energy to markets
improve power system security.                   where they are most needed and that generate     • The Riverland Solar Storage project led by
                                                 the maximum return for the country.                the Lyon Group to build Australia’s largest
                                                                                                    solar farm in South Australia’s Riverland;

6   Power and Renewable Energy
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
THE ELECTRICAL
                                                                               ENERGY CHALLENGE
                                                                               The fundamental challenge for power generators and
                                                                               distributors in moving to a greener, more sustainable
                                                                               energy future is ensuring the reliability, affordability
                                                                               and security of electricity to all end users. This sector/
                                                                               industry scale transformation needs to be driven
                                                                               by informed decisions that optimise resources and
                                                                               infrastructure, utilise the most effective and efficient
                                                                               technologies and minimise disruption and uncertainty.
                                                                               Recent reviews of the national electricity market have
                                                                               determined that Australia needs to increase system
                                                                               security and ensure future reliability in this market. The
                                                                               security and reliability of the national electricity grid
                                                                               has been compromised by poorly integrated variable
                                                                               renewable electricity generators coinciding with
                                                                               the withdrawal of older coal and gas-fired generators.
                                                                               Though seemingly immense, this challenge gives rise
                                                                               to a multitude of opportunities including energy
                                                                               storage and utilisation; advanced energy conversion
                                                                               technologies; a move from centralised to decentralised
                                                                               scenarios; use of smart and micro grids; peer to
                                                                               peer energy trading; future fuels and biomimetic
                                                                               approaches and new materials for energy generation,
                                                                               conversion and storage.

• Comprising a new 330 MW solar                       At the utility-scale, the South Australian             National Energy Resources Australia
  generation plant (two phases) and 100               Government launched the $50 million                    (NERA), one of the Federal Government’s
  MW battery storage system (Development              Grid Scale Storage Fund (GSSF) on 19                   six Industry Growth Centres, was
  Application approved, planned                       November 2018, aiming to accelerate                    established to maximise the value of the
  construction Q1 2019);                              the roll-out of grid-scale energy storage              energy resources industry to the Australian
• The Port Augusta Renewable Energy Park              infrastructure across the state.                       economy. Challenges include predicting
  led by DP Energy will be one of the largest         Tesla and the South Australian Government              market volatility, addressing high capital and
  hybrid renewable energy projects in the             have partnered to establish the SA Virtual             operational expenditures of exploration and
  southern hemisphere, consisting of 59               Power Plant (SA VPP), a network of up to               production and emissions management.
  wind turbines and almost 400 hectares of            50,000 homes across South Australia to form            NERA has identified opportunities for the
  solar photovoltaic (PV) panels amounting            the world’s largest virtual power plant.               energy sector that require a combination
  to a combined generation capacity of 375                                                                   of business development, adoption of new
                                                      The first phase of the project is now
  MW (Development Application approved;                                                                      technologies and industry-focused research.
                                                      complete with 100 home energy systems
  Approaching financial close); and                                                                          These include:
                                                      installed around the State. Phase Two,
• SA Water $300 million investment in the             currently underway, will trial the systems             • Increasing collaboration amongst operators
  installation of 154 MW of solar PV and              working as a virtual power plant and their               to maximise asset productivity;
  34 MWh of energy storage across more                ability to generate the additional energy for
                                                                                                             • Improving collaboration between
  than 70 of the utility’s sites. Adelaide-based      an extra 320 Housing Trust households.
                                                                                                               operators and technology and engineering
  Enerven, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SA
                                                                                                               service providers to increase innovation
  Power Networks, will deliver the project.           Petroleum Resources                                      and productivity;
The South Australian Government is also               Realising the full potential of the local non-         • Leveraging the critical mass emerging in
incentivising the energy storage market               renewable sector, such as gas reserves from              Australian operations to develop an export-
by offering funding schemes that support              the Cooper/Eromanga Basin in the northeast               oriented and competitive service and
investment in both domestic and utility-scale         and the Otway Basin in the southeast,                    technology sector; and,
storage systems.                                      is also a critical component of South
                                                      Australia’s energy future. The identification,         • Developing shale and tight gas basins to
The Home Battery Scheme (HBS) is a $100
                                                      management and optimised recovery of                     support domestic demand, and potentially
million State Government investment that
                                                      non-renewable resources are key factors                  for export.
will subsidise up to 40,000 domestic energy
storage systems with the aim of alleviating           in the State’s economic prosperity and in              The Australian School of Petroleum and
rising energy prices and providing increased          Australia’s energy security and in our global          Energy Resources and Energy Resources
stability and security for the local energy market.   competitiveness.                                       within the faculty houses a wide ranging
                                                      Fundamental and applied knowledge in                   capability and expertise that services both
Through the HBS, households are able to
                                                      conventional and unconventional energy                 current and future petroleum-related research.
choose whether or not their home battery
system is part of a broader virtual power plant       resources, reservoir characterisation and              A capability summary of the petroleum
to help address electricity network instability       production optimisation will be critical in            research domain is provided in Appendix 2.
issues and balance out peak power demands.            generating a solution to secure efficient,
                                                      reliable and affordable power.

                                                                          Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   7
POWER AND RENEWABLE ENERGY - Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences - Faculty of ...
THE HYDROGEN
ECONOMY
Hydrogen gas has long been recognised as
a versatile energy carrier vector that can
revolutionise the energy industry.

In recent years, interest in hydrogen has risen            The South Australian Government has also
dramatically as nations, corporations and research         examined the economic viability of the hydrogen
organisations acknowledge hydrogen as a critical           economy from a state perspective through its own
component in the decarbonisation of power                  Roadmap, identifying a number of advantages
generation, transport, and thermal energy. Hydrogen        such as established renewable sector and abundant
can be utilised in a range of ways including:              solar resources, market proximity and transport
                                                           infrastructure. Currently, South Australia has four key
• Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) such as buses,
                                                           hydrogen projects in various stages of development:
  trucks, agricultural equipment and cars;
                                                           • Hydrogen Super Hub. Located at Crystal Brook,
• Electricity Grid Firming such as grid connected
                                                             Neoen Australia’s 50 megawatt (MW) Hydrogen
  electrolysers that can be ramped up and down to
                                                             Super hub is planned to be the world’s largest co-
  help manage grid stability and produce hydrogen
                                                             located wind, solar, battery and hydrogen facility.
  for energy storage;
                                                           • Hydrogen Park SA. Australian Gas Infrastructure
• Remote Area Power Systems (RAPS) utilising
                                                             Group’s (AGIG) Hydrogen Park located at Tonsley
  hydrogen produced via dedicated renewable
                                                             will deliver a 1.25 MW electrolyser plant that will
  energy inputs,
                                                             produce hydrogen from renewable electricity. This
• Industrial Feedstock including the incorporation           hydrogen which then be injected into the local gas
  of clean hydrogen in industrial processes (replacing       distribution network.
  hydrogen derived from hydrocarbons); and,
                                                           • The Hydrogen Utility™ (H2U) is set to construct
• As a source of industrial heat to replace fossil fuels     a hydrogen and green ammonia production facility
  to produce materials such as steel.                        near Port Lincoln, consisting of a 30 MW water
The CSIRO recently published the National                    electrolysis plant, as well as a facility for sustainable
Hydrogen Roadmap that outlines the pathways                  ammonia production.
to creating an economically sustainable hydrogen           • The University of South Australia’s demonstration
industry in Australia. The roadmap outlines key              project includes hydrogen production, a hydrogen
elements of the hydrogen value chain that, if                fuel cell, a flow battery, chilled water storage, and
appropriately supported through commercial, social,          ground and roof-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV)
regulatory and R&D initiatives, may have a significant       cells. The project will cut campus emissions by 35
impact in the decarbonisation of the energy and              per cent and reduce peak demand on the grid.
industrial sectors. Most recently, the Council of
Australian Governments (COAG) Energy Council
has released the National Hydrogen Discussion
Paper for consultation (March 2019).

8   Power and Renewable Energy
ECMS AS
AN ENERGY
SYSTEMS
LEADER

The University of Adelaide has invested in intellectual capital displaying
the motivation, networks and capabilities (direct and translational) to
collaboratively address the challenges faced by the energy sector.
Within the Faculty of Engineering,             More specifically, ECMS has the opportunity            • Industry Transformation: Renewable
Computer and Mathematical Sciences             to fill critical gaps in the current energy              Energy Generation; decarbonisation of
(ECMS), energy capabilities can be grouped     landscape through the delivery of long term              Industrial Processes; Techno-Economic
into seven primary domains:                    solutions that address challenges such as:               Evaluation; Industrial Transformation;
                                                                                                        Energy Efficiency;
• Electrical Power Engineering;                • Grid Reliability: Stability, Resilience and
                                                 Security; System Monitoring and Control;             • Industrial Process Heat: (Solar) Hybrid
• Energy Supply;
                                               • Grid Planning Tools: Storage Planning;                 Technologies; Gasification Technologies;
• Energy Vectors Generation and Utilisation;
                                                 Storage Control; Infrastructure;                     • Power-to-X: Power-2-Chemicals; Power-2-
• Energy Storage Solutions;                    • Energy Storage: Planning and                           Fuels; Power-2-Food; Power-2-People;
• Modelling, Optimisation and Machine            Management (including capacity and                   • Future Fuels: Renewable Fuels (including
  Learning for Energy Systems;                   location); Materials Innovation; Storage               Hydrogen and its derivatives); and,
                                                 Optimisation; Pumped Hydroelectricity;
• Sustainable Systems Design; and,                                                                    • Energy Security: System Security;
                                                 Water Systems Modelling; Water Pumping;
• Energy Cybersecurity and Platforms.                                                                   Network Modelling and Management;
                                               • Market Modelling: Market Analysis;                     Infrastructure Security.
These primary energy capability domains          Scenario Modelling; Predictive/Responsive
can be directly mapped to the challenges         Systems;                                             In addressing these challenges, the Faculty of
faced by the local and national energy                                                                Engineering, Computer and Mathematical
                                               • Demand Management: Climate and
markets and have great impact in areas of                                                             Sciences has the opportunity to consolidate
                                                 Weather; Market Modelling;
energy generation, distribution and storage;                                                          and grow itself as an international leader in
                                               • Infrastructure Management:                           energy transformation and to become a vital
decarbonisation of industrial processes; and
                                                 Optimisation, Risk/Hazard Mitigation;                contributor to the State’s energy reliability
the optimisation and security of national
markets and infrastructure.                    • Petroleum Exploration and Production:                and security.
                                                 Well Productivity and Enhanced Recovery;
                                                 Porous Media; Petroleum Geoscience;
                                                 Carbon Sequestration;

                                                                   Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   9
10   Power and Renewable Energy
PRIMARY DOMAINS
1. Electrical Power Engineering

2. Energy Supply

3. Energy Vectors Generation and Utilisation

4. Energy Storage Solutions

5. Modelling, Optimisation and Machine Learning
    for Energy Systems

6. Sustainable Energy Systems Design

7. Energy Cybersecurity and Platforms

                                        Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   11
1. ELECTRICAL
         POWER ENGINEERING
         As the world moves to a more sustainable
         future by harnessing increasing amounts of
         renewable energy sources such as wind and
         solar, the complexity of power generation,
         distribution and storage increases.

                                  Electricity is being generated, distributed,      Collaborations and Successes
                                  stored and traded on a range of scales,
                                  from individual households, community             The Power Systems Dynamics Group
                                  level, industrial plants and grid scale. This     (PSDG) within the School of Electrical and
                                  complexity is highlighted by a range of           Electronic Engineering has been working in
                                  challenges including maximising the use of        partnership with the industry for over two
                                  renewable energy sources while ensuring           decades, undertaking technically challenging
                                  stability and security of the power system        projects to help ensure power system security
                                  and seeking to minimise overall costs.            and reliability.

                                  The future electricity network requires           Research and development contracts have
                                  electricity generation, distribution and          supported the operations of companies and
                                  storage infrastructure to be connected and        organisations such as the Australian Energy
                                  responsive, possessing the ability to rapidly     Market Operator (AEMO), Powerlink
                                  interpret a wide range of data and respond to     Queensland, TransGrid, VENCorp, Transend
                                  issues accordingly.                               Networks, Hydro Tasmania and ElectraNet.

                                  The next generation of management                 Their commercial power system software
                                  software modelling and optimisation tools         MUDPACK (MUltimachine Dynamics
                                  can utilise (i) machine learning and artificial   PACKage) is a comprehensive set of
                                  intelligence to develop predictive models and     interactive tools used to analyse system
                                  demand scenarios, and (ii) rapidly identify       dynamics and control system design.
                                  failures and deliver responses to minimise        This software is currently used by all eastern
                                  customer disruption and protect network           state Transmission Network Service Providers
                                  infrastructure. These tools will also maximise    (TNSPs) and AEMO as well as a range of
                                  the benefits of sharing electricity between all   Australian and overseas consulting companies.
                                  customers and at all scales, creating a more
                                  resilient electricity network.

12   Power and Renewable Energy
The increasing penetration of renewable
                                                                                      energy, the reduction of conventional
                                                                                      electricity generation and the increasing
                                                                                      integration of energy storage facilities
                                                                                      are driving the future management of
                                                                                      electric power systems.
                                                                                      Electrical Power Engineering is focused
                                                                                      on the tools, systems and processes that
                                                                                      will help ensure the reliable and cost-
                                                                                      effective supply of electrical energy for all
                                                                                      customers.

                                                                                      Domain Lead
                                                                                      Associate Professor Wen Soong

                                                                                      Domain Experts
                                                                                      Professor Cheng-Chew Lim; Professor
                                                                                      Peng Shi; Professor Derek Abbott;
                                                                                      Assoc. Professor Nesimi Ertugrul;
                                                                                      Assoc. Professor Mike J. Gibbard; Assoc.
                                                                                      Professor Cornelis (Keith) Kikkert; Mr
                                                                                      David Vowles; Mr Qi Ming Zhang; Dr Ali
                                                                                      Pourmousavi Kani; Dr Said Al-Sarawi;
                                                                                      Dr Aaron T. Pereira; Dr Andrew Allison

The PSDG has also led the development of        that will have the capability of growing gallium       Within this changing landscape, the
sophisticated software tools for ElectraNet     arsenide (GaAs) materials with applications            modelling of short-term dynamics of large
SA for the purpose of calculating power         for high efficiency triple junction solar cells        grids with high levels of intermittent and
transfer limits within and between regions of   and power converters in the lower power range.         variable (asynchronous) generation are not
a power system under any set of operating       These new materials are game changers in               well understood. The data and management
conditions. These planning tools are used by    the area of power electronics, both with the           tools currently being utilised were designed
ElectraNet on a daily basis to determine the    potential for transforming the characteristics         to cater for a power system with significant
secure operational limits of the system.        of the grid and as an enabling technology for          base-load (synchronous) capability.
In 2017, the University of Adelaide initiated   integration of renewables.                             Both Government and electricity providers
a strategic partnership with Silanna                                                                   (generators and distributors) are looking
Semiconductor P/L to establish the Silanna      Context Now                                            for the most effective way to predict
picoFAB, a multimillion dollar research                                                                electricity usage, manage peak demands
facility for growing advanced, wide band gap    The South Australian Government is actively            and optimise energy storage to ensure a
semiconductor (WBS) materials.                  supporting renewable energy projects within            stable supply. The recent examples of the
                                                the State that will have significant impact on         Hornsdale Power Reserve in responding to
Silanna’s commercial focus is in the area       the way electricity is generated, distributed,         fluctuations in the energy grid offer insights
of silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride    stored and traded. These projects range                into how new technologies can be effectively
(GaN) wide bandgap semiconductor devices.       from localised and community-level projects            integrated into the network to ensure stable
Currently, both SiC and GaN devices are         such as the South Australian Virtual Power             power delivery.
disruptive technologies for power electronics   Plant (VPP) to grid-scale projects such
on today’s grid and transformation towards      as the Hornsdale Wind Farm and Power                   As indicated earlier, Tesla and the South
electrification, providing efficient power      Reserve. This drive to increase renewable              Australian Government have partnered to
switches and inverters.                         energy power generation and energy storage             establish the SA Virtual Power Plant (SA
                                                coincides with the proposed mothballing                VPP), a network of up to 50,000 homes
In a further joint initiative between DST,
                                                of the Torrens Island A Power Station (by              across South Australia to form the world’s
Silanna and the University of Adelaide
                                                2021) and the deployment of diesel back-               largest virtual power plant.
(IPAS, ECMS, Department of Physics), a
new microFAB facility is being established      up generators at Lonsdale and Elizabeth to
                                                manage peak summer demand.

                                                                    Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   13
2. ENERGY
         SUPPLY
         While significant effort is
         being directed to incorporate
         renewable energy into the
         national electricity market, there
         is also a need to decarbonise
         transportation and energy-
         intensive industrial processes.

In 2016–17, transport, manufacturing and           Technologies such as the use of concentrated      application in the heavy industrial sector.
mining represented 65% of total energy             solar thermal energy for process heat,            The value of this technology is particularly
consumption in Australia (27.5%, 27.5%             thermal storage, and the production of green      high in high temperature industries
and 10.0%, respectively) in contrast to a          hydrogen are fundamental to the future of         that require all three of these chemicals.
combined residential and commercial usage          low and zero carbon metals.                       The program is co-developing patented
of 13.1%.                                          New power generating technologies, such           technologies from the partners, while also
                                                   as ocean power, also have the opportunity         better understanding their value proposition.
New technologies are needed to decarbonise
the energy-intensive processes, such as those      to continue to the lower cost of secure,          The inaugural High Temperature Mineral
used in the manufacture of iron/steel and          affordable and sustainable electricity.           Processing (HiTeMP) Forum held in
cement, since current processes rely almost                                                          September 2018 and saw members of
exclusively on fossil fuels. However, new          Collaborations and Successes                      industry, research and government agencies
markets for those few metals for which green                                                         convene to discuss the drivers, barriers,
processes are available, such as aluminium,        The Centre for Energy Technologies is             enablers and opportunities in moving
are driving investment to develop other green      working closely with a range of research          towards the production of zero carbon
metals. For this reason, the University of         and industry partners, Alcoa, Hatch, ITP,         products from mineral resources.
Adelaide is directing much of its research         CSIRO and UNSW) on the incorporation
                                                   of concentrated solar thermal technologies        The forum sought to identify pathways
effort to supporting the transformation of                                                           to transform the energy-intensive high
these ‘difficult to abate’ industries, for which   (CST) into the commercial Bayer alumina
                                                   process. This $15.1 million project is on         temperature processes (particularly targeting
the dominant energy requirement is typically                                                         the iron/steel, alumina and cement/lime
high temperature heat, rather than electricity.    track to meet its investment targets to justify
                                                   installation or upscaling of three technology     industries) and to better understand how
The transportation sector is also in               platforms to supply half of the energy            such a transformation might play out. The
transition. The emergence of electric vehicles     requirements for the process with CST.            Second HiTeMP forum, which is scheduled
is continuing to grow for domestic and light-                                                        for March 2020, will build on these
duty commercial vehicles, while hydrogen is        Researchers are also partnering with the          outcomes to also include copper production.
expected to play a growing role for heavier        German Aerospace (DLR) and CSIRO to
vehicles and long-haul transport owing to its      develop a novel technology for co-producing
greater energy density.                            hydrogen, oxygen and sulphuric acid for

14   Power and Renewable Energy
The pathway to a low or zero-carbon
                                                                                       energy future requires the development
                                                                                       and commercialisation of new power
                                                                                       generating heat, and fuel technologies
                                                                                       that capitalise on renewable resources
                                                                                       such as solar, wind and wave energy.
                                                                                       This is supported by the application
                                                                                       of hybrid technologies in our power-
                                                                                       intensive industries to reduce the use of
                                                                                       non-renewable resources.

                                                                                       Domain Lead
                                                                                       Professor Graham (Gus) Nathan

                                                                                       Domain Experts
                                                                                       Professor Bassam Dally; Professor
                                                                                       Benjamin Cazzolato; Professor Eric
                                                                                       Hu; Professor Peter Ashman; Professor
                                                                                       David Lewis; Assoc. Professor Maziar
                                                                                       Arjomandi; Assoc. Professor Zeyad
                                                                                       Alwahabi; Assoc. Professor Paul Medwell;
                                                                                       Assoc. Professor Boyin Ding; Dr Zhao
                                                                                       Tian; Dr Woei Saw; Dr Philip Kwong; Dr
                                                                                       Philip van Eyk; Dr Mehdi Jafarian; Dr
                                                                                       Alfonso Chinnici; Dr Rey Chin

In 2019, a $2M Joint Research Centre that        Context Now                                            The new technologies, including those under
seeks to combine wave ad wind energy was                                                                development by the CET, have the potential
announced. The Centre, funded by the             A diverse range of commercial, societal                to make significant environmental and
Australia-China Science Research Fund            and environmental drivers are emerging to              economic impact for companies as well as
sees the University of Adelaide working          fundamentally transform our energy sources             help foster their social licence to operate with
in partnership with three other Australian       for the new low-carbon economy. These                  communities, councils and government.
universities, CSIRO, industry partner            drivers are already emerging in the mining
                                                 sector, which is increasingly incorporating            The HiTEMP Forum identified hydrogen
Carnegie Clean Energy, and Chinese                                                                      and concentrated solar thermal energy as
partners led by Shanghai Jiao Tong University.   more renewable energy, and technologies
                                                 are now also under development for the high            being particularly prospective technology
The centre aims to combine wave energy with      temperature industrial processes. While                platforms to support the transformation
wind energy, thereby optimising the levelized    somewhat behind the electricity sector, the            of the high temperature process, while
cost of energy (LCOE) for both technologies.     transformation of this sector is expected to           increased electrification will continue to
                                                 ramp up now that major corporations, such              become more important, particularly for the
It will do this by looking to share common
                                                 as BHP, have committed to carbon-zero targets.         low temperature processes.
grid connection, power converters, moorings
and even using the turbine towers as wave        Global and national companies in SA, and               Partnerships between industry, research and
energy converters. In addition to this funding   elsewhere in Australia, are increasingly               government are vital to enable this transformation
success, the group’s academic outputs have       incorporating low-carbon technologies                  be undertaken most cost effectively.
also been recently recognised.                   into current operations both in response to
University of Adelaide contributors include      investor demand and to access new markets
the Acoustics Vibration and Control research     that emerging for low-carbon products.
group and Optimisation and Logistics group.

                                                                     Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   15
3. ENERGY VECTORS
                   GENERATION AND
                   UTILISATION
                   The safe and efficient transportation, storage
                                                                      A greener and more
                   and conversion of renewable and non-renewable      sustainable energy future
                   fuels is fundamental in our transition to a
                   greener and more sustainable energy future.        relies not only on the adoption
                   Innovations in the emerging renewable fuels        of renewable energy sources
                   value chain as well as the efficient management
                   and optimisation of our non-renewable resources    for electricity generation and
                   help ensure a stable transition to a new, low
                   carbon energy future.                              storing electricity for later
                                                                      consumption, but also on the
                   Domain Lead
                   Professor Bassam Dally
                                                                      development of new energy
                   Domain Experts
                                                                      sources to fuel industry
                   Professor Shizhang Qiao; Professor Graham          and society.
                   Nathan; Professor Peter Ashman; Professor Volker
                   Hessel; Assoc. Prof Paul Medwell; Dr Mehdi
                   Jafarian; Dr Alireza Salmachi; Dr Neil Smith

16   Power and Renewable Energy
• A source of thermal energy to replace                 Context Now
                                                    fossil based heat generators, such as in the
                                                    production of steel and aluminium.                    The movement to develop carbon neutral
                                                                                                          fuels is a global pursuit. In particular,
                                                  Fuels can also be derived from waste organic            investigations into the use of hydrogen and
                                                  material through a range of processes                   ammonia alternative energy vectors, has
                                                  including torrefaction where the biomass                significant momentum as it is seen as a
                                                  is converted to a higher energy coal-like               significant export opportunity to countries
                                                  material and Solar Gasification where                   such as Japan and South Korea if Australia can
                                                  biomass is treated with steam to form Syngas            strategically develop capabilities in producing,
                                                  using solar energy sources.                             transporting, storing and using hydrogen.
                                                  Bio-crude oil can also be produced from the             CSIRO has published the National
                                                  bio-solids found in wastewater treatment and            Hydrogen Roadmap outlining the pathways
                                                  waste biomass. Hydrothermal Liquefaction                to creating a hydrogen industry in Australia.
                                                  (HTL) is one of the leading methods used to             It defines the key elements of the hydrogen
                                                  convert this material into valuable products            value chain that, if appropriately supported
                                                  such as transport fuels and their precursors.           through commercial, social, regulatory
                                                  The use of thermal energy is also a critical            and R&D initiatives, will have a significant
                                                  vector when examining industries that require           impact in the decarbonisation of the energy
                                                  high temperatures, such as mineral processing,          and industrial sectors.
                                                  oil refining and metal processing. In this              The report also highlighted the need for
                                                  case, the storage of thermal energy can help            a reduction in hydrogen production cost
                                                  increase the renewable energy share and                 through technology development and
                                                  which can be utilized for power generation,             alternative routes that allows the capture,
                                                  process heat, and renewable fuels generation.           storage or utilization of the carbon. At
                                                  An essential step in the success of this approach       least three different technologies are being
                                                  is the development of novel thermal storage             considered by researchers at the University
                                                  technologies, spanning sensible, latent and             of Adelaide, which show premise and
                                                  chemical energy. This work is being supported           competitive edge over existing technology.
Energy vectors, such as hydrogen, syngas,
liquefied natural gas (LNG) and bio-fuels         by projects including the Australian Solar              The South Australian government has also
carry energy that can be used to generate         Thermal Research Institute and the ARENA                examined the economic viability of the
electricity, drive engines and produce heat.      Bayer project.                                          hydrogen economy from a state perspective,
                                                                                                          identifying a number of advantages such as
These fuels can be produced through a             Collaborations and Successes                            established renewable sector and abundant
number of processes that range in efficiency,                                                             solar resources, market proximity and
energy consumption and amount of carbon           Muradel Pty Ltd, developers of Australia’s
                                                  first integrated demonstration hydrothermal             transport infrastructure.
emitted during the process. New methods
are being developed to help reduce the            liquefaction plant, was founded in December             Most recently, the COAG Energy Council
amount of carbon needed to create these           2010 through a partnership between the                  has released the National Hydrogen
new fuels and advanced materials such as          University of Adelaide, Murdoch University              Discussion for consultation Paper (March
catalysts are being developed to maximise         and SQC Pty Ltd.                                        2019) and the Australian Chief Scientist
the efficiency of fuel production as well         The plant is designed to investigate the use            is working on a comprehensive national
as remove the need for energy-intensive           of microalgae to treat waste water, ready               hydrogen strategy that will be released before
reactions and processes.                          for reuse or environmental discharge. The               the end of 2019.
Looking at hydrogen, it can be produced           remaining biosolids are used to develop                 When considering non-renewable fuel
through a number of processes and when it is      and commercialise bio-products such as                  sources, the demand for LNG for local
used as a fuel, it produces only water vapour.    agricultural soil ameliorants, fish feed and            baseload power generation (and industrial
Hydrogen has a variety of uses including:         bio-crude oil.                                          processes) and its importance to Australian
                                                  The Future Fuels CRC, which was                         exports is also critical in transitioning to a
• Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) such                                                                greener and more sustainable energy future.
  as bus fleets, trucks, agricultural equipment   established in 2018, is an industry focussed
                                                  RD&D partnership supporting Australia’s                 The need to maximise current wellfield
  and personal vehicles;                                                                                  productivity and deliver LNG to the market
                                                  transition to a low carbon energy future. The
• Electricity Grid Firming such as grid           seven year, $81 million program involves                efficiently and reliably will be important in
  connected electrolysers that can be ramped      over 60 companies, six universities, the                reducing the cost of LNG and strengthening
  up and down to help manage grid stability       energy market operator and two regulators               Australia’s energy future.
  and produce hydrogen for energy storage;        and aims to develop solutions that will                 The use of concentrated solar heat as
• Remote Area Power Systems (RAPS)                prepare the industry infrastructure, pipelines          an energy source is also being actively
  utilising hydrogen produced via dedicated       and utilities for future carbon neutral fuels.          investigated by energy-intensive industries.
  renewable energy inputs;                        The University of Adelaide is involved in               The use of these technologies to drive
                                                  both the techno-economics of fuel generation            energy-intensive processes such as refining,
• Industrial Feedstock including the
                                                  and in the technology development needed                reduces and/or bypasses the demand for
  incorporation of green hydrogen in
                                                  for utilization and adoption.                           electricity and grid connection. This
  industrial processes (replacing hydrogen
                                                                                                          technology can be coupled with thermal
  derived from hydrocarbons); and,
                                                                                                          storage solutions to optimise processes and
                                                                                                          reduce costs.

                                                                       Energy capability within the Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences   17
You can also read