Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands

Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands:

Kingdom of Denmark
Strategy for the Arctic 2011– 2020

Photo.: Per Arnesen
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands:

Kingdom of Denmark
Strategy for the Arctic 2011– 2020
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                    5

Table of content

Preface                                                                           7

1. Introduction 9
  1.1. A region is opening up                                                     9
  1.2. Joint strategy for the Arctic                                             10

2.	A peaceful, secure and safe Arctic                                            13
  2.1. 	Basis for peaceful cooperation with emphasis on
         the UN’s Convention on the Law of the Sea                               13
  2.2. Enhanced maritime safety                                                  16
  2.3. Exercising of sovereignty and surveillance                                20

  3.1. High standards for the exploitation of mineral resources                  24
  3.2 Exploitation of renewable energy potential                                 30
  3.3. Sustainable exploitation of living resources                              31
  3.4. Stronger integration in international trade                               33
  3.5. Knowledge-based growth and development                                    35
  3.6. Arctic cooperation on health and social coherence                         40

4.	Development with respect for the Arctic’s
vulnerable climate, environment and nature                                       43
  4.1. Improved understanding of the consequences of climate change in the Arctic 43
  4.2. Protecting the environment and biodiversity                               45

5.	Close cooperation with our international partners49
  5.1. Global solutions to global challenges                                     49
  5.2. Enhanced regional cooperation                                             52
  5.3. Bilateral safeguarding of the Kingdom´s interests                         54

6. Implementation and follow-up57
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                     7


The Kingdom of Denmark is centrally             It is our common objective that the Arctic      The Kingdom is already a vigorous and
located in the Arctic. The three parts of       and its current potential must be devel-        important actor in the strategically vital
the Realm – Denmark, Greenland and the          oped to promote sustainable growth and          international cooperation on the future of
Faroe Islands – share a number of values        social sustainability. This development         the Arctic and in that connection attaches
and interests and all have a responsibil-       must take place firstly to the benefit of the   great importance to creating transparency
ity in and for the Arctic region. The Arctic    inhabitants of the Arctic and go hand in        in and understanding for cooperation.
makes up an essential part of the com-          hand in safeguarding the Arctic’s environ-
mon cultural heritage, and is home to part      ment.                                           In the Kingdom’s strategy for the Arctic
of the Kingdom’s population.                                                                    2011-  2020, the Government, the Govern-
                                                With new opportunities come new chal-           ment of the Faroes and the Government
The Kingdom and its populations have            lenges. The Arctic has to be managed in-        of Greenland have set out the most impor-
over several hundred years developed            ternationally on the basis of international     tant opportunities and challenges as we
modern and sustainable societies based          principles of law to ensure a peaceful,         see them today and in the near future. On
on democratic principles. The develop-          secure and collaborative Arctic.                that basis we have defined our common
ment has affected all sectors of society -                                                      political objectives for the Arctic.
from education, health and research to the      The purpose of this strategy is, on the
environment, trade and shipping. At the         basis of an already strong engagement in        We will – through close cooperation in the
same time, huge and sweeping changes            the Arctic, to reinforce the foundation         Kingdom and with our international part-
are taking place today in the Arctic. Due to    for appropriate cooperation on the many         ners - work towards the common overall
climate change and technological develop-       new opportunities and challenges that           goal of creating a peaceful, prosperous and
ments, vast economic potential is becom-        the Arctic is facing.                           sustainable future for the Arctic.
ing more accessible.

    For the Government of Denmark                      For the Government of the Faroes            For the Government of Greenland
             Lene Espersen                                  Kaj Leo Holm Johannesen                          Kuupik Kleist
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Photo: Silje Bergum Kinsten /
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                          9

1. Introduction

1.1. A region                                    especially change the basis of the Arctic       through the Suez Canal. Furthermore, cli-
is opening up                                    inhabitants’ lifestyles and the indigenous      mate change could provide access to new
One of the most significant global issues        Arctic peoples’ culture. Moreover, the har-     fishing grounds in the Arctic where rising
over the past 10 years is the vast changes       vesting of living resources plays a pivotal     sea temperatures can pull fisheries to-
in the Arctic region. The world has again        role in the Arctic, and changes for example     wards the North. Commercial opportunities
turned its attention to the Arctic, this time    in fish stock productivity and distribution     in the Arctic are enormous, not least for the
mainly because of the climate effects in         is of great importance to the economy.          Greenland, Faroese and Danish industries,
the Arctic, the economic potential of the        Glaciers in the Arctic and the Greenland ice    which to a great extent already possess the
region, and the geopolitical implications        sheet increasingly contribute to the global     skills that will be far more in demand with
of changes in the Arctic. The political, eco-    rise in sea levels, and changes and dynam-      the development of the Arctic region.
nomic and social development is already          ics in Arctic systems are crucial to global
underway, including the flourishing of           climate trends. Thus, they are of particular    Overall we can expect a multi-faceted
advanced democratic societies, and the           significance for the adaptation to climate      boom in activities in the Arctic over the
future of the Arctic will be radically differ-   change on a global scale and thereby also       coming decades. New opportunities and
ent from the reality we know today.              for the entire Kingdom. Increased eco-          challenges must be handled proactively
                                                 nomic activity and renewed geopolitical         - with care, with long-term accountability
Warming in the Arctic is occurring faster        interest in the Arctic results in a number of   and with respect for the Arctic societies,
than anywhere else on the planet, and the        key challenges to ensuring a stable, peace-     the rights of Arctic indigenous peoples, the
average temperature in the Arctic has sur-       ful and secure region characterized by dia-
passed all previous measurements in the          logue, negotiation and cooperation.
first decade of the 21st century. Sea ice has                                                       Facts about The ArCtic
been shrinking, and the melting of Green-        Climate change and technological develop-
land’s ice sheet and other Arctic ice caps       ments are also opening new possibilities for       The Arctic covers more than a sixth of
will contribute more and more to the rise in     the Arctic. Among them is increased access         the Earth’s total land mass plus the
global sea levels. Climate change has major      to the exploitation of oil, gas and minerals,      Arctic Ocean which the Arctic coastal
implications for the global, regional and lo-    but also new shipping routes which can             states border. Unlike Antarctica, which
cal climatic and environmental conditions        reduce costs and CO2 emissions by freight          also has relatively low temperatures
and requires decisive global action.             between the continents. It is estimated            year round, the Arctic region is popu-
                                                 that the Arctic may contain up to 30% of           lated by people, including more than
The Arctic and the global community are          the world’s undiscovered gas resources and         30 different indigenous peoples such
presented with both new challenges and           about 10% of undiscovered oil resources,           as the Inuit who originate from the
new opportunities.                               and that ships sailing between East Asia           Thule culture. The Arctic has a unique
                                                 and Western Europe could save more than            wildlife, largely associated with the
Climate change poses new challenges to           40% in transportation time and fuel costs          sea, including marine mammals such
the peoples of the Arctic and puts pressure      by navigating the northern sea lanes north         as seals, whales and walruses.
on the natural environment. Warming will         of Siberia rather than the southern route
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
10                                                                                        Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

Arctic climate and the environment. The         authorities. The Kingdom thus comprises          management, climate policy, environmen-
basis for the future of the Arctic is being     significant political diversity and also ac-     tal policy and preservation of its cultural
created now, and the Kingdom must play a        commodates cultural differences.                 heritage is a model of inspiration for many
key role in the future international coopera-                                                    of the world’s indigenous peoples. This
tion that lies ahead.                           The Kingdom’s Arctic strategy intends            situation constitutes an essential element
                                                no change in the power-sharing that ex-          in the Kingdom’s international efforts to
                                                ists between Denmark, the Faroe Islands          promote indigenous rights and aspirations.
1.2. Joint strategy                             and Greenland, including responsibility for      Denmark and Greenland will continue
for the Arctic                                  policy areas taken over and their funding.       constructive cooperation to strengthen
The Kingdom consists of three parts - Den-      Regardless of these individual distinctions,     indigenous peoples’ rights to control their
mark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland           the Kingdom has a common interest in             own development and their own political,
- and, by virtue of Greenland, is centrally     addressing the challenges and utilising          economic, social and cultural situation.
located as a coastal state in the Arctic.       the opportunities arising from the Arctic
This involves specific rights and obliga-       region’s rapidly changing conditions and         It is a central goal of Greenland, the Faroe
tions in the region. Today, both the Faroe      growing interest from the world. One of the      Islands and Denmark that decisions re-
Islands and Greenland have extensive self-      areas Greenland has taken over is mineral        garding management and utilisation of re-
government and the division of legislative      resources. Decisions on development,             sources and protection of the environment
and administrative powers between the           exploration and exploitation of resources        are taken in accordance with international
Kingdom’s three parts requires good coop-       in Greenland are taken by the Greenland          obligations, and are based on the best sci-
eration and a joint strategy to meet the op-    authorities. However, revenues from mineral      entific advice that supports healthy, pro-
portunities and challenges in the Arctic.       activities will benefit both the Greenland       ductive and self-sustaining communities.
                                                and Danish people, given that cf. Self-Gov-      Based on good collaboration within the
The Faroe Islands and Greenland have had        ernment Act for Greenland there will be a re-    Kingdom, policies and mechanisms must
home rule since 1948 and 1979, respec-          duction of the annual block grant in line with   be organised in close cooperation with
tively. Home rule arrangements have been        possible revenues from mineral resources.        other Arctic nations and other stakehold-
continuously modernised, most recently                                                           ers with an interest in the Arctic.
by the Takeover Act on Power of Matters         A strategy for the Arctic region is first and
and Fields of Responsibillity and the Act       foremost a strategy for a development            The premise of this strategy stems inter-
on Faroes Foreign Policy Powers of 2005         that benefits the inhabitants of the Arctic      nationally from the Arctic Council Declara-
in the Faroe Islands and the Greenland          - involving common interests relating to         tions and the Ilulissat Declaration of 2008,
Self-Government Act of 2009. Consider-          for example international agreements, and        in which the coastal states of the Arctic
able parts of the separation of powers that     regional and global issues. Such a develop-      Ocean committed themselves politically to
are central in an Arctic context are matters    ment incorporates a fundamental respect          giving negotiation and cooperation pride of
that fall within the exclusive powers of        for the Arctic peoples’ rights to utilise and    place in handling disputes, challenges and
the respective Faroese and the Greenland        develop their own resources as well as           opportunities in the Arctic, and thus hope-
                                                respect for the indigenous Arctic culture,       fully once and for all dispelling the myth of
                                                traditions and lifestyles and the promotion      a race to the North Pole.
     Terminology                                of their rights. Denmark and Greenland’s
                                                cooperation on Arctic indigenous peoples         The Kingdom’s approach to security policy
     The strategy uses the terms “The           dates back to 1973 when the Arctic Peo-          in the Arctic is based on an overall goal of
     Kingdom” and “Danish Realm” for both       ples’ Conference at Christiansborg Palace        preventing conflicts and avoiding the mili-
     the formal relations between Den-          in Copenhagen became a launching point           tarization of the Arctic, and actively helping
     mark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands      for the international organising of indig-       to preserve the Arctic as a region charac-
     and in a broader and more informal         enous peoples.                                   terized by trust, cooperation and mutually
     sense. Naalakkersuisut is, pursuant                                                         beneficial partnerships.
     to the Self-Government Act of Green-       Cooperation between Denmark and Green-
     land, the name of the Government of        land helps in creating new opportunities for     In an equal partnership between the three
     Greenland.                                 the Arctic indigenous peoples. Greenland’s       parts of the Danish Realm, the Kingdom will
                                                self-government model, natural resource          work overall for:
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011- 2020 - Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                       11

             The Pacific Ocean


               Canada                                            The Arctic Ocean                                  Russia



                                                           Faroe Islands
           Atlantic Ocean                                                  Norway

                                                       Great Britain          Denmark
 Source: Kort- og Matrikelstyrelsen

• A peaceful, secure and safe Arctic           The Greenlandic-Danish report, “Arctic in a      The purpose of this strategy is to focus
• with self-sustaining growth and              time of change”, of May 2008 and targets         attention on the Kingdom’s strategic pri-
   development                                  contained herein remains an important            orities for future development in the Arctic
• with respect for the Arctic’s fragile        basis for the Kingdom’s various activities       towards 2020. The aim is to strengthen
   climate, environment and nature              in the Arctic.                                   the Kingdom’s status as global player in
• in close cooperation with our interna-                                                        the Arctic.
   tional partners.
Photo: Polfoto
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                     13

2. A peaceful, secure and
safe Arctic

• I nternational law and established forums of cooperation provide a sound basis for conflict
  resolution and constructive cooperation in the development of the Arctic. The Kingdom
  must help in shaping the future of cooperation on joint challenges and new opportunities
   in the Arctic.
• Maritime safety is a fundamental priority. The extreme Arctic conditions require preventive
   measures including training and ship safety, as well as regional cooperation on search and
• The Danish Armed Forces undertake important tasks in the Arctic including the enforce-
   ment of sovereignty, and attach in this respect great importance to confidence building and
   cooperation with Arctic partner countries.

Climate change and rising global demand         2.1. Basis for peaceful                        that the Arctic faces, Denmark and Green-
for oil and gas have resulted in a sharp rise   cooperation and with emphasis                  land arranged a conference in Ilulissat in
in international interest in the Arctic, and    on the UN’s Convention on the                  May 2008 for the five coastal states of the
the coastal states of the Arctic Ocean have     Law of the Sea                                 Arctic Ocean. Its aim was to confirm the
increased their endeavours to ensure their      The growing international interest in the      responsibility of the five coastal states for
rights to the greater part of the as yet un-    Arctic has led to increased focus on legal     managing the development of the Arctic.
explored Arctic subsoil. At the same time,      controls in the area. However, the Arctic is   The conference resulted in the Ilulissat
the prospect is that for a large part of the    not a legal vacuum. The Arctic has been        Declaration in which the five coastal states
year, it will be possible to navigate both      inhabited for thousands of years, in con-      of the Arctic Ocean undertook to enshrine
the Northeast Passage and the Northwest         trast to the Antarctic which is uninhabited.   close cooperation in developing the Arctic
Passage. The rising strategic interest and      Regions in the Arctic under national juris-    into international law. The five coastal
activity in the Arctic region necessitates a    diction are governed by the coastal states     states’ cooperation covers areas such as
continued prioritising of a well-functioning    legislation. The Arctic is also subject to a   sea rescue, continental shelf claims and
international legal framework for peaceful      number of international laws, in particular    environmental protection.
cooperation, a special need for enhanced        the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
maritime safety, and persistent focus on        in1982 (UNCLOS), which contains detailed       Even though the existing regulation in
maintaining the Arctic as a region charac-      regulation of for example navigational         international law, particularly the UN Con-
terised by peace and cooperation.               rights and management of resources.            vention on the Law of the Sea, lays a solid
                                                In recognition of the significant changes      foundation for coastal states’ cooperation
14                                                                                      Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

on the development of the Arctic, there        part of the Convention is an expression        decision made by the convention partners
may be a continuous need for more de-          of customary law and therefore binding         in 2008, as long as preliminary information
tailed regulating of certain sectors. An ex-   on countries not party to the Convention.      is submitted to CLCS before the deadline
ample is the agreement on search and res-      Moreover, the United States, by Presiden-      expires.
cue adopted at the Arctic Council Foreign      tial Directive of 9 January 2009 specially
Ministers’ Meeting in May 2011 in Nuuk.        approved the Convention as a means of          To document the claim on the continental
                                               resolving border issues concerning the         shelf the Danish Realm has launched a
The UN Convention on the Law of the            continental shelf in the Arctic.               continental shelf project that is based
Sea 1982 is the global international legal                                                    in the Ministry of Science, Technology
instrument in relation to the sea around       Under the UN’s Convention on the Law of        and Innovation and is run in cooperation
the Arctic, in that the Convention defines     the Sea, coastal states have the right to      with the Government of the Faroes and
states’ rights and responsibilities in rela-   create an exclusive economic zone. In this     the Government of Greenland, the Prime
tion to their use of the oceans. Denmark       zone, the coastal state has exclusive right    Minister’s Office, the Ministry of Foreign
ratified the Law of the Sea Convention on      to explore and exploit natural resources       Affairs, and the Ministry of Finance. The
behalf of the Kingdom on 16 November           of the sea as well as the seabed and its       project includes the participation of the
2004 and to date the Convention has been       subsoil, and any other economic exploita-      Danish, Faroese and Greenland authorities
ratified by 161 states. Of the five coastal    tion. The coastal state may also exercise      and scientific institutions, and is charged
states of the Arctic Ocean, only the U.S.      environmental jurisdiction in the zone. The    with identifying areas where the rights to
is not (yet) a party to UNCLOS, though         exclusive economic zone can extend to a        new seabed claims can be made, and to
                                               maximum of 200 nautical miles (approx.         collect, interpret and document the data
                                               370 km). Denmark and Greenland have an         necessary to submit a claim to the CLCS.
     Ilulissat Declaration                     exclusive economic zone while an exclusive     The Kingdom has submitted documenta-
                                               economic zone has not yet been declared        tion to the CLCS for claims relating to two
     The Ilulissat Declaration is a landmark   in the Faroese fisheries territory.            areas near the Faroe Islands and by 2014
     political declaration on the Arctic’s                                                    plans to submit documentation on three
     future. It was adopted in Ilulissat,      Under article 76 of the UN’s Convention        areas near Greenland, including an area
     Greenland on 28 May 2008 by min-          on the Law of the Sea, a coastal state has     north of Greenland which, among others,
     isters from the five coastal states of    the possibility of extending its continental   covers the North Pole.
     the Arctic Ocean - Denmark / Green-       shelf beyond 200 nautical miles if within
     land, Canada, Norway, Russia and the      10 years of the Convention coming into         The budget for the continental shelf pro-
     U.S. The Ilulissat Declaration sends      force for the state concerned, it can docu-    ject until 2014 is app. DKK 350 million
     a strong political signal that the five   ment to the Commission on the Limits           spread over 12 years. The actual work
     coastal states will act responsibly       of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) estab-         of the project is a collaboration between
     concerning future development in          lished pursuant to the Convention, that        Jarðfeingi (Faroe Directorate of Geology
     the Arctic Ocean. The states have a       a number of scientific criteria are met.       and Energy), the Danish Maritime Safety
     political commitment to resolving dis-    The coastal state will then have the right     Administration, DTU Space (Institute for
     putes and overlapping claims through      to living and non-living resources on and      Space Research and Technology), National
     negotiation. The five countries also      under the seabed beyond 200 nautical           Survey and Cadastre and the Geological
     confirmed that they will strengthen       miles, subject to an obligation to make        Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
     their cooperation in important areas.     payments or contributions to the Interna-      Jarðfeingi, together with GEUS, is project
     This applies to both broad coopera-       tional Seabed Authority pursuant to Con-       manager for the Faroese Continental Shelf
     tion that in particular takes place in    vention Article 82.                            Project (half funded by the Faroe Islands)
     the Arctic Council and the UN’s Inter-                                                   while GEUS is the project manager for the
     national Maritime Organization (IMO),     The Kingdom thus has a deadline of 16          Greenland part where the Bureau of Min-
     and to the practical everyday coop-       December 2014 to submit data and other         erals and Petroleum in Nuuk and ASIAQ
     eration on issues such as search and      material to the CLCS as a basis for the        (Greenland’s Survey) take part.
     rescue, environmental protection and      extension of the continental shelf beyond
     navigational safety.                      200 nautical miles. The time limit can how-    The continental shelf project is very much
                                               ever be exceeded in special cases under a      an example of a project that is feasible
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                         15

due to all parties’, including both the Faroe   solved boundary issues beyond 200 nau-         • T
                                                                                                  he Kingdom will work for peaceful co-
Islands and Greenland’s, willingness and        tical miles. As highlighted in the Ilulissat     operation between the coastal states of
ability to cooperate and the will to achieve    Declaration, unresolved boundary issues          the Arctic Ocean in accordance with the
the project’s targets. Furthermore, the pro-    in the Arctic will be resolved in accordance     Ilulissat Declaration.
ject is an example of how different institu-    with international law.
tions can cooperate across the Kingdom                                                         • T
                                                                                                  he Kingdom will advance concrete in-
and benefit from one another. The con-          Besides maritime boundary issues, the            ternational legal regulation of the Arctic
tinental shelf project also has exemplary       Kingdom has an unresolved issue relating         in areas where needed.
research cooperation with other countries,      to the sovereignty of Hans Island (Hans Ø)
such as the Swedish Polar Research Sec-         as both the Kingdom and Canada claim           • T
                                                                                                  he Kingdom will seek to resolve out-
retariat with which it has carried out many     sovereignty over the island. In September        standing unresolved boundary issues
data collection expeditions with the Swed-      2005, Denmark/Greenland and Canada               and actively work to reduce the process-
ish ice-breaker Oden. The project also has      made a joint statement on Hans Island,           ing time of the Commission on the Limits
fruitful research-based cooperation with        and frequent consultations on the island         of the Continental Shelf and thereby en-
Canada and Russia.                              are in progress. Pending a permanent solu-       sure greater assurance of coastal states’
                                                tion to the issue, the dispute will be han-      continental shelf claims in the Arctic.
The Kingdom’s claims on the continental         dled professionally as would be expected
shelf will in some areas overlap with other     between two neighbouring countries and         • T
                                                                                                  he Kingdom will continue work on the
country’s continental shelf claims. There       close allies.                                    Continental Shelf Project in order to
is close collaboration with other coastal                                                        promote its claim pursuant to the UN’s
states in the Arctic Ocean to solve unre-                                                        Convention on the Law of the Sea.

   The Continental Shelf Project in practice

   Since 2006 the Danish Realm has con-         in common is that in addition to the col-
   ducted a series of expeditions in the        lection of data relevant to the continental
   Arctic Ocean as part of the continental      shelf project, emphasis is also placed on
   shelf project. A factor common to the        scientific output and follow-up research
   expeditions is close cooperation with        in other fields. Thus, ice cores have been
   other countries. Canada, Russia and the      collected, ice thickness measured, sam-
   U.S. have also been conducting scien-        ples of DNA and bacteria collected, geol-
   tific studies in the Arctic Ocean these      ogy, oceanography, plankton ecology all
   years in preparation for an extension        studied, and the accumulation of mercury
   of their respective continental shelves.     measured. All collections are conducted in
   The expeditions “LORITA” (2006), “LOM-       cooperation with Danish, Greenland, Swed-
   BAG” and “LOMGRAV” (2009), for exam-         ish and American research institutions and
   ple, were based on Canadian logistics.       have led to increased knowledge of the
   LOMROG I and II expeditions in 2007          Arctic Ocean’s plate tectonics, palaeocli-
   and 2009 were carried out with the           matology, physical oceanography and eco-
   Swedish icebreaker Oden, in coopera-         systems. Further expeditions are planned
   tion with Sweden and Canada. In 2007,        under the auspices of the Continental
   the expedition was for a period sup-         Shelf Project in 2011 and / or 2012.
   ported by a Russian nuclear icebreaker.
   Another factor these expeditions have                                                       Source: Ministry of Science, Technology and
                                                                                               Innovation /
16                                                                                        Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

                                                                                                                     Photo: Greenland Tourism

2.2. Enhanced                                   Meanwhile, prices of raw materials and not       is a global industry, this means that in-
maritime safety                                 least a long-term expectation of a shortage      ternationally high safety standards must
Navigation in the Arctic is increasing, in-     of oil and natural gas have led to increased     be established for ships navigating in the
cluding in the waters around Greenland          trade in the exploration and exploitation of     Arctic. Furthermore, in terms of shipping
and the Faroe Islands. Less ice coverage,       natural resources. The melting of sea ice        policy, it is important that the Kingdom is
especially in the summer months, has led        in the summer also allows for new ship-          working to promote shipping in the Arctic
to a significant growth in maritime traffic,    ping routes through the Northeast and the        under high standards where international
including cruise ships to areas of Green-       Northwest Passage which could ultimately         regulation ensures that ships are compet-
land which until a few years ago were not       yield significant savings in transportation      ing within a uniform framework.
possible to navigate. In 2010, 43 cruise        time by the maritime transport of goods
ships berthed in Greenland ports, com-          between Europe and Asia. It is believed that     Because of the extreme conditions in
pared with 32 in 2009. Furthermore, ship-       the waters around Greenland and the Faroe        sparsely populated Arctic regions, preven-
ping trade in Faroese waters has increased      Islands will experience a significant increase   tion of marine vessel accidents is crucial in
considerably. Shipping in Faroese waters        in maritime traffic in the coming years.         the Arctic. Regardless of climate changes,
has risen by 5-6 times from 2008-2010                                                            it will still be necessary to take account of
and 40-50 sizeable cruise ships now call at     The increasing maritime activity is closely      ice, low temperatures, extreme weather
Faroese ports each year.                        linked with economic development in the          and the risk of grounding. It is therefore
                                                Arctic. For the sake of the fragile environ-     vital that ships are built and equipped so
Shipping operators are exploring new areas      ment in the Arctic, it is important to build     they can operate under these conditions.
still further north as ice conditions permit.   sustainable growth. For shipping, which          Despite increasing intensity, marine traffic
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                            17

will still be spread over a vast geographi-        marine vessels require support in the form       changing climatic conditions and altered
cal area far from ports. Therefore, ships          of a sound infrastructure. The Government        distribution of sea ice in Greenland wa-
should first and foremost use their own            of Greenland has focused on this chal-           ters, the navigational pattern of ships has
rescue equipment if an accident should             lenge with the establishment in 2009 of          changed dramatically. Combined with
occur, until the resources offered by the          a Transportation Commission and in the           the growth of cruise ship activity and oil
authorities responsible in the area can be         coming years will address requirements in        exploration, there is a need for intensified
deployed to assist. Therefore, preventive          this area, based on the recommendations          ice and weather warning alerts further
measures must be set in place that allow           in the commission’s report in 2011.              north in both West and East Greenland. It
for the continued and increased navigation                                                          will therefore be a priority that the existing
in the Arctic, while at the same time effec-       Updating nautical charts will be an im-          Ice Services be adapted to the increased
tively preventing and minimising marine            portant factor under the auspices of the         requirements for observation, forecast-
accidents and mitigating damage to the             Danish Realm. In the future, ships will          ing and dissemination of ice conditions in
environment and nature.                            increasingly use electronic nautical charts      Greenland waters.
                                                   and make use of satellite-based naviga-
It is important to implement preventive            tion systems such as GPS which impose            Furthermore, enhanced surveillance of
safety measures, not least for the cruise          stricter requirements on the accuracy of         maritime traffic in the Arctic will contribute
ships that sail with many passengers, and          charts. In particular, a thorough knowledge      to improved prevention of accidents and
often with limited local knowledge. Here,          of water depth is necessary to navigate          coordination of the rescue efforts. It also
experience shows that other cruise ships           safely at sea. In 2009 an agreement was          provides greater opportunity to intervene
in the vicinity are crucial to saving lives. The   made between the Minister of Environ-            before an accident can occur. Currently,
Kingdom is working to promote coopera-             ment and the Government of Greenland             ships sailing to Greenland must report to
tion on maritime safety in all key forums,         about a renewal of the nautical charts for       the so-called GREENPOS reporting system,
particularly in the International Maritime         Greenland, which means that the charts           which requires ships in Greenland waters
Organisation (IMO), where binding rules for        for most of Southwest Greenland (from            to continuously report their position to the
navigation in the Arctic are drawn up, but         Cape Farewell to Uummannaq) - the busi-          Greenland Command. Larger ships already
also through enhanced cooperation in the           est Greenland waters - will be corrected         send their positions via the satellite-based
Arctic Council.                                    and digitized no later than 2018. Due            LRIT (Long Range Identification and Track-
                                                   to the vast sea areas, large areas of the        ing) system. Surveillance is expected to be
To increase the safety of ships navigating         Greenland waters will be unsurveyed be-          improved, for example by using new tech-
in Arctic waters, Denmark has introduced           yond 2018 while still greater areas become       nology with satellite reception of ships’ AIS
improved port State control of cruise ships        accessible to shipping as the ice melts.         signals (Automatic Identification System)
planning to sail to Greenland. Moreover,           For reasons of safety at sea the Kingdom         as almost all larger ships are equipped
other countries have been urged to do the          will furthermore continue to prioritize the      with AIS.
same when these ships enter their ports            work of the International Hydrographic
before sailing to the Arctic. Furthermore, the     Organization (IHO), such as in the regional      The Faroese Maritime Authority follows
Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs          commission on the Arctic which was es-           international developments and handles
has entered into an agreement with the             tablished in 2010.                               Faroese interests in the IMO because of
Government of Greenland (Naalakkersuisut)                                                           its status as an associate member of
on the establishment of a liaison committee        Similarly maritime safety is supported by        IMO. With the introduction of AIS and
in order to ensure that a high safety level of     ensuring the availability of reliable informa-   LRIT, which are based on IMO mandatory
navigation in Greenland waters is sustained        tion on weather, sea conditions and ice.         requirements, it has been possible to im-
and developed, whether this takes the form         The Greenland Ice Services at the Danish         prove the monitoring of foreign and Faro-
of international shipping or in the form of        Meteorological Institute was established         ese vessels in Faroese waters. In addition
domestic navigation to and from Greenland          in 1959 as one result of the shipwreck of        to this, cooperation has been established
ports. The liaison committee will prepare a        M / S “Hans Hedtoft”. The Service’s main         between Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe
joint plan in 2011 to ensure this.                 task so far has been to map the ice con-         Islands, Norway and Britain for the mutual
                                                   ditions in the Cape Farewell area for the        exchange of AIS data in the North Atlantic
Increased maritime traffic also places             safe navigation of cargo ships between           region.
greater demands on infrastructure as               Greenland and Denmark. Because of
18                                                                                           Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

Over a number of years, both the Faroe             which could come to the rescue if a                the unique challenges of security, the
Islands and Greenland have entirely or in          maritime incident occurs. The Kingdom              Kingdom will consider implementing
part been responsible for the monitoring of        will work in the Arctic Council to gather          non-discriminatory regional safety and
the marine environment and pollution con-          knowledge of cruise lines’ own safety              environmental rules for navigation in
trol in territorial waters. Furthermore, the       standards for navigation in order to pro-          the Arctic in consultation with the other
Faroe Islands has responsibility for search        mote “best practices” for the navigation           Arctic states and taking into account in-
and rescue services. In light of increased         of cruise ships in the Arctic, and also            ternational law, including the Convention
activity in the region further knowledge           consider the need for increased focus              on the Law of the Sea provisions regard-
and exchange of findings and cooperation           on port State control prior to cruise              ing navigation in ice covered waters.
will be needed to solve these tasks.               ships sailing to the Arctic.
                                                                                                   • T
                                                                                                      he Kingdom will work to strengthen
• T
   he Kingdom will promote cooperation          • T
                                                    he Kingdom will continue preparing              cooperation with neighbouring coun-
  with other Arctic states and other key           new nautical charts for Greenland to              tries on monitoring, search and rescue,
  countries with significant maritime              avoid maritime accidents in Greenland             such as supporting the implementation
  interests in major marine policy issues          waters and to support mineral resource            of the joint Arctic cooperation agree-
  concerning the Arctic, such as maritime          activities. The Kingdom will support              ment on strengthening coordination
  safety. Cooperation with other Arctic            the surveying of the Greenland waters             and data-sharing in relation to search
  states must support a sustainable                and cooperation with other coastal                and rescue, entered into under the aus-
  maritime growth, for example by es-              states of the Arctic Ocean within the             pices of the Arctic Council in May 2011.
  tablishing a better knowledge base on            Arctic Hydrographic Commission. Mari-
  navigation in the Arctic.                        time safety must also be supported              • G
                                                                                                      iven the clear correlation between the
                                                   by ensuring the availability of reliable          rise of maritime activity and economic
• T
   he Kingdom will reinforce concrete             information on weather, sea and ice in            development in the Arctic, efforts will be
  preventive measures to improve safety            collaboration with other Arctic states,           strengthened to involve Greenland citi-
  of navigation in the Arctic. In particular       better information about navigation in            zens in tasks within areas of maritime
  this involves endeavours, in coopera-            Greenland waters and the tightening               safety, such as surveying, buoying, and
  tion with the other Arctic States, for           up of port State control of ships sailing         search and rescue at sea, perhaps by
  adoption by the IMO of a mandatory               to the Arctic, and finally working for the        establishing a voluntary coastal rescue
  Polar Code to ensure high safety levels          international dissemination hereof.               service.
  in Greenland waters, regardless of the
  ships’ nationality and for a requirement       • T
                                                    he Kingdom will work to introduce             • T
                                                                                                      he Kingdom will examine the need
  that crews have the requisite skills for         binding global rules and standards for            for the establishment of new shipping
  navigation in Arctic waters.                     navigation in the Arctic and it is a high         routes, and implement this to the ex-
                                                   priority to reach agreement on a global           tent it promotes maritime safety and
• T
   o work for the inclusion of require-           regulation of shipping via the IMO, cf.           marine protection. For example, there is
  ments in the polar code under IMO                Ilulissat Declaration. Should it prove that       particular need to establish recognized
  auspices that cruise ships coordinate            agreement on global rules cannot be               routes in Faroese waters for both cruise
  their navigations with the emergency             reached, and in view of the especially            ships, tankers and other vessels with
  services, including other cruise ships,          vulnerable Arctic environment and                 respect to safety and the environment.

     Navigation in Greenland

     There are many different maritime ac-       also an increasing activity of vessels used       with fishing vessels, passenger transport,
     tivities in Greenland waters. In particu-   for oil exploration and marine studies, just      supply of Greenland towns, etc..
     lar, cruise tourism has increased mark-     as the shipping of minerals with bulk car-
     edly: From 15,654 passengers in 2004        riers is expected to rise significantly. Ad-
     to 30,271 passengers in 2010. There is      ditionally, there is considerable local traffic
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                      19

   The new shipping lanes

   The continued melting of ice in the           over 40% compared to the route via the          with 41,000 tons of iron ore concentrate
   Arctic Ocean is expected over a 10 to         Suez Canal. Furthermore, the opening of         from Kirkenes in northern Norway to
   20 year period to result in the open-         these alternative routes means that the         China was around 30% shorter than if the
   ing (at least during parts of the year)       military and commercial shipping will no        ship had used the traditional route via
   of the Northwest Passage over North           longer be dependent on passage through          the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
   America and the Northeast Passage             the political unstable Middle East nor the      and took place in close cooperation with
   over Russia. The economic benefits of         piracy-infested routes through the South        the Norwegian Tschudi Shipping Com-
   these new routes are potentially sig-         China Sea, the Malacca Straits and the          pany and the Russian authorities. In Au-
   nificant. The opening of the Northwest        Gulf of Aden.                                   gust 2008, the Danish cable ship “Peter
   Passage will reduce the distance from                                                         Faber”, assisted by Canadian pilots, sailed
   Seattle to Rotterdam by almost 25%            Danish pioneers: In September 2010, the         as the first commercial vessel through
   compared to the route via the Panama          heavy ice class bulk carrier, “Nordic Bar-      the Northwest Passage thus saving 15
   Canal. The possibility of navigating the      ents”, of the Danish shipping company,          days on its voyage from Japan to New-
   Northern Sea Route via the Northeast          Nordic Bulk Carriers, sailed via the Arctic     foundland in order to lay cables between
   Passage will reduce the distance be-          and the Northeast Passage to Asia as the        Greenland and Canada.
   tween Rotterdam and Yokohama by               first cargo ship ever to do so. The voyage,


                                                                                               Sea Route

   Source: Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
20                                                                                       Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

     The Polar Code

     The Polar Code will supplement the          navigation and navigation in uninhabited       the International Maritime Organisation
     international maritime safety and envi-     areas to allow for Arctic conditions. The      (IMO) and the rules are expected to come
     ronmental conventions which already         Polar Code must also allow for the chang-      into force in 2013-2014.
     apply in the Arctic with additional rules   ing requiretments imposed by geography
     on rescue equipment, fire fighting, ice     and seasons. The work is taking place at

     Agreement on aeronautical and maritime search and
     rescue in the Arctic Council and preparedness in Greenland

     At its meeting of foreign ministers in      the event of an accident, it is possible to    overall responsibility for the SAR response
     May 2011, the Arctic Council adopted        receive rapid assistance from neighbouring     in Greenland. The daily operational man-
     a mutual agreement on Search and            countries’ emergency services. The Ministry    agement is handled by the Greenland
     Rescue (SAR), which aims to strengthen      of Economic and Business Affairs, Ministry     Command, the Air Rescue Service and the
     coordination of rescue efforts, so in       of Transport and Ministry of Justice have      Chief of Police office in Greenland.

2.3. EXERCising of sovereignty                   The long-term political agreement on           The range of tasks of the Arctic Response
and surveillance                                 defence (Danish Defence agreement              Force is for defined periods and in de-
The Arctic is and must be a region char-         2010-2014) involves a stronger focus on        fined areas anticipated to strengthen the
acterized by peace and cooperation. Even         the tasks of the Danish Armed Forces in        armed forces’ enforcement of sovereignty
though the working relationship of the           the Arctic. The agreement includes four        and surveillance, for instance through
Arctic Ocean’s coastal states is close,          overriding initiatives that must be viewed     military exercises. The force could also be
there will be a continuing need to enforce       in light of climate change and increased       deployed in other situations such as in as-
the Kingdom’s sovereignty, especially in         activity that would foreseeably result in an   sistance to the Greenlandic society.
light of the anticipated increase in activity    increase of tasks for the armed forces.
in the region. While the Kingdom’s area in                                                      Thirdly, a risk analysis of the maritime en-
the Arctic is covered by the NATO treaty         Firstly, the Armed Forces North Atlantic       vironment in and around Greenland is to be
Article 5 regarding collective defence, the      command structure will be streamlined by       conducted in the light of an anticipated ex-
enforcement of sovereignty is fundamen-          the amalgamation of the Greenland Com-         pansion of traffic and activity in the Arctic.
tally a responsibility of the Realm’s central    mand and the Faroe Command into a joint
authorities. Enforcement of sovereignty          service Arctic Command.                        Fourthly, towards 2014 a comprehensive
is exercised by the armed forces through                                                        analysis of the armed force’s future tasks
a visible presence in the region where sur-      Secondly, the ability of the armed forces      in the Arctic is to be carried out, including
veillance is central to the task. In addition,   to conduct operations in the Arctic en-        opportunities and potential for closer coop-
the armed forces play an important role in       vironment will be strengthened through         eration with partner countries in the Arctic
the provision of a range of more civilian-       the establishment of an Arctic Response        concerning surveillance and the like. In this
related duties. Within the entire spectrum       Force. The response force would not be         connection it is to be examined whether
of tasks, the Kingdom attaches great im-         established permanently, but designated        the Thule Air Base may play a larger role in
portance to confidence building and coop-        from existing armed forces and emer-           regard to the tasks performed in and around
eration with Arctic partner countries.           gency preparedness units with Arctic           Greenland by the Danish Armed Forces in
                                                 capacity or the potential to develop one.      cooperation with other partner countries.
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                         21

The Danish Defence aspires, as other public         the Faroe Islands with regard to the            tive initiatives between countries in
institutions, to reflect the surrounding com-       enforcement of sovereignty and surveil-         the Arctic. The Kingdom will stress the
munity. Indeed, it is a Danish-Greenland            lance. The North Atlantic command               potential for increased cooperation on
hope that citizens of Greenland can be in-          structure is to be streamlined by the           surveillance.
creasingly involved in the tasks of the armed       establishment of an Arctic Command
forces and with that, participate in a wide         and an Arctic Response Force is to be        • T
                                                                                                    he possibilities to enhance coop-
range of training opportunities, whether            designated from existing units.                eration in regard to the armed force’s
they be basic training, civil/military special-                                                    tasks will be looked into, including the
ist and management training programs or           • T
                                                     he Kingdom will reinforce confidence-        involvement of Greenland’s citizens in
customized further education at all levels.         building in cooperation with other Arctic      the handling of key tasks of the armed
The armed forces will thereby also greatly          states to maintain the Arctic as a region      forces in the Arctic. The possibilities for
benefit from Greenland local knowledge.             characterized by cooperation and good          targeted information and recruitment
                                                    neighbourliness, just as the Kingdom           campaigns and the establishment of
• T
   he armed forces must be visibly                 will continue to play an active role in        customized courses will be studied.
  present in and around Greenland and               creating and promoting new collabora-

   Key tasks of the armed forces in the Arctic

   Enforcement of state sovereignty is a          portation route and to the utilisation of
   fundamental task of the armed forces           marine resources.
   in all parts of the Kingdom. Sovereignty
   enforcement is the primary task of the         Climate change in recent years, in particu-
   Danish Armed Forces in the Arctic and          lar the melting of ice masses, has resulted
   the level of presence in the area is deter-    in an increase in the navigable areas and
   mined accordingly. Units from the army,        the commercial activities that follow in
   navy and air force carry out tasks in the      Greenland in the summer from mid-May
   Arctic. They undertake surveillance and        to mid-October and this trend looks set to     Challenger CL-604 patrol aircraft
   enforcement of sovereignty of Green-           continue. In winter, there has not been a
   land and Faroese territorial waters            corresponding change of activities in the
   and air space, as well as the Greenland        area. How this development will affect the
   exclusive economic zone and the fish-          armed forces’ tasks is analysed as part of
   ing zones to ensure that no systematic         the Defence Agreement 2010-2014.
   violations of territory can take place.
   Likewise, the Sirius Patrol oversees the       The armed forces adapts its deployment
   National Park in Northeast Greenland           of vessels, aircraft and other capacities in
   and enforces sovereignty there.                accordance with the distinct difference
                                                  in seasonal activity. Because of the enor-     Off shore patrol vessel and patrol vessel
   As part of its presence, the armed             mous dimensions of the Arctic, interna-
   forces is building a habitual picture of       tional cooperation is an important element
   activities in the waters around Green-         in resolving the armed forces’ tasks in the
   land and the Faroe Islands. The armed          Arctic.
   forces presence and overview of activi-
   ties in the Arctic establishes a basis for
   solving many other tasks , including
   providing assistance to the Greenland
   community. Activities in the Arctic are
   largely related to the ocean as a trans-                                                      Sledge patrol
Photo: Ivars Silis og Nukissiorfiit / Grønlands Energiforsyningsselskab
Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020                                                                                           23

3. Self-sustaining growth
and development

•M  ineral resources shall be exploited under the highest international standards of safety,
   health, environment, preparedness and response, and transparency with high returns for
• The use of renewable energy sources must be increased significantly.
• Living resources, including fish, shellfish and marine mammals shall be harvested in a sus-
   tainable manner based on sound science.
• New opportunities in the Arctic must be exploited in close cooperation with industry, and
   an optimal regulatory framework will be created for exports and investments.
• The Kingdom’s Arctic research will be at the global forefront, and research and training
   efforts must support the development of industry and society in the Arctic.
• The Kingdom will promote Arctic cooperation on health and social sustainability, including
   research and best practices in areas of shared challenges.

It will be an overriding political priority for   developments and the restructuring of              which are the areas specifically addressed
the Kingdom and particularly in Greenland         industry. Integration into the new opportu-        in this chapter. This concerns a number
over the next ten years to seize the many         nities in the Arctic will place great demands      of strategic priorities for the Kingdom in
opportunities in the Arctic to create more        on the populations’ adaptability and mobil-        relation to economic and societal develop-
growth and development. The huge eco-             ity. It will also be a significant challenge for   ment in the Arctic, but also other impor-
nomic potential in the Arctic must be real-       Greenland to develop policies which, apart         tant areas such as enhanced economic
ized while appreciating its human impact,         from the goal of social and societal-related       development and diversification of the
i.e. the economic and social integration          sustainability, deal with the prospect of          economy. This applies i.a. to the develop-
of the population and with sensitivity to         significant foreign labour migration.              ment of the tourist industry and bolstering
environmental concerns, thereby creating                                                             the overall development with adequate
a healthy, productive and self-sustaining         There is a close correlation between on the        infrastructure.
community. Greenland is already a fast-           one hand realising the potential of natural
changing society and peoples in the Arctic,       resources, new trade and investment op-            Today, tourism, second only to fisheries,
including the Greenlanders, may have to           portunities, and enhanced research and             is the most important export industry in
adapt to even more extensive changes in           education contributions while on the other         Greenland, and the tourist industry has
the future due to climate change, societal        promoting health and social sustainability,        potential for growth in the future. This ap-
24                                                                                       Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020

plies both to land-based tourism and the       Infrastructure is a key element in the de-       are important components of high-end
cruise-liner business. Among the benefits      velopment of the Greenland society and           technology, including green energy tech-
of the latter is that even small towns and     to ensure long term sustainable develop-         nologies.
villages along the coast can be involved in    ment, the Government of Greenland set up
tourism. The land-based tourism gener-         a transportation commission in 2009 for          The mineral resources sector in Greenland
ates by far the greatest revenue but is cur-   the socio-economic analysis of the entire        has significantly matured over the last
rently dependent on only a few markets,        infrastructure in Greenland. The Commis-         10-15 years as a result of a long-term and
primarily the Danish. Therefore Greenland’s    sion’s recommendations of April 2011 will        deliberate strategy. After the adoption by
Tourist Board is working on the develop-       form an important element in future policy       Parliament Act No. 7 of 7 December 2009
ment of a new national brand that more         decisions on the evolution of Greenland in-      on mineral resources and activities of rel-
clearly defines Greenland as an adventure      frastructure. This will include decisions on     evance hereto, the mineral resources sec-
destination focusing on sustainable tour-      the location of ports and airports. These        tor was fully taken over by the Greenland
ism and which to a greater extent appeals      projects will be costly and therefore private    Self-Government on 1 January 2010 and
to the global market.                          funding is seen as a possibility, just as min-   is a key element to building growth indus-
                                               ing projects located near urban areas could      tries and a self-sustaining economy. In
                                               be included in potential funding of larger       2008, Greenland had already adopted the
     Geological Survey                         local infrastructure projects.                   Parliament Act No. 6 of 5 December 2008
     of Denmark and                                                                             on Greenland’s Mineral Resources Fund,
     Greenland GEUS                                                                             which is inspired by the Norwegian model
                                               3.1. High standards                              so that oil and gas revenues also benefit
     The Geological Survey of Denmark and      for the exploitation                             future generations.
     Greenland (GEUS) is responsible for       of mineral resources
     the scientific exploration of the geo-    Studies from the U.S. Geological Survey,         The vision is to exploit mineral resources
     logical survey of Denmark and Green-      among others, estimate that there may be         in the Arctic under the best international
     land, including their respective shelf    enormous, as yet unproven oil and gas re-        practices, and in continued close coop-
     areas. GEUS will conduct research at      sources in the Arctic, just as previously ma-    eration with relevant authorities of the
     the highest international level on is-    jor discoveries were made of gas especially      Danish Realm and international partners.
     sues of importance to the exploitation    (in Russia) but also oil (in Alaska). Specifi-   Greenland and the Faroe Islands shall be
     and protection of Denmark and Green-      cally, it is estimated that the Arctic may       attractive areas for exploration, and the
     land’s geological natural resources.      contain up to 30% of the world’s undiscov-       management of mineral resources must
     GEUS also carries out mapping, moni-      ered gas resources and approx. 10% of the        be competent and efficient in ensuring
     toring, data collection, data manage-     oil resources. Approximately 97% of oil and      that such mineral resources are explored
     ment and the presentation of these        gas resources are believed to lie within the     and exploited under the highest standards
     issues. GEUS provides geological          Arctic States’ exclusive economic zones,         of safety, health, environment, emergency
     advice to public authorities on nature,   and are thereby allocated.                       preparedness and transparency. The min-
     environment, climate, energy and min-                                                      eral resource industry must be developed
     eral resource related questions and       In Greenland’s case, it is estimated that        while strongly taking into consideration
     participates in the authority’s regula-   31 billion barrels of oil and gas off the        the fragile Arctic environment so it con-
     tory work within these areas. GEUS        coast of Northeast Greenland and 17 bil-         tributes to sound economic development,
     is a national geological data centre      lion barrels of oil and gas in areas west        including the creation of new jobs and
     and in that capacity makes data and       of Greenland and east of Canada could            a maximum return to society. Mineral
     knowledge available to the authorities,   be discovered, though the probability            resource activities will also be carried
     educational institutions, businesses      is greater for discoveries in Northeast          out with sufficient preparedness that
     and individuals. GEUS’s tasks in rela-    Greenland. Greenland is also rich in             the public is kept from harm (based on
     tion to Greenland are generally defined   mineral deposits, including zinc, cop-           the polluter-pays-principle) and that the
     in the Self-Government Act and are        per, nickel, gold, diamonds and platinum         Kingdom’s international obligations can
     described in the Mineral Resources Act    group metals, and has substantial depos-         be met in case of major unscheduled inci-
     for Greenland.                            its of so-called critical metals, including      dents. This should be a model for resource
                                               rare earth elements, several of which            exploitation across the whole of the Arctic.
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