PREVENTING AND COMBATTING HATE SPEECH BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING IT - Silence Hate

 
PREVENTING AND COMBATTING HATE SPEECH BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING IT - Silence Hate
PREVENTING
AND COMBATTING
HATE SPEECH
BY UNDERSTANDING
AND MANAGING IT
PREVENTING AND COMBATTING HATE SPEECH BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING IT - Silence Hate
Module designed and created by

                                                   TOGETHER FOR CHANGE

Bellaria Igea Marina (RN), Italia       Florence, Italia
www.zaffiria.it                         www.cospe.org

The Zaffiria Centre is a media          COSPE is a private, secular and
education centre that works with        non-profit association
students, teachers and parents          that supports projects in Italy
on a daily basis to organise            and across Europe promoting
training workshops, laboratories,       the inclusion of migrants and
projects and activities                 equal opportunities in terms of
                                        education, work and society

Our sincere thanks to the teachers,
students, activists and experts
who have contributed to this pathway.

             Co-financed by the
             “European Union’s Rights, Equality
             and Citizenship Programme (2014-2020)”

This publication was produced with the financial support of
the European Union’s Fundamental Rights and Citizenship
programme.
The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility
of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions
of the European Commission.
introduction
"This training module was produced by Cospe and Zaffiria as one of the main outputs of the BRICkS
project. The BRICkS module, originally written in Italian, has been tested in several workshops in many
Italian schools and youth centres, reaching very positive results. For this reason, the module has been
translated in English for the Silence Hate project, in order to reach a greater number of international
stakeholders and raise awareness of the European youth about the importance to react to online hate
speech in a proper way."

“BRICkS - Building Respect on the Internet by                 The phenomenon of hate speech is complex:
Combatting Hate Speech” is a European project                 young people are at greater risk of being exposed
that aims to combat the spread of online hate                 to it, both due to their large-scale use of social
speech against migrants and minorities through                networks and due to the paucity (or total lack) of
media education and the active involvement of                 opportunities to raise awareness of the concept.
web users and content producers. The project was              Schools find themselves on the front line and faced
established in 2014 based on the experiences of the           with the difficult task of tackling this phenomenon,
Italian NGO COSPE and the Zaffiria Centre before              which undeniably has serious repercussions for
being extended to organisations in Germany, the               young people’s relationships with their peers and
Czech Republic, Spain and Belgium. It is supported            the wider world.
by the European Union’s “Fundamental Rights
and Citizenship” programme. Its goal is to explore            The project helps teachers to develop ideas
opportunities for intercultural dialogue online. The          through which they can tackle the theme of hate
project is not aimed solely at users but also at media        speech with their students, using media education,
professionals, who must face the challenges posed by          intercultural education and the active involvement
digital information. Media representation influences          of the participants.
public perceptions and behaviour, particularly with
regard to sensitive topics such as migration, so it is        This training module was created using a three-
important to be aware of the effects of the flow of           step process:
information, especially online.

A participatory process based                A two-day training course held     Trialling the activities in five se-
on 3 meetings that took place in             in September 2015 with educators   condary schools in Emilia-Romagna
the first half of 2015 with 3 groups         from Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany,   and Tuscany (Bologna - 1 school,
of “stakeholders”. These groups              involving theoretical talks from   3 classes; Riccione, Santarcangelo
have experience of hate speech               academics and subject matter       and Bellaria - 3 schools, 10 classes;
and young people from different              experts along with exchanges and   Prato - 1 school, 10 classes), with a
viewpoints: they are teachers, first         role-playing activities.           total of 580 students involved.
and second-generation Roma
activists, and journalists and web
experts. The real-world experiences
and theoretical ideas that emerged
from these meetings guided the
initial development of the module.

media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                          5
This aspect was fundamental for us: these activities      suggested here, however, are only a potential set             the end of each session: this allows you to oversee        any vulgar or explicitly offensive words. We do not
are based on real-life situations rather than being       of ideas and working approaches that we trust can             the process and direct the subsequent sessions,            recommend providing participants with a list of
artificially created. Getting from the initial plan to    generate better ones once in the hands of teachers            identifying behaviours, dynamics, resources and            inappropriate words at the beginning of the course,
the final module involved all the fine-tuning and         and educators.                                                critical issues within the group.                          but as the course progresses, it might be useful to
reworking that real educational work entails. Trialling   The module is built around the idea that it is more                                                                      indicate the types of words that could be perceived
the activities in the real world had several benefits:    interesting to research this topic alongside students,        reduce discomfort                                          as offensive by certain sections of society. To take
it allowed us to ask ourselves questions about            asking questions and analysing materials that can                                                                        this type of analysis further, consult the “Carta di
the ethical meaning of a project on hate speech,          arouse their curiosity and make them feel involved,           Tackling the theme of hate speech is a challenge           Roma (Charter of Rome)”. This is a code of conduct
it allowed us to listen to the young people (their        rather than immediately providing them with answers           for both the group leader and the participants, who        for journalists regarding asylum seekers, refugees,
experiences, opinions, strategies and emotions), it       that would prevent the class from discovering                 will be taking part in a process that questions their      victims of trafficking and migrants, created in 2008
highlighted which steps of the module were most           them together. The methodologies chosen for the               values and thus inevitably provokes strong emotional       by the Italian Order of Journalists and the FNSI
laborious (the task of analysing hate messages), and      individual activities aim to let students “live the           reactions: this may be a powerful experience and           (Italian National Press Foundation) (http://www.
it helped us to redesign certain learning situations,     problem”, to link it to their own real experiences,           could cause discomfort. How can this be reduced?           cartadiroma.org/cosa-e-la-carta-di-roma/glossario).
which were sometimes reshaped by the actions              and to encourage them to reason and actively
and verbal exchanges of the students.                     respond. This is why there are no right or wrong              • By adopting a non-judgemental attitude;                  The most common definition of hate speech is the
This module has the courage to discuss difficult and      answers, only practical ideas to initiate research                                                                       one put forward by Recommendation (97) 20 of
highly topical issues with students: the activities       that we trust will interest your students (and you).          • By ensuring that information discussed during            the CoE:
                                                                                                                          the sessions remains confidential;
                                                                                                                                                                                   “The term “hate speech” shall be understood as
                                                                                                                        • By steering the group towards participation              covering all forms of expression which spread,

a guide to the training module:
                                                                                                                          and involvement so that each participant feels           incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia,
                                                                                                                          welcomed, protected and supported by his or              anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on
                                                                                                                          her peers;                                               intolerance, including: intolerance expressed

finding your way
                                                                                                                                                                                   by aggressive nationalism and ethnocentrism,
                                                                                                                        • By anchoring discussions to the available                discrimination and hostility against minorities,
                                                                                                                          sources insofar as this is possible, allowing            migrants and people of immigrant origin”.
                                                                                                                          students to confirm or deny certain statements           (http://www.coe.int/it/web/freedom-expression).
                                                                                                                          and encouraging them to do necessary and
                                                                                                                          crucial work with source materials.                      choice of classroom materials
                                                                                                                        conflict management
                                                          reminder for creating
The module is a work tool that the teacher/coordinator                                                                                                                             When choosing texts, newspaper articles and
can use to address the theme/problem of hate                                                                                                                                       videos to analyse in class, we recommend that you

                                                          a pathway on combatting
speech. There are no pre-established pathways                                                                           The group leader may be faced with a conflict              follow three criteria:
to be followed in class; instead, the module offers                                                                     between participants. Should this happen, he or she

                                                          hate speech
flexible and adaptable approaches allowing group                                                                        can implement strategies to defuse the situation           1) Always choose topical subjects: it is important
leaders to construct their own pathway, exploring                                                                       and ease the tension. Ignoring a hostile statement            that the school create a constant dialogue
the many and varied opportunities for dialogue                                                                          or question is generally not advisable; a good tactic         with current events, in part because this gives
and educational work that the web offers. To do                                                                         can be to involve the entire group in searching for           students an opportunity to share questions on
this, it is crucial to understand the background          Given the sensitive nature of the topics being                a solution together (only if the leader feels that the        the meaning of the times we are living in and on
and the characteristics of the group you intend to        addressed, dynamics may arise within the group that           group is able to cope with this without the situation         the controversial and complex issues currently
work with: on the basis of their needs, the specific      are unpredictable and hard to manage. The group               spiralling out of control). Alternatively, hostility can      affecting humankind;
practical situations involved and the interests of the    leader can mitigate this by implementing appropriate          be embraced and bounced back to the group as an
group, you can thus make the necessary changes            intervention strategies: below is a list of potentially       opportunity to question false beliefs and clichés,         2) Choose content in line with the experiences
to ensure the work is accessible to all participants.     critical situations and how to control them.                  for example by consulting official sources (please            and habits of young people: video games,
Giving the group structure and limits is crucial in                                                                     find attached the guidelines for managing conflict            posts on social networks, songs ... all material
order to achieve these predetermined objectives:          group leader’s point of view                                  in multi-ethnic groups in schools).                           which adolescents deal with and which often
given the powerful emotions that this issue can           called into question and group dynamics                                                                                     goes unnoticed by adults, but which can provide
generate, doing so is key to ensuring the success of                                                                    the weight of words                                           very productive stimuli and opportunities for
the process. Within this stable frame of reference,       Group leaders must be prepared for the fact that                                                                            educational work;
young people can experiment and express their             they may have to deal with situations in which                Language is a powerful tool: words are important
opinions with complete freedom. On this note, it          their own point of view is questioned, and that the           and can be used to marginalise, hurt, label and            3) Choose content related to the syllabus: it is essential
is important to create an environment that feels          discussions could provoke very intense and even               discriminate against groups of people and individuals.        that students experience how academic disciplines
sufficiently safe and non-judgemental, one based          painful emotions/reactions among the participants.            The meaning of words can change depending on                  can be tools that help us interpret and understand
on mutual respect. Finally, it is very useful to offer    In these situations, it is essential to remain calm and       the context and the speaker. It is therefore a good           the world, not simply subjects disconnected from
the class planned and well-structured activities, to      respect everyone’s point of view while firmly stating         idea to spend some time working on terms used                 reality that must be learnt by rote. History, literature,
establish a relationship of empathy with them, and        your own, backing it up with textual references and           to stigmatise others and the concept of “hate                 mathematics and statistics become the backdrop
to adopt a welcoming attitude of active listening.        documentation. It is strongly recommended that                speech”. Indeed, some statements can function                 and the tools that allow students to understand
                                                          you fill in the activity analysis and monitoring form at      as incitements to hatred despite not containing               the world in a more mature way.

6                                                                          media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                            7
structure each session
                                                                                                                           how the guide
                                                                                                                           is organised
As mentioned, giving each session a solid structure         activities to be carried out by the group following
helps to keep the level of participation high, fosters      a thorough assessment that takes into account
an open-minded attitude towards the Other and               both the group’s point of departure and the level
encourages the involvement of all participants.             of intensity and complexity of the topics addressed
We recommend structuring a pathway made up                  in each learning unit.
of at least 5 sessions of 2 hours each. If this is          Each session should be divided into three sections
not possible, the group leader can choose the               as a matter of routine:                                        The learning units are presented below with the                           of hate speech, the topic of online and offline
                                                                                                                           following information: title, aims, instructions,                         identities, our relationship with technology and
                                                                                                                           time required, tools, strategies for student                              the media, the analysis and creation of content,
                                                                                                                           involvement, working materials, and prerequisites                         and strategies for online intervention.
                                                                                                                           in order to carry out the activity. The units
                                                                                                                           address different themes that all revolve around the                      More specifically, the guide is divided into three
                                                                                                                           issue of hate speech: the analysis and recognition                        sections:

         INTRODUCTION                            MAIN ACTIVITY                              CONCLUSION
          (20 MINUTES)                             (70 MINUTES)                            (30 MINUTES)
Plan a few “icebreaker games”           In this section, the learning           Each session concludes with a
at the start of each pathway to         unit is carried out with any            collective overview of the experience
help the group relax and to allow       modifications deemed necessary          reflecting on what the group has

                                                                                                                                              LEARNING                                    MONITORING                        REFLECTING ON CLASSROOM
participants to form bonds without      and with the suggested materials        done and how, with a focus on
judging others, deconstructing          (these materials may be used or         the content, the processes and
any preconceived ideas they may         replaced).                              the dynamics that have emerged.                                 UNITS                                    AND EVALUATION                            ACTIVITIES
have about their classmates. At         In this phase, personal reflections
the start of each session, quickly      from each par ticipant are
go over the work completed in           encouraged. Students can work                                                      Propone giochi di ruolo, giochi                       Presenta la scheda di monitoraggio       Destinata ai partecipanti al gruppo
the previous session to allow the       in groups, in pairs or individually                                                cooperativi, esercizi da svolgere                     dell’attività “riflessione sull’anima-   è la scheda di riflessione finale,
students to ease back into their        in order to brainstorm more                                                        con il gruppo delle ragazze e dei                     zione avvenuta in aula” destinata        in allegato, per la valutazione
work: it might be a question or an      ideas to discuss, reflect on and                                                   ragazzi.                                              al conduttore dell’attività.             complessiva del percorso.
activity that was left unfinished, a    evaluate. The aim is to generate                                                                                                         La redazione di tale schema a ogni
task that was left to the students      a process of individual and                                                                                                              incontro è utile per una eventuale
to complete, or a continuation of       collective empowerment.                                                                                                                  ridefinizione della tappa successiva
the thoughts previously expressed                                                                                                                                                del laboratorio con i ragazzi e per
by students (it is important to                                                                                                                                                  verificare come si sviluppa il dia-
document the debates between                                                                                                                                                     logo nei gruppi e come evolve la
students as material for work and                                                                                                                                                riflessione sull’hate speech.
further research).

analysis of the experience and self-assessment
(for the group leader and the students)

After the end of each learning unit, the group leader       identifying its strengths and weaknesses in order
fills in the form Reflecting on classroom activities.       to guide the work done in subsequent sessions.
The students also fill in the form Reflecting on            Particular attention should be paid to the group
classroom activities.                                       dynamics and the potential emergence of cross-
This allows the progress of the activity to be monitored,   cutting themes and conflicts between students.

8                                                                             media education and hate speech - workbook   Medi a education e hate speech - Quaderno di lavoro                                                                              9
list of work units                                                                                                                                                  UNIT 1                                              AUTHOR: ZAFFIRIA

thinking about social media:
a taster to get us thinking about
                                                            hate: a familiar face. Analysis of hate speech             thinking about social media:
our own relationship with the media                         hate speech in the lives of teenagers                      a taster to get us thinking about our own
understanding the issue of points of view                   tv advert against hate speech.
                                                            Who do you hate?
                                                                                                                       relationship with the media
hate speech in the students’ experience
                                                            icebreaker games
analysing hate speech
in media communication                                      Bafa Bafa role-playing game
what are we talking about?                                                                                                      OVERVIEW                       INSTRUCTIONS                METHODOLOGIES                      MATERIALS
                                                            italianometer
                                                                                                                       Students will watch 4 videos    • Introduction...             T h e u ni t m ove s f ro m     Sheet (page 11) and videos:
my point of view                                            abigail’s story
                                                                                                                       reporting on the topic of
                                                                                                                       “Young people and social
                                                                                                                                                         The module begins with
                                                                                                                                                         the students watching 4
                                                                                                                                                                                     individual note-taking to
                                                                                                                                                                                     group debate. It asks the       • Sindrome depressiva da
                                                                                                                       networks”, with a sheet           videos as a group. They     students to concentrate on        social network (Social
                                                                                                                       provided to take notes while      will be given a sheet to    the videos (i.e. is initially     network depressive
                                                                                                                       watching. Afterwards, they        take notes.                 teacher-led) to give them         disorder), a song by the
                                                                                                                       will compare their ideas        • A gap of a few minutes      issues to tackle. The videos      rapper Marracash that
                                                                                                                       and points of view.               should be left              are a stimulus to help the        expresses a judgemental
                                                                                                                                                         between each video to       students discuss points of        attitude towards a girlfriend
                                                                                                                                                         allow the students to       view and take a position          who is addicted to social
                                                                                                                                                         write down their notes      in the debate, like a film        networkshttps://www.youtube.
                                                                                                                                                         and thoughts.               discussion group.                 com/watch?v=TkmXBw7AGFU
                                                                                                                                                       • To finish...                The debate is helped along
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Social networks at the
module overview                                           a few questions before getting started                                                         The educator or teacher
                                                                                                                                                         guides the student s
                                                                                                                                                                                     by the sheet and follows
                                                                                                                                                                                     the plan provided by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       table, a video produced by
                                                                                                                                OBJECTIVES               through their first group   sheet in order to give a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Treehouse which presents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a classic dinner time
It is crucial that students become increasingly aware     What aspects of working and reflecting on hate                                                 discussion, using the       voice to every different
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       situation with teenage
of how complex inhabiting the virtual world can be.       speech seem risky to you?                                    1. To work with the stu-          notes taken as a starting   response.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       kids, mobile phones,
The pleasures of talking about themselves, demon-         One of the main difficulties encountered was anger              dents on their wider           point.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and a father who asks
                                                                                                                          relationship with social
strating their experiences and skills, making new         management: some students felt the need to get                                                                                                               them to pass the salt
                                                                                                                          networks.
friends and building up their online diaries through      revenge for certain comments, fighting hatred                                                                                                                https://www.youtube.com/
                                                                                                                       2. To stimulate their curio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       watch?v=0rQkGH-lf3g
shared posts are just one side of the coin. They are      with hatred.                                                    sity about the upcoming
also frequently forced to face up to bullying, hate       The other problem lies in finding the line between              work.                                                                                      • #Rigobitch, tips for a
speech, racism and offensive behaviour. Individual        hate speech and free speech.                                 3. To create the space                                                                          good profile pic ture
                                                                                                                          needed for an initial                                                                        https://www.youtube.com/
responsibility is required; the process of establishing                                                                   relationship of trust                                              STRATEGIES                watch?v=fqb7X6XX6Ew
relationship ethics must be reinforced. The suggested                                                                     bet ween the media                  TIME: 90 MINS                  TO INVOLVE              • Is it magic? Be vigilant.
pathway is 10 hours long because we believe that it
is important to give classes time to dwell on these       What challenges can we issue to the class?
                                                                                                                          educator and the stu-
                                                                                                                          dents.                                                            THE STUDENTS               A video from Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that focuses on the risks
sensitive subjects, leading to greater awareness and      To become aware that the phenomenon exists and               4. To encourage the stu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of giving out personal
                                                                                                                          dents to tell stories and
contemplation. Through group activities and work,         that anyone can be the victim of hate speech, hence                                                                        Stimulate their curiosity         information online
                                                                                                                          speak out using video
using the daily experiences of the students involved      why it is so important to raise awareness among the                                                                        through stories that are          https://www.youtube.com/
                                                                                                                          stimuli.
                                                                                                                                                                                     not widely known and              watch?v=9aEiKiyuen8
as a starting point, we will try to understand, define    entire population. And it is even more important
and prevent hate speech.                                  to be able to deal with hate speech online.                                                           EQUIPMENT            encourage each student
                                                                                                                                                                                     to express themselves by
                                                                                                                                                                                     means of their individual
time required: 12/14 hours                                after finishing the module                                                                    PC and video projector.
                                                                                                                                                                                     sheets and the debate.

Prior to starting, we suggest that teachers assign        What were the results?
the class a specific investigation into immigration;      How do you evaluate tools, methodologies and                                                                                                                      PREREQUISITES
this module will then allow you to reflect on the         strategies?
language and discussions that this issue generates.                                                                                                                                                                    Watching the videos.

10                                                                        media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                                 11
activity structure                                      The content that students work on in this module
                                                        focuses on their personal relationship with social
                                                        media. A series of very different situations is presented
                                                                                                                            SHEET 1

The teacher or educator distributes the sheets to       through videos and songs. The themes explored
                                                                                                                                          things i identify with                                   things i agree with
the students and asks them to take notes after each     are love and friendship, family relationships, the
video, creating a process of watching and writing       public/private dimension, and the narration of the
that is repeated four times.                            self. These are introductory themes allowing stu-
In our experience, starting with the song by Mar-       dents to begin to observe their own media habits
racash always arouses a lot of curiosity: it is still   and the relationship between their lives and social
unusual for song lyrics to be discussed in class,       networks, which will then be the basis for exploring
and this immediately shows the students that the        where hate speech tends to manifest online.
module will also explore the topic through their
own media culture.
About 5 minutes are left between one video and          sources
the next so that notes can be taken.
After the 4 videos have been shown, the class is        List of links:
divided into groups (or pairs, depending on the         • Sindrome depressiva da social network: https://
number of students involved) and asked to com-            www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkmXBw7AGFU
pare views, using the sheet as a starting point:
What is shared, and what isn’t? What do they            • Social networks at the table: https://www.you-
agree and disagree about? Each group chooses              tube.com/watch?v=0rQkGH-lf3g
a spokesperson to give a summary to the class.
This allows time for both individual study in a small   • #Rigobitch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?-
group and a general overview of the viewpoints of         v=fqb7X6XX6Ew
the class as a whole.
                                                        • Be vigilant: https://www.youtube.com/watch?-
                                                          v=9aEiKiyuen8

going further
In some classes, a strong sense of dependence on technology in everyday life emerged as a topic. Some                                                        Actually, i hadn’t really thought of that...
classes suggested a week without social networks as a hands-on experience of how our daily actions
are increasingly dependent on technology.

12                                                                        media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                        13
storie di ordinario              Re-reading all the cards
                                        UNIT 2                                                  AUTHOR: ZAFFIRIA               cyberbullismo 1
                                                                                                                                                                aloud, the class then
                                                                                                                                                                discuss the different
                                                                                                                               - l’amica                        behaviours          and
                                                                                                                               www.youtube.com                  strategies.
                                                                                                                               Gaetano has just started                                          METHODOLOGIES                    MATERIALS

understanding the issue of points of view
                                                                                                                               at a new school, but
                                                                                                                               fitting in is not always                                    Media analysis and group
                                                                                                                               easy. I could help him,                                     reading.                      The book Zoom must be
                                                                                                                               but what should I do?                                                                     available. The coloured
                                                                                                                               St u d e n t s p i c k o u t
                                                                                                                               (coloured) c ards                                                                         cards should be prepared
                                                                                                                               representing different                                                                    in advance.
                                                                                                                               emotions and must                     TIME: 60 MINS
                                                                                                                               adopt the point of view
                                                               correctly guessing the          At this point, a clip from      of these emotions. Each
                                                               story told in the video.        the animated film Inside
                                                               The students are                Out is shown. In the clip,
                                                                                                                               student completes the                                          STRATEGIES TO INVOLVE
                                                               invited to take note of         the different emotions
                                                                                                                               task on their own and
                                                                                                                               anonymously: they must                                             THE STUDENTS
                                                               the process that they           are arguing because             put themselves in the
                                                               followed to decipher            they have dif ferent                                                                        Breaking up the video
         OVERVIEW                    INSTRUCTIONS                                                                              shoes of a classmate and
                                                               and reconstruc t the
                                                               story with the help of
                                                                                               points of view on the
                                                                                               situation that Riley is
                                                                                                                               make a decision about                  EQUIPMENT            allows the students to
                                                                                                                                                                                           actively get involved and            PREREQUISITES
We suggest using a video      • Introduction...                                                                                what to do: going to
                                                               the teacher/exper t,            experiencing (see link in       the prank, not going,                                       to compare their own
produced by The Guardian        The teacher or educator        w ho id entif ie s t he         the “Sources” section).                                        Internet connection, PC
                                                                                                                               or doing something             (computer room), video       mental processes and          Watching all the material.
in which the point of           shows the whole                most widespread                 In the selected clip, you                                                                   their reconstructions of
view change s t wice,           group a video from                                                                             different.                     projector, sheets, pens.
                                                               interpretations and asks        can clearly see how Joy                                                                     the video’s meaning.
consequently changing           The Guardian on the            the students what led           and Sadness have a
how we interpret what is        subject of points of           them to interpret the           completely different
happening.                      view. The video depicts        story in a specific way         point of view on rain:
We then suggest using           an incident that is very       (aspects of the story and       Joy is euphoric because

                                                                                                                             activity structure
certain books like Zoom         easy to misunderstand.         prior knowledge such as         you can use colourful
in which the point of view      Depending on the point         stereotypes).                   umbrellas and jump in
continually changes and         of view shown, the                                             puddles; Sadness, on
shifts. A clip from the         viewer is led to certain     • To finish...                    the other hand, thinks
animated film Inside Out        conclusions. It is only        Suggest the book Zoom,          that the rain gives you a     The activity is divided into 4 parts. If you wish, you        a stimulus for something else entirely: educational
is then shown and linked        at the end of the video,       which is an excellent           cold and gets your shoes      can stop at the third part and finish watching the            work. Here too, if necessary, the teacher can
to the video of Gaetano,        with a smile, that we          ex plor ation of t he           wet. The clip introduces      last part in a subsequent session (Gaetano video).            slow down the pace of the class and dwell on the
a little boy who is bullied     discover how easy it           concept of points of            the theme of emotions,                                                                      relationship between emotions and points of view.
by his classmates.              was to be misled and           view. Supported by the          which help to shape our
At this point, the students     misinterpret the video.        group leader, students          point of view.
                                                                                                                             In the first part, the subject of points of view is
must outline and debate         Following this video, it       interpret the images                                          introduced and students go through an experience              In our trial lessons, we immediately put this into
the different possible          is easier to introduce         as a group. Zoom is a           The exercise on               in which their point of view changes at least twice (or       practice to analyse the story of Gaetano. The
points of view.                 the theme of points of         beautifully illustrated         Gaetano’s story is next.      three times) in a matter of seconds before the final          students thus had a clear frame of reference with
                                view to the students, as       book by Istvan Banyai.          https://www.youtube.com/      twist. Provided the educator guides the exercise              which to interpret and react: the filter of one (and
                                they have just seen an         By gradually enlarging          watch?v=NwIb22Ydguk?
                                example first-hand.            our f ield of vision,           Gaetano is considered a
                                                                                                                             correctly and maximises its impact, this experience           only one) specific emotion. Should all five emotions
                                                               revealing new and               “loser” by his classmates     sticks in students’ minds and becomes a point of              be used, the analysis can be taken further by means
                              • The students are asked         surprising situations, the      and is often teased. His      reference that informs the analyses that they must            of exchanges between individual students.
                                to interpret and tell the      illustrations take us from      friends upload photos         perform as part of the subsequent activities.
                                story of the video, which      an extreme close-up of a        online making cruel
                                is paused before each
        OBJECTIVES              change of viewpoint.
                                                               rooster’s crest to a view
                                                               of the Earth from space.
                                                                                               jokes about him.
                                                                                               The class decides to
                                                                                                                             The second part, besides being an interesting                 le fasi dell’attività, le metodologie e i contenuti
                                Each time, there will be       The book teaches us             organise a new prank:         introduction to the world of illustrated books that
1. To become aware that         some students who try          to look at images, to           Maria, a classmate who        helps students to work on the concept of points               The main output of this educational unit is to define
   different points of view     to guess the story, which      imagine what might be           Gaetano really likes, asks    of view with different media, is also an activity in          and put into words the concept of “points of view”
   exist.                       seems to be very easy to       around them, to look            him to go on a date with      itself: should the teacher wish to do so, he or she           in relation to our interpretation of the world, of
2. To try and master the        understand if we limit         out for unexpec ted             her that afternoon, and
   arguments of a given         ourselves to clichés and       development s, and              he trusts her blindly. But
                                                                                                                             can stop the unit here and ask students to work               situations, and of relationships with others. The topic
   point of view and keep       stereotypes. The second        to pay at tention to            all the class members         on their own personal “zoom”, moving from one                 is very complex and the unit does not aim to cover
   them all in mind.            part of the video is then      the perspective from            are invited to the date,      perspective on a subject or story to another and              every aspect. In the context of hate speech, however,
3. To encourage student         shown, and the students        which we observe. It is         where they jump out           thus experiencing first-hand the effort involved,             it is essential that the students can distinguish
   participation.               are once again invited         a poetic way to teach           suddenly and have             but also the “poetry” of the end result.                      between different points of view. It is important
                                to continue the story.         the students to look at         yet another laugh at
                                Again, the students put        things more carefully. In       Gaetano’s expense.
                                                                                                                                                                                           that there is room for emotion alongside rational
                                forward their versions.        our case, the constant                                        The third part addresses the role that emotions               arguments and sources (however likely they are),
                                Then comes the third           changes of perspective                                        play in shaping our points of view (and how various           since emotions play a role in shaping not only our
                                par t and the f inal           on every page force the                                       emotions then stem from different points of view)             idea of things but also the possible (or probable)
                                twist: it is very unlikely     students to reposition                                        by means of a popular animated film that wrong-               reactions (or lack of reaction) that we will see later
                                that the students will         themselves with respect
                                get anywhere near to           to the image.
                                                                                                                             foots students in this context, where it is used as           when it comes to managing hate speech online.

14                                                                              media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                          15
In terms of methodology, we have tried to construct       sources                                                                                                    UNIT 3                                                     AUTHOR: ZAFFIRIA
situations in which students can be part of the
experiment, verbalise their feelings and compare          • The video from The Guardian tells the story of

                                                                                                                        hate speech in the students’ experience
reactions.                                                  a man running (perhaps running away?) https://
The wide range of stimuli allows the students to            www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJd1X5a5L4E
follow different paths to arrive at the conclusion that
there are different points of view, and that these        • The book Zoom can be bought in bookstores.
can cause conflict and pose profound questions.             Alternatively, some material can be found using
The adult is therefore a facilitator who helps the          Google, but we believe that the experience of
students to use the materials and presides over             reading the book as a group is interesting in itself.                                                                            The students stand up
the debate to ensure that everyone participates                                                                                                                                              and, with a pen, they go
and that a range of content is covered.                   • The video from Inside Out: https://www.youtube.                                                                                  from poster to poster
                                                            com/watch?v=_gagGQgml_Q                                                                                                          answering the questions.
                                                                                                                                                                                             O n ce eve r yo n e h a s
                                                                                                                                                                                             answered, the class is
                                                          • The Gaetano video: https://www.youtube.com/                           OVERVIEW                          OBJECTIVES               divided into groups (with             METHODOLOGIES
                                                            watch?v=NwIb22Ydguk?                                                                                                             the exception of two
                                                                                                                        T h e u ni t b e g i n s w i t h   1. To explore how hate            students) and each group       In this unit, the students
                                                                                                                        Francesco Sole’s video                speech is a very topical       is given one of the posters    carry out their first analysis
                                                                                                                        on hate speech, which                 issue.                         to read and summarise          of the content of a video that
                                                                                                                        then leads into a debate           2. Initial links between          for their classmates. The      touches on two important
                                                                                                                        starting from some opening            hate speech and social         two students who are           points: social networks
                                                                                                                        questions:                            networks.                      not part of the groups         and hate speech. The
                                                                                                                                                           3. To encourage students          have the job of “drawing       strategy behind choosing
going further                                               who left re-enter the class, the others ask them            • What do you think of
                                                                                                                        the video?
                                                                                                                                                              to get involved                conclusions”: they listen to   a YouTuber like Francesco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sole is linked to the idea of
                                                            to describe what they can see out of the window.                                                                                 all the group presentations
                                                                                                                        • Has the same thing                                                 and offer an overview of       approaching hate speech
In this unit, students can delve deeper into the            These responses are written down. The others                happened to you?                                                     the conclusions that the       by disconnecting it from
issue of points of view with these two exercises:           must pay attention to where in the classroom their          • What is “inciting hatred”?                                         class has reached.             the topic of immigration
                                                            classmate stops to look out of the window, and if           • What does “hatred”                                                                                and presenting it as a
• Take a well-known story and rewrite it from different     he/she moves or stays in one place. After the first         mean to you?                                                       • To finish...                   phenomenon that can affect
                                                                                                                        • Have you ever heard                                                The two students who           anyone. Cooperative learning
  points of view: it could be Little Red Riding Hood        classmate has finished, the second enters, and              someone saying something                                                                            strategies are then used to
                                                                                                                                                                                             are not part of the groups
  or the Odyssey, but the important thing is that           finally the third. At this point, the class analyses        that seemed to incite                     INSTRUCTIONS               have the job of “drawing       define the experiences of
  the students try to tell it (or write it) by adopting     the three different descriptions:                           hatred? Where?                                                       conclusions”: they listen to   the class when it comes to
  one of the characters’ points of view;                                                                                                                   • Introduction...                 all the group presentations    hate speech.
                                                            What did the three students see, even though                The students write about             The students watch the          and offer an overview of       We b e li eve t h a t i t i s
                                                                                                                        their experiences and                v i d e o b y Yo uTu b e r      the conclusions that the       fundamental for the project
• What can you see out of the window?                       the view outside was the same for all of them?              opinions on posters which                                                                           to be linked to the real-life
                                                                                                                                                             Francesco Sole.                 class has reached.
  In this activity, three students leave the classroom.     Which details did they mention, and which did               are then used for a group            Beforehand, they are                                           situation of each class.
  The game is then explained to the rest of the             they omit? Where did they stand to look at the              exercise: each group reads           asked to write down the                                        Concrete experiences can
  class: one at a time, when the three classmates           view?                                                       the answers to a single              phrase/phrases that they                                       thus be examined from
                                                                                                                        question and provides a              find most striking. These                                      different points of view,
                                                                                                                        summary to the rest of               phrases are anonymous.                                         and potential strategies
                                                                                                                        the class. They are also             They are handed to the                                         and conclusions can be
                                                                                                                        asked to make a note of              teacher or the media                                           discussed.
                                                                                                                        the phrases that they find           educator (they will be
                                                                                                                        most powerful; these will            used for an activity during          TIME: 90 MINS
                                                                                                                        be used later in the final           the next session).
                                                                                                                        unit (producing a video).
                                                                                                                                                           • 5 posters are stuck up on
                                                                                                                                                             the walls of the classroom
                                                                                                                                                             with one of these questions
                                                                                                                                                             written on each one:
                                                                                                                                                           - What do you think of the
                                                                                                                                                             video?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               STRATEGIES TO INVOLVE
                                                                                                                                                           - Has the same thing                     EQUIPMENT                      THE STUDENTS
                                                                                                                                                             happened to you?
                                                                                                                                                           - What is “inciting hatred?”    PC and video projector (or       Above all, the unit encourages
                                                                                                                                                           - What does “hatred”            interactive whiteboard),         students to empathise thanks
                                                                                                                                                             mean to you?                  A3 sheets (or 70 x 100           to the autobiographical
                                                                                                                                                           - Have you ever heard           posters), markers or pens.       experience of the YouTuber
                                                                                                                                                             someone saying something                                       who stars in the video,
                                                                                                                                                             that seemed to incite
                                                                                                                                                             hatred? Where?

16                                                                         media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                                      17
using this clip as a mirror                                    of hateful comments and hate
to reflect on their personal                                   speech towards him. The
experiences.                                                   video can be viewed here:                                             Ldeologies of hate share a series of                is granted by God. In either case, the
Participatory activities are                                   https://www.youtube.com/                                              features:                                           claim serves to deny the humanity of
then suggested, allowing                                       watch?v=vhWcqf0ui1U.                                                                                                      those considered to be Other– and
every student to express                                       Video projection equipment is
themselves.                             MATERIALS              therefore needed (interactive          PREREQUISITES                  1) The Other - fundamental to all                   to justify the in-group’s hatred. This
                                                               whiteboard, computer and
                                                                                                                                     ideologies of hate is the idea of a target          idea of a special sanction manifests
                               The video by Francesco          video projector), as are A3     Watching all the videos.              group (or multiple groups) designated               itself in two ways. First is the idea of
                               Sole is shown. In the video,    sheets (or Bristol boards)                                            as Other. It is not, however, an actual             an upcoming final conflict, in which
                               he reflects on his experience   and markers.                                                          group that exists in reality, but a fiction         the group will defeat its enemies and
                                                                                                                                     created to solidify the identity of the hate        retake its rightful place. For most hate
                                                                                                                                     group and justify its existence and its             groups this remains perpetually in the
                                                                                                                                     actions. To achieve this, the Other must            realm of myth, but some groups – and,
                                                                                                                                     be portrayed as being both inferior, to             more often, individuals – take action

activity structure                                                                                                                   establish the hate group’s superiority,
                                                                                                                                     and threatening, to establish the need
                                                                                                                                     to take action against them.
                                                                                                                                                                                         in the service of this idea. Second, the
                                                                                                                                                                                         special status of the group elevates its
                                                                                                                                                                                         defeats to the level of martyrdom. This
The activity is divided into 3 parts:                          The output of this unit is an initial acknowledgement                                                                     is a constantly recurring theme in hate
                                                               of the places relevant to our educational project                     2) The “Glorious Past” - another                    material, and another effective tool to
1) The students watch the video and write down                 where hate speech manifests itself: social networks.                  essential element of hate ideology is               radicalise supporters.
   the phrases that affect them most (free choice              During the trial phase, we realised that introducing                  the notion that the group has fallen
   based on the issues that they feel most sensitive           the theme of hate speech using materials that were                    since its once-glorious past. Generally,
   about). The sheets with these phrases are then              connected to a presumed component of diversity                        this fall is portrayed as being the fault      It is interesting to carry out a historical analysis to
   kept by the teacher for a subsequent activity. In           (for example skin colour) immediately diverted the                    of either the Other or of members of           give students a historical perspective of this highly
   this first phase, we also reflect on YouTube, on            discussion towards the wider question of migration;                   the group who were fooled or subverted         complex subject.
   the possibility of creating content that may or             the specific focus on hate speech was thus lost. It                   by the Other As a result, it is only by        The full document can be read here: http://mediasmarts.
   may not be liked, on the figure of the “YouTuber”,          was therefore necessary to find stimuli that would                    defeating and destroying the Other that        ca/online-hate/deconstructing-online-hate
   and on the possibility of exchanging opinions               allow for an initial analysis of hate speech in itself.               this glorious past can be regained. Hate
   online. An initial connection is made between               Using the video by Francesco Sole allowed many                        group members must be educated about           The same site offers audio/video interviews in English
   hate speech and social networks.                            students to make the connection with bullying                         this glorious past because its enemies         that can be used by teachers to give students the
                                                               and cyberbullying, drawing their attention to all                     have done their best to erase this from        opportunity to work on material from other research
2) The students answer the questions on the posters            the situations in which they had been victims and                     history.                                       centres.
   and are given time to write on all five.                    experienced the contempt of others.                                                                                  This is a very interesting resource: http://mediasmarts.
                                                                                                                                     3) Victimhood - despite portraying             ca/sites/mediasmarts/files/tutorials/facing-online-
3) The class is divided into groups (with the excep-           SOURCES                                                               the Other as being inherently inferior,        hate/html5.html
   tion of two students) and begins to analyse the                                                                                   claiming to be victims themselves – and
   written responses: first in a small group, then by          The video by Francesco Sole can be viewed here:ht-                    rejecting the idea of the Other as a           However, note that this material gives answers rather
   sharing with the whole class.The two students               tps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhWcqf0ui1U.                            victim – is central to ideologies of hate.     than posing questions, so we advise using it at a later
   who are not part of the groups have the job                                                                                       For instance, a famous article by David        stage, not during this research phase when students
   of giving an overview.                                                                                                            Duke, a former Grand Wizard of the             are working together to seek out their own answers.
                                                                                                                                     Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, claims that
                                                                                                                                     Whites were the true victims of slavery.       This module is built around the idea that it is more
                                                                                                                                     As well as eliminating any possible            interesting to research this topic alongside students,
going further                                                  • Forums, blogs                                                       sympathy for the enemy, victimhood is          asking questions and analysing materials that can
                                                               • Virtual worlds                                                      tremendously effective in appealing to         arouse their curiosity and make them feel involved,
This unit can be further developed by widening                                                                                       those youth who are most vulnerable            rather than immediately providing them with answers
the analysis of hate speech to include other social            • Other social networks                                               to hate messages.                              that would prevent the class from discovering them
networks and virtual spaces.                                                                                                                                                        together. The methodologies chosen for the individual
We can suggest that students carry out personal                What kind of content did the students find?                           4) Divine or Natural Sanction - a related      activities aim to let students “live the problem”, to
research based on their media habits and their                 Can we build up a temporary mind map of it? Is                        idea is that the in-group is superior due      link it to their own real experiences, and to encourage
favourite content; they can then share this research           encountering hate speech on the internet easy or                      to divine or natural sanction. Racially        them to reason and actively respond.
in class.                                                      difficult? Simple or complex?                                         motivated hate groups often use outdated       This is why there are no right or wrong answers, only
                                                                                                                                     or distorted genetic or anthropological        practical ideas to initiate research that we trust will
• Online research tools:                                       A very interesting task can be carried out using                      theories to argue their superiority, while     interest your students.
  Google, Wikipedia                                            the “Ideologies of Hate” described by the site o                      others claim that their special status
• Songs and videos                                             mediasmart.ca This is summarised below:
• Video games and multiplayer platforms
                                                                     Le ideologie di odio

18                                                                                media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                 19
a comment that they                                                                            are playing a crucial role,
                                         UNIT 4                                                   AUTHOR: ZAFFIRIA              believe contributes to
                                                                                                                                hate speech, modifying it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               as if they were researchers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               who needed to catalogue
                                                                                                                                in terms of the language                                                                       and order their material.
                                                                                                                                used. The task is for the                                                                      Asking them to pick out

analysing hate speech
                                                                                                                                students to maintain the                                                                       the most-used words allows
                                                                                                                                same point of view (for              TIME: 120 MINS                  METHODOLOGIES             them to immediately focus
                                                                                                                                example, the view of                                                                           on the words that are most
                                                                                                                                someone opposed to                                             The methodologies used          easily used to incite hatred.

in media communication
                                                                                                                                migration) while also                                          concentrate on analysing
                                                                                                                                rewriting his or her                                           media content at a linguistic
                                                                                                                                argument s in order                                            level to ensure that the
                                                                                                                                to avoid hate speech.                                          students remain focused
                                                                                                                                This activity is carried                                       on the discourse, paying
                                                                                                                                out collectively, with                                         attention to the words
                                                                                                                                the teacher supporting                                         used and the construction
                                                                                                                                the linguistic analysis.               EQUIPMENT               of the arguments (or lack
                                                                of the various behaviours
                                                                described.
                                                                                                attracted more than
                                                                                                100,000 comments. 4
                                                                                                                                The goal is to make
                                                                                                                                the class aware that a        PC, video projector, A3 sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                               thereof). In this case, the
                                                                                                                                                                                               debate is not based around         STRATEGIES TO INVOLVE
                                                                                                posters representing the        wide spectrum of points       or Bristol boards, markers,      what they think: instead,              THE STUDENTS
                                                                Following this, the             4 emoticons are stuck up        of view is acceptable,        printed comments to hand         what they think is called
                                                                emoticons used by the           on the walls.                   regardles s of their          out, printed emoticons for       into question by the act of     Stimulate their desire to
                                                                University of Florence          The students are                personal opinions, but        the posters.                     cataloguing the thoughts        research a topic together,
         OVERVIEW                     INSTRUCTIONS              for a national research         given a selection of            also that it is possible                                       of others. The analysis is      use participatory activities
                                                                project on online hate          published comments              to express these views                                         based on a cooperative          and encourage them to
In this unit, we aim to        • Introduction...                speech are presented            and asked to subdivide          without inciting hatred.                                       approach and aims to make       interact with social networks
track hate speech on the         This module starts with        to the class (available         them by sticking them                                                                          the students feel that they     in a less superficial way.
web using videos and             a video produced by            at 0 http://www.bricks-         on the various posters
Facebook messages.               the Lithuanian Centre          project.eu/wp/wp-content/       according to the
The emoticons used by the        for Human Rights. In a         uploads/2016/03/relazione_      categories suggested
University of Florence as        waiting room, we see           bricks_bassa.pdf ):             by the emoticons (they
part of a research project       a succession of people                                         can also suggest their
on online hate speech            invited to a casting call    1) Do-gooding                     own –
are presented to the             for an advert. In the same   2) Angry                        - in some cases, the
students, who are asked          room, waiting, we see a      3) Aggressive                     students suggested new

                                                                                                                              activity structure
to catalogue them.               black man asking others      4) Resigned                       emoticons while working
A specific case study            to help him translate                                          on the definitions).
has been chosen but, as          some posts published         Students are asked to             Af ter dividing them
                                                                                                                                                                                               a wide range of responses), and they are asked to
mentioned before, the            on his Facebook page.        give a definition of thes         among the various                                                                                 divide them according to the criteria represented
most impor tant thing            The video is paused          4 macro-categories:               posters, these are taken      The activity is complex and is divided into five                    and defined by the emoticons. This task allows
is for the material to be        frequently to allow                                            down from the walls. 4        phases. It can also be carried out across more than                 students to think about how to classify these
topical. In this case, the       students to understand       1) According to them,             groups are formed, and        one session. The phases are:                                        individual comments – what framework and
debate caused by the             the content and the             what are do-gooding            each group is given a
creation and publication         situation and also to           comments and what do           poster. The assignment
                                                                                                                                                                                                  rules should they put in place to decide which
of a specific poster (more       express the emotions            they look like?                is to find the 5 words        1) Presentation of the Lithuanian video “Experiment                 poster to stick each one to?
than 100,000 comments)           they are feeling.                                              that are repeated most           - Translation” and first activity with sticky notes,
made it possible to track        Speaking up amid the         2) What are the differences       frequently. In this way,         which gets students thinking about real-life                  4) Once the comments have been categorised and
many points of view and          silence of emotions             between          angry         the students must reflect        behaviour. What do I do when I encounter hate                    the posters filled up, the class is divided into 4
to work on some questions        allowed the classes that        comments and                   on the things written by
that remain topical today        trialled the module to       aggressive comments?              others online. They must
                                                                                                                                 speech online? The story presented in the video                  groups, with each one working on a different
(for example, discussions        watch the video with a                                         adopt the attitude of a          asks a question: what would you have done?                       poster. The class carries out a quantitative
on presumed diversity).          strong sense of              3) W hat are resigned             researcher working on                                                                             analysis that leads in turn to some qualitative
The analysis of the debate                                       comments like?                 sources,c ataloguing          2) Presentation of the working tool for the analysis                considerations: which words are used most
was the tool used to collect     involvement. At the end                                        material and offering            of hate speech: the emoticons used by the                        frequently? The list of the 5 most-used words
data and information.            of the video, a single         In a group, using the           an overview.
                                 question is asked: what        brainstorming method,           All the posters/
                                                                                                                                 University of Florence to catalogue hate speech                  in the 4 emoticon columns allows the teacher
                                 would you have done?           the aim is to flesh out         emoticons are then               messages are shown, and students are asked                       to guide the class in thinking about language,
                                 In pairs, the students         these definitions, always       discussed as a group in          to define the meaning of the emoticons and                       reasoning and conversational strategies.
                                 discuss this question          using the student s’            order to share the final         then to use them to categorise the comments
                                 and write their answers        experiences and                 conclusions resulting            handed out to them.                                           5) The last activity is to choose a comment as a
                                 on a sticky note. They         thoughts as a starting          from a specific case
                                 then stick the notes           point.                          study. The students also
                                                                                                                                                                                                  group and analyse it in depth: which words
                                 onto the sheets of paper                                       analyse the words that        3) The case study on which the class will work                      and arguments are put forward to support the
        OBJECTIVES               hanging on the walls,        • The main activity...            they believe were used           together is presented: a poster published on                     viewpoint expressed; if necessary, how could
                                 reading them aloud as          At this point, the              most often: what are the         Facebook that was the subject of much debate.                    the comment be rewritten to avoiding inciting
1. To recognise hate speech.     they do so.                    students are shown              words? What do they              Students are given a selection of the 100,000                    hatred?
2. To tackle the issue of        4 students will attempt to     the poster that was             mean?
   “what to do?”.                summarise the reactions        the subject of our case
                                                                                                                                 comments published online (about thirty, to
3. To encourage the students     of their classmates,           study. It was published       • To finish...                     ensure they see                                               The goal of this unit is to learn to recognise hate
   to participate.               giving the class a “map”       on Facebook, where it           Ask the class to rewrite                                                                       comments, even if this is limited to working on a

20                                                                               media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                                  21
who are the commenters?

                           ANGRY
     DO-GOODING       CONFRONTATIONAL

     AGGRESSIVE          RESIGNED

22                        media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook   23
single case study. In order for students to develop a     sources                                                                                                   UNIT 5                                                    AUTHOR: ZAFFIRIA
more well-rounded ability to recognise hate speech
online, the activity could also be carried out with       Lithuanian video “Experiment - Translation”:
other situations and different media content. In this     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNX1256eVw8.

                                                                                                                       what are we talking about?
unit, the question of “what to do” also arises; here
too, reinforcement activities are needed. Other
ideas are suggested in the “Going further” section.

going further                                                                                                                                                                                                             stereotypes; cooperative
                                                                                                                                                        of a specific group of people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          learning to ensure all
• To further showcase the work done by the students         Messages of hate not allowed: the VoxNews                                                   (e.g. a documentary shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          students contribute and
                                                                                                                                                        on RaiTre Presadiretta,
  with the comments published on Facebook, a                Facebook page is closed down                                                                “Aiutiamoli a casa loro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          provide a definition of hate
  maths or technology teacher can be called on              http://www.cartadiroma.org/news/cronache-ordi-                                                                                                                speech that encompasses
                                                                                                                                                        (Let’s help them at home)”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the complexit y of the
  to translate the information into infographics.           nario-razzismo-chiusa-la-pagina-facebook-voxnews                     OVERVIEW               from Monday 29th January
                                                                                                                                                        2018, or archive material               TIME: 90 MINS             phenomenon as well as
  Reporting the results of a research project using                                                                                                                                                                       how it relates to the lives of
  graphs is also a way to summarise the most                #nohatespeech. Facebook: unrestricted thinking             The student s watch a            that further explores Italian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          teenagers.
                                                                                                                       documentary or material          migration to Switzerland on
  salient information and communicate with the              for an unrestricted business?                                                               Belgium or the USA, etc.).
  wider world: they can be shared by the students           http://www.cartadiroma.org/news/discorsi-do-               that can help them
                                                                                                                                                        There is a short debate
                                                                                                                       understand Italy’s migration
  themselves on social media, they can be used by           dio-e-business-virale                                                                       that focuses the students’
                                                                                                                       phenomenon.
  other classes, etc.                                                                                                                                   initial thoughts:
                                                                                                                       “Coffee break” – participatory
                                                            Facebook hides a hate page                                 activity in which the students
                                                                                                                                                        - What do you think of the                EQUIPMENT
• Another activity that can reinforce the students’         http://www.quotidiano.net/minacce-su-facebo-               create a shared definition       video?
  learning pathway relates to freedom of expression:        ok-musulmani-ditalia-1.2038281                             of hate speech.                                                   PC and video projector.
  reading the comments posted under the poster
                                                                                                                                                        - Did you ever think that
                                                                                                                                                        Italians might have also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MATERIALS
  opens up a debate on the fine line between hate         • A further activity is linked to the theme of “what                                          faced such difficult migratory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Videos, sheets of paper
  speech and freedom of expression.                         to do”, referring back to the video “Experiment                                             routes?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and colours.
  What limits on freedom of expression do the               - Translation”. This theme is developed by the                                              The class continues to
  students feel are “fair”, “necessary” and “appro-         Media Smarts Centre (Canada’s Centre for Di-                                                reflec t in groups with
  priate”? We suggest a selection of articles that          gital and Media Literacy - http://mediasmarts.                                              the participatory “coffee
  focus on Facebook.                                        ca), which offers a Hate 2.0 Quiz that could be a                                           break” activity: divided                METHODOLOGIES
  Using these practical case studies, the class can         source of inspiration for the teacher or educator.
                                                                                                                                OBJECTIVES              into small groups of 4-5
                                                                                                                                                        people, each person draws        Analysis of media content,
  have a more general debate on the limits between          In the form of multiple-choice quiz questions,             1. To b u i l d a s h a r e d                                     identification and
  online hate speech and freedom of expression.             students find themselves faced with potential                 definition.
                                                                                                                                                        a cup full of words that
                                                                                                                                                        they believe define hate         consideration of stereotypes,           PREREQUISITES
  How do you “regulate” this freedom? Based on              situations that might be encountered online, and           2. “It could happen to me”       speech; a shared word is         and cooperative learning.
                                                                                                                          – to understand that                                                                            Watching the video, being
  the students’ experience and knowledge, what              they must choose the best reaction. Each multiple                                           written on the middle tray.
                                                                                                                          hate speech concerns                                                                            familiar with the “coffee
  are the practical possibilities when tackling hate        choice can lead to different considerations, and                                            The phrases written down
                                                                                                                          everyone.                                                                                       break” activity - see the
                                                                                                                                                        during the Francesco Sole
  speech encountered online?                                the students must therefore open their minds to                                             video are handed back to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          specific COSPE sheet.
                                                            new possibilities with respect to “how to react”                                            the groups. Using the words
     Articles                                               and “useful responses”.                                                                     on the trays, the whole class
     Hate speech: we reported 100 comments that                                                                                                         constructs a sentence to
     incite hatred to Facebook, and 91 are still online     The PDF of the lesson can be downloaded here:                                               define hate speech.                 STRATEGIES TO INVOLVE
     http://www.cartadiroma.org/editoriale/hate-speech      http://mediasmarts.ca/sites/mediasmarts/files/                                              • To finish...
                                                                                                                                                                                                THE STUDENTS
                                                            pdfs/lesson-plan/Lesson_Hate2.pdf                                                           The educator or teacher
                                                                                                                               INSTRUCIONS              helps the student s to
                                                                                                                                                                                         Generate empathy among
                                                                                                                                                        construct a definition of
                                                                                                                                                        hate speech that can be          the students using the
                                                                                                                       • Introduction...
                                                                                                                                                        used by the class (and           video, putting them in a
                                                                                                                       The module begins with
                                                                                                                                                        broadened, modified or           situation where it is Italians
                                                                                                                       the whole class watching
                                                                                                                                                        corrected) for the entire        who are described solely
                                                                                                                       a video on hate speech
                                                                                                                                                        rest of the activity.            by means of negative
                                                                                                                       according to the definition

24                                                                        media education and hate speech - workbook   media education and hate speech - workbook                                                                                    25
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