Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations - UFT

 
Revista Brasileira de Educação do Campo
    Brazilian Journal of Rural Education
    ARTIGO/ARTICLE/ARTÍCULO
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20873/uft.rbec.e11490

Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and
youth expectations
                                 1                                     2
   Karla de Freitas Alves Pinto ,     Ruth Bernardes de Sant'Ana
1
 Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV. Departamento de Economia Doméstica DED. Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s./n.,
                                          2
Campus Universitário. Viçosa - MG. Brasil. Universidade Federal de São João del Rei - UFSJ.

Author for correspondence: karlaalvesp@ufv.br

                                         ABSTRACT. This article presents the results of a research that
                                         sought to analyze the schooling process of young students in their
                                         first year of Higher Education from a rural school. We try to
                                         highlight the most significant facts of the school experiences
                                         brought by students and their expectations for the future with the
                                         aim of understanding the meaning they attribute to the
                                         experiences in a school located in countryside. The research
                                         procedures were establishment observations, individual semi-
                                         structured interviews, questionnaire and documentary study The
                                         survey data suggest that teenagers are able to express their
                                         opinions about classes, content and school. From the research
                                         data, we can say that youngsters are able to express their opinions
                                         about classes, content and school. From the interviews, we
                                         realized that the meanings attributed to the school in the
                                         schooling process are positive, since young people feel confident
                                         in this institution.

                                         Keywords: rural youth, high school, schooling.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

Jovens rurais do Ensino Médio: experiências escolares e
expectativas juvenis

                                     RESUMO. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa
                                     que buscou analisar o processo de escolarização de jovens do 1º
                                     ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública rural. Procuramos
                                     destacar os fatos mais significativos da experiência escolar trazidos
                                     pelos alunos e suas expectativas de futuro, com o objetivo de
                                     compreender os sentidos que eles atribuem às vivências em uma
                                     escola localizada na zona rural. Os procedimentos de pesquisa
                                     utilizados foram observações de estabelecimento, entrevistas
                                     individuais semiestruturadas, questionário e estudo documental. Os
                                     dados da pesquisa sugerem que os jovens são capazes de opinar
                                     acerca das aulas, dos conteúdos ministrados e da escola. A partir
                                     das entrevistas, percebemos que os sentidos atribuídos à escola no
                                     processo da escolarização são positivos, já que os jovens se sentem
                                     confiantes nessa instituição.

                                     Palavras-chave: juventude rural, ensino médio, escolarização.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

Jóvenes rurales de la Escuela Secundaria: experiencias
escolares y expectativas juveniles

                                     RESUMEN. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una
                                     investigación que buscó analizar el proceso de escolarización de
                                     los jóvenes estudiantes del primer año de la secundaria de una
                                     escuela rural. Tratamos de resaltar los hechos más significativos
                                     de la experiencia escolar aportados por los estudiantes así como
                                     sus expectativas para el futuro, a fin de comprender los
                                     significados que atribuyen a las experiencias en una escuela
                                     secundaria ubicada en zona rural. Los procedimientos de
                                     investigación      utilizados    fueron:    observaciones     del
                                     establecimiento, entrevistas individuales semiestructuradas,
                                     cuestionarios y análisis de documentos escolares. Con los datos
                                     de la investigación, podemos decir que los jóvenes son capaces
                                     de expresar sus opiniones sobre las clases, el contenido y la
                                     escuela. A partir de la entrevista echa a los jóvenes, nos dimos
                                     cuenta de que los significados atribuidos a la escuela en el
                                     proceso escolar son positivos, ya que ellos se sienten confiados
                                     en esta institución.

                                     Palabras clave: juventud rural, escuela secundaria, escolaridad.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

Introduction                                                                       inside and outside the establishment, and
                                                                                   on youth schooling in its relations with
       This paperi presents the results of a
                                                                                   urban and rural areas. This collection
research        that     aimed          to     analyze           the
                                                                                   instrument was designed to cover all
schooling process of rural high school
                                                                                   students in the class, unlike the interview,
youngsters in Rio das Mortes, district of
                                                                                   whose          purpose            was        to     address      the
São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, in a
                                                                                   meanings              of        the    school           experience,
school located 8 km from this city. The aim
                                                                                   through attentive and dialogic listening –
of this study was to identify the role of
                                                                                   that why it should reach a small number of
school in these people’s lives, as well as
                                                                                   teenagers, and ensure the same proportion
their life perspectives in a context of
                                                                                   among boys and girls.
social,          cultural             and            economic
                                                                                             This class is made up of 33 students:
transformations                 in           which               the
                                                                                   17       boys         and        16      girls.         When     the
differentiation of urban and rural spaces is
                                                                                   questionnaires were filled out, 10 students
reconfigured and becomes increasingly
                                                                                   were absent; among the 23 present, three
tenuous.
                                                                                   refused          to        participate.           One      of    the
       The research subjects were rural
                                                                                   youngsters who did not want to answer the
youngsters from the 1st year of high school
                                                                                   questionnaire was the one who was more
in a public school. The research sought to
                                                                                   aloof and suspicious. Considering all the
highlight the most significant facts of the
                                                                                   classes observed, he was the most distant
school experience brought by the students
                                                                                   with regard to teachers and subjects. The
and, to this end, the researcher undertook
                                                                                   other        two        who           didn’t       respond       are
an          investigation                       with                a
                                                                                   apparently             influenced             by        that    one.
plurimethodological approach – qualitative
                                                                                   Regarding the girls, they readily wanted to
and quantitative at the same time. The
                                                                                   answer the questionnaire and did not have
questionnaire, as well as semi-structured
                                                                                   much difficulty in doing so. All showed
individual interviews and observations
                                                                                   interest in collaborating with the research,
were      the     primary            sources         for       data
                                                                                   and some of them established a closer
collection, while medical records, files,
                                                                                   relationship               of     friendship            with     the
among other student documents, were
                                                                                   researcher.
configured as a secondary source of data
                                                                                             Individual                  interviews                were
collection. The questionnaire dealt with the
                                                                                   conducted with 12 teenagers who agreed to
socioeconomic characterization of students
                                                                                   participate, 6 girls and 6 boys. In order to
and their families, on school activities

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

get a greater number of young males –                                          school          trajectory.           To       better    fit   the
with the aim of making the number of                                           teenager’s needs, the school must focus on
interviewees between the sexes more equal                                      aspects related to the permanence of the
– the researcher had to insist a lot on the                                    student and the quality of services offered.
invitation to young men, as some of them                                       To this end, it is necessary to be aware of
did not really appreciate giving interviews.                                   the institution’s operating conditions, the
        We assume that the school is a place                                   training of teachers, the quality of teaching
where many teenagers spend a large part of                                     materials, the reading in school work, the
their lives. In fact, it is not new that many                                  participation of parents in school and at
schools are unable to attract and retain                                       home, and the quality of school meals
teenagers, but it is usually in this space of                                  (Dayrell, 2007).
encounters and experiences that they begin                                               For rural young people, the school
to build their life project. We share with                                     establishment is a very important relational
Leão,     Dayrell     and        Reis        (2011)          the               territory, which allows them to experience
conception that the expectations for the                                       various exchanges, the elaboration and
future of young people refer to the idea of                                    redimensioning of social norms and the
achievements in the professional, affective                                    constitution of ways of living life as
and school context. Such expectations                                          teenagers and students at the same time,
depend on a field of possibilities given by                                    from sociocultural references that are
the socioeconomic and cultural context in                                      simultaneously rural and urban that are
which       the      young             person             finds                modulated in the here and now of the
himself/herself.           Understanding                     the               social interaction among them.
expectations of these youngsters allows,                                                 The global and the local are probably
above all, to comprehend the different                                         mixed in the lives of rural young people
anxieties of those in this age group of                                        who managed to reach high school and
schooling and, at the same time, to reflect                                    affect their immediate and immediate
on significant aspects of the social world in                                  projects. In this way, we seek to identify
which they are inserted (in and out of                                         the role of school in the lives of these
school) in their relationships with the                                        subjects and the perspectives of life in a
prospects for the future they envisioned.                                      context of social, cultural and economic
        Thus, it is at school that youngsters                                  transformations                     in           which         the
establish     relationships              that         greatly                  differentiation of the borders between
influence their life, their choices and their                                  urban and rural is reconfigured and

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

becomes increasingly tenuous, to the                                          diplomas due to the expansion of access to
extent that these new dynamics in rural                                       all levels of education, including higher
areas should have more impact on the                                          education, and the economic imperative of
younger population and those with a longer                                    expanding the training of young people for
schooling path provided by high school.                                       competition/insertion in the market formal
One way to investigate the teenagers’                                         work. Secondary education represents only
experiences of students living in the rural                                   the last three or four years of basic
world today is to analyze how they                                            education, but it presents difficulties when
perceive the impacts of schooling in their                                    defining policies for this stage of schooling
fields of possibilities in the present and in                                 that has never had a very clear identity,
the future. Currently, they live a trajectory                                 both in terms of access to university and
less common for the previous generation,                                      professional training (Krawczyk, 2013).
that is, attending high school and having a                                             For most teachers and researchers,
later entry into the world of work.                                           young people who attend high school are
                                                                              understood only in terms of their student
Schooling of rural teenagers: contexts
                                                                              dimension. In this way, the condition of
and challenges
                                                                              student appears as a natural fact, and not as
      When it comes to reflecting on the                                      a     social         and        historical          construction.
Brazilian educational system, there is a                                      Regardless of gender, age, social origin or
consensus in the perception that secondary                                    social experiences, it is the student’s
education is the level of education that                                      condition (almost always in its cognitive
provokes the most controversial debates,                                      dimension) that informs the understanding
whether because of the persistent problems                                    that the teacher or researcher builds on
of access and permanence, or because of                                       these actors. The stage of life and its
the quality of education offered, or by the                                   peculiarities, social origin, gender and
discussion about its identity (Kuenzer,                                       ethnicity, among other dimensions that
2007).                                                                        constitute him/her as a young person,
      The inclusion of secondary education                                    should be placed in parentheses in the
in the context of basic education and its                                     name of the student’s cognitive progress.
mandatory      nature           demonstrate                 the               That is why these elements of the youth
recognition of its political and social                                       experience are not taken into account and,
importance. This is a growing demand for                                      when approached outside the school, the
schooling in a context of devaluation of                                      student’s life appears as a time empty of

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meaning in the definition of the teaching-                                         appropriation of ways of being in society is
learning process. In this understanding,                                           also a reflection of the loosening of
little is learned about the real subjects who                                      territorial boundaries, as shown in the
attend school, the multiple dimensions of                                          study by Carneiro (1998). This author
their social experience, their demands and                                         suggests that countryside and city are
expectations (Leão et al., 2011).                                                  increasingly                 interconnected,                which
        According to Castro (2005), for                                            contributes to redefining the dynamic
adolescents from the rural youth universe,                                         between these two poles.
a challenge is the uncertainty between                                                       Carneiro (1998) also reminds us that
“going out and staying” in the countryside,                                        the media are strong influences in this
due to the difficulties of remaining in                                            narrowing of borders, since they have an
agriculture, the limits imposed by the                                             important impact on the redefinition of
scarcity of land, the low income of families                                       values and this can lead to difficulties in
and, consequently, the meager investment                                           defining the particular characteristics of a
in production. Young people live in a                                              given space. However, the author observes
dilemma       between             the       possibility           of               that the increasingly intense exchanges
becoming owners of land (or of some                                                between countryside and city do not
property) and the aspiration to live in                                            eliminate their specific social and cultural
cities.                                                                            characteristics.
        According to Matos (2002), the                                                       According               to        the         study      by
departure         of       youngsters              from          the               Breitenbach and Corazza (2019), the issue
countryside to the city is also due to the                                         of rural youth gained centrality, especially
search for the “modern”, which, according                                          because it is a category associated with the
to the author, characterizes the view of the                                       future of the rural environment. In this
rural as backward or primitive. This vision                                        context, the social identity of the Brazilian
leads     rural        teenagers          to      desire         the               rural youth is built in a process of dialogue
“moulds” of “modern” urban youth so as                                             between the rural universe and urban
not to be seen or see themselves as                                                spaces.          Subjective              aspects         such      as
“backward” or “inferior”.                                                          emotional attachment and family ties have
        To    counteract               this       image           of               an important influence on the permanence
inferiority, young people often seek to                                            of young people in rural areas. In addition,
appropriate            new         technologies                 and                the difficulties and uncertainties found in
academic knowledge. Part of this new                                               rural areas and the existence of more than

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one generation on the same property                                             judged, and for some students, because
compromise the transfer of heritage and                                         they thought that the researcher could be a
the succession of inheritance between                                           school employee.
generations. These factors that still figure                                              The questionnaire applied helped us
today as the main responsible for the                                           in the task of drawing a profile and better
departure of young people from the world                                        characterizing the universe of research
rural.                                                                          subjects          by containing                  the    opinions,
         According to a survey carried out by                                   beliefs, feelings, interests, expectations,
Santos (2017), the rural exodus, especially                                     social origin, monthly family income and
of young people, has been constant in                                           relationship with the work and with the
recent years. There are several reasons that                                    school. This allowed us to bring together
drive young people to the city, among                                           school and extra-school experiences.
which is the lack of incentives for these                                                 According to Gil (2008), a positive
young people to remain on the family                                            feature of the questionnaire is its ability to
property and develop activities there.                                          cover a large number of people in a short
                                                                                period of time, in addition to guaranteeing
Methodology
                                                                                the anonymity of the subjects who answer

         To understand the school experiences                                   it. This can give more freedom in the

and expectations of young people, we                                            elaboration of responses, since there is no

carried out observations of the first-year                                      concern about the possible consequences

high school classroom, in order to obtain a                                     of their statements.

more global understanding of the subjects’                                                We conducted individual interviews

interactions in the classroom, as well as                                       with 12 teenagers, 06 (six) girls and 06

their relationship with the school in their                                     (six) boys. All students in the class were

schooling process.                                                              invited, but in the second round a girl had

         The observations were descriptively                                    left the district to live in São Paulo. We

recorded in the field diary, with the aim of                                    also        carried           out        a      semi-structured

storing the impressions of everyday school                                      interview, that is, one directed through a

life. In some situations, the recording of                                      previously established script, consisting of

impressions after leaving the classroom                                         open         questions.            Even          elaborated        in

was used. The observations generated an                                         advance, this script allows for flexible

initial discomfort for some teachers, who                                       organization, which gives the researcher

feared they were being evaluated or                                             the possibility to expand the questions as

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the respondent offers information and                                           afternoon, Elementary II (6th to 9th grade)
expresses himself with some freedom on                                          had 177 students with one class in the
the topics indicated. With this type of                                         afternoon and five classes in the morning.
interview, we assume a less directive role                                      High School had four morning classes,
in the search for an open dialogue with the                                     with 110 students, and an evening group of
intention of understanding under what                                           Youth and Adult Education (EJA), with 24
perspective the interviewee speaks and of                                       students. There was also an Acceleration
bringing out significant aspects about the                                      Class (TA) from the 9th grade of
research topic.                                                                 Elementary, with a view to moving to the
                                                                                1st year of High School, whose objective is
General characterization of the School,
the socio-economic conditions of the                                            to correct the age/grade distortion and
young people, their families and the                                            reduce school failure – a government
schooling of the surveyed teenagers
                                                                                program called “continuous progression”.

      The school used as the empirical                                          Most of the students at the school belonged

basis for this research was the Evandro                                         to the district of Rio das Mortes, but most

Ávila State School, located in Rio das                                          of them lived in other villages. The

Mortes, district of São João del-Rei, Minas                                     distance between school and villages is

Gerais. There is no exact definition of                                         also variable, such as the village of

when this school was founded, only                                              Goiabeiras, which is 4 km from Rio das

accounts of various possible dates. No                                          Mortes.

records were found referring to the                                                       The school’s team of workers totaled

Evandro Ávila State School, nor in the                                          43 people, including teachers (permanent

school itself, nor in the Regional Teaching                                     and contracted), supervisors, pedagogical

Superintendence (SRE) or even in the                                            coordinators, technical assistants in basic

Municipality        of      São         João           del-Rei.                 education (secretary assistant), secretaries,

Therefore, all information was materialized                                     basic           education              service          assistants

by reading blogs (from the school and the                                       (cantineiras),               technical            assistants       in

Minas Gerais government), from the                                              education basic (financial/accounting part),

School’s Political Pedagogical Project and                                      librarians, director and deputy directors.

information from oral history.                                                            Regarding the position in the ranking

      At the time of the research, the                                          of reference schools in the state of Minas

school had 423 students. Elementary I (1st                                      Gerais            by         the         Basic          Education

to 5th grade) had 112 students in the                                           Development                 Index         (Ideb)        of   2009,

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Evandro    Ávila       School           occupied            the               with family, and no young person is
position number 492 among Minas Gerais                                        married.
public schools, in a list with one total of                                             The analysis of the interviewees’
3,497 positions. Regarding the school’s                                       family situation suggests that only 10% of
IDEB, in 2013 the educational institution                                     the students’ families do not live in their
reached the goal of 7.6 in the initial years                                  own home and just over half of them
of the state network, with the goal being                                     (55.6%)           have         rural        properties       (land
5.2. In relation to the final years, it also                                  destined for cultivation). The level of
reached the target set by the government of                                   education of the parents or guardians is
4.5, but did not maintain the previous score                                  predominantly complete elementary school
of 6.0, as it obtained 5.3, which means a                                     and only in one case the father has a
significant drop. In addition, the school                                     university degree. The level of education
registered a percentage of 68% of students                                    of mothers has an average of 28.6% in
who learned the proper skills in reading                                      each of the following levels: incomplete
and interpreting texts by the 5th grade.                                      1st degree, complete 1st degree and
      Students who attended this school                                       complete 2nd degree. Only two mothers
arrived at 7:20 am, on foot or by school                                      have completed higher education.
bus. They found the gates open, entered the                                             The family income of 81.8% of
school and chatted with groups of friends                                     respondents,              considering              all   working
in the school yard while waiting for classes                                  adults, is no more than three minimum
to start at 7:30 am. The school atmosphere                                    wages. It is noteworthy that in none of the
was relaxed, with little conflicting social                                   valid answers the family income was
relations between students and school staff.                                  above 06 minimum wages.
      A large part of the families with                                                 Regarding the mother’s or guardian’s
which young people live is nuclear, that is,                                  profession, nine categories were listed by
they are made up of the father and the                                        the interviewees. Of the total number of
mother. In general, the students who                                          mothers who work outside the home,
participated in the survey belong to                                          21.4%           work          as       domestic          servants.
relatively small families (4 to 7 members)                                    Furthermore, 21.4% are housewives. A
and the vast majority are parents and two                                     nursery helper mother and another cook
children, live in the rural area, in the home                                 were also mentioned. As for the profession
of their parents or grandparents, are aged                                    of the father or guardian, eleven categories
between 15 and 17 years old and all live                                      were listed, with “retired” having 21.4%.

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Professions such as bricklayer, pensioner,                                          considering that each                          person has          a
farmer and rural services make up the                                               particular need according to the spatial
activities performed by the interviewees’                                           location of their home or work. Not
parents.                                                                            everyone has a car or motorcycle, and
        Laura, one of the interviewees, takes                                       commuting by public transport becomes
courses at SENAI, as well as private                                                very important, as it directly influences the
lessons and writing lessons. Her family is                                          quality of life of young people.
the only one that guarantees extracurricular                                                  In rural areas, public transport is
courses for the student's better academic                                           important for families who live or work
and professional performance. Lucas and                                             outside Rio das Mortes, as, for some, it is
Afonso have also taken extracurricular                                              the only way they have to come and go. In
courses at SENAI and say they are                                                   Rio das Mortes, this displacement is made
interested in attending others.                                                     by an urban bus company that has some
        In this context, it is important to                                         units of its fleet specifically for the direct
highlight that in the community even                                                route between São João del-Rei and Rio
young people who seek a more advanced                                               das Mortes. The same company also has
level             of             education                     from                 buses that circulate around São Sebastião
technical/professional education in São                                             da Vitória, Goiabeiras and Rio das Mortes.
João del-Rei continue to live in Rio das                                            These buses have specific schedules and
Mortes, thus maintaining a relationship                                             run every hour from 6:00 am to 10:00 pm.
with their family and with the rural                                                On weekends, there are itineraries until late
environment where they live.                                                        afternoon.
        It    can        be       observed              that      the                         In many parts of the country,
encouragement of parents to study is                                                transport companies face many limitations
unanimous in the research. For families,                                            in serving the rural population, the main
studies      are       of      great        importance              to              one being the structure of the roads, which,
guarantee that young people will have a                                             for the most part, are precarious and wear
better future. It was also possible to                                              out the vehicle a lot. The stretch between
conclude that participation in meetings at                                          São João del-Rei and Rio das Mortes is a
school are recurrent attitudes among the                                            highway. In this way, it is possible to see
parents of these youngsters.                                                        that young people in Rio das Mortes are
        Another issue to be considered is the                                       not necessarily physically and spatially
access       of     young          people          to      school,                  isolated and that their life trajectories take

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place between the rural and urban worlds.                                      attendance important for their professional
Thus, it is possible to conclude that they                                     future. Regarding the content taught at
are influenced by values from the two                                          school, 47.8% believe there is a balance
cultural universes, which makes it difficult                                   between useful and useless knowledge. In
to establish boundaries between urban and                                      addition to regular classes, students show
rural elements in their ways of living their                                   interest in the computer science and
youth.                                                                         cultural activities; however, most do not
      According         to      the      students,           the               participate in any extracurricular courses.
distance from the interviewees’ homes to                                       Invited to reflect on their possible choices,
the city of São João del-Rei is 10 to 14                                       47.6% of respondents answered that they
kilometers. When asked to project the                                          would study at a public school in the city,
future, most youngsters (83.3%) responded                                      23.8% would study at a private school in
that they intend to go to college. Among                                       the city and 28.6% would continue at
the greatest difficulties of rural youth listed                                Evandro Ávila School. This seems to
by the interviewees are the roads and their                                    signify the strong attraction that the city
poor conditions (within the district) and the                                  exerts on many of them, more than a
limited hours of public transport.                                             derogatory judgment of the school, in
                                                                               terms of the quality of education and the
Schooling of surveyed you people
                                                                               social relationship within it.

      Most     students           (76.5%)             entered                            Data from the 12 students who

school between four and five years of age;                                     answered the questionnaire show that the

70% of respondents said they did their                                         percentage of young people who do not

schoolwork always or almost always and                                         consider themselves rural is 38.9%, as they

30% sporadically. In this question about                                       believe that young people are young

performing the tasks, one student claimed                                      people, no matter the place. Already 33.3%

“laziness” as a reason for not fulfilling the                                  of these youngsters consider themselves

obligation and another stated that he fails                                    rural youngsters because they live in rural

to do the task when he has doubts about it.                                    areas. One of the young people who do not

On a school day, 55.0% of students do                                          consider themselves rural for other reasons

household works in an hour or less.                                            claimed that he “identifies” himself with

      When asked about the reason for                                          the rural area and another does not live in

going to school, 72% of young people                                           the countryside.

answered     that      they         consider           school

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

      Regarding media and access to                                                      The internet is also seen as a form of
culture, the average number of books that                                      entertainment. Facebook is the most used
young people have at home, in addition to                                      social             network,                especially          for
school ones, is less than twenty books, in                                     conversations, dating and entertainment.
most answers. There were no responses                                          Other media resources were also present in
greater than a hundred books or less than                                      the speech of young people. Marina, for
one. From the point of view of access to                                       example, sometimes accesses the internet
new    information          and        communication                           on her cell phone, but commented that the
technologies, it was possible to notice, in                                    connection is very bad. Pedro explained
the moments of interviews and in field                                         that, in his free time, he enjoys visiting
work, that television and the internet are                                     social networks and playing online games.
the media most used by young people. In                                        Josiane, in turn, reported that she likes to
most of the observations, it was possible to                                   stay at home “touching” the computer.
notice that almost all young people always                                     Lucas has already stated that he likes to
had their cell phone in their hands in the                                     watch television. Of the young people
classroom,       although               the           school's                 investigated,             all      had       internet     access,
management team had prohibited the use                                         although Vitória and João did not have a
of cell phones due to excesses and lack of                                     computer and, therefore, Vitória used the
attention in the subjects.                                                     computer at her grandmother’s house and
      The presence of cell phones was a                                        João used the computer at school. João,
constant feature. Like Silva and Pereira                                       Laura and Vitória reported that they
(2015), we observe that, similarly to the                                      searched for information on the internet for
young people researched by these authors,                                      school research.
the young people from the rural school                                                   Based on these data on the usages of
investigated in this work also demonstrated                                    these media devices, it is possible to
that this technological communication                                          consider that the fact of having books at
device is very widespread in daily school                                      home and/or internet access does not
life as a mark of being young in current                                       necessarily mean an increase in school
society. Thus, it is impossible not to                                         knowledge and culture in general. The
associate the image of young people with                                       media allow the insertion of young people
the use of these new communication and                                         into the technological world and provide
information technologies.                                                      skills for the general use of technologies,
                                                                               which can be directed towards cultural

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

targets unrelated to the knowledge valued                                      developed in the community itself and,
by the school. According to the teenagers,                                     although this does not offer many options,
during the week, time is spent “from                                           young people seek to participate in
school to home, from home to school”. The                                      everything that is offered. Here are
life of young people outside of school                                         included            cultural          events            traditionally
during the period they are attending High                                      organized there and the tours promoted by
School also involves work inside the home,                                     the school. In the first year of the research,
where they help parents with housekeeping                                      for example, it was possible to witness a
activities – this cannot be considered an                                      march by the school with all the students in
impediment to the execution of school                                          the surroundings of Rio das Mortes. The
tasks, since it consists of a short period of                                  march was a request for “Peace” from the
time compared to the daily time spent on                                       school and the community due to the death
TV and computer. The use of social                                             of a young man in the vicinity of the
networks, online games, television and also                                    institution. In addition, in the reports of
the dedication to school tasks are some                                        young people, we can see that the multi-
very common statements among the young                                         sport court is frequently used by the
people surveyed.                                                               population of this location, even in extra-
        The average time that these students                                   school times.
spend     watching        TV        and        using         the                         The search for cultural activities
computer, in a school day, was more than                                       outside the district is also a common
four hours in more than 30% of the                                             practice among young people looking for
answers in both cases. When asked about                                        alternatives such as bars and dating in
how much they study at home, 45%                                               neighboring                  cities.            In         informal
consider it sufficient, 25% insufficient,                                      conversations with the teenagers, it was
20% would like to study more and only                                          possible to notice that they like to attend
10% consider the time they spend studying                                      the festivals in São João del-Rei, due to the
more than enough. Those who answered                                           visibility between them, as well as the
that they would like to study more and                                         traditional festivals in the neighboring
those who think that the study time is                                         cities.
insufficient were asked what prevented                                                   In relation to work, 47.8% are not
them from studying.                                                            working and 30.4% are looking for a job.
        However, a part of their free time is                                  When asked to choose alternatives about
generally      occupied             with           activities                  future expectations, 68.4% responded that

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

they would like to combine university and                                        draw plans for their professional future and
work. Only one youngster would just like                                         hope that the school will contribute to a
to work, which corresponds to 5.3% of                                            good placement in the labor market. For
valid answers. In other options, one student                                     many, the value of the school lies in the
would like to finish their studies and                                           fact that it is a place where they meet
pursue a degree, while another would like                                        friends, make friends and interact, which is
to    be    independent             and        have        more                  indicative of the value of the school in
knowledge.                                                                       youth sociability in the society in which we
                                                                                 live. The most common expressions of this
Meanings of School experience and
                                                                                 sociability are the games that occur in the
future expectations
                                                                                 class-group as a whole (with or without
       To understand the meanings that                                           teacher participation) or within groups of
young people attributed to school, it is                                         mixed or gender-different peers (male or
essential to consider that they produce their                                    female). It is a youth culture that is
own way of seeing and valuing school,                                            constituted in youth social relations inside
which does not necessarily correspond to                                         and outside the school, and that in the
the vision of their teachers and family                                          school space signals the affirmation of
members.       School          life       or      even         the               what it means to be young, according to
“motivation” for studies depend a lot on                                         the “student’s craft” or in opposition to it.
individual      experiences,              interests           and                It presents itself in the classroom as a
identities that were built from the lived                                        tension between the demands of this
reality and interactions with other people                                       “craft” and the youthful games and
and with the school itself.                                                      “jesting”. In the researched class, the
       The research presented here reveals                                       relational           atmosphere              was         calm,     as
that, while for some students the school                                         teachers and students showed themselves
represents, above all, an obligation that                                        capable of managing this tension in daily
parents or society impose, for others,                                           school life when it manifested itself
studying is directly related to insertion in                                     openly.
the    labor    market.           In      an       individual                              The         young          people             investigated
interview, Leo argues that he goes “…to                                          believe they have had many significant
school to find a good job”. Leoni, in turn,                                      experiences at school and make it clear that
explains that she wants to graduate “... and                                     they could have dedicated themselves
have a good job”. Thus, young people                                             more, as in Marlon’s speech: “I could have

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studied more”; and in Marcos’ testimony:                                       them placed the hope of achieving better
“I could have studied more, but I can’t                                        social status and better jobs in school and
study at home, then I don’t do good                                            education. There is a belief that school
exams”.                                                                        offers better opportunities to “be someone
      Regarding the reason for attending                                       in life” or to enter the labor market. In
school, they more frequently highlighted                                       addition,            all       young            people      show
the importance of studying to ensure a                                         satisfaction in studying High School in the
better future, as pointed out by the young                                     same institution where they started their
people in an individual interview (E.I).                                       school careers.
                                                                                         According to Laura, the rural school
          For a better future. (Afonso, E.I).
                                                                               is not inferior to the urban schools of São
          Because I like to study; here I take                                 João del-Rei. In this regard, most young
          care of myself, I acquire knowledge
          that I can use later for exams, and it                               people believe that the school would help
          gives me a basis for the job market.
                                                                               them to stay in Rio das Mortes, but the
          (Vitória, E.I).
                                                                               lack of prospects for work in rural areas
      The survey indicated that young                                          drives them to create expectations of
people demand a school that makes sense                                        having greater success in obtaining it
for   life    and        contributes             to       their                outside the district, as Laura illustrates. in
understanding of reality. They claim to link                                   an interview in November 2015: “Staying
what is taught at school to their daily lives:                                 in Rio das Mortes is difficult because of
                                                                               the career I want to pursue. Many young
          I prefer more dynamic classes, more                                  people leave rural areas because they don't
          in practice, not just much in writing.
          (Josiane, E.I).                                                      have a guaranteed job throughout the year,
                                                                               which leads to them leaving for lack of
          Maybe teachers can conduct a class
          to interact more with staff. (Felipe,                                options”.
          E.I).
                                                                                         Regarding parents and the value
          I think the quality of teaching,                                     attributed to their children’s schooling
          textbooks, literary books should be
          improved, and the classes should be                                  process, young people declare that parents
          more dynamic, because just using the
          blackboard and books is very tiring.
                                                                               participated in their children’s school life
          (Vitória E.I).                                                       through meetings at school, asking about
                                                                               schoolwork and seeking to know about
      These young people who attended
                                                                               school performance, as Vitória points in
Evandro      Ávila      School          built         positive
                                                                               EI: “My parents try to find out about my
representations about the school. Most of

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grades and how I am in my work”. The                                          relating what they have learned, leaving
young people indicate that the diploma is                                     the routine with more practical classes,
very important for them and for the family,                                   being able to do the tasks and calculations
since the parents believe that, without                                       and being valued, these are aspects the
studies, the person is “nobody”, as Josiane                                   young people most mentioned to justify
points out in an interview: “... without                                      their taste for school life.
studying, we are not nothing".
                                                                                             Learning biology. Practical biology
      Laura was one of the young people                                                      classes are pretty cool. (João E.I)
who attended activities that expand school
                                                                                             We’ve got the same teacher for
education, such as the writing course and                                                    Philosophy and Sociology. This is
                                                                                             excellent because he talks to the
courses offered by SENAI in São João del-
                                                                                             whole class, so he listens to what we
Rei. She stands out for having the mother’s                                                  think. (Luana E.I).

support and encouragement to attend such
                                                                                        The teenagers aspire to continue their
activities. According to the girl, being
                                                                              studies at universities, but representation
successful in the tests is not enough and,
                                                                              about the role of the school is also linked
therefore, she seeks complements for her
                                                                              to another type of expectation: making
training outside of school:
                                                                              friends and getting along with people.
         Laura: In the morning I have class,                                  These young people state they like going to
         right? In the afternoon there is class,
         in the evening cursinho, Thursday I                                  school because of their friends and express
         have writing class in São João; then I                               dissatisfaction with the boring dynamics of
         stay there.
         Researcher: Do you do SENAI in                                       some classes. They want a change in the
         São João?
                                                                              curriculum,              with        insertion          of   more
         Laura: No, I’ve already stopped; it
         was just a vacation course; as I had                                 practical classes that arouse a taste for
         nothing to do on vacation, so I went
         and did it.                                                          study, and claim for teachers able to
         Researcher: What do you do in the                                    interact with the youth universe.
         afternoon?
         Laura: I do the assignments; I review                                          University             level        education       was
         the contents and write the
         compositions I have to do.                                           shown to be a more present expectation
                                                                              among the young people investigated (83%
      The students stress their desire to                                     of the students); however, there are
finish high school and continue their                                         exceptions, as in the case of Afonso, who
studies, as this is an achievement for them                                   intends to attend a professional course
and for their families. Learning new things,                                  before and does not know if he will attend
understanding the subject, applying and                                       university; and Vanessa, who, at first, does

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

not want to go to university, but to take                                     São Paulo in search of her dream of being
courses related to theater and cinema.                                        an actress.
None of the young people investigated
                                                                              Conclusion
declared that they are at school because
they were forced or at the insistence of
                                                                                        This research ratified trends or
their parents, except for one who declared
                                                                              dynamics identified by other research on
he “comes to school because he has to do”.
                                                                              rural and urban youth. In addition, this
       Of all the students interviewed, most
                                                                              study sought to broaden the focus,
would like to combine work and studies
                                                                              identifying that certain segments of rural
after high school. Some students would
                                                                              youth have characteristics much more of
like to work after completing high school
                                                                              their age group than of their specific rural
or graduation.
                                                                              group, as they consume goods and
       When asked to reflect on their
                                                                              products common to urban youth, advance
expectations for the next ten years and on
                                                                              in schooling in relation to their parents and
what     students        would           do          to      be
                                                                              have access to the new communication
professionally successful, the teenagers
                                                                              technologies of the computerized world.
argue that they want to study more, attend
                                                                                        In fact, we are witnessing today the
college and get a good job.
                                                                              non-agricultural                  rural          world.      This
       For the future, the young people
                                                                              perspective introduces new elements in the
aspire to leave Rio das Mortes and study in
                                                                              way of looking at the rural and urban
São João del-Rei or other neighboring
                                                                              worlds and the way in which they relate.
cities, in order to graduate from a college,
                                                                              Between urban centers and rural areas, the
guarantee a good job, have better living
                                                                              trend of relationships of complementarity
conditions and, therefore, help the family.
                                                                              continues (Ferrão, 2000).
When asked what they would like to do if
                                                                                        The blurring of boundaries between
they stayed in Rio das Mortes, one young
                                                                              countryside and city and the departure or
man says he would like to open a store
                                                                              permanence of young people in rural areas
near his home in Goiabeiras, and another
                                                                              are issues that go beyond the desire to
would like to play soccer in the rural
                                                                              “stay or leave”: they are also linked to an
championship. The rest intend to build
                                                                              assessment that young people make about
careers outside the district. The young
                                                                              the countryside and that leads them to see
Vanessa, during our research, moved to
                                                                              their perspectives, conflicts, difficulties
                                                                              and challenges.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

         The district is just a few kilometers                                    to make this happen in rural areas; they
from the city. The school is well-regarded                                        show commitment to the family and the
and offers a good structure, good teachers                                        feeling of belonging to their place of
and adequate materials, unlike perhaps                                            origin, but they do not fail to express that
most schools in various regions of Brazil.                                        they feel attracted to life in the city. This
This shows the effort of the state of Minas                                       shows the general difficulty of Brazilian
Gerais to increase access to basic school                                         society          in       guaranteeing                  well-defined
through high school for a public relatively                                       programs for the insertion of young people
far from the urban perimeter.                                                     from popular sectors into the world of
         One of the central concerns of this                                      work, and the specific form taken by this
research was listening to these young                                             lack of programs in the lives of rural young
people and identifying points of view                                             people, who, throughout the history of
about their lives inside and outside school,                                      Brazil, live the tension between “leaving or
in relation to the immediate and immediate                                        staying”.
social     and       geographic              context           that                         From the speeches of the young
reference their daily experiences. This                                           people, we realized that the process of
allowed us to understand a way of living                                          schooling in high school is positive, as
youth composed of generalized leisure                                             they feel comfortable at school and are
activities in Brazilian society, such as the                                      eager to enter university. The survey data
use of the internet to participate in social                                      also suggest that young people are able to
networks, the habit of watching television                                        talk about classes, contents, school and
programs and attending a rural school                                             could be important partners in reflecting on
establishment,          youth          territory           where                  the educational project intended for them.
properly school learning intersects with                                                    Most           of        the        young          people
diverse youth sociabilities, constituting                                         interviewed demonstrated to be satisfied
over there a way of appropriating the                                             with the public school where they studied.
school that does not differ from the urban                                        In addition, the students established a
world.                                                                            trusting relationship with the professionals’
         The conversations with the young                                         efficiency, with the quality of teaching and
people made it possible to identify that                                          with the curriculum. However, they would
their expectations fluctuate, as they say                                         like the teaching method adopted at the
they want to “improve their lives” and “be                                        school to introduce more practical and
someone in life”, but they do not see how                                         stimulating lessons.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

      Despite demonstrating satisfaction,                                      students explain that they find it difficult to
many students, when reflecting on how                                          understand the statements of the activities
much they studied during their school                                          and that they are unable to develop what is
career, stated that if they could change                                       requested, in addition to facing the lack of
what they experienced at school, they                                          meaning in some subjects.                          The    presence
would study more, make less mess and try                                       of the computer at home allows this media
to achieve better performance in the                                           resource to be used for entertainment and

subjects. In addition, young people still                                      virtual sociability, while young people seem to
                                                                               resist its use for specifically school purposes.
face difficulties in the schooling process:
                                                                               In this way, the school, which in the past had to
in the domestic space, they feel attracted to
                                                                               compete with television, must now also
the computer, to the detriment of books
                                                                               compete with the computer and the cell phone.
and notebooks.
                                                                               This leads us to reflect that current society
      The young people interviewed also                                        seeks to make more time available to young
feel the challenge of combining the needs                                      people from popular sectors, protecting new
of the present with the prospects for the                                      generations from premature entry into the labor
future, and this is intertwined with the                                       market, but they are unable to use part of the
tensions of school life: studying and not                                      time available at home for school learning.
studying, paying attention in class and                                        This indicates that solving the problem of low

expressing            themselves                      through                  performance involves offering a full-time and
                                                                               quality school, and encouraging the use of
conversation or mess. The clash between
                                                                               these media for scientific and philosophical
the long-term objective and the more
                                                                               knowledge.
immediate strategies is common, so that, at
                                                                                         The most significant experiences in
times, they oscillate and turn now to this
                                                                               the school career were the teachers, the
priority, now to that one.
                                                                               friendship relationships, the income in the
      On the other hand, young people
                                                                               subjects, the jokes made by friends and the
claim that many hours are dedicated to TV
                                                                               skills and learning acquired. Young people
and the computer, but they use it more as a
                                                                               perceive           the       value         of      a     dialogical
form of entertainment and, in few cases, to
                                                                               relationship of friendship and respect
seek information related to knowledge
                                                                               between students and teachers as a gain in
valued by the school and that the time
                                                                               school life.
dedicated    to      studying            at      home          is
                                                                                         The         issue         of       friendship        was
insufficient. When presenting the reasons
                                                                               mentioned as being fundamental to the
to justify the restricted time in studies, the
                                                                               schooling process. At times, the school

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

enabled and encouraged the students to get                                      Our impression is that teachers feel
connected through gymkhanas, cultural                                           compelled to maintain order in the
and    literary     fairs       and        group         work.                  classroom             when           students           push     the
However, at times, there was a certain                                          boundaries. As a result, they end up putting
separation of groups of friends due to the                                      pressure on students (sometimes with
students' disposition or the affinities in the                                  threats or taking concept points) and
classes.                                                                        excessive pressure and exaggeration of
       We know, however, that school is not                                     these lead to a rupture in the dialogue.
the only place for young people to                                                        Almost all of the 1st year students
socialize, as they attend other spaces linked                                   continued at Evandro Ávila School. For
to sports, religion and the representative                                      them,          completing              high         school       can
community          council,         in      addition            to              represent a moment of victory and
socializing with friends.                                                       conquest. This moment is seen by them as
       The relationship with teachers is                                        the       passage           to       yet       another         stage,
another issue strongly remembered by                                            configuring itself, then, as the possibility
young people. Participants say they have                                        of progressing to university.
positive and negative experiences with                                                    The school-effect is more easily
teachers. About positive relationships, they                                    revealed in the relational climate that
mention      the     teacher’s            efficiency            in              animates the investigated school. We did
promoting learning and good relationships                                       not find any youngster hostile to it, as an
with       students.        Regarding                negative                   expressively                dialogic             climate        was
experiences, they point to situations of                                        noticeable             during            the        observations.
punishment and embarrassment.                                                   Although with differences in relational
       Factors       such           as        generational                      dynamics inside the classroom, the school
differences and relations of affirmation and                                    seems capable of dealing with everyday
power are intertwined in the teacher-                                           tensions,          solving          and        containing        the
student relationship. It is noticeable that                                     conflicts that may arise.
the teenagers value dialogue with teachers
very much. In some moments, young                                               References
people      demonstrate            that       they         need                 Breitenbach, R., & Corazza, G. (2019).
someone to listen to them or give them                                          Formação profissional e a relação com a
                                                                                sucessão geracional entre jovens rurais,
advice, but in others they ask for a                                            Brasil. Revista Latinoamericana de
delimitation for the definition of spaces.                                      Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud, 7(2),
                                                                                262-296.

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Pinto, K. F. A., & Sant'Ana, R. B. (2021). Rural young in High School: schooling experiences and youth expectations...

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2.                                                                            Ministério da Educação (2013). Formação
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                                                                              Article Information
Leão G., Dayrell J., & Reis, J.B. (2011).
Juventude, projetos de vida e ensino                                          Received on January 27th, 2021
médio. Revista Educação e Sociedade,                                          Accepted on May 04th, 2021
                                                                              Published on July, 12th, 2021
32(117),                       1067-1084
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-
73302011000400010

  RBEC      Tocantinópolis/Brasil             v. 6      e11490           10.20873/uft.rbec.e11490                  2021        ISSN: 2525-4863
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