The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
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Quiz How many language families are there today? more than 150 How many languages are there today? between 6,500 and 7,000 examples of languages Is this number growing you don't know ☺ or declining? Declining ... rapidly Is German a Germanic language? Yes Is English a Germanic language? Yes
Quiz Do Spanish, German, English, Scottish, Greek, Russian, Polish, Hindi, Latvian, Armenian and Albanian have anything in common? Yes, they are all Indo-European languages So why are they so different? Because they belong to different language families (all originating from Proto-Indo- European)
Indo-European Languages Centum Languages Satem Languages Italic e.g. Latin, Spanish, Slavic e.g. Polish, Czech, Russian, Italian, French, Languages Portuguese, etc. Languages Ukranian, Bulgarian, etc. Hellenic Ancient Greek (extinct) Baltic Latvian, Lithuanian, Languages and Modern Greek Languages Old Prussian (extinct) Indo-Iranian e.g. Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Germanic e.g. English, German, Urdu, Persian, Kurdish, Languages Dutch, Swedish, etc. Languages Pashto, etc. Celtic e.g. Welsh, Breton, Armenian Languages Scottish Gaelic, etc. Anatolian Hittite (extinct) Albanian Languages Tocharian Tocharian (extinct) Languages
Germanic Languages North East West Germanic Germanic Germanic Languages Languages Languages Low Gothic German Danish (extinct) Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Frisian, Modern Low German, English Swedish High German Norwegian Old Modern High Icelandic Norse German, Yiddish Faroese
Indo-European languages English West Frisian German Danish Swedish consonant shifts: foot foet Fuß fod fot p f k h Latin Lithuanian Sanskrit d t sk sh ped peda pada t th Old English Modern German Modern English dag Tag day dohtor Tochter daughter similarities fæder Vater father & frēond Freund friend differences habban haben (to) have hús Haus house þancung Dank(e)/ Dankung thank(s)/ thanking þíof Dieb thief word Wort word
Development of English Indo-European languages around 1000 BC split into Italic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, Baltic, Indo-Iranian languages, etc. Germanic languages split into North, East, and West Germanic languages West Germanic languages split into High German & Low German languages from around Low German languages split into 1000 BC until today Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Frisian, Modern Low German and English
Development of English What is BRITAIN today Celts/ Picts/ Welsh (Celtic, Pictish, Gaelic) Celtic English (continuous form) (no writing) Romans (55 BC - 436 AD) impact on culture and infrastructure little impact on language: few loan words such as: 'win' (wine), 'piper' (pepper), 'candel' (candle), pund (pound), 'munt' (mountain), or 'cycene' (kitchen)
Development of English What is BRITAIN today Old English (7th - 11th century) Angles Saxons Jutes Frisians Vikings Hybrid language
Development of English Old English (7th - 11th century) example: Beowulf Listen to Beowulf in Old English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH-_GwoO4xI
Beowulf (Old English): Translation: Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, Listen! We of the spear Danes in the days of yore, þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon, of those clan kings - heard of their glory hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. how those nobles performed couragous deeds. Oft Scyld Scéfing sceaþena þreatum, Often Scvld, son of Scéf, from enemy hosts, monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, from many tribes seized the mead benches, egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð and terrorised the fearsome Heruli. After first he feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, was found helpless, fate then repaid him: weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, for he waxed under the clouds, in wealth he throve, oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra until to him each of the bordering tribes, ofer hronrade hyran scolde, beyond the whale-road, heard his mandate, gomban gyldan. þæt wæs god cyning! and give tribute: that was a good king! ðæm eafera wæs æfter cenned, To him an heir was born then, geong in geardum, þone god sende a son in his halls, whom God sent folce to frofre; fyrenðearfe ongeat to comfort the people; he had seen their dire þe hie ær drugon aldorlease distress that they suffered before, leaderless for lange hwile. Him þæs liffréä, a long while. The Lord endowed him, wuldres wealdend, woroldare forgeaf; the ruler of glory, granted honour on earth. Beowulf wæs breme, blæd wide sprang Beowulf was famed, his renown spread wide Scyldes eafera Scedelandum in Scyld's heir, in the Scandinavian lands. Swa sceal geong guma gode gewyrcean So ought a young man by deeds deserve, fromum feohgiftum on fæder bearme by fine gifts, while in his father's keeping, þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen that him in old age shall again stand by. wilgesiþas þonne wig cume willing companions when war comes leode gelæsten lofdædum sceal people serve him, by glorious deeds must in mægþa gehwære man geþeon amongst his people everywhere prosper.
Development of English Old English (7th - 11th century) complex language vowel shift: "Umlaut" (back of the mouth vowels) front of the mouth vowels High frequency words developed that are still similar in Modern German, e.g. brother (Bruder), daughter (Tochter), drink (trinken), earth (Erde), farm (Farm) find (finden), fish (Fisch), friend (Freund), house (Haus), laughter (Lachen), etc.
Development of English Old English (7th - 11th century) King Alfred the Great (9th century) treaty with invading Norsemen ("Danelaw") Old Norse influence on Old English e.g. awkward, bag, dirt, gate, mistake, neck, sky, skirt, skull, ugly, wrong, etc.) "parallelism": sick/ ill, dike/ ditch, wrath/ anger, skin/ hide OR he/ his/ him (cases) vs. to/ with/ from/ by (prepositions)
Development of English Old English (7th - 11th century) Old English "Wessex" dialect became the standard in 10th century poetry, e.g. 'Homily on St. Gregory the Great': Eft he axode, hu ðære ðeode nama wære þe hi of comon. Him wæs geandwyrd, þæt hi Angle genemnode wæron. þa cwæð he, Rihtlice hi sind Angle gehatene, for ðan ðe hi engla wlite habbað, and swilcum gedafenað þæt hi on heofonum engla geferan beon.
Development of English Middle English (1066 - 13th century) Norman Conquest 1066 Anglo-Norman French became the official language for more than 300 years Other languages used were: • Latin (church, scholars) • Old English regional dialects (peasants, commoners) such as Southern, Kent, Northern, or Midlands dialects
Development of English Middle English (1066 - 13th century) Influence of Anglo-Norman French on English: • noun suffixes (-age, -ance/-ence, -ant/-ent, -ment, -ity, -tion) • noun prefixes (con-, de-, ex-, trans-, pre-) • new vocabulary: prince, count, duke, baron, court, judge, contract, armor, archer, guad, courage, mansion, banquet, biscuit, color, etc. • additional vocabulary: beef (cow), veal (calf), pork/ bacon (pig), mutton (sheep), etc.
Development of English Middle English (1066 - 13th century) Influence of Anglo-Norman French on English: • Myriad of synonyms in English, e.g. infant/ child, liberty/ freedom, commence/ start, annual/ yearly, aid/ help, odor/ smell, etc. • Imported 'chic' French words, e.g. royal, romance, courtesy, honor, tournament, music, passion, popular, history, library, client, etc. • 'hw' 'wh', e.g. 'hwaer' where, 'hwil' while, 'hwo' who, 'hwaenne' when, etc.
Development of English Middle English (12th - 14th century) Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca" • dropped vowel sounds unstressed 'schwa' /ə/ (like in 'taken' or 'pencil') • dropped inflections and inflected case endings word order (S-V-O) & only "the" • Old English letters ð ('edh' or 'eth') and þ ('thorn') 'th'; letter 3 ('yogh') 'g' or 'gh' • 'ye' new formal YOU (Old English 'thou' was kept as an informal singular YOU)
Development of English Middle English (12th - 14th century) Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca" • 'cw' 'qu' (e.g. 'cwic' 'quick', 'cwene' 'queen') • 'c' 'k', 'ck' or 'ch' (e.g. cyning/cyng king, boc bock book, cild child, cese cheese) • deletion of Old English 'h' at the beginning of words (e.g. 'hring' ring, 'hnecca' neck) • addition of 'h' to Romance loan words (e.g. honor, heir, honest, habit, herb, etc.) • trailing 'e' silent (e.g. 'nose', 'name')
Development of English Middle English (12th - 14th century) Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca" • differentiation of f & v, s & z, ng & n (while 'u' and 'v' were still considered interchangeable) • long OE 'a' vowel ME 'o' vowel (e.g. 'ham' home, 'stan' stone, 'ban' bone, etc.) • long vowel sounds double vowels (e.g. 'boc' 'booc', 'se' 'see') • short vowel sounds double consonant (e.g. 'siting' 'sitting') • plural 'en' 's' (e.g. 'housen' houses)
Development of English Middle English (late 14th century) example: Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales Listen to the Prologue of the Canterbury Tales in Middle English: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXqiwRRJTxA
Development of English Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Middle English): Prologue, lines 1-18: Middle English Translation Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote When April with its sweet-smelling showers The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, Has pierced the drought of March to the root, And bathed every veyne in swich licour And bathed every vein in such liquid Of which vertu engendred is the flour; By which power the flower is created; Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth When the west wind also with its sweet breath, Inspired hath in every holt and heeth In every wood and field has breathed life into The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne The tender new leaves, and the young sun Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne, Has run half its course in Aries, And smale foweles maken melodye, And small fowls make melody, That slepen al the nyght with open ye Those that sleep all the night with open eyes (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages), (So Nature incites them in their hearts), Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, Then folk long to go on pilgrimages, And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, And professional pilgrims to seek foreign shores, To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; To distant shrines, known in various lands; And specially from every shires ende And specially from every shire's end Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende, Of England to Canterbury they travel, The hooly blisful martir for to seke, To seek the holy blessed martyr, That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. Who helped them when they were sick.
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) • Great Vowel Shift • coined by Otto Jespersen (1860 - 1943) • 7 long monophones changed: /iː/ /eː/ // /ɑː/ /ɔː/ /oː/ /uː/ • 2 diphthongs changed: /əɪ/ /əu/ • Changes did not happen at once, not consistently, and not everywhere
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) The Great Vowel Shift
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) Consonant changes,e.g.: • (German) "lachen" /laxen/ laugh /lax/ laugh /læf/ • (German) "acht" /axt/ eight /æxt/ eight /iːxt/ eight /əɪxt/ eight /əɪt/ • Voiceless consonants climb, knee, island, scissors • Added letters 'perfet' (perfect), 'faute' (fault), 'aventure' (adventure) • Examples of "old" pronunciation patterns: derby, clerk, Berkeley, Berkshire, and irregularities today: bear/ swear/ wear vs. great/ break/ steak or food/ moon/ soon vs. book/ foot/ good, etc.
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) • English Renaissance (16/17th cent.) Shakespeare • Imported words from Latin and Greek, e.g.: genius, species, radius, criterion, area, premium, or lexicon • "Inkhorn" words: still in use (e.g. impede, admit, external, exaggerate) did not survive (e.g. expede, demit, unhair, disacquaint, vastidity, inquisiturient) • Short-lived survival of old Germanic words, e.g. 'inwit' (conscience), 'gleeman' (musician), 'starlore' (astonomy), or 'speechcraft' (grammar)
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) • Printing (Johann Gutenberg/ 1439) publishing houses London/ 'Oxbridge' universities • 'Standardized' writing (Chancery of Westminster), dictionaries and efforts to 'purify' English • Spelling variations: he/ hi, her/ her, had/ hadde, which/ whiche, fellow/ felowe/ fallowe, etc. • Independent letters: u/ v and i/ j • 'Golden Age' of literature (W. Shakespeare, J. Webster, J. Milton, A. Pope, Sir F. Bacon, etc.)
Development of English Passage from Shakespeare's 'King Lear' (1623) Sir, I loue you more than words can weild ye matter, Early Deerer than eye-sight, space, and libertie, Modern Beyond what can be valewed, rich or rare, No lesse then life, with grace, health, beauty, honor: English As much as Childe ere lou'd, or Father found. A loue that makes breath poore, and speech vnable, Beyond all manner of so much I loue you. Sir, I love you more than word can wield the matter, Dearer than eyesight, space, and liberty, Beyond what can be valued, rich or rare, No less than life, with grace, health, beauty, honour, As much as childe e'er loved, or father found. 'Trans- A love that makes breath poor and speech unable, lation' Beyond all manner of 'so much' I love you. Shakespeare Globe London Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPlpphT7n9s
Development of English Early Modern English (14th - 16th century) International trade examples of loanwords • French: ballet, chocolate, salon, detail, cuisine, prestige, vogue • Italian: carnival, casino, grotto, studio, piano, opera, violin • Spanish: armada, cargo, plaza, salsa, banana, tango, vigilante • Portuguese: breeze, cobra, flamingo, marmalade, albino • German: kindergarten, fest, angst, delicatessen, dachshund • Dutch/Flemish: holster, skipper, dam, smuggle, yacht, reef • Norwegian: maelstrom, iceberg, ski, slalom, troll • Icelandic: mumps, saga, geyser // Finnish: sauna • Arabic: algebra, algorithm, almanac, saffron, coffee, mattress • Turkish: yoghurt, caviar, chess, kiosk, tulip, turban • Russian: sable, mammoth, vodka, kefir, commissar, tsar • Japanese: tycoon, geisha, karate, samurai • Malay: bamboo, amok, caddy, gong, ketchup, etc. • Chinese: tea, typhoon // Polynesian: taboo, tattoo
Development of English Late Modern English (17th - 20th century) Gradual transition due to industrialization, colonization and globolization "New tech" vocabulary, e.g. railroad, steam engine, telephone, photograph, bacteria, vaccine, electricity, economy British English independent forms, e.g.: American/ Canadian/ South African/ Australian/ New Zealand/ Caribbean/ Jamaican/ Black/ South Asian English
Development of English English today 375 million native speakers of English 1,500 million non-native speakers of English 'Lingua Franca' Regional differences Confusing sounds/ spelling myriad of synonyms and loanwords Urban Dictionary/ new creations, e.g. selfie, texting, edutainment, bromance
Lunch Break Mittagspause (1 hr) (1 Std.)
Quiz • What does this mean in English? "Das ist mein Haus." "This is my house." • How about this? "Sie trinkt einen Kaffee mit Zucker." "She drinks a coffee with sugar." • And finally: "Welcher der drei Sätze war am einfachsten?" "Which of the three sentences was the easiest one?"
Quiz Can you guess these German words? ☺ Oktoberfest Bier Bratwurst Apfelstrudel Mutter Hund Vater Sommer Wasser Lampe Straße Butter Katze Buch Hundert Tochter Freund
Germanic Languages North East West Germanic Germanic Germanic Languages Languages Languages Low Gothic German Danish (extinct) Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Frisian, Modern Low German, English Swedish High German Norwegian Old Modern High Icelandic Norse German, Yiddish Faroese
Development of German Proto-Germanic (~ 2,000 BC - 500 BC) Germanic (500 BC - 750 AD) Althochdeutsch Old High German (750 - 1050 AD) Mittelhochdeutsch Middle High German (1050 - 1350 BC) Frühneuhochdeutsch Early New High German (1350 - 1650 AD) Neuhochdeutsch New High German (since 1650 AD) Modern German (~ 20th/ 21st century)
Development of German Proto Germanic Germanic (~ 2,000 BC - 500 BC) (500 BC - 750 AD) • "Great Germanic Sound Shift" separated Germanic & Proto-Indo-European languages • Rasmus Christian Rask / Josef Grimm "Grimm's Law"/ "Rask-Grimm Rule" (1820s) p f/v, t d, v w, k/c h/ch (/x/ sound) Sanskrit Greek Latin German English pitár patéras pater Vater father hunda kýon canis Hund hound (dog) trisrah treis tres drei three
Development of German Proto Germanic/ Germanic (~ 2,000 BC - 750 BC) • Spoken language/ no written records until the 1st century AD (only citations in Latin) • From the 1st century AD carved inscriptions in "Futhark" • 24-letter runic alphabet used in continental Europe "Elder Futhark" • 33-letter runic alphabet introduced in England (5th century) "Futhorc"
Development of German Proto Germanic/ Germanic (~ 2,000 BC - 750 BC) 24-letter "Elder Futhark"
Development of German 33-letter "Futhorc" 16-letter "Younger Futhark" (Scandinavia)
Development of German Germanic Old High German (500 BC - 750 AD) (750 AD - 1050 AD) Consonant Shift as described by Jacob Grimm (1785 - 1863) and Karl Verner (1846 - 1896) "Grimm's Law" & "Verner's Law"
Development of German "Grimm's Law" & "Verner's Law" (examples) • p/ pp pf/ ff apple Apfel; plough Pflug; swamp Sumpf; pan Pfanne; pound Pfund; hope hoffen • th d & t s/ z three drei; that das; thank Dank; thick dick; path Pfad; thorn Dorn; brother Bruder; better besser; water Wasser; what was; ten zehn; sit sitzen; bite beissen; foot Fuß • k ch [/x/ sound] make machen; speak sprechen; rake Rechen; break brechen; hake Hecht
Development of German Germanic (8th century) • Several other sound shifts (regional) • Regional dialects, e.g. "Sächsisch" (Saxon), "Bairisch" (Bavarian), "Fränkisch" (Franconian), "Ostfriesisch" (East Frisian) • Separation into "Oberdeutsch" (upper German), "Mitteldeutsch" (middle German) and "Niederdeutsch" (lower German) • At the same time, Gothic still existed
Development of German Althochdeutsch (Old High German) "Theodisk" (750 - 1050 AD) • Documented written examples of 'streamlined' words selected from dialects that had gone through all sound changes • "Theodisk": Germanic root 'diot' (people/ folk) adjective 'diotisc' (of the people) 'Theodisk' 'Diutisc' 'Diutsch' Deutsch meaning "Volkssprache" ('folk speech'/ ver- nacular language) Latin/ Greek/ Old French
Development of German Example of Old German/ Old Saxon text: "Der Heiland" ("The Savior") written by a monk living in the Fulda Monastery in the 9th/ 10th century: Matheus endi Marcus, so uuarun thai man hetana. Lucas endi Hohanes, sie uuarun liebe gode. Modern German English Matthäus und Markus, Matthrew and Mark, so heißen die Männer. so the men are called. Lukas und Johannes, Luke and John, sie waren Gott lieb. they were loved by God.
Development of German Example of Old German pagan text: "Die Merseburger Zaubersprüche" ("The pagan magic chants of Merseburg"): (Attempted, rather literal) translation into English: Translation (Modern German): Phol and Wodan Phôl ende Wuodan Phol und Wodan betook themselves fuorun zi holza. begaben sich in den Wald into the woods dû wart demo balderes folon Da wurde dem Balders Fohlen There the Balders foal's sîn fuoz birenkit. sein Fuß verrenkt foot was sprained thû biguol en Sinthgunt, Da besprach ihn Sinthgunt, Then, Sinthgunt, Sunna's Sunna era swister; Sunna ihre Schwester sister conjured him thû biguol en Frîja, Da besprach ihn Frija, Then, Frija, Folla's sister Folla era swister; Folla ihre Schwester; conjured him thû biguol en Wuodan, Da besprach ihn Wodan, Then, Wodan conjured sô hê wola conda: wie er es wohl verstand: him the way he sôse bênrenki, So Knochenrenke, understood: sôse bluotrenki, so Blutrenke, So appendages wring sôse lidirenki: so Gliedrenke: and set yourselves right bên zi bêna, Knochen zu Knochen, Bone to bone, bluot zi bluoda, Blut zu Blut, blood to blood, lid zi geliden, Glied zu Glied, extremity to extremity, sôse gelîmida sîn. so sind sie geleimt. until they are glued
Development of German "Althochdeutsch" (Old High German) (750 - 1050 AD) • Still a synthetic language (pagan text example) • "Karolinger Zeit" (the age of the 'Karolinger'), "Karl der Große" (Charlemagne, 742 - 814) King of the Franks/ Lombards/ Romans "imperium christianum" (Christian imperium)
Development of German "Althochdeutsch" (Old High German) (750 - 1050 AD) • "Volkssprache Theodisk" is used to spread the written word • Missing words were borrowed from Greek: e.g. kyrikón (Kirche; meaning 'church'), ángelos (Engel; meaning 'angel'), or epískopos (Bischoff; meaning 'bishop') Latin: scribere (schreiben; meaning 'write'), corpus (Körper; meaning 'body'), discus (Tisch; meaning 'table), or fenestra (Fenster; meaning 'window')
Development of German "Mittelhochdeutsch" / "Dütsch" (Middle High German) (1050 - 1350 AD) • Development of the German Umlaut (ä, ö, ü) 'Mærtz' März; 'Bruieder' 'Brüder; 'scœn' schön • Unstressed additional syllable vowels: 'salbôn' Salben; 'gibirgi' Gebirge; 'taga' Tage • Secular influencers ("Stauferzeit")/ chivalric poetry/ "Minnesänger" influx of French words
Development of German Excerpt from the Middle High German poem "Der arme Heinrich" (the poor Heinrich) by Hartmann von Aue (~ 1190s): Middle German Modern German Modern English Ein ritter Es war einmal ein Ritter, There was a knight who sô gelêret was, der so gelehrt war, was educated enough daz er an den dass er alles, was er in to read and understand buochen las, Büchern geschrieben everything written in swaz er dar an fand, lesen konnte. books. geschriben vant, der was Er hieß Hartmann, His name was Hartmann genannt, Hartmann, dienstman was er und war Lehnsmann and he was a zouwe Aue. zu Aue. vassal/ leud in Aue.
Development of German "Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New High German) (1350 - 1650 AD) • Renewed idenfication with local territories governed by "local" noble families • Return to regional traditions and dialects • No effort to achieve trans-regional standardization
Development of German "Frühneu- hochdeutsch" (Early New High German) (1350 - 1650 AD) German dialects
Development of German Early New High German Sound changes of the 14th & 15th century • Lengthening of short vowels in open syllables e.g. "lebben" "leben" • Shortening of long vowels in closed syllables e.g. "haßt" "hast" / "hôchgezît" "Hochzeit" • Diphthongization of long vowels, e.g. "liute" Leute / "mîn niuwes hûs" "mein neues Haus" • monophthongization of 'ei', 'uo', 'üe' 'iß', 'uß' e.g. "füeze" Füße / "brüeder" Brüder / "suochen" suchen
Development of German Early New High German Sound changes of the 14th & 15th century • Those sound changes did not happen everywhere (dialectal differences) • Rise of preferred 'categories' of dialects: Österreichisch/ Bairisch (Austro-Bavarian) Schwäbisch (Swabonian) Rheinisch (Rhine and Lorrainian Franconian) Zürich Dütsch (Zurich Swiss German) Ostmitteldeutsch (Eastern Middle German) Nordmitteldeutsch (Northern Middle German)
Development of German "Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New High German) (1350 - 1650 AD) • Ratsherr Ulmann Stromer von Nürnberg opened first paper mill (1389) • Johannes (Gensfleisch zur Laden zum) Gutenberg invented the first printing press (1439) "Druckersprachen" (printing languages) • Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) protestant reformation movement/ proclamations/ 'new' Bible trans-regional dialect "Ostmittel-deutsch" 'creator of Modern High German'
Development of German "Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New High German) (1350 - 1650 AD) Martin Luther's 'new' German evolved: (1/ Mos/ 1, 4) 1524: vnd Gott sahe das liecht fur gut an 1534: Vnd Gott saha, das das Liecht gut war Today: Und Gott sah, daß das Licht gut war (English: And God saw that the light was good) (1/ Mos/ 40, 7) 1523: warumb sehet yhr heutte so ubel 1534: warumb seid jr heute so traurig Today: Warum seht ihr heute so traurig aus (English: Why do you look so sad today)
Development of German "Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New High German) (1350 - 1650 AD) Late 16th/ early 17th century • Decline of regionally influencial noble families and knights • Rise of aldermen and political leaders of growing cities (cathedrals/ universities) • Renaissance of Humanities trans-regional "Deutsch" popular alternative to Latin/ Greek • Standardized form of German that had 6 tenses, 4 cases, auxilliary & modal verbs, complex inflection
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • "Dreißigjähriger Krieg" (30-year war) • "Westfälischer Frieden" (1648 peace treaty) • Independence for territories - more than 300 so-called "Kleinstaaten" (mini countries) • Trans-territorial trade revived "Luther's German" (though despised) as a 'Lingua Franca' while regional dialects remained in use (preferred)
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • 'Chique' French words Louis XIV ('sun king') Appartment, Bouillon, Chance, Chauffeur, Courage, Dessert, Parterre, Portemonnaie, Rendez-vous, Souterrain, vis-à-vis, etc. • Anti 'frenchification' movement Wohnung, Brühe, Gelegenheit, Fahrer, Mut, Nachspeise, Erdgeschoß, Geldbeutel, Verabredung, Untergeschoß, gegenüber, etc.
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • Justus Georg Schottelius (1612 - 1676) "Ausführliche Arbeit zur Teutschen HaubtSprache" • Further standardization efforts poets and writers 'Age of Reason' German 'main language' (logical & reasonable) foundation of today's German
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • Martin Opitz (1624) "Buch von der Deutschen Poeterey" guidelines for homogeneous language, metre, intonation and rhythm in German poetry • "Weimarer Klassik" (Weimar Classicism) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832), Friedrich Schiller (1759 - 1805) "Kulturelle Vorbildsprache"
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) Goethe wrote: Nicht ist alles Gold, was gleißt, Glück nicht alles, was so heißt; nicht alles Freude, was so scheint; damit hab ich gar manches gemeint. Meaning: Not everything that glissens is gold, neither is everything happiness that is like that called; not everything is as pleasant as it seems; by that I refer to many different things.
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • Final harmonization of New High German • "Haus der Hohenzollern "Preußen" (Kingdom of Prussia) unification of all kingdoms of Germany in 1871 • "Deutsches Kaiserreich" 1871 - 1918 all German citizens had to learn "Hoch- deutsch" (High German) in addition to their regional dialect still the same today!
"Deutsches Kaiserreich" (1871 - 1918) today's today's Denmark Latvia & Lithuania today's Poland today's Slovakia today's France today's Czech Republic
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) • 1876: "Conferenz zur Herstellung größerer Einigung der deutschen Rechtschreibung" lead by Konrad Duden • Today: Duden = official Dictionary of German (2017: 27th edition) incl. several orthography reforms
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) Example: 'crazy' German compound nouns • "Straßenbahnhaltestelle" (tram station) • "Schifffahrtskapitänsmütze" (captain's hat) • "Feuerwehrausfahrtsparkverbotszone" (fire rescue exit no parking zone) 1891: Gustav Wurstmann published "Allerhand Sprachdummheiten. Kleine Grammatik des Zweifelhaften, des Falschen und des Häßlichen."
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) Historical events in the years to follow: • Rising tensions among European nations • 1914: assassination of Archduke Frank Ferdinand of Austria diplomatic crises European wars WWI • WWI ended in 1918 Weimar Republic (birth of a democratic nation)
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) Historical events in the years to follow: • Growing sentiment: equal opportunities expropriation & demise of noble families • Post-war reparation payments: 269 billion Marks (~ 32 billion US$ today) • World economic crisis (1930s) • These events gave rise to Adolf Hitler "Reichskanzler" (1933) Deutsches Reich
Development of German "Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German) (since 1650) Historical events in the years to follow: • "Hitler years" "Volksempfänger", "Volkswagen", "Arbeit macht frei", etc. • Chancellor Dictator use of German and rhetoric changed completely (from the hights of German literature and poetry to the lows of Nazi Germany) • WWII (1939 - 1945)
Development of German "Modernes Hochdeutsch" (Modern High German) (since 1950) • No major changes to German grammar • Several spelling reforms • Socio-cultural and technological changes to vocabulary (TV, radio, newspapers, movies) • Mixture of dialects ("Ostkriegsflüchtlinge") & rise of English (occupying allied forces) • Influx of "Gastarbeiter" (Italy; Turkey)
Development of German "Modernes Hochdeutsch" (Modern High German) (since 1950) Examples of the influence of the computer and internet age on German: • Computer, Internet, Email, Log-in, Laptop, Tablet, Software, Online-Banking, Chat, Software, Browser, Scanner, etc. • downloaden, einloggen, klicken, Maus, Passwort, Enter Taste, Handy, etc.
Development of German "Modernes Hochdeutsch" (Modern High German) (since 1950) Examples of the influence of "Gastarbeiter" (food) language on German: • Italian: Pizzeria, Gelatti, Cappuccino, Pesto, Parmigiano, Pesto, Tagliatelle, Gnocchi, Scampi, Calamari, Bruschetta, or Lambrusco. • Turkish: Döner, Börek, Baklava, Dolmades, Köfte, Şiş Kebap, Ekmek, or Ayran.
Development of German "Modernes Hochdeutsch" (Modern High German) (since 1950) Other "anglicisms" used in German today: • Meeting - Brainstorming - Marketing Plan - Update - Call Center • Voicemail - online Chat - Tour Guide - Broker - Sponsor - Event - Ticket - Jeans • Fast Food - Snack Bar - Cheeseburger - Ketchup - Cocktail - Happy Hour - Party
Development of German German today • Unified written language (Modern High German) coexists with a multitude of locally spoken dialects "bi-lingualism" ☺ • Modern Low German languages still exist in written and spoken form (Plattdeutsch, Friesisch, or Niederdeutsch) or only in spoken form (Bavarian, Franconian, etc.) • German is spoken by more than 100 million people (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, parts of Liechtenstein/ Luxembourg/ Belgium/ Italy/ Brazil)
Final thoughts, Q&As So why are English & German related? Why do English speakers around the world sound so different? ? Why does German spoken in Berlin, Leipzig, Frankfurt, Munich, ?? or Cologne sound so different? Why does English have so many French words?
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