The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop

 
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
inlingua PDP
  Workshop

           The History of
             Germanic
            languages
               by Renata Urban
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Quiz
How many language families are there
today?               more than 150
How many languages are there today?
between 6,500 and 7,000      examples
                              of languages
Is this number growing        you don't know ☺
or declining? Declining ... rapidly
Is German a Germanic language? Yes
Is English a Germanic language? Yes
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Quiz
Do Spanish, German, English, Scottish,
Greek, Russian, Polish, Hindi, Latvian,
Armenian and Albanian have anything
in common?
Yes, they are all Indo-European languages

So why are they so different?
Because they belong to different language
families (all originating from Proto-Indo-
European)
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Indo-European Languages
Centum Languages                          Satem Languages

      Italic    e.g. Latin, Spanish,           Slavic       e.g. Polish, Czech, Russian,
                Italian, French,
   Languages    Portuguese, etc.
                                             Languages      Ukranian, Bulgarian, etc.

    Hellenic    Ancient Greek (extinct)        Baltic       Latvian, Lithuanian,
   Languages    and Modern Greek             Languages      Old Prussian (extinct)

                                             Indo-Iranian   e.g. Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi,
    Germanic    e.g. English, German,                       Urdu, Persian, Kurdish,
   Languages    Dutch, Swedish, etc.          Languages     Pashto, etc.

     Celtic     e.g. Welsh, Breton,           Armenian
   Languages    Scottish Gaelic, etc.

    Anatolian   Hittite (extinct)             Albanian
   Languages

    Tocharian   Tocharian (extinct)
   Languages
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Germanic Languages
  North           East              West
 Germanic       Germanic          Germanic
Languages      Languages         Languages
                                     Low
                    Gothic          German
   Danish            (extinct)
                                   Dutch, Flemish,
                                   Afrikaans, Frisian,
                                   Modern Low
                                   German, English
   Swedish
                                     High
                                    German
             Norwegian
     Old                           Modern High
             Icelandic
    Norse                          German, Yiddish
             Faroese
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Indo-European languages
English   West Frisian    German     Danish   Swedish
                                                        consonant shifts:
foot      foet            Fuß        fod      fot
                                                        p f k  h
Latin     Lithuanian      Sanskrit                      d  t sk  sh
ped       peda            pada                          t  th

                       Old English    Modern German    Modern English
                       dag            Tag              day
                       dohtor         Tochter          daughter
similarities           fæder          Vater            father
      &                frēond         Freund           friend
differences            habban         haben            (to) have
                       hús            Haus             house
                       þancung        Dank(e)/ Dankung thank(s)/ thanking
                       þíof           Dieb             thief
                       word           Wort             word
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Development of English
Indo-European languages
around 1000 BC

split into Italic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic,
Baltic, Indo-Iranian languages, etc.
        Germanic languages split into North, East,
        and West Germanic languages
              West Germanic languages split into
              High German & Low German languages
from
around              Low German languages split into
1000 BC
until today         Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Frisian,
                    Modern Low German and English
The History of Germanic languages - inlingua PDP Workshop
Development of English
What is BRITAIN today
    Celts/ Picts/ Welsh (Celtic, Pictish, Gaelic)
    Celtic  English (continuous form)
    (no writing)
    Romans (55 BC - 436 AD)
    impact on culture and infrastructure
    little impact on language: few loan
    words such as: 'win' (wine), 'piper'
    (pepper), 'candel' (candle), pund (pound),
    'munt' (mountain), or 'cycene' (kitchen)
Development of English
What is BRITAIN today
    Old English (7th - 11th century)
    Angles
    Saxons
    Jutes
    Frisians
    Vikings
    Hybrid
    language
Development of English

Old English
(7th - 11th century)

example:
Beowulf

Listen to Beowulf in Old English:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH-_GwoO4xI
Beowulf (Old English):                   Translation:
Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum,           Listen! We of the spear Danes in the days of yore,
þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon,              of those clan kings - heard of their glory
hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon.          how those nobles performed couragous deeds.
Oft Scyld Scéfing sceaþena þreatum,      Often Scvld, son of Scéf, from enemy hosts,
monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah,       from many tribes seized the mead benches,
egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð        and terrorised the fearsome Heruli. After first he
feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad,   was found helpless, fate then repaid him:
weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah,     for he waxed under the clouds, in wealth he throve,
oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra      until to him each of the bordering tribes,
ofer hronrade hyran scolde,              beyond the whale-road, heard his mandate,
gomban gyldan. þæt wæs god cyning!       and give tribute: that was a good king!
ðæm eafera wæs æfter cenned,             To him an heir was born then,
geong in geardum, þone god sende         a son in his halls, whom God sent
folce to frofre; fyrenðearfe ongeat      to comfort the people; he had seen their dire
þe hie ær drugon aldorlease              distress that they suffered before, leaderless for
lange hwile. Him þæs liffréä,            a long while. The Lord endowed him,
wuldres wealdend, woroldare forgeaf;     the ruler of glory, granted honour on earth.
Beowulf wæs breme, blæd wide sprang      Beowulf was famed, his renown spread wide
Scyldes eafera Scedelandum in            Scyld's heir, in the Scandinavian lands.
Swa sceal geong guma gode gewyrcean      So ought a young man by deeds deserve,
fromum feohgiftum on fæder bearme        by fine gifts, while in his father's keeping,
þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen           that him in old age shall again stand by.
wilgesiþas þonne wig cume                willing companions when war comes
leode gelæsten lofdædum sceal            people serve him, by glorious deeds must
in mægþa gehwære man geþeon              amongst his people everywhere prosper.
Development of English
Old English (7th - 11th century)
     complex language
     vowel shift: "Umlaut" (back of the mouth
     vowels)  front of the mouth vowels
     High frequency words developed that
     are still similar in Modern German, e.g.
     brother (Bruder), daughter (Tochter),
     drink (trinken), earth (Erde), farm (Farm)
     find (finden), fish (Fisch), friend (Freund),
     house (Haus), laughter (Lachen), etc.
Development of English
Old English (7th - 11th century)
     King Alfred the Great (9th century)
      treaty with invading Norsemen
     ("Danelaw")
     Old Norse influence on Old English
      e.g. awkward, bag, dirt, gate, mistake,
     neck, sky, skirt, skull, ugly, wrong, etc.)
      "parallelism": sick/ ill, dike/ ditch,
     wrath/ anger, skin/ hide OR he/ his/ him
     (cases) vs. to/ with/ from/ by (prepositions)
Development of English
Old English (7th - 11th century)
     Old English "Wessex" dialect became the
     standard in 10th century poetry, e.g.
     'Homily on St. Gregory the Great':

Eft he axode, hu ðære ðeode nama wære þe
hi of comon. Him wæs geandwyrd, þæt hi
Angle genemnode wæron. þa cwæð he,
Rihtlice hi sind Angle gehatene, for ðan ðe hi
engla wlite habbað, and swilcum gedafenað
þæt hi on heofonum engla geferan beon.
Development of English
Middle English (1066 - 13th century)
     Norman Conquest 1066

     Anglo-Norman French became the official
     language for more than 300 years
     Other languages used were:
     • Latin (church, scholars)
     • Old English regional dialects (peasants,
       commoners) such as Southern, Kent,
       Northern, or Midlands dialects
Development of English
Middle English (1066 - 13th century)
Influence of Anglo-Norman French on English:
• noun suffixes (-age, -ance/-ence, -ant/-ent,
  -ment, -ity, -tion)
• noun prefixes (con-, de-, ex-, trans-, pre-)
• new vocabulary: prince, count, duke, baron,
  court, judge, contract, armor, archer, guad,
  courage, mansion, banquet, biscuit, color, etc.
• additional vocabulary: beef (cow), veal (calf),
  pork/ bacon (pig), mutton (sheep), etc.
Development of English
Middle English (1066 - 13th century)
Influence of Anglo-Norman French on English:
• Myriad of synonyms in English, e.g. infant/
  child, liberty/ freedom, commence/ start,
  annual/ yearly, aid/ help, odor/ smell, etc.
• Imported 'chic' French words, e.g. royal,
  romance, courtesy, honor, tournament, music,
  passion, popular, history, library, client, etc.
• 'hw'  'wh', e.g. 'hwaer'  where, 'hwil' 
  while, 'hwo'  who, 'hwaenne'  when, etc.
Development of English
Middle English (12th - 14th century)
Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca"
• dropped vowel sounds  unstressed 'schwa'
  /ə/ (like in 'taken' or 'pencil')
• dropped inflections and inflected case
  endings  word order (S-V-O) & only "the"
• Old English letters ð ('edh' or 'eth') and þ
  ('thorn')  'th'; letter 3 ('yogh')  'g' or 'gh'
• 'ye'  new formal YOU (Old English 'thou'
  was kept as an informal singular YOU)
Development of English
Middle English (12th - 14th century)
Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca"
• 'cw'  'qu' (e.g. 'cwic'  'quick', 'cwene'  'queen')
• 'c'  'k', 'ck' or 'ch' (e.g. cyning/cyng  king,
  boc  bock  book, cild  child, cese cheese)
• deletion of Old English 'h' at the beginning of
  words (e.g. 'hring'  ring, 'hnecca'  neck)
• addition of 'h' to Romance loan words
 (e.g. honor, heir, honest, habit, herb, etc.)
• trailing 'e'  silent (e.g. 'nose', 'name')
Development of English
Middle English (12th - 14th century)
Oxford/ Cambridge English - "lingua franca"
• differentiation of f & v, s & z, ng & n (while 'u'
  and 'v' were still considered interchangeable)
• long OE 'a' vowel  ME 'o' vowel (e.g. 'ham'
   home, 'stan'  stone, 'ban'  bone, etc.)
• long vowel sounds  double vowels
  (e.g. 'boc'  'booc', 'se'  'see')
• short vowel sounds  double consonant
  (e.g. 'siting'  'sitting')
• plural 'en'  's' (e.g. 'housen'  houses)
Development of English

Middle English
(late 14th century)

example:
Geoffrey Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales

Listen to the Prologue of the Canterbury
Tales in Middle English:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXqiwRRJTxA
Development of English
Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (Middle English):
Prologue, lines 1-18:

Middle English                                    Translation

Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote           When April with its sweet-smelling showers
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote,    Has pierced the drought of March to the root,
And bathed every veyne in swich licour            And bathed every vein in such liquid
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;            By which power the flower is created;
Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth          When the west wind also with its sweet breath,
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth             In every wood and field has breathed life into
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne           The tender new leaves, and the young sun
Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne,            Has run half its course in Aries,
And smale foweles maken melodye,                  And small fowls make melody,
That slepen al the nyght with open ye             Those that sleep all the night with open eyes
(So priketh hem Nature in hir corages),           (So Nature incites them in their hearts),
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,        Then folk long to go on pilgrimages,
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes,      And professional pilgrims to seek foreign shores,
To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;         To distant shrines, known in various lands;
And specially from every shires ende              And specially from every shire's end
Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende,            Of England to Canterbury they travel,
The hooly blisful martir for to seke,             To seek the holy blessed martyr,
That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke.   Who helped them when they were sick.
Development of English
Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
  • Great Vowel Shift
  • coined by Otto Jespersen (1860 - 1943)
  • 7 long monophones changed:
    /iː/ /eː/ // /ɑː/ /ɔː/ /oː/ /uː/
  • 2 diphthongs changed: /əɪ/ /əu/
  • Changes did not happen at once,
    not consistently, and not everywhere
Development of English

Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
  The Great Vowel Shift
Development of English
 Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
   Consonant changes,e.g.:
• (German) "lachen" /laxen/  laugh /lax/  laugh /læf/
• (German) "acht" /axt/  eight /æxt/  eight /iːxt/ 
  eight /əɪxt/  eight /əɪt/
• Voiceless consonants  climb, knee, island, scissors
• Added letters  'perfet' (perfect), 'faute' (fault),
  'aventure' (adventure)
• Examples of "old" pronunciation patterns: derby, clerk,
  Berkeley, Berkshire, and irregularities today: bear/
  swear/ wear vs. great/ break/ steak or food/ moon/
  soon vs. book/ foot/ good, etc.
Development of English
 Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
• English Renaissance (16/17th cent.)  Shakespeare
• Imported words from Latin and Greek, e.g.: genius,
  species, radius, criterion, area, premium, or lexicon
• "Inkhorn" words: still in use (e.g. impede, admit,
  external, exaggerate)  did not survive (e.g. expede,
  demit, unhair, disacquaint, vastidity, inquisiturient)
• Short-lived survival of old Germanic words, e.g.
  'inwit' (conscience), 'gleeman' (musician), 'starlore'
  (astonomy), or 'speechcraft' (grammar)
Development of English
 Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
• Printing (Johann Gutenberg/ 1439)  publishing
  houses London/ 'Oxbridge' universities
• 'Standardized' writing (Chancery of Westminster),
  dictionaries and efforts to 'purify' English
• Spelling variations: he/ hi, her/ her, had/ hadde,
  which/ whiche, fellow/ felowe/ fallowe, etc.
• Independent letters: u/ v and i/ j
• 'Golden Age' of literature (W. Shakespeare,
  J. Webster, J. Milton, A. Pope, Sir F. Bacon, etc.)
Development of English
Passage from Shakespeare's 'King Lear' (1623)

Sir, I loue you more than words can weild ye matter,             Early
Deerer than eye-sight, space, and libertie,
                                                                 Modern
Beyond what can be valewed, rich or rare,
No lesse then life, with grace, health, beauty, honor:           English
As much as Childe ere lou'd, or Father found.
A loue that makes breath poore, and speech vnable,
Beyond all manner of so much I loue you.

Sir, I love you more than word can wield the matter,
Dearer than eyesight, space, and liberty,
Beyond what can be valued, rich or rare,
No less than life, with grace, health, beauty, honour,
As much as childe e'er loved, or father found.                   'Trans-
A love that makes breath poor and speech unable,                 lation'
Beyond all manner of 'so much' I love you.

  Shakespeare Globe London Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPlpphT7n9s
Development of English
Early Modern English (14th - 16th century)
International trade  examples of loanwords
  • French: ballet, chocolate, salon, detail, cuisine, prestige, vogue
  • Italian: carnival, casino, grotto, studio, piano, opera, violin
  • Spanish: armada, cargo, plaza, salsa, banana, tango, vigilante
  • Portuguese: breeze, cobra, flamingo, marmalade, albino
  • German: kindergarten, fest, angst, delicatessen, dachshund
  • Dutch/Flemish: holster, skipper, dam, smuggle, yacht, reef
  • Norwegian: maelstrom, iceberg, ski, slalom, troll
  • Icelandic: mumps, saga, geyser // Finnish: sauna
  • Arabic: algebra, algorithm, almanac, saffron, coffee, mattress
  • Turkish: yoghurt, caviar, chess, kiosk, tulip, turban
  • Russian: sable, mammoth, vodka, kefir, commissar, tsar
  • Japanese: tycoon, geisha, karate, samurai
  • Malay: bamboo, amok, caddy, gong, ketchup, etc.
  • Chinese: tea, typhoon // Polynesian: taboo, tattoo
Development of English
Late Modern English (17th - 20th century)
      Gradual transition due to industrialization,
      colonization and globolization
      "New tech" vocabulary, e.g. railroad,
      steam engine, telephone, photograph,
      bacteria, vaccine, electricity, economy
      British English  independent forms,
      e.g.: American/ Canadian/ South African/
      Australian/ New Zealand/ Caribbean/
      Jamaican/ Black/ South Asian English
Development of English
English today
     375 million native speakers of English
     1,500 million non-native speakers of
     English  'Lingua Franca'
     Regional differences
     Confusing sounds/ spelling
     myriad of synonyms and loanwords
     Urban Dictionary/ new creations, e.g.
     selfie, texting, edutainment, bromance
Lunch Break   Mittagspause
   (1 hr)        (1 Std.)
Quiz
• What does this mean in English?
  "Das ist mein Haus."
      "This is my house."
• How about this?
  "Sie trinkt einen Kaffee mit Zucker."
      "She drinks a coffee with sugar."
• And finally: "Welcher der drei Sätze
                war am einfachsten?"
      "Which of the three sentences
        was the easiest one?"
Quiz
Can you guess these German words?        ☺
Oktoberfest Bier Bratwurst Apfelstrudel
 Mutter                 Hund
             Vater               Sommer
    Wasser             Lampe
   Straße     Butter             Katze
                          Buch
  Hundert                        Tochter
                Freund
Germanic Languages
  North           East              West
 Germanic       Germanic          Germanic
Languages      Languages         Languages
                                     Low
                    Gothic          German
   Danish            (extinct)
                                   Dutch, Flemish,
                                   Afrikaans, Frisian,
                                   Modern Low
                                   German, English
   Swedish
                                     High
                                    German
             Norwegian
     Old                           Modern High
             Icelandic
    Norse                          German, Yiddish
             Faroese
Development of German
Proto-Germanic (~ 2,000 BC - 500 BC)
Germanic (500 BC - 750 AD)
Althochdeutsch
Old High German (750 - 1050 AD)
Mittelhochdeutsch
Middle High German (1050 - 1350 BC)
Frühneuhochdeutsch
Early New High German (1350 - 1650 AD)
Neuhochdeutsch
New High German (since 1650 AD)
Modern German (~ 20th/ 21st century)
Development of German
Proto Germanic                    Germanic
(~ 2,000 BC - 500 BC)              (500 BC - 750 AD)

• "Great Germanic Sound Shift" separated
  Germanic & Proto-Indo-European languages
• Rasmus Christian Rask / Josef Grimm 
  "Grimm's Law"/ "Rask-Grimm Rule" (1820s)
  p  f/v, t  d, v  w, k/c  h/ch (/x/ sound)
  Sanskrit   Greek     Latin   German   English
  pitár      patéras   pater   Vater    father
  hunda      kýon      canis   Hund     hound (dog)
  trisrah    treis     tres    drei     three
Development of German
Proto Germanic/ Germanic
(~ 2,000 BC - 750 BC)
• Spoken language/ no written records until
  the 1st century AD (only citations in Latin)
• From the 1st century AD  carved
  inscriptions in "Futhark"
• 24-letter runic alphabet used in continental
  Europe  "Elder Futhark"
• 33-letter runic alphabet introduced in
  England (5th century)  "Futhorc"
Development of German
Proto Germanic/ Germanic
(~ 2,000 BC - 750 BC)

           24-letter "Elder Futhark"
Development of German
           33-letter "Futhorc"

16-letter "Younger Futhark" (Scandinavia)
Development of German
Germanic               Old High German
(500 BC - 750 AD)       (750 AD - 1050 AD)

Consonant Shift as described by Jacob Grimm
(1785 - 1863) and Karl Verner (1846 - 1896)
 "Grimm's Law" & "Verner's Law"
Development of German
"Grimm's Law" & "Verner's Law" (examples)
• p/ pp  pf/ ff
  apple  Apfel; plough  Pflug; swamp  Sumpf;
  pan  Pfanne; pound  Pfund; hope  hoffen
• th  d & t  s/ z
  three  drei; that  das; thank  Dank; thick 
  dick; path  Pfad; thorn  Dorn; brother  Bruder;
  better  besser; water  Wasser; what  was; ten
   zehn; sit  sitzen; bite  beissen; foot  Fuß
• k  ch [/x/ sound]
  make  machen; speak  sprechen; rake 
  Rechen; break  brechen; hake  Hecht
Development of German
Germanic (8th century)
• Several other sound shifts (regional)
• Regional dialects, e.g. "Sächsisch" (Saxon),
  "Bairisch" (Bavarian), "Fränkisch"
  (Franconian), "Ostfriesisch" (East Frisian)
• Separation into "Oberdeutsch" (upper
  German), "Mitteldeutsch" (middle German)
  and "Niederdeutsch" (lower German)
• At the same time, Gothic still existed
Development of German
Althochdeutsch (Old High German)
"Theodisk" (750 - 1050 AD)
• Documented written examples of
  'streamlined' words selected from dialects
  that had gone through all sound changes
• "Theodisk": Germanic root 'diot' (people/ folk)
   adjective 'diotisc' (of the people) 
  'Theodisk'  'Diutisc'  'Diutsch'  Deutsch
  meaning "Volkssprache" ('folk speech'/ ver-
  nacular language)  Latin/ Greek/ Old French
Development of German
Example of Old German/ Old Saxon text:
"Der Heiland" ("The Savior") written by a monk living
in the Fulda Monastery in the 9th/ 10th century:
   Matheus endi Marcus, so uuarun thai man hetana.
     Lucas endi Hohanes, sie uuarun liebe gode.

 Modern German                 English
 Matthäus und Markus,          Matthrew and Mark,
 so heißen die Männer.         so the men are called.
 Lukas und Johannes,           Luke and John,
 sie waren Gott lieb.          they were loved by God.
Development of German
Example of Old German pagan text:
"Die Merseburger Zaubersprüche"
("The pagan magic chants of Merseburg"):                     (Attempted, rather literal)
                                                             translation into English:
                              Translation (Modern German):   Phol and Wodan
Phôl ende Wuodan              Phol und Wodan                 betook themselves
fuorun zi holza.              begaben sich in den Wald       into the woods
dû wart demo balderes folon   Da wurde dem Balders Fohlen    There the Balders foal's
sîn fuoz birenkit.            sein Fuß verrenkt              foot was sprained
thû biguol en Sinthgunt,      Da besprach ihn Sinthgunt,     Then, Sinthgunt, Sunna's
Sunna era swister;            Sunna ihre Schwester           sister conjured him
thû biguol en Frîja,          Da besprach ihn Frija,         Then, Frija, Folla's sister
Folla era swister;            Folla ihre Schwester;          conjured him
thû biguol en Wuodan,         Da besprach ihn Wodan,         Then, Wodan conjured
sô hê wola conda:             wie er es wohl verstand:       him the way he
sôse bênrenki,                So Knochenrenke,               understood:
sôse bluotrenki,              so Blutrenke,                  So appendages wring
sôse lidirenki:               so Gliedrenke:                 and set yourselves right
bên zi bêna,                  Knochen zu Knochen,            Bone to bone,
bluot zi bluoda,              Blut zu Blut,                  blood to blood,
lid zi geliden,               Glied zu Glied,                extremity to extremity,
sôse gelîmida sîn.            so sind sie geleimt.           until they are glued
Development of German
"Althochdeutsch" (Old High German)
(750 - 1050 AD)
• Still a synthetic language (pagan text example)
• "Karolinger Zeit" (the age of
  the 'Karolinger'),  "Karl der
  Große" (Charlemagne, 742 -
  814)  King of the Franks/
  Lombards/ Romans 
  "imperium christianum"
  (Christian imperium)
Development of German
"Althochdeutsch" (Old High German)
(750 - 1050 AD)
• "Volkssprache Theodisk" is used to spread
  the written word
• Missing words were borrowed from
 Greek: e.g. kyrikón (Kirche; meaning 'church'),
 ángelos (Engel; meaning 'angel'), or epískopos
 (Bischoff; meaning 'bishop')
 Latin: scribere (schreiben; meaning 'write'), corpus
 (Körper; meaning 'body'), discus (Tisch; meaning
 'table), or fenestra (Fenster; meaning 'window')
Development of German
"Mittelhochdeutsch" / "Dütsch"
(Middle High German) (1050 - 1350 AD)

• Development of the German Umlaut (ä, ö, ü)
 'Mærtz'  März; 'Bruieder'  'Brüder; 'scœn' schön

• Unstressed additional syllable vowels:
 'salbôn'  Salben; 'gibirgi'  Gebirge; 'taga'  Tage

• Secular influencers ("Stauferzeit")/ chivalric
  poetry/ "Minnesänger"  influx of French words
Development of German
                                Excerpt from the Middle High
                                  German poem "Der arme
                               Heinrich" (the poor Heinrich) by
                                Hartmann von Aue (~ 1190s):

Middle German       Modern German               Modern English
Ein ritter          Es war einmal ein Ritter,   There was a knight who
sô gelêret was,     der so gelehrt war,         was educated enough
daz er an den       dass er alles, was er in    to read and understand
buochen las,        Büchern geschrieben          everything written in
swaz er dar an      fand, lesen konnte.         books.
geschriben vant,
der was             Er hieß Hartmann,           His name was
Hartmann genannt,                               Hartmann,
dienstman was er    und war Lehnsmann           and he was a
zouwe Aue.          zu Aue.                     vassal/ leud in Aue.
Development of German
"Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New
High German) (1350 - 1650 AD)

• Renewed idenfication with local territories
  governed by "local" noble families
• Return to regional traditions and dialects
• No effort to achieve trans-regional
  standardization
Development
 of German
  "Frühneu-
hochdeutsch"
 (Early New
High German)
 (1350 - 1650 AD)

  German
  dialects
Development of German
Early New High German
Sound changes of the 14th & 15th century
• Lengthening of short vowels in open syllables
  e.g. "lebben"  "leben"
• Shortening of long vowels in closed syllables
  e.g. "haßt"  "hast" / "hôchgezît"  "Hochzeit"
• Diphthongization of long vowels, e.g. "liute" 
  Leute / "mîn niuwes hûs"  "mein neues Haus"
• monophthongization of 'ei', 'uo', 'üe'  'iß', 'uß'
  e.g. "füeze"  Füße / "brüeder"  Brüder /
  "suochen"  suchen
Development of German
Early New High German
Sound changes of the 14th & 15th century
• Those sound changes did not happen
  everywhere (dialectal differences)
• Rise of preferred 'categories' of dialects:
    Österreichisch/ Bairisch (Austro-Bavarian)
    Schwäbisch (Swabonian)
    Rheinisch (Rhine and Lorrainian Franconian)
    Zürich Dütsch (Zurich Swiss German)
    Ostmitteldeutsch (Eastern Middle German)
    Nordmitteldeutsch (Northern Middle German)
Development of German
"Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New
High German) (1350 - 1650 AD)
• Ratsherr Ulmann Stromer von Nürnberg opened
  first paper mill (1389)
• Johannes (Gensfleisch zur Laden zum) Gutenberg
  invented the first printing press (1439) 
  "Druckersprachen" (printing languages)
• Martin Luther (1483 - 1546)  protestant
  reformation movement/ proclamations/ 'new' Bible
   trans-regional dialect "Ostmittel-deutsch" 
  'creator of Modern High German'
Development of German
"Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New
High German) (1350 - 1650 AD)
Martin Luther's 'new' German evolved:
 (1/ Mos/ 1, 4)
     1524:      vnd Gott sahe das liecht fur gut an
     1534:      Vnd Gott saha, das das Liecht gut war
     Today:     Und Gott sah, daß das Licht gut war
     (English: And God saw that the light was good)

 (1/ Mos/ 40, 7)
     1523:     warumb sehet yhr heutte so ubel
     1534:     warumb seid jr heute so traurig
     Today:    Warum seht ihr heute so traurig aus
     (English: Why do you look so sad today)
Development of German
"Frühneuhochdeutsch" (Early New
High German) (1350 - 1650 AD)
  Late 16th/ early 17th century
• Decline of regionally influencial noble families and
  knights
• Rise of aldermen and political leaders of growing
  cities (cathedrals/ universities)
• Renaissance of Humanities  trans-regional
  "Deutsch"  popular alternative to Latin/ Greek
• Standardized form of German that had 6 tenses, 4
  cases, auxilliary & modal verbs, complex inflection
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)
• "Dreißigjähriger Krieg" (30-year war)
• "Westfälischer Frieden" (1648 peace treaty)
• Independence for territories - more than 300
  so-called "Kleinstaaten" (mini countries)
• Trans-territorial trade revived "Luther's
  German" (though despised) as a 'Lingua
  Franca' while regional dialects remained in
  use (preferred)
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

• 'Chique' French words  Louis XIV ('sun king')
  Appartment, Bouillon, Chance, Chauffeur, Courage,
  Dessert, Parterre, Portemonnaie, Rendez-vous,
  Souterrain, vis-à-vis, etc.
• Anti 'frenchification' movement
 Wohnung, Brühe, Gelegenheit, Fahrer, Mut,
 Nachspeise, Erdgeschoß, Geldbeutel,
 Verabredung, Untergeschoß, gegenüber, etc.
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

• Justus Georg Schottelius (1612 - 1676)
   "Ausführliche Arbeit zur Teutschen
     HaubtSprache"
• Further standardization efforts  poets
  and writers  'Age of Reason'  German
  'main language' (logical & reasonable) 
  foundation of today's German
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

• Martin Opitz (1624)  "Buch von der
  Deutschen Poeterey"  guidelines for
  homogeneous language, metre, intonation
  and rhythm in German poetry
• "Weimarer Klassik" (Weimar Classicism)
   Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 -
  1832), Friedrich Schiller (1759 - 1805) 
  "Kulturelle Vorbildsprache"
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)
Goethe wrote:
Nicht ist alles Gold, was gleißt,
Glück nicht alles, was so heißt;
nicht alles Freude, was so scheint;
damit hab ich gar manches gemeint.
Meaning:
Not everything that glissens is gold,
neither is everything happiness that
is like that called;
not everything is as pleasant as it seems;
by that I refer to many different things.
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

• Final harmonization of New High German
• "Haus der Hohenzollern  "Preußen"
  (Kingdom of Prussia)  unification of all
  kingdoms of Germany in 1871
• "Deutsches Kaiserreich"  1871 - 1918 
  all German citizens had to learn "Hoch-
  deutsch" (High German) in addition to their
  regional dialect  still the same today!
"Deutsches Kaiserreich" (1871 - 1918)

 today's                             today's
Denmark                             Latvia &
                                    Lithuania

                                     today's
                                     Poland

                                     today's
                                     Slovakia
today's
France
                                     today's
                                      Czech
                                    Republic
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

• 1876: "Conferenz zur Herstellung größerer
  Einigung der deutschen Rechtschreibung"
  lead by Konrad Duden
• Today: Duden = official
  Dictionary of German
  (2017: 27th edition)
  incl. several
  orthography reforms
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)
Example: 'crazy' German compound nouns
• "Straßenbahnhaltestelle" (tram station)
• "Schifffahrtskapitänsmütze" (captain's hat)
• "Feuerwehrausfahrtsparkverbotszone" (fire
  rescue exit no parking zone)
 1891: Gustav Wurstmann published
"Allerhand Sprachdummheiten. Kleine
Grammatik des Zweifelhaften, des Falschen
und des Häßlichen."
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)

Historical events in the years to follow:
• Rising tensions among European nations
• 1914: assassination of Archduke Frank
  Ferdinand of Austria
   diplomatic crises  European wars  WWI
• WWI ended in 1918  Weimar Republic
  (birth of a democratic nation)
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)
Historical events in the years to follow:
• Growing sentiment: equal opportunities 
  expropriation & demise of noble families
• Post-war reparation payments: 269 billion
  Marks (~ 32 billion US$ today)
• World economic crisis (1930s)
• These events gave rise to Adolf Hitler 
  "Reichskanzler" (1933)  Deutsches Reich
Development of German
"Neuhochdeutsch" (New High German)
 (since 1650)
Historical events in the years to follow:
• "Hitler years"  "Volksempfänger",
  "Volkswagen", "Arbeit macht frei", etc.
• Chancellor  Dictator  use of German
  and rhetoric changed completely (from the
  hights of German literature and poetry to
  the lows of Nazi Germany)
• WWII (1939 - 1945)
Development of German
"Modernes Hochdeutsch"
 (Modern High German) (since 1950)

• No major changes to German grammar
• Several spelling reforms
• Socio-cultural and technological changes to
  vocabulary (TV, radio, newspapers, movies)
• Mixture of dialects ("Ostkriegsflüchtlinge")
  & rise of English (occupying allied forces)
• Influx of "Gastarbeiter" (Italy; Turkey)
Development of German
"Modernes Hochdeutsch"
 (Modern High German) (since 1950)

Examples of the influence of the computer
and internet age on German:
   • Computer, Internet, Email, Log-in, Laptop,
     Tablet, Software, Online-Banking, Chat,
     Software, Browser, Scanner, etc.
   • downloaden, einloggen, klicken, Maus,
     Passwort, Enter Taste, Handy, etc.
Development of German
"Modernes Hochdeutsch"
 (Modern High German) (since 1950)
Examples of the influence of "Gastarbeiter"
(food) language on German:
• Italian: Pizzeria, Gelatti, Cappuccino, Pesto,
  Parmigiano, Pesto, Tagliatelle, Gnocchi,
  Scampi, Calamari, Bruschetta, or Lambrusco.
• Turkish: Döner, Börek, Baklava, Dolmades,
  Köfte, Şiş Kebap, Ekmek, or Ayran.
Development of German
"Modernes Hochdeutsch"
 (Modern High German) (since 1950)
Other "anglicisms" used in German today:
 • Meeting - Brainstorming - Marketing Plan -
   Update - Call Center
 • Voicemail - online Chat - Tour Guide -
   Broker - Sponsor - Event - Ticket - Jeans
 • Fast Food - Snack Bar - Cheeseburger -
   Ketchup - Cocktail - Happy Hour - Party
Development of German
German today
• Unified written language (Modern High German)
  coexists with a multitude of locally spoken
  dialects "bi-lingualism" ☺
• Modern Low German languages still exist in
  written and spoken form (Plattdeutsch, Friesisch,
  or Niederdeutsch) or only in spoken form
  (Bavarian, Franconian, etc.)
• German is spoken by more than 100 million
  people (Germany, Austria, Switzerland,
  Liechtenstein, parts of Liechtenstein/
  Luxembourg/ Belgium/ Italy/ Brazil)
Final thoughts, Q&As
So why are English & German related?
   Why do English speakers around
   the world sound so different?

?     Why does German spoken in
      Berlin, Leipzig, Frankfurt, Munich,

??    or Cologne sound so different?
         Why does English have so
         many French words?
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