Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...
Together for Democracy.
Israel and Bavaria.
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...
Due to translation and copyright
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Together for Democracy.
Israel and Bavaria.

Eva Feldmann-Wojtachnia (Hrsg.):

Democracy matters.

How to learn and teach tolerance in a
migration society in Israel and Bavaria


Munich 2018
ISBN 3-933456-51-7
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...

Table of Contents
Preface – 5                      Methods – 10
Together for Democracy. Israel   Learning tolerance
and Bavaria.
                                 People matter! An intercultural theatre – 10
Introduction – 6                 Sensibility and similarity of languages – 12
Democracy matters. How to        Prejudices that matter to us – 16
learn and teach tolerance in a   “Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism – 18
migration society.               What is the meaning behind a word? – 24
                                 Simulation game: The student newspaper – 26
                                 A picture says more than a thousand words – 32
                                 Mutual holidays – 33
                                 Autophotography – 35
                                 Think-hats – 36
                                 Shake hands! – Greeting rituals – 37
                                 Cultural glasses – a visit on the albatross island – 38
                                 The tolerance barometer – 40
                                 Relative movement – relative clauses and sports movement – 46

                                 Practicing participation and active citizenship

                                 Little Town – adults stay out! – 48
                                 Am I supposed to do anything? Moral courage at school – 50
                                 Democracy at school – 53
                                 Sustainability unites – environmental awareness in a migrant society – 54
                                 No participation at schools! – 61
                                 The right to vote and to be elected – 62

                                 Appreciating freedom and security

                                 Can mass surveillance protect us from terrorism? – 70
                                 The limits of obedience – 76
                                 The string game – liberty and membership – 77
                                 The magic broomstick – 78
                                 The trust run – 79
                                 The trust pendulum – 80

                                 Reflecting on majorities and minorities
                                 Game with secret signals – multicultural democracy – 82
                                 Ball bearing – 83
                                 Informal football? – 84
                                 Appreciative inquiry – 86
                                 When is the majority allowed to decide? – 87
                                 What I do not know, I assume – 88
                                 Bibliography – 91

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria - Manual - Wertebündnis ...

Together for democracy.
Israel and Bavaria.

T     he project “Together for democracy.
      Israel and Bavaria.“ by “Wertebündnis
      Bayern” wants to strengthen democratic
and pluralistic values among students in
Israel and in Bavaria. Both countries have
                                                     Democracy matters intends to clean up with
                                                     prejudices, to learn to see things through diffe-
                                                     rent points of view and to teach students how
                                                     to integrate those values into their democratic
                                                     everyday lives. Self-determination within a de-
multiple, yet specific experiences in the field of   mocratic society is experienced in the thematic
integrating migrants. So it stood to reason to       fields of “tolerance and diversity”, “partici-
exchange experiences and to potentially enrich       pation and active citizenship”, “freedom and
one’s own repertoire of methods by new               security” and “majorities and minorities”.
approaches. Thus, experts in education had a
look at methods and ideas in the other country       With these concrete methods we would like
and thought about which of the approaches            to encourage people working in education to
could be transferred into their own educati-         take up the essential topic of living together
onal system. A concrete result of this work is       according to democratic rules and values in a
this collection of methods entitled democracy        pluralistic society.
matters with contributions from Israel and
from Bavaria.

Jürgen Böhm                        Sandra Simovich                    Max Schmidt
Consortium of                      Consul General                     CEO
Bavarian Teachers’                 of Israel for Southern             Foundation Wertebündnis
Associations                       Germany

Gemeinsam für Demokratie. Israel und Bayern.

Democracy matters. How to learn and teach
tolerance in a migration society

T     olerance is the basis for a pea-
      ceful living in a democracy. For
      seventy years Israel and Germany
have been maintaining their special,
yet complex relationship, which is
                                           dence and the – up to now – 12 basic
                                           laws. This is an act of balance, which
                                           has to be experienced and can be
                                           learned in a safe educational context.

influenced until today by its past.        The methods in this manual for
This relationship is built on shared       tolerance and democracy education
values - also an important sector for      are the result of a reflection process
civic education. The background of         of the participants of the project. The
this manual is the project “Together       approaches are multilateral and deal
for democracy. Israel and Bavaria.” by     with tolerance in the private space
“Wertebündnis Bayern”. The project         on the one hand. On the other hand
goal is to strengthen democratic           the material should also encourage
values like tolerance and pluralism of     to think about living together with a
the young generation in Israel and Ba-     lot of different people in a democratic
varia. Especially schools are important    society. Tolerance affects in this case
places where young people experience       not only people with different religions
what it means to live together in a        and immigrants, but also people from
democratic way.                            a different age group, different social
                                           class or also disabled people.
Germany and Israel have got a big
share of population with a migration       This collection of methods aims to
background. On the one hand migra-         clean up with prejudices, to learn to
tion means a growth of the cultural        see things through different points of
richness in the countries, on the other    view and to teach students how they
hand it can also mean a big challenge      can integrate those values in their
for the policy making process, the         democratic everyday lives. A special
economy and also the society. Diver-       goal is to depict discrimination in daily
sity makes tolerance an indispensable      language and in daily routine and for
value, because inevitably you will         it to be replaced by tolerance and
meet people with different habits,         dialogue. The children should learn
opinions or ideas. Different beliefs and   which options they have to be heard
orientations, different religions should   in a democracy and how important
find their space in a democracy – and      their participation in the democratic
by doing so, strengthen it.                system is. It is also an aim of the
                                           manual to engage young people for
A democratic system also implies that      self-determination within a society, in
the people have to deal with a lot of      which everyone likes to live safely and
different opinions. The framework for      in peace. Depending on the focus of
all of this is the German Basic Law and    education for democracy, the chapters
in Israel the declaration of indepen-      in this book are divided in the sections


“Learning tolerance”, “Practicing           teaches the students that there exist a
participation and active citizenship”,      lot of different ways to communicate
“Appreciating freedom and security”         with each other. “The tolerance ba-
and “Reflecting on majorities and           rometer” wants to show the students
minorities”.                                the cultural and historical connection
                                            of each definition of tolerance.
Learning tolerance
“People matter! An intercultural thea-      Practicing participation
tre” wants the young people to reflect      and active citizenship
on how civil society can cope with im-      “Little Town – adults stay out!”, here
migration. “Sensibility and similarity of   the students should take on roles
languages” teaches the students with        and build their own town, which
the help of a text in a foreign language    will support the development of
something about diversity and its           their democratic awareness. “Am I
importance in a democracy. "Relative        supposed to do anything? Courage
movement - relative clauses and sport       at school” should show the students
movement" shows the students in             what moral courage is and that with-
an active game how they can express         out it a democratic society can’t work.
themselves correctly. "Prejudices that      “Sustainability unites – environmental
matter to us” wants to show to the          awareness in a migration society” –
students how important it is to talk        the goal of this method is to educate
to each other, especially to enable         the students to a more sustainable life
a peaceful and tolerant life in the         style, which is enormously important
globalized world. “Fare dodger - being      for today’s democracy. “Democracy at
brave against racism” - this exercise       school” shows the students the issue
confronts the students with a short         of communication in democracies and
film about racism and so they learn         at the same time they learn the con-
how to act against it in a democratic       scious use of modern media in today’s
society. “What is the meaning behind        society. “The right to vote and to be
a word?” shows the students eventual        elected” – here the students are re-
subliminal meanings of words and by         quested to think about the democratic
doing so they learn how to put them         principle of the right to vote. In this
into a democratic context. The simu-        process they deal with it in an intense
lation game “The student newspaper”         way. “No participation at schools!” –
wants the students to learn how to act      the aim is to show the students what
in a democratic and diplomatic way in       their life would be like if democracy
a well-known surrounding. “A picture        did not exist and in this way work
says more than a thousand words”            against them seeing democracy and
deals with the limits of tolerance of       democratic values as a given.
each student and how this can be inte-
grated into democratic structures.          Appreciating freedom
                                            and security
“Mutual holidays” teaches the stu-        “Can mass surveillance protect us
dents something about the different       from terrorism?” wants to make the
holidays in the different cultures and    students aware of the extreme ten-
by that shows them their significance     sions between freedom and security
for diversity in democracy.               in modern democracies and at the
                                          same time allow the students to get
“Autophotography” lets the students       to know the various positions on this
create their own democratic reality.      topic. “The limits of obedience” puts
“Think-hats” – the students have to       students in fictitious situations in
put themselves into different positions which they have to take an important
and points of view and by doing so        decision for the future but have to
eventually change also their perspec-     cooperate with others, which shows
tive on a topic. “Cultural glasses – a    them the principle of civil (dis-)obe-
visit on the albatross island” – the goal dience. The goal of “The string game
of this method is to show the students – liberty and membership” is that the
a different culture and social structure. students learn that individual liberty
“Shake Hands! – Greeting rituals”         sometimes may be restricted, so that

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

one can be a part of something in so-       Especially in times when democracies
ciety. “The magic broomstick” makes         are challenged citizens who know the
clear for the students how important        basic values and norms of democracy
teamwork and communication are in a         and stand up for democratic values
democratic society. “The trust run and      are extremely important. This man-
the trust pendulum” – these methods         ual wants to contribute to learning
build up on each other and want to          democracy in a multicultural society
support the trust in communities.           from a very young age. Thanks to all
                                            participants of the project who made a
Reflecting on majorities                    contribution!
and minorities
“When is the majority allowed to
decide?” Here the question is asked in
which cases a majority decision can be
taken in a democracy. In this way the
students get in touch with an impor-
tant mechanism of democracy. “Game
with secret signals – multicultural
democracy” – the goal of this method
is to learn how minorities can be inte-
grated into a democracy and a dem-
ocratic process. “What I don’t know, I
assume”, by this method the students
should question prejudices and clichés
that exist in different groups of society
and learn how to counteract them in a
democracy. “Informal football” – here
the class is to play football but first
determines its own democratic rules
for the game. Thus, they learn about
the importance of common rules
for democratic states. "Ball bearing"
shows opportunities to learn more
about multi-perspectives and different
opinions. "Appreciative Inquiry" deals
with the individual person and his or
her potential in society.

This manual has the goal to let young
people be in different roles and
support them to deal with different
opinions in a constructive way. By
doing so, the students should learn in
a reflected way what tolerance means
in a democracy and how they can play
their own part in protecting those val-
ues. There are no rules of conduct or
principles forced on the students, they
rather should uncover problems by
themselves and broaden their minds
through a diversity of opinions and
thoughts. The exercises strengthen
the team spirit by encouraging the
exchange of opinions within the class.
Also, there are a lot of vivid examples     Eva Feldmann-Wojtachnia
of the real world young people live         Centrum für angewandte Politik-
in so that a transfer to reality can be     forschung der Ludwig Maximilians
easily done.                                Universität Munich


Learning tolerance
People matter! An intercultural theatre – 10
Sensibility and similarity of languages – 12
Prejudices that matter to us – 16
“Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism – 18
What is the meaning behind a word? – 24
Simulation game: The student newspaper – 26
A picture says more than a thousand words – 32
Mutual holidays – 33
Autophotography – 35
Think-hats – 36
Shake Hands! – Greeting Rituals – 37
Cultural glasses – a visit on the albatross island – 38
The Tolerance barometer – 40
Relative movement – relative clauses and sports movement – 46

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

People matter! An intercultural theatre

Brief overview:                   Implementation:
On the basis of an excerpt of     1. The lesson starts with two exer-         5. The class is divided into groups of
Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s           cises from theatre rehearsals. Two          six. They read the given excerpt of
essay “The great migration”,         students face each other and are            Enzenberger’s essay and summarize
students are supposed to             asked to look at each other. After          the content. Based on the excerpt,
reflect on how a society can         about 30 seconds they are asked to          they are supposed to develop and
deal with migration and then         confuse their counterpart by pulling        try out a scene with two versions:
turn their findings into scenic      faces or gesticulating wildly. The          in version A, they act out the given
performances.                        task takes about one minute.                content of the excerpt, In version B,
                                                                                 two fellow travellers openly defend
At a glance:                      2. Students form two rows (A and B)            the train compartment as their
                                     so that each student faces another          territory by using body postures,
 Time frame 90 minutes
                                     student. The teacher then asks the          objects and language. Students
 Group size 6 – 30 partici-          students in row A to look at their          are allowed to speak but should
 pants                               counterparts in row B in different          minimize speech. This exercise lasts
 Target group ages 15 – 18           ways: arrogantly, self-confidently,         about 40 minutes.
                                     madly, shyly, etc. The students in
 Material worksheet / text                                                    Evaluation / Reflection:
                                     row B are supposed to not react
 Room requirements one               to their opposites. By clapping,         Students should be encouraged to
 classroom, chairs and               the teacher indicates that the stu-      reflect on the following questions:
 desks on the side                   dents should swap their roles. The
 Keywords intercultural              exercise can be repeated several         ††Which strategies were used by
 learning, intercultural thea-       times (at least two times are en-          the two travellers to prevent new
 tre, essay on migration             couraged). Afterwards, students are        travellers from entering the train
                                     encouraged to talk about how they          compartment?
                                     perceived the exercise.
Aims:                                                                      ††How did the new travellers react to
To experience the encoun-       3. Now the students are introduced         that?
  ter with different cultures        to the main objective of the lesson.
  in scenic performances             The students play different roles of  ††In his essay, Enzensberger describes
                                     people waiting at a bus stop: a tired   a model of exclusion which can
To reflect on migration,           employee, a bored student, a fragile    be experienced by foreigners/
  integration and tolerance          grandma, etc. There are no specific     refugees. The train compartment
                                     happenings, students should not         is a metaphor for our society. How
                                     move too much.                          are refugees integrated into that
                                                                             society? Are they seen as intruders
                                  4. New people arrive at the bus stop,      or as enrichment?
                                     behaving either friendly or aggres-
                                     sively: a noisy group of students,
                                     football hooligans, elderly persons,
                                     etc. The social framework of the
                                     group changes as people move
                                     away or form new groups. Students
                                     should only use their body and
                                     play with gestures, speaking is not
                                     allowed. The exercise takes about
                                     10 minutes, afterwards students
                                     should switch so that every student
                                     can participate while the others are

10                                Authors: Daniela Arnold (LMU Munich), Jan Franz (Staffelsee-Gymnasium Murnau)
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                       MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

People matter! An intercultural theatre

                                                  Hans Magnus Enzensberger:
††Read in your group the excerpt                  The train compartment
  from Enzensberger’s essay and
  summarise it.                                   (…) Two passengers in a train compartment. We
                                                  don’t know anything about them, about where
††On this basis, develop two versions             they come from or where they are bound to. They
  of the scene and try them out.
  Version A = Representation of the               have put their things everywhere – table, coat
  content of the essay                            hooks, luggage racks are theirs. On the free seats
  Version B = two passengers defend               there are newspapers, coats and bags. The door
  the train compartment openly                    opens and two new passengers enter. Their arrival
  as their own territory by using
  positions, gestures and language.               is not welcome. An obvious aversion becomes
  Talking is permitted, but only very             noticeable, moving closer together, giving up the
  little.                                         free seats, sharing the luggage racks. Doing all this,
                                                  the original passengers act in a strangely solidary
                                                  way although they don’t know each other. They
                                                  act as a group towards the new passengers. It is
                                                  their territory that is in danger. They consider every
                                                  new passenger as an intruder. They see themselves
                                                  as natives who occupy the whole space. There
                                                  is no rational justification for this attitude, but it
                                                  seems to be deeply ingrained. Nevertheless there
                                                  are almost never open conflicts. That is because
                                                  the passengers are subject to a system of rules
                                                  that does not depend on them. Their territoriasl
                                                  instinct is tamed on the one hand side by unwritten
                                                  bahavioural norms like politeness. So only glances
                                                  are exchanged and apologies are mumbled. The
                                                  new passengers are put up with. One accustoms
                                                  oneself to them. Yet they stay stigmatized, albeit
                                                  at a decreasing degree. This harmless model is not
                                                  free from absurd traits. The train compartment is a
                                                  transitory stay, a place that only serves to change
                                                  places. Fluctuation is its nature. The passenger is
                                                  the negation of the sedentary. He has exchanged
                                                  a real territory against a virtual one. Nevertheless
                                                  he defends his temporary home not without silent
                                                  exasperation. (…)

                                                  from: Hans Magnus Enzensberger:
                                                  Die große Wanderung, Frankfurt/Main 1992, S. 11-13
                                                  [translated by Stiftung Wertebündnis Bayern]

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

Sensibility and similarity of languages

Brief overview:                          Implementation:                           Variations:
The students read a text in Turkish      1. at the beginning of the lesson  ††You could compare similarities
language and reflect on whether             the students introduce each       to any language (other than
there are similarities and what their       other by asking questions about   Turkish).
own language has in common with             the background of the other
the one they read. During this lesson       students (for example where     ††The cards could be expanded by
the students learn that different lan-      the parents come from and         any other language.
guages do have similarities. They also      which languages are spoken at
discover language families and lan-         home)
guage features. Finally, the students
create a “family tree” of the world’s    2. on the world map the place of
languages.                                  birth of every student is marked
                                            to show the class their hetero-
At a glance:                                geneity
 Time frame 90 minutes
                                         3. now a Turkish text will be
 Group size 3 – 30 participants             shown
 Target group age 13+
                                         4. first the students read it and
 Material DIN A5 cards (one lan-
                                            then discuss if they understand
 guage on the front side and the de-
                                            some words or even nothing
 scription and roots of the language
 on the back), magnets / crepe tape,
                                         5. the aim is that they get the
 Turkish text on foil or beamer, pen
                                            feeling for people who move
 for notes beside the cards
                                            to a foreign country without
 Room requirements blackboard or            knowing the language
 anything to project the family tree,
 beamer / overhead projector to          6. they also reflect the problems
 demonstrate the texts on the wall,         the people are confronted with
 tables for the different groups            because of not speaking the
 Keywords similarities and relation-        language
                                         7. now the students try to find
                                            similarities between the Turkish
Aims:                                       language and their mother
To learn the history of one`s own         tongue (similarities like foreign
  language                                  words, technical words, roots of
                                            language, structure etc.)
To learn about the relationship
  between the languages                  8. the students organize the cards
                                            in groups by the details of the
To learn to accept non-native             family tree to each language
                                         9. now the students present
To be able to compare the similari-       their results and explain all of
  ties of language                          their decisions → differences
                                            between the groups will be
                                            worked out and there will be a
                                            demonstration of all the similar-
                                            ities to all the single tribes of
                                            the family tree

                                         Authors: Lise Brinkmann (LMU Munich), Latife Kara (LMU Munich)
                                         Further reading: Tekin, Özlem (2012). Grundlagen der kontrastiven Linguistik
12                                       in Theorie und Praxis. Tübingen: Stauffenberg Verlag.
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                      MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

Sensibility and similarity of languages                                                                    M1

  Kaan bebe – cici bebe                                    Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin kurulusu

  Bir varmis bir yokmus evvel zaman icinde kalbur          Birinci dünya savasindan sonra Almanyanin savasi
  saman icinde Kaan diye bir bebek varmis. Ülke-           kaybettikten istifa eden Emperyalisim ülkeler
  lerin birinde mutlu mesut annesiyle ve babasiyle         Osmanli topraklarindan isgal ettiler. Buna karsi ülk-
  beraber yasarmis. Cok usluymus ve hic bir zaman          enin bagimsizligi icin bir adam bagimsizlik savasi
  onlarin sözünden cikmazmis. Öyle tatliymis ki, her       ilan etti ve ilk defa 1923 yilinda Türkiye Cumhuri-
  gören onu sevmeden veya hos söz birakmadan               yetini kurdu. Ardindan yirmi üc nisan 1923 yilini
  duramazmis. Görünüsünü merak ediyorsan:                  dünya cocuklar bayrami ilan etti.
  pamuk yanakli – kiraz dudakli – ve yesil gözlü bir
  ay parcasi.                                              Buna ragmen de ondokuz mayisi genclere bayram
                                                           gününü hak görmüs. Sonra halk dilini ve Kuran
  Gel zaman git zaman Kaanin ilk bayrami olmus ve          yaziyi arapcadan türkceye cevirdi. 1934 yilinda
  bütün ailesini ziyaretine gitmis. Hediyeler almis, ilk   kadinlara secme ve secilme hakkini da verdi bu
  tatlilarini yemis ve herkese gülücükler atmis. Insan     adam.
  gercekten bakmaya doyamiyormus ya … Bir de
  tatile gitmez mi? Daha alti aylik olmadan ucakla ta      Türkiye Cumhuriyetine ilk defa laikligi getirdi ve bu
  uzaklara ucup ebeveynleriyle güzel vakit gecirmez        durumda din ve devlet islerini birbinden ayirmayi
  mi? Oralarda cok uslu durup, günesi görüp hep            basardi. Söyledigi cok popüler bir söz: „Yurtta baris
  keyfini cikarmis uslu bebek. Bir de babasinin ona        ve dünyada baris.“
  söyledigi bir sarki varmis: „Yakiskli bebek, yakisikli
  bebek, benim kücük bir oglum var yakisikli bebek         Bu adam Mustafa Kemal Atatürkdir.
  […]“ – bunu duyan Kaan her seferinde sevincle
  ucarmis. Ama tabi her oldugu gibi Kaani kiskanan
  ve onun kötülügünü isteyen var. Bunu gecebilirler,
  cünkü kendisi ve ailesi gibi dürüst insan yoktur. Ve
  dogruluk her zaman kazanir! Onlar ermis muradi-
  na biz cikalim kerevetine…

MATERIAL/WORK SHEET                                     Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.

Sensibility and similarity of languages                                                               M2

 Kaan baby – sweet baby                                  The Founding of the Turkish Republic

 Once upon a time there was a baby named Kaan.           The Republic of Turkey was founded on Oktober,
 In any unknown country he lived happily together        23rd and Turkish and Turkish became official lan-
 with his parents. He was very well-behaved and          guage. This was preceeded by the collapse of the
 listened always to his parents. He was so sweet,        Ottoman Empire after World War I., the Turkish
 that everyone who saw him should love him and           War of Independence (1919-1923) and the remov-
 say a lovely word. If you are curious how he looks      al of Sultan Mehmed VI.
 like: Cheeks like, lips like cherry and green eyes
 baby.                                                   Also 19. May is the day for young people. Impor-
                                                         tant to see, that he also gave woman
 And after a time Kaan had his first holiday and he
 visited his whole family. He got presents, ate his      the rights to vote and also be voted.
 first sweets and laughed whole time. You really
 don’t get fed up. Never get boring. And to all of       Turkish Republic firstly saw the separation of
 that he got to his first vacation! Before getting six   religion and state and got secular. He had a very
 months he flew long way and get very great time         popular quote: “Freedom in you country and free-
 with its parents. He was very kind and spent great      dom for the whole world.”
 time in the sunshine. There was a song sung by
 his father: “Sweet baby, sweet baby, I have a little    This man was Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
 baby sweet baby […]” – everytime Kaan hearing
 this song is happy and confident. But of course
 there are also bad people who are jealous or wish
 bad things to Kaan. But that is not a problem for
 Kaan or his family, because they are honest and
 natural. Honesty wins always! And they all lived
 happily everafter…

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                  MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

Sensibility and similarity of languages                                                                M3

  Kaan – das süße Baby                                  Die Gründung der Türkischen Republik

  Es war einmal ein kleines Baby, das hieß Kaan.        Die Republik Türkei wurde am 29. Oktober 1923
  Es lebte glücklich mit seinen Eltern in einem         gegründet und Türkisch wurde Amtsprache.
  unbekannten Land. Kaan war wohlerzogen und            Vorausgegangen waren der Zusammenbruch des
  gehorchte immer seinen Eltern. Er war so süß,         Osmanischen Reiches im Ersten Weltkrieg, der
  dass jeder, der ihn sah, ihn lieben und nette Worte   türkische Befreiungskrieg (1919-1923) und die
  sagen musste. Wenn Du neugierig bist, wie er aus-     Absetzung Sultan Mehmeds VI.
  sieht: die Wangen und Lippen kirschrot und grüne
  Babyaugen.                                            Es gibt auch einen Tag, der der Jugend gewidmet
                                                        ist. Es ist der 19. Mai. Auch wichtig zu bemerken,
  Nach einer Zeit besuchte Kaan zum ersten Mal in       dass er den Frauen das Recht gab zu wählen und
  den Ferien seine Familie. Er bekam Geschenke,         gewählt zu werden.
  aß Süßigkeiten und lachte die ganze Zeit. Man
  konnte nicht genug von ihm kriegen … es wurde         Die Türkische Republik führte als erste die Tren-
  nie langweilig. Darüber hinaus waren es seine         nung von Religion und Staat ein und wurde säku-
  ersten Ferien! Noch bevor er ein halbes Jahr alt      lar. Er wird mit dem berühmten Ausspruch zitiert:
  war, flog er das erste Mal eine lange Strecke und     „Freiheit in Deinem Land bedeutet Freiheit in der
  hatte eine wunderbare Zeit mit seinen Eltern. Er      ganzen Welt“.
  war sehr lieb und verbrachte eine großartige Zeit
  in Sonnenschein. Sein Vater sang: „Süßes Baby,        Dieser Mann war Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
  süßes Baby, ich habe ein süßes Baby (…)“ – immer,
  wenn Kaan das Lied hörte, war er glücklich und zu-
  frieden. Aber es gibt selbstverständlich auch böse
  Menschen, die neidisch waren und Kaan Schlech-
  tes wünschten. Aber das war kein Problem für
  Kaan und seine Familie, weil sie aufrichtige und
  wahre Menschen waren. Ehrlichkeit siegt immer!
  Und wenn sie nicht gestorben sind, dann leben sie
  noch heute glücklich …

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

Prejudices that matter to us

Brief overview:                               Implementation:
Some people are pointed at in their           1. Experience what being pointed at means (15 mins)
everyday life – some literally, some
by exclusion or segregation. Having            xxAll students line up in a circle
prejudices is normal, but for a peace-         xxTeacher calls for students with certain attributes like
ful and tolerant life in a globalized            colour of hair or eyes, height, weight, hometown,
world it is necessary to recognize               ethnicity, religion…
prejudices as such and reflect about           xxThose students affected must go into the middle of
them. It is important to talk with               the circle, all the others point at them
each other, not about each other.              xxTo stress the meaning of this the teacher makes
This lesson wants teenagers to think             comments like “too tall”, “too small”, “too poor”,
about their own prejudices and mo-               “too blue-eyed”, “just different”, “not from here”.
tivates them to collect information            xxDo this until everyone stood inside and outside the
by reading and talking instead of                circle at least once
pointing at others because that’s just         xxLet them sit down to mark a change of situation
‘what everyone else does’.                     xxThe teacher asks the students how they felt inside
                                                 and outside the circle and what made the difference
At a glance:                                   xxThe students should realise that most of the clas-
                                                 sifications were random and that they were made
 Time frame 90 minutes
                                                 to act like this by someone else, in this case an
 Group size 10 – 40 participants                 authority
 Target group ages 14 – 16
 Material colourful presentation
                                                Comment: Of course, some of these are very
 cards, stopwatch, glue
                                                sensitive points. It depends on the class and the
 Room requirements enough room                  individual students, which attributes are sensible
 to line up in a circle, Internet con-          to use. Most of all those students, who already
 nection for all students                       have problems, shouldn’t be the only one stand-
 Keywords prejudices, culture, seg-             ing inside the circle at one moment. If anyone
 regation and exclusion                         refuses to point at the others, tell them to go
                                                into the middle as well. These experiences can be
                                                shocking, even for adults, so it’s important to talk
Aims:                                           about it and also, to make clear that this was just
To get a feeling for what it means            an experiment.
  to be excluded or being treated as
  someone abnormal

To understand that segregation
  and prejudices have always mat-
  tered and still matter

To learn that prejudices play a role
  in their lives

To realize that removing prejudic-
  es is difficult

To conclude that they can change
  something by changing their own


2. Real life connection (20 mins)                          If there is more time, the research part
                                                           can be done properly, i. e. working out
 xxAll students think about who they have ever left        a complete paper about the chosen
   aside, excluded, pointed at or talked about negative-   topic. The topics for research can also
   ly without personally knowing them and why they         be prepared by the teacher, so they
   did that                                                can collect reliable sources before.
 xxThe answers are written down on presentation cards
   and collected on the board                              Reflection:
 xxDiscuss why people do something like this               ††What differences did you notice
 xxThink-pair-share: When and where has something            about the sources you used? What
   like that happened in history for a whole group of        sources do you trust and why?
   people? Where does it still happen today?
                                                           ††How did you get along with the
  Comment: The presentation cards give a chance
  to ‘confess’ anonymously. Nobody has to explain          ††Collect ideas how to avoid prejudic-
  their answer, and nobody is to be judged.                  es in the students’ lives (presenta-
                                                             tion cards); important points should
3. Prejudices in the present (35 mins)
                                                              • Be aware that your “knowledge”
 xxBrainstorming (collected on the board): Which                might just be a prejudice
   groups of people are confronted with prejudices
   in your world, which ones do you have prejudices           • Collect information about the
   against?                                                     topic in question
 xxBuild groups of 3 to 5 students and let them choose
   one of the collected topics                                • Talk to the people that are talked
 xxThe students do research on the internet and collect         about
   the information for a small presentation
 xxThe researching phase takes max. 15 minutes, the           • Think about whether ‘different’
   presentation mustn’t be longer than 1 minute                 means ‘wrong’ or ‘worse’
 xxThe groups (or one student per group) present(s)
   what they found out. Use a stopwatch to make sure       ††All the presentation cards are fixed
   nobody takes more than 60 seconds for it                  together to one big, colourful
                                                             poster, that can be installed in the
  Comment: Of course, 15 minutes can’t be enough
  time for such a research. The students will notice
  that and maybe even complain about it. This is
  important to understand the complexity of such
  a topic.

Author: Sophie Schuhmacher (LMU Munich)                                                           17
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

“Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism

Brief overview:                               Implementation:
By talking about the main content             1. Project Material 1.
of the short movie “fare- dodger”
by Pepe Danquart, the students                  Ask the students to look at the images and then
become aware of the different ways              collect the first impressions. Then ask them to con-
of racism in our daily lives and of its         template the images again, but this time including
disintegrating effect. By focusing on           details of the gestures and body language and to
the non-verbal reactions on the racist          empathize with the presented persons. The possible
actions in the movie, the students              thoughts of each person in the images are to be
become sensitized for body language             written down in the “clouds” around the images.
and it allows them to see passive               Collect the results together in class and then go on
behaviour as possible foundation of             with the topic by asking the students in which place
racism. The way of learning playfully           the persons may be at the moment. There should
how to react differently on the issue           be enough time for the first sequence, especially
of racism, allows the students to find          there should be enough time for the students to get
their own positions and suggestions             an access to the persons in the pictures, to identify
for finding the courage to stand up             with them, because only then you can teach them
against racism.                                 the important values.
At a glance:                                  2. Play the video (
                                                 watch?v=XFQXcv1k9OM) up until minute 4:32.
 Time frame 90 minutes
 Group size 15 – 25 participants                Tell the students to focus especially on the state-
 Target group ages 16 – 17                      ments of the old lady and the reactions of the other
                                                people in the short film. Afterwards there is space
 Material worksheets with the cop-
                                                for the first reactions and impressions of the stu-
 ied material, room with internet
                                                dents. Now they should work on questions 1 – 5 on
 access and beamer
                                                the work sheet (Material 3) in partner work. Then
 Room requirements enough space                 collect and control the results. In reference to the
 for scenic play, possibility to prac-          second part of the short film, ask them how they
 tice in another room                           think the movie will continue.
 Keywords racism, moral courage

To sensitize for the different ap-
  pearances of racism

To face up with the disintegrative
  effects of racism

To encourage more moral courage


                                                                Evaluation / Reflection:
3. Play the second part of the video from minute 4:32           ††Which are the characteristics of
   till the end.                                                  racist behaviour?

   This time the students should focus especially on            ††What effects does racism have on
   the old man and also still observe the reactions and           affected persons and the whole
   gestures of the other people. Again, there should              society?
   be space for spontaneous impulses of the students.
   Then they should work on questions 6 – 8 on the              ††Why should you commit yourself
   work sheet and then again, the results should be               against racism?
   collected and controlled. Then the students do a
   little group work in form of a scenic play. They are         ††What possibilities exist to show
   divided in groups of 5 – 6 persons. Each group goes            moral courage?
   to a different room to prepare. Then they present
   their play in front of the class. The students watch-        Notes and Advice:
   ing should observe the alternative reactions and             The short film might appear a little
   gestures of the other passengers. Collect the results        strange to the students at first, due to
   under point 10 on the work sheet.                            the long-ago reality. But because of
                                                                the black and white optic, the focus is
4. The students sum up the important aspects of this            on the acting of the people with each
   unit. By asking the question:                                other, which can be situated also in to-
                                                                day’s reality. Draw the attention of the
   “I can act differently, but also, should I?” the             students on the old age of the short
   students can also name reasons for acting against            film by asking them not to get irritated
   racism. The results can be summed up under point             by the unknown optic.
   11 on the work sheet.

Author: Daniela Matheis (Staatliches Berufliches Schulzentrum
Sources: Danquart, Pepe (1992). Schwarzfahrer. (30.08.18).
(English subtitles).
MATERIAL/WORK SHEET                Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.

“Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism                                     M1


††What do you notice about
  these people? Describe
  your impressions!

††What might they be think-
  ing of? Fill in the thought

††What do you think where
  they are?

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.        MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

“Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism                              M2

             LINK Kurzfilm „Schwarzfahrer“ on Youtube


             (German version)

             LINK Kurzfilm „Schwarzfahrer“ on Youtube


             (German version with English subtitles)

Grafik s.                       21
MATERIAL/WORK SHEET                                        Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.

“Fare-dodger” - Being brave against racism                                                               M3

1. Which “arguments” does the elderly lady utter during the ride? Name three of them.

                                               2. Which time is she referring to when she says: “This would not
                                               have happened in former times that everyone is allowed in.“?

                                               3. What is the mindset of the elderly woman called?

4. Explain the mindset from question 3 in your own words.

5. How would you describe the atmosphere in this tram?

6. What is the behaviour of the other passengers like? Note your impressions.

7. Why do they act like that? Name two reasons for their behaviour.

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                             MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

8. How does the young man feel given the behaviour of the other passengers?

9. Which solution does the young man find?

10. What does the elderly woman experience after what the young man did?

11. Group work:

                                 Do a role play of the ride in the tram.

                                 Play out different reactions of the passengers than those in the clip.

12. Which ideas for a different behaviour became clear in the different scenes?

13. It is important to show courage because...

Grafik s.
rollenspiel-clipart-7.jpg                                                                                        23
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

What is the meaning behind a word?

Brief overview:                 Implementation:
The students should realise     1. The teacher hands out the work-             6. The students reformulate an article
that language subliminally         sheet on “secret messages”. The                using the group material as well as
conveys further meanings.          students are asked to determine                some of the phrases they collected
They should develop the            the pictures and clichés associated            at home on paper or on the board,
skill to reflect on and edit       with those words. They should then             so that no more “secret messages”
one-sidedness by collecting        change as many of the words and                or pictures appear in them.
and rephrasing common              phrases as possible.
words and phrases with                                                         7. Some students are asked to read
further meanings.               2. After finishing the exercise, the stu-         out their rephrased articles.
                                   dents are divided into small groups.
At a glance:                       The answers are discussed as well           8. After that, the evaluation starts.
                                   as five more examples of secret
 Time frame 2 times 45
                                   messages – words or phrases the             Evaluation / Reflection:
                                   students have heard or used.                For the discussion the following ques-
 Group size 20 – 30 partici-                                                   tions are suitable:
 pants                          3. The group discusses the answers
 Target group ages 10 – 14         with the class. The following ques-         ††To what extent did the initial mean-
                                   tions are suitable for the discussion:        ing or purpose of the text change
 Material attached work-
                                                                                 after reformulation?
 sheet, newspapers, maga-
                                a. How frequently are these words or
 zines, books
                                   phrases used in the media?                  ††How did your attitude change after
 Room requirements none                                                          the editing, if at all?
 Keywords racism, sexism,       b. Why do you think were these phras-
 sensitive awareness of            es initially used?                 ††How can the choice of words or
 language                                                               phrases influence the way the
                                c. Which pictures emerge from these     public looks at people, places or
                                   phrases?                             events?
To uncover the true mean-     d. Is it even acceptable to send “secret
  ing of racist and sexist         messages”?
  words and phrases
                                e. Which myths are manifested
To analyse the use of            through these “secret messages”?
  these words and phrases
  in the media                  f. What does it mean when respected
                                   authorities use these phrases?
To understand how
  people are influenced by      4. As a homework, the students look
  language                         for “secret messages” used in news-
                                   papers, magazines, advertisements,
                                   books, tv and radio channels or in
                                   conversations with friends or family.

                                5. After the students presented their
                                   results in small groups or the class,
                                   prejudices and clichés, which ap-
                                   pear in the material, are discussed.

                                Source: Mattenson, Pearl T. (1994). A World of Difference Institute: Elementary Study Guide.
24                              New York: Anti-Defamation League
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                         MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

What is the meaning behind a word?

Secret messages

††Choose a few expressions with your group from the collection below.

††What are the “secret messages”?

††Try to find neutral expressions.

Secret message                  Neutral expression     Secret message       Neutral expression
banana republic                                        pen-pusher

the stronger sex                                       the Dark Continent

old bird / squaw                                       cripple

four-eyes                                              underdeveloped

Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria.

Simulation game: The student newspaper

Brief overview:                  Implementation:                            Reflection:
This is a simply structured      1. Explain the method and the sce-         Reflecting the editorial simulation is an
simulation game, which              nario to the students. Also, the        integral part of the simulation game
was created especially for          tasks and the goals of the game.        and there should be spent enough
schools. The scenario de-           Depending on the knowledge of the       time on it. The function of this part is
scribes a fight over the lay-       group, you should then explain the      to get the students out of their roles,
out of some pages in the stu-       rules of the editorial meeting. You     to reflect on the experiences and to
dent newspaper in a foreign         should also ask the students to give    maximize the knowledge achieved.
language. The simulation is         themselves different names, if not
about an editorial meeting,         already given on the instructions.      Variations / Remarks:
in which the problem should                                                 For the introduction it is important to
be solved.                       2. Give the students 20 minutes to         point out that the students are only
                                    read their roles and to develop a       playing roles and that there doesn’t
At a glance:                        strategy. The communication now         exist any “wrong or right”. The roles
                                    already takes place in their roles,     don’t represent a complete position
 Time frame 3 hours
                                    which are not to be shown to their      and should only be points of refer-
 Group size 18 participants         classmates. Then they should elect      ence. It is important, that the teacher
 Target group ages 15 – 18          an editor-in-chief who is going to      only intervenes if necessary (if the
                                    lead the meeting. The students          integrity of a student gets attacked).
 Material each one scenario
                                    have the possibility to vote for a      The teacher could for example take
 / role profile / nameplate
                                    new editor-in-chief, if the majority    over the part of the headmaster.
 Room requirements bigger           doesn’t feel treated in a fair way by
 room for the editorial             the old one. The teacher should ask
 meeting, eventually small-         the students to present themselves         Casting:
 er rooms for working in            before they say anything, so that          The roles are assigned by lot.
 smaller groups                     the classmates get to know the             The role cards provide some
 Keywords majority, minor-          characters.                                basic information for the nega-
 ity, diversity of language                                                    ciation and can be developed by
 and culture                     3. The students gather in the meeting         the students during the roleplay.
                                    room and the teacher opens the
                                    meeting. Everyone should present
Aims:                               their position before the discussion
To learn about the main           starts. The students have to think
  points in the integration         about other positions and have to
  debate, to get to know            find some which match with their
  their reasons and limits          own, in order to find a majority
                                    in negotiations. The meeting is
To deepen independently           interrupted so that the students
  the positions and argu-           can meet in working groups and
  ments                             formulate propositions. In a second
                                    meeting the results should be
To practice political skills      presented and discussed. Then the
  like representing points          students can present amendments.
  of views and formulate            At the end, the students vote, the
  arguments                         result is presented and the meeting
                                    is closed. For this part you should
                                    plan 90 minutes.

                                 Source: Ulrich, Susanne & Wenzel, Florian (2006).
26                               Praxishandbuch. Sprache macht Demokratie. Schwalbach am Taunus: Wochenschau Verlag.

Simulation game:
The student newspaper

Your school edits a 16-page school magazine which
is very popular. The editors have successfully raised
some financial backing and have even won an award.
The editorial team is very diverse. Now, some mem-
bers of the editorial team want foreign students to
play a bigger role.


At least four pages of the school magazine shoud be
written in the native tongues of the countries the
students come from.

Yet, not everyone agrees with this proposal. There is
a percentage of 15% of foreign students at the school.
Nine different languages are spoken. The atmosphere
is tense and nobody wants to give in.

At an editorial meeting a solution has to be found:

††A solution that everyone agrees with is to be

††Everyone is supposed to participate in finding a

Rules for the editorial meeting:

††Whoever has an idea has the right to speak.

††People are not interrupted.

††For each meeting an editor-in-chief is elected who
  heads the meeting.

††Decisions are taken in a democratic way, everyone
  has one vote.

MATERIAL/WORK SHEET                                         Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.

Simulation game: The student newspaper – role profiles
Role profile AGAINST                                           Role profile AGAINST
You don’t like the proposal because you think that             The proposal is completely inacceptable for you.
foreigners who mcome to your country have to adapt.            You think that foreign students have to adapt to
Pages in foreign languages are only useful for very few        this country and speak its language. There is no
people and cost valuable space in the paper that other-        reason to have magazine pages in their mother
wise would have served more people. That’s why you             tongue.
decidedly object the proposal.

Role profile AGAINST                                           Role profile AGAINST
You are a migrant / foreigner. The proposal is not ac-         For you the proposal is not acceptable. You think
ceptable for you. In general you are not against giving        it is unfair for the majority of the students that
your fellow migrants the opportunity to create pages           all of them have to carry the burden that a few
in their mother tongue. But this should not be at the          pages are in a foreign language, but that only a
expense of the official language of the country and of         few can profit.
the majority. For you it is important to speak the lan-
guage of the contry you live in. And this is also what you
expect of the others. You are not interested in writing
in your mother tongue – and you are not even good
enough in it.

Role profile AGAINST
For you the proposal is completely off the mark. Why
should language of all things be a criterion for any
claims? There are no special girls’ or boys’ pages either.
Or extra pages for “young, rich, male Catholics with bad
school marks that like hiphop and collect stamps.” If
each group got its own pages, each one could only write
one page. This is absurd!
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                   MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

Simulation game: The student newspaper – role profiles
Role profile MODERATELY AGAINST                        Role profile MODERATELY AGAINST
You think the proposal is not ok. Why should           You think the proposal is exaggerated. It is enough to
one quarter of the magazine (= four pages) be          guarantee foreign students a certain number of pages,
written in foreign languages while only 15% of         but they are to write in English so that everyone can
the students are foreigners? This percentage           understand. Most people cannot understand articles in
justifies only a maximum of two pages – which          foreign languages. This would be unfair for the major-
is very little space for many different languages.     ity. That’s why a maximum of one page for articles in
So a just and fair solution for all has to be found.   foreign languages would be fair.
Maybe some articles could be written in foreign
languages and be translated into English so that
there can be a genuin exchange. Then those ideas
would make sense.

Role profile MODERATELY AGAINST                        Role profile MODERATELY AGAINST
You are a migrant and you don’t think it is a good     You are against articles in foreign languages that
idea to guarantee someone pages in the school          can only be read by few people. Yet, one should be
magazine. Until now the editing team has always        informed about other cultures and perspectives. You
decided democratically which articles, photos          are in favour of giving foreign students the space to
and reports are published and which are not. You       write about certain cultural and religious topics, i.e.
find it ok to publish articles in migrants’ mother     Islam or important events in their home countries. But
tongues from time to time. But this should be          you want them to write in English so that everyone can
decided democratically in each single case.            understand.
Otherwise people could say the articles appear
only because the authors are foreigners and not
because of their quality.

MATERIAL/WORK SHEET                                         Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.

Simulation game: The student newspaper – role profiles
Role profile PRO                                               Role profile PRO
You think it would be appropriate for the school maga-         You find the proposal interesting and reasonable. You
zine to also print articles in a foreign language. In that     are aware that the demanded space of 25% of the
way you can demonstrate that it is possible for people         whole magazine exceeds the percentage of foreign
from different nationalities and cultural backgrounds          students. But due to the amount of different mother
to live together in a peaceful, constructive way. Why          tongues, a reduction of the space would not lead any
shouldn’t you allow the same rights to foreign students        more to the desired result of a good mutual under-
as to English ones? That’s why it is self-evident for you      standing, as there would only be left very little space
to support the proposal.                                       for each single contribution in a foreign language.

Role profile PRO                                               Role profile PRO
You are a migrant and you are in favour of the proposal.       You are in favour of giving students with foreign
It is important for you that everyone gets the chance          backgrounds their own pages. That is the only chan-
to participate in creating the school magazine in the          ce for them to use their mother tongue in a school
way he/she finds most suitable. If there is the wish to        context and to exchange ideas about their interests
write in one’s mother tongue, then this is ok. It is only      and issues. You think that everyone should have the
fair to grant a legitimate wish. Four pages in a foreign       right to live their language and culture in public.
language are not too much for you. After all, everybody        What is self-evident for English students should also
can participate in creating those pages. It is not always      be self-evident for foreign students. .The proposal
necessary to understand the text in order to convey the        is absolutely ok for you. You are not British yourself
message. And for the school this message could be that         and you would like to introduce your mother tongue
all students try to get along well and treat each other        into the school. Foreign students are also part of
fairly. It could also be a chance to intensify contacts        the school community. That’s why they should have
between English and foreign students and to exchange           the same rights. One of those rights is the right to
ideas.                                                         communicate in your mother tongue. If you are not
                                                               allowed to do that during the lessons, at least in the
                                                               school magazine it must be possible.

Role profile PRO
You think the proposal is great. In this way you can fi-
nally interest students with foreign backgrounds for the
school magazine. And it is a welcoming gesture towards
their families. Many of them have shown no interest in
the school magazine so far if they had difficulties with
the English language. This is a special opportunity now
to integrate them into public school life and to address
them directly.
Together for Democracy. Israel and Bavaria. Manual.                                    MATERIAL/WORK SHEET

Simulation game: The student newspaper – role profiles
Role profile MODERATELY PRO                           Role profile MODERATELY PRO
You are of the opinion that the proposal should       You think that by all means everyone is allowed to
be considered. Foreign students should have           write in their mother tongue. But this is not to lead to
pages they can create in their own way, but four      a restriction of the existing programme. 16 pages are
pages are too much. Four pages are 25% of the         not a lot anyway and it is hardly possible to place all
whole magazine, but only 15% of the students          the articles. Thus, a further reduction of space doesn’t
have foreign backgrounds. That’s why they should      seem reasonable to you. It would be better to find
only have two pages.                                  more sponsors to be able to print more pages.

Role profile MODERATELY PRO                           Role profile MODERATELY PRO
You think the idea exciting to integrate different    Being a migrant yourself, you find the proposal good,
languages. But it is not realistic for you that       on principle. It is important to make clear that you and
every language is considered. This would mean         your foreign fellow students have your own or – to
only very limited space for each language and         be precise – an additional culture and language.This
this would not make sense. That’s why in your         should also be mirrored in the school magazine. But
view only the three most widespread languages         this has to be done in a way that all students can profit
Turkish, Serbo-Croatian and Arabic should be          from. An idea could be that some articles are trans-
considered.                                           lated into other languages. Articles purely in foreign
                                                      languages are excluded by most of the students. You
                                                      would like to share your ideas with all students, so you
                                                      offer to translate your mother tongue into English and
                                                      vice versa.

You can also read