Page created by Stephanie Walsh
Email: info@imuna.org
                                                                                           Phone: +1 (212) 652-9992
                                                                                           Web:     www.nhsmun.nyc

 Secretary-General    Dear Delegates,
   Ankita Bhat
                      I am thrilled to welcome you all to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) at NHSMUN
                      2022! My name is Subin Moon, and I am the Director of UNICEF for Session 1. I identify as a
     Kathy Li
                      third culture kid (and a huge shout out to all my third culture kids!!!). I was born in Seoul, Republic
   Chiefs of Staff    of Korea, and grew up in many different cities, including LA, Dubai, and Toronto. Currently, I live
    Jon Basile        in Boston, where I am in my third year at Boston University. I am double majoring in international
   Abolee Raut        relations and economics and minoring in history. I give MUN major credit for helping me choose
Conference Services   my field of study! Outside of classes, I’m involved in staffing two amazing MUN conferences
   Hugo Bordas        (BARMUN and BOSMUN) on campus. And as fueled by my passion for writing, researching, and
   Sofía Fuentes      planning (of any sort), I am the Chief Editor of an interdisciplinary publication called the Politica,
Delegate Experience   the Academic Chair for Delta Delta Delta, and a translator for Good Neighbors, a nonprofit
Akanksha Sancheti     organization based in ROK. In my spare time (which I do really have), I love to bake and cook, do
 Beatriz Circelli     some cross stitching and embroidery, and explore beaches, parks, and art galleries with my friends.
Global Partnerships
                      My love for MUN began in middle school, where I attended nearly every conference my school
Katherine Alcantara
                      had to offer. NHSMUN was certainly one of the most memorable conferences I’ve attended as
   Clare Steiner
                      a student as it allowed me to practice diplomacy and public speaking and form connections with
 Under-Secretaries-   brilliant, amazing students from around the world. This year marks my third year on NHSMUN
                      staff. In the past two years, I had the pleasure of serving as the Assistant Director of the United
 James Caracciolo
Ana Margarita Gil     Nations Environment Assembly and Director of the United Nations Human Rights Council.
  Ming-May Hu         Manuel and I have been working diligently over the past few months to select some of the
 Brandon Huetter
                      most important discussions in the realm of children’s rights. Topic A, “Preventing and Treating
 Juliette Kimmins
  Caleb Kuberiet      Malnutrition Among Children,” examines a major health crisis confronting the survival and
  Victor Miranda      well-being of children worldwide. This topic analyzes the various forms of malnutrition crises
 Anikait Panikker     countries confront and the major drivers of childhood malnutrition in the modern world. Topic B,
Frances Seabrook      “Addressing and Preventing Child Marriage,” draws attention to the many threats child marriage
   Sharon Tang        has on a child’s development and future life. This topic pushes delegates to consider the settings
  Kylie Watanabe      in which children are most vulnerable to child marriage and the many devastating consequences it
Sophia Zhukovsky      may have on those affected and the communities in which they live. Manuel and I hope that these
                      topics will allow delegates to re-examine the status and severity of such issues and find continuities
                      and divergences from the past.

                      We wish you the best of luck in your preparation for the conference. Please do not hesitate to reach
                      out to Manuel and me if you have any questions regarding the background guide, NHSMUN, or
                      anything else. We look forward to hearing all the brilliant ideas you have for our topics!

                      Best wishes,

                      Subin Moon
                      United Nations Children’s Fund
                      Session I
Email: info@imuna.org
                                                                                         Phone: +1 (212) 652-9992
                                                                                         Web:     www.nhsmun.nyc

 Secretary-General    Delegates,
   Ankita Bhat
                      Hello! It’s my honor to welcome you to NHSMUN 2022. My name is Manuel Paredes, and I am
                      excited to be your Director for Session II. Subin Moon and I have been working tirelessly to bring
     Kathy Li
                      you the best possible background guide we could develop. We’re very excited to see how you will
   Chiefs of Staff    use the background guide and other materials to spur dialogue in our committee sessions and are
    Jon Basile        looking forward to hearing what you all have to say about our topics!
   Abolee Raut
                      I’m also excited to once again be a part of the NHSMUN staff. Last year was my first year at
Conference Services
   Hugo Bordas        NHSMUN, working as an Assistant Director in NHSMUN’s 2021 Historical Crisis committee. My
   Sofía Fuentes      return to NHSMUN largely derives from my love and passion for Model UN. I have participated in
                      MUN since my sophomore year at Hillcrest High School and started my Model UN career competing
Delegate Experience
                      in various local high school conferences around the NYC area, and even attended NHSMUN 2018
Akanksha Sancheti
 Beatriz Circelli     as a delegate! I eventually became Secretary-General for my school’s 2019 conference, HillMUN,
                      which raised enough money for us to keep traveling to other conferences. Now, I am part of
Global Partnerships
                      BU’s competitive Model UN team and a vice-chair for BarMUN 2021. I’m currently a sophomore
Katherine Alcantara
                      at Boston University (Subin also goes here!!), double majoring in psychology and international
   Clare Steiner
                      relations. Outside of MUN, I play video games (I’m a console player), play the guitar, and love to
 Under-Secretaries-   travel whenever possible; I got the opportunity to visit Puebla (Mexico), Chicago, and Washington
                      DC during the summer of 2021!
 James Caracciolo
Ana Margarita Gil     We are very excited to feature “Addressing and Preventing Child Marriage” and “Preventing and
  Ming-May Hu         treating Malnutrition in Children” as our topics. Child marriage occurs in most countries and is also
 Brandon Huetter
                      an issue that COVID-19 and other factors have worsened. Addressing malnutrition in children is
 Juliette Kimmins
  Caleb Kuberiet      a vital responsibility of UNICEF, one which all members must work on collectively. One of our
  Victor Miranda      goals for these topics is to ensure that all delegations involved can relate to them. Doing so will
 Anikait Panikker     help diversify debate and give everyone a shot at having their voices heard. Beyond the background
Frances Seabrook      guide and your country’s position, I also recommend looking into these topics to get a better
   Sharon Tang        understanding of their overarching themes and what to expect in the committee room. With that,
  Kylie Watanabe      I look forward to meeting every one of you and wish you all the best of luck in your research and
Sophia Zhukovsky      preparation. Talk soon!


                      Manuel Paredes
                      United Nations Children’s Fund
                      Session II
4|   Table of Contents

Table of Contents
A Note on the NHSMUN Difference                        5
A Note on Research and Preparation                     7
Committee History                                      8

Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children   10
History and Description of the Issue                  12
Current Status                                        26
Bloc Analysis                                         34
Committee Mission                                     36

Addressing and Preventing Child Marriage              38
History and Description of the Issue                  40
Current Status                                        53
Bloc Analysis                                         59
Committee Mission                                     61

Research and Preparation Questions                    63
Important Documents                                   65
Works Cited                                           66
                                                                                A Note on the NHSMUN Difference                |5
A Note on the NHSMUN Difference
Esteemed Faculty and Delegates,

Welcome to NHSMUN 2022! My name is Kathy Li, and I am this year’s Director-General. Thank you for choosing to attend
NHSMUN, the world’s largest and most diverse Model United Nations conference for secondary school students. We are thrilled
to welcome you to New York City in March!

As a space for collaboration, consensus, and compromise, NHSMUN strives to transform today’s brightest thinkers into
tomorrow’s leaders. Our organization provides a uniquely tailored experience for all in attendance through innovative and
accessible programming. We believe that an emphasis on education through simulation is paramount to the Model UN experience,
and this idea permeates throughout NHSMUN.

Realism and accuracy: Although a perfect simulation of the UN is never possible, we believe that one of the core educational
responsibilities of MUN conferences is to educate students about how the UN System works. Each NHSMUN committee is
a simulation of a real deliberative body so that delegates can research what their country has said in the committee. Our topics
are chosen from the issues currently on the agenda of each committee (except historical committees, which take topics from the
appropriate time period). This creates incredible opportunities for our delegates to conduct first-hand research by reading the
actual statements their country has made and the resolutions they have supported. We also strive to invite real UN, NGO, and
field experts into each committee through our committee speakers program. Furthermore, our staff arranges meetings between
students and the actual UN Permanent Mission of the country they represent. No other conference goes so far to immerse
students into the UN System so deeply.

Educational emphasis, even for awards: At the heart of NHSMUN lie education and compromise. As such, when NHSMUN
does distribute awards, we de-emphasize their importance compared to the educational value of Model UN as an activity.
NHSMUN seeks to reward students who excel in the arts of compromise and diplomacy. More importantly, we seek to develop
an environment where delegates can employ their critical thought processes and share ideas with their counterparts from around
the world. Part of what makes NHSMUN so special is its diverse delegate base. Given our delegates’ plurality of perspectives
and experiences, we center our programming around the values of diplomacy and teamwork. In particular, our daises look for
and promote constructive leadership that strives towards consensus, as real delegates do in the United Nations.

Debate founded on knowledge: With knowledgeable staff members and delegates from over 70 countries, NHSMUN can
facilitate an enriching experience reliant on substantively rigorous debate. To ensure this high quality of debate, our staff members
produce extremely detailed and comprehensive topic guides (like the one below) to prepare delegates for the complexities and
nuances inherent in each global issue. This process takes over six months, during which the Directors who lead our committees
develop their topics with the valuable input of expert contributors. Because these topics are always changing and evolving,
NHSMUN also produces update papers intended to bridge the gap of time between when the background guides are published
and when committee starts in March. As such, this guide is designed to be a launching point from which delegates should delve
further into their topics. The detailed knowledge that our Directors provide in this background guide through diligent research
aims to spur critical thought within delegates at NHSMUN.

Extremely engaged staff: At NHSMUN, our staffers care deeply about delegates’ experiences and what they take away from
their time at NHSMUN. Before the conference, our Directors and Assistant Directors are trained rigorously through copious
hours of workshops and exercises to provide the best conference experience possible. At the conference, delegates will have the
opportunity to meet their dais members before the first committee session, where they may engage one-on-one to discuss their
6|      A Note on the NHSMUN Difference

committees and topics. Our Directors and Assistant Directors are trained and empowered to be experts on their topics, and they
are eager to share their knowledge with delegates. Our Directors and Assistant Directors read every position paper submitted
to NHSMUN and provide thoughtful insight on those submitted by the feedback deadline. Our staff aims not only to tailor the
committee experience to delegates’ reflections and research but also to facilitate an environment where all delegates’ thoughts
can be heard.

Empowering participation: The UN relies on the voices of all of its Member States to create resolutions most likely to make
a meaningful impact on the world. That is our philosophy at NHSMUN as well. We believe that to properly delve into an issue
and produce fruitful debate, it is crucial to focus the entire energy and attention of the room on the topic at hand. Our Rules of
Procedure and our staff focus on empowering every voice in the committee, regardless of each delegate’s country assignment
or skill level. Additionally, unlike many other conferences, we also emphasize delegate participation after the conference. MUN
delegates are well-researched and aware of the UN’s priorities, and they can serve as the vanguard for action on the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs). Therefore, we are proud to connect students with other action-oriented organizations to encourage
further work on the topics.

Focused committee time: We feel strongly that interpersonal connections during debate are critical to producing superior
committee experiences and allow for the free flow of ideas. Ensuring policies based on equality and inclusion is one way in which
NHSMUN guarantees that every delegate has an equal opportunity to succeed in committee. In order to allow communication
and collaboration to be maximized during committee, we have a very dedicated team who work throughout the conference to
type, format, and print draft resolutions and working papers.

As always, we welcome any questions or concerns about the substantive program at NHSMUN 2022 and would be happy to
discuss NHSMUN pedagogy with faculty or delegates.

Delegates, it is our sincerest hope that your time at NHSMUN will be thought-provoking and stimulating. NHSMUN is an
incredible time to learn, grow, and embrace new opportunities. We look forward to seeing you work both as students and global
citizens at the conference.


Kathy Li
                                                                                 A Note on Research and Preparation            |7
A Note on Research and Preparation
Delegate research and preparation is a critical element of attending NHSMUN and enjoying the debate experience. We have
provided this Background Guide to introduce the topics that will be discussed in your committee. We encourage and expect each
of you to critically explore the selected topics and be able to identify and analyze their intricacies upon arrival to NHSMUN in

The task of preparing for the conference can be challenging, but to assist delegates, we have updated our Beginner Delegate
Guide and Advanced Delegate Guide. In particular, these guides contain more detailed instructions on how to prepare a
position paper and excellent sources that delegates can use for research. Use these resources to your advantage. They can help
transform a sometimes overwhelming task into what it should be: an engaging, interesting, and rewarding experience.

To accurately represent a country, delegates must be able to articulate its policies. Accordingly, NHSMUN requires each delegation
(the one or two delegates representing a country in a committee) to write a position paper for each topic on the committee’s
agenda. In delegations with two students, we strongly encourage each student to research each topic to ensure that they are
prepared to debate no matter which topic is selected first. More information about how to write and format position papers can
be found in the NHSMUN Research Guide. To summarize, position papers should be structured into three sections:

    I: Topic Background – This section should describe the history of the topic as it would be described by the delegate’s
    country. Delegates do not need to give an exhaustive account of the topic, but rather focus on the details that are most
    important to the delegation’s policy and proposed solutions.

    II: Country Policy – This section should discuss the delegation’s policy regarding the topic. Each paper should state the
    policy in plain terms and include the relevant statements, statistics, and research that support the effectiveness of the policy.
    Comparisons with other global issues are also appropriate here.

    III. Proposed Solutions – This section should detail the delegation’s proposed solutions to address the topic. Descriptions
    of each solution should be thorough. Each idea should clearly connect to the specific problem it aims to solve and identify
    potential obstacles to implementation and how they can be avoided. The solution should be a natural extension of the
    country’s policy.

Each topic’s position paper should be no more than 10 pages long double-spaced with standard margins and font size. We
recommend 3–5 pages per topic as a suitable length. The paper must be written from the perspective of the your assigned
country should articulate the policies you will espouse at the conference.

Each delegation is responsible for sending a copy of its papers to their committee Directors via myDais on or before March
4, 2022. If a delegate wishes to receive detailed feedback from the committee’s dais, a position must be submitted on or before
February 18, 2022. The papers received by this earlier deadline will be reviewed by the dais of each committee and returned
prior to your arrival at the conference.

Complete instructions for how to submit position papers will be sent to faculty advisers via email. If delegations are unable to
submit their position papers on time, please contact us at info@imuna.org.

                Delegations that do not submit position papers to directors will be ineligible for awards.
8|     Committee History

Committee History
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946
in order to allocate food and healthcare to children and families in countries devastated by World War II.1 UNICEF became
a permanent part of the United Nations system in 1953 when its name was shortened from the United Nations International
Children’s Emergency Fund to the United Nations Children’s Fund.2 UNICEF is the driving force that helps build a world where
the rights of every child are realized. The Fund has the ability to influence decision-makers and a variety of partners from the
local to the international level to promote human rights advocacy specifically for children. UNICEF is active in more than 190
countries and territories through country programs and national committees.3

The highest level of management in UNICEF is the Bureau, which consists of a President and four Vice Presidents who are each
elected from the Executive Board and represent one of the five global regions.4 The Bureau oversees the UNICEF Executive
Board, which is the prominent governing body within the fund. The Board oversees and approves all activities, policies, country
programs, and budgets.5 The Executive Board is comprised of 36 Member States who are elected for three-year terms by the
Economic and Social Council.6 Membership is allotted into the five regions as follows: Africa (8 seats), Asia (7), Eastern Europe
(4), Latin America and Caribbean (5), and Western Europe and Others (12).7 UNICEF’s Executive Board meets three times a
year at the UN headquarters in New York for a first regular session in January or February, an annual session in May or June, and
a second regular session in September.8 Beyond meeting at the UN headquarters, UNICEF maintains seven regional offices as
well as country offices worldwide, including a research center in Florence, a supply operation in Copenhagen, a shared services
center in Budapest, and offices in Geneva, Tokyo, and Brussels. UNICEF’s headquarters are located in New York.9 UNICEF
attempts to reach every state, as it works within 192 countries with 85 percent of its presence in the form of fieldwork.10

While UNICEF partners most closely with governments, cooperation and collaboration through all sectors are pivotal for the
success of UNICEF’s pursuits. By collaborating with intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, UN
agencies, international finance institutions, and private sectors, UNICEF reaches further into communities to advocate for the
protection of children, help meet their basic needs, as well as expand their full opportunities.11 Guided by the Convention on the
Rights of the Child, UNICEF urges that the endurance, assurance, and development of children are widespread advancement
objectives necessary to humanity. The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) serves as a guiding
document and major step forward for the international community as it set the mandate to protect the rights of every child.12
While UNICEF reminds countries of their commitment to the CRC, it cannot enforce these rules. Ultimately, UNICEF does
not have the ability to enact laws or put regulations on countries deemed uncommitted to the cause. Delegates must keep these
limitations in mind as they address the committee’s topics.
1 “About UNICEF,” UNICEF, 1 October 2018, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/about/who/index_introduction.
2 “FAQ,” UNICEF, 3 October 2017, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/about/who/index_faq.html.
3 “UNICEF: The United Nations Children’s Fund - Office of the Secretary-General’s Envoy on Youth,” United Nations, accessed 21
September 2019, https://www.un.org/youthenvoy/2013/09/unicef-the-united-nations-childrens-fund/.
4 “UNICEF Executive Board,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 18 September 2019, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.
5 “UNICEF Executive Board.”
6 “UNICEF Executive Board,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 29 January 2019, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.
7 “UNICEF Executive Board.”
8 “UNICEF Executive Board,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 18 September 2019.
10 “About UNICEF,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 3 October 2017, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/
11 “Our Partners,” United Nations Children’s Fund, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/eca/what-we-do/our-partners.
12 “UNICEF’s mission statement,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 23 April 2003, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.
                                                                                                         Committee History         |9
While UNICEF’s work is far from done, it is important to recognize what has been accomplished. UNICEF has made significant
strides against child mortality, primarily in relation to disease. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established
as a cooperation between the World Health Organisation (WHO), Rotary International, the US Center of Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), and UNICEF.13 Since its inception in 1988, polio cases have decreased by 99 percent from an average of
350,000 cases per year to 1,651 in 2008.14 These achievements help the international community work towards achieving the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 3 regarding health. Mortality among children under five have decreased
from nearly 12 million in 1990 to 6.9 million in 2011.15 UNICEF is also dedicated to creating an “aids-free generation.” Since
2000, the number of children infected with HIV decreased by 49 percent and 1.8 million new infections in children under five
have been averted.16 Furthermore, UNICEF has provided immense support for children involved in humanitarian disasters.
The Fund provides relief to the 200,000 refugee children fleeing conflict in Syria as well as helps reunite more than 3,000
separated children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012.17 In developing states, UNICEF assembles political will
and material assets to support countries and frames policies focusing on the well-being of all children. The Fund aims to advance
the equal rights of women and children to improve their political, social, and monetary networks. Through collaboration and
cooperation with members from all international sectors, UNICEF works towards the accomplishment of the maintainable
human advancement objectives received by the international community and the acknowledgment of the social advancements
cherished in the Charter of the United Nations.18

13 “Polio,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 25 May 2012, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/media/
14 “Polio.”
15 Chris Niles, “Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights,” United Nations Children’s Fund, last modified 31 December 2012,
accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/index_67099.html.
16 “HIV and AIDS,” United Nations Children’s Fund, accessed 21 September 2019, https://www.unicef.org/hiv.
17 Niles, “Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights.”
18 “UNICEF’s mission statement,” United Nations Children’s Fund.
                                             NHSMUN 2022

                        Topic A:
  Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
Photo Credit: Senior Airman Rylan Albright
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
                                                                                                    Introduction                          |11
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) was founded in 1946 after the Second World War.
The United Nations tasked the agency to deliver the most necessities such as food, clothing, and
health care to all children.1 Seven years after the creation of UNICEF, the UN General Assembly
extended the mandate of UNICEF to assist vulnerable children worldwide for an indefinite period.
The same year, UNICEF was given its first logo featuring an image of a child drinking a cup of milk.
This is because the provision of milk to undernourished children was one of its main activities.2
Even today, keeping children well-nourished remains a challenging but important task of UNICEF.
Childhood malnutrition occurs when children are either                     Access to adequate nutrition for children is about more
consuming too little or too much food or nutrients.3                       than providing them with sufficient food for their survival.
Malnutrition presents an obstacle for every child to reach                 It also implies the ability to deliver healthy, nutritious diets
their full growth and developmental potential. In 2019, nearly             that fulfill the needs of children at every stage of growth
half of all deaths in children under five were attributed                  and development. The right to adequate nutrition is
to undernutrition.4 According to UNICEF, around 3.1                        enshrined in the legally binding international agreement of
million children die of malnutrition every year, an entirely               the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Therefore, UN
preventable cause of death.5 At the same time, the number                  member states are obligated to deliver on their promise and
of overweight children has continued to rise in all parts of               guarantee that the most vulnerable and disproportionately
the world. From 2000–2016, the proportion of overweight                    affected by malnutrition have equitable access to nutritious
children has increased from one in ten to one in five.6 Some               foods.8 Good nutrition can significantly help protect children
major drivers of child malnutrition in the past, such as food              from many treatable diseases in early childhood along with
insecurity, conflict, gender roles, lack of health and nutrition           obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
education, and poor governance, continue to shape the poor                 in adulthood.9 It can also ensure that no child is left behind
nutritional status of many children. In addition to these                  in terms of physical growth and academic performance
factors, global forces that characterize the 21st century, like            in school.10 In the long-term, well-nourished children can
urbanization and globalization, are increasing the accessibility           participate and contribute to the communities they grow and
of food to communities, but they are also deteriorating the                thrive in. UNICEF’s Executive Director Henrietta Fore states,
quality of children’s diets worldwide. The one-dimensional                 “Good nutrition paves the way for a fair chance in life” in
image of a severely undernourished child fails to encapsulate              the Foreword to The State of the World’s Children Report of
the complexities of the child malnutrition crisis we face today,           2019.11 Child malnutrition is much more than a health crisis.
where we accept that different forms of malnutrition can                   It is also one of the most pressing children’s rights concerns,
coexist within communities.7                                               and UNICEF is dedicated to tackling this to allow every child
1 “Children,” United Nations, accessed August 2, 2021, https://www.un.org/en/global-issues/children.
2 United Nations Children’s Fund, 1946–2006 Sixty Years for Children (New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, November 2006): 9,
3 “Malnutrition,” World Health Organization, June 9, 2021, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition.
4 “Child Nutrition,” United Nations Children’s Fund, October 2019, https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/child-nutrition/.
5 United Nations Children’s Fund United States of America, “UNICEF: Too Many Children Dying of Malnutrition,” June 6, 2013, https://
6 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019. Children, Food and Nutrition: Growing well in a changing world (New York:
United Nations Children’s Fund, 2019): 8, https://www.unicef.org/media/63016/file/SOWC-2019.pdf.
7 United Nations Children’s Fund, “The Changing Face of Malnutrition: The State of the World’s Children 2019,” accessed June 29, 2021,
8 United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food. Protecting Children’s Right to a Healthy Food
Environment (Geneva: United Nations Children’s Fund and United Nations Human Rights Council, 2019): 5, https://www.unicef.nl/files/
9 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019.
10 Harold Alderman, John Haddinott, and Bill Kinsey, “Long Term Consequences of Early Childhood Malnutrition,” Oxford Economic Papers
58 (July 2006): 450-474, https://www.jstor.org/stable/3876979.
11 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019.
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
12|H     istory and Description of the Issue

the opportunity to reach their full potential.12                             also be prescribed the condition of severe acute malnutrition
                                                                             (SAM). If left untreated, SAM can be deadly.18

History and Description of the Issue                                         Direct causes of undernutrition are traced to inadequate
                                                                             dietary intake and disease driven by food insecurity, lack of
The Forms of Malnutrition                                                    access to healthcare and health education for women and
                                                                             children, and unsanitary living environments.19 In middle and
Malnutrition can appear in many different forms and poses
                                                                             low-income countries, where undernutrition tends to be the
many threats to the health and well-being of children around
                                                                             most common form of malnutrition in children, poverty is
the world. Most broadly, malnutrition is an inclusive term
                                                                             considered its most significant driver.20 The humanitarian
that refers to “deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances” in one’s
                                                                             organization Save the Children found that roughly 139 million
intake of nutrients. The World Health Organization (WHO)
                                                                             children, or nine in ten stunted children, today live in low and
distinguishes the many types of malnutrition into three
subcategories: undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and               lower-middle-income countries.21 Apart from these direct
overnutrition. Every country is affected by at least one form                causes, a variety of human rights issues such as the presence
of malnutrition, thus rendering it a universal health crisis.13              of conflict, poor governance, climate change, and gender
Since children are one of its most vulnerable victims, no                    inequality are underlying causes for this nutritional crisis by
country can afford to overlook this issue.14                                 negatively impacting the availability of food in a community
                                                                             as well as its accessibility.22 The understanding of these direct
The most renowned form of malnutrition in children is                        and underlying causes is critical to most effectively address
undernutrition. Undernutrition is characterized by the lack                  the issue of undernutrition in children before it seriously
of nutrition, which is caused by consuming insufficient                      affects their health and well-being. Undernutrition can have
quantities of food overall or not eating enough food                         significant consequences for a young child. In unsanitary
containing substances necessary to sustain the body.15 Today,                conditions or environments, children are susceptible to
undernutrition affects 150 million children under the age of                 diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria.23 Although
five worldwide.16 Around 45 percent of deaths for children                   these diseases are treatable, they may be life-threatening
under five years old are traced to undernutrition, rendering
                                                                             in undernourished children who have weakened immune
this form of malnutrition more dangerous to children than
                                                                             systems.24 Later in life, undernutrition in early childhood can
to other age groups. Undernutrition may appear in three
                                                                             increase one’s susceptibility to become overweight and suffer
different subforms: wasting (low weight-for-height), stunting
                                                                             from overnutrition in adolescence and adulthood.25
(low height-for-age), and underweight (low weight-for-age).17
Children who suffer the most extreme form of wasting can                     Another notorious form of childhood malnutrition is
12  “Nutrition,” United Nations Children’s Fund, accessed June 29, 2021, https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/child-nutrition/.
13  World Health Organization, “Malnutrition.”
14  “Nutrition,” United Nations Children’s Fund, accessed June 29, 2021, https://www.unicef.org/nutrition.
15  “About Malnutrition,” Global Nutrition Report, accessed June 29, 2021, https://globalnutritionreport.org/resources/about-malnutrition/.
16  “Nutrition,” World Food Programme, accessed June 29, 2021, https://www.wfp.org/nutrition.
17  World Health Organization, “Malnutrition.”
18  “Types of Malnutrition,” Action Against Hunger, accessed June 29, 2021, https://actionagainsthunger.ca/what-is-acute-malnutrition/
19 Mawuli Sablah, Causes and Impacts of Undernutrition over the Life Course (New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, September 16,
2019), https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/events/pdf/expert/30/presentations/Tuesday/Session4/Causes%20-%20
20 “4 Causes of Malnutrition in Children,” Save the Children, accessed June 29, 2021, https://www.savethechildren.org/us/charity-stories/
21 Save the Children, “4 Causes of Malnutrition.”
22 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala et al., “Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does
geographic location matter?,” BMC Public Health 11, no. 261 (2011), https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-261.
23 “Children: improving survival and well-being,” World Health Organization, September 8, 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-
24 World Food Programme, “Nutrition.”
25 Vinicius J. B. Martins et al., “Long-Lasting Effects of Undernutrition,” International journal of environmental research and public health 8, no. 6
(2011), https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8061817.
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
                                                                              History and Description of the Issue                      |13
micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrients refer to vitamins              also increasing the risk of dying during or immediately after
and minerals that the body needs to produce substances such               childbirth in pregnant women.32 Accurately understanding the
as enzymes and hormones that are critical for the growth and              burden and underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies in
development of the human body.26 Micronutrient deficiency                 children may help prevent and treat them of these preventable
is also called the “hidden hunger” as it is harder to visually            illnesses before it is too late.
identify than normal hunger. As opposed to normal hunger,
                                                                          The third form of malnutrition that has become one of the
which may be identified by shortness in height and low
                                                                          most pressing global health challenges in the modern world
body weight, it can be very challenging to detect signs of
                                                                          is overnutrition. Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition
micronutrient deficiencies without the aid of blood samples
                                                                          characterized by an excessive intake of food or nutrients.33
or urine tests. Even when these health conditions are to be
                                                                          In measuring the excess nutrition in a person, it is very
noticed, it is often too late to reverse the damaging impacts
                                                                          challenging to develop a single index for the measurement of
it has had on one’s health.27 At present, one in two children
                                                                          overnutrition as it may not necessarily correspond to the same
across the globe suffers from hidden hunger.28 Deficiencies               body fat percentage in different individuals. This becomes
in vitamin A, iron, and iodine are some of the most common                even more difficult to measure in children and adolescents
among children and pregnant women, and these are identified               who undergo many physical changes as they grow.34 The body
as the “most important” micronutrients in terms of global                 mass index (BMI)—an index of expected weight by height—
health by the WHO.29                                                      is used to determine overweight and obesity, a more extreme
The causes of micronutrient deficiencies largely resemble                 form of overweight.35 While stunted growth in childhood has
those of undernutrition. Although malnutrition is rooted                  steadily declined and wasting has remained relatively stable
                                                                          since 2000, a worrying upward trend has been observed in
in the insufficient consumption of essential nutrients and
                                                                          childhood overweight and obesity.36 In 2019, WHO estimated
vitamins typically obtained from food in small quantities, a lack
                                                                          that 378.2 million children and adolescents under the age of
of dietary diversity is a significant driver.30 Poor nutrition in
                                                                          19 were overweight or obese based off data from 2016. To
newborns and infants may directly be caused by their mothers’
                                                                          add to this concern, the WHO finds that most of the world’s
poor nutrition and health. In the womb, maternal reserves act
                                                                          population live in countries where overnutrition is more
as their only nutritional source for growth and development.31
                                                                          significant as a cause of death than undernutrition.37
Though micronutrient deficiencies in children are often traced
to a few root causes, the effects may largely vary depending              Overnutrition may have very different effects on a child’s
on the micronutrient a child lacks. For example, a deficiency             body and health when compared to the other two forms
in vitamin A may cause blindness in children, while anemia,               of malnutrition, but it shares some resemblances in its
a condition caused by a lack of iron, can cause a range of                determinants. In early childhood, children may face an
symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and dizziness while                   increased risk of being overweight or obese if their parents
26 “Micronutrients,” World Health Organization, accessed June 25, 2021, https://www.who.int/health-topics/micronutrients#tab=tab_1.
27 Morten Wendelbo, “Hidden hunger affects nearly 2 billion worldwide – are solutions in plain sight?,” The Conversation, October 12, 2018,
28 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019, 13.
29 Save the Children, “Malnutrition.”
30 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019, 45.
31 United Nations Children’s Fund, “The Changing Face of Malnutrition.”
32 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019, 44; World Health Organization, “Anaemia,” accessed June 29, 2021,
33 Prashant Mathur and Rakesh Pillai, “Overnutrition: Current scenario & combat strategies,” Indian Journal of Medical Research 149, no. 6
(June 2019): 695-705, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755771/.
34 “Noncommunicable diseases: Childhood overweight and obesity,” World Health Organization, October 19, 2020, https://www.who.int/
35 Krushnapriya Sahoo et al., “Childhood obesity: causes and consequences,” Journal of family medicine and primary care 4, no. 2 (2015), 187-192,
36 Save the Children, “Malnutrition.”
37 “Obesity and overweight,” World Health Organization, June 9, 2021, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
14|H     istory and Description of the Issue

are overweight or if the mother is undernourished before                  cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, several types of cancer, and
or during pregnancy. Similar to undernutrition, non-optimal               high blood pressure. Promoting healthy diets among children
breastfeeding practices in early childhood may also be a                  can significantly help to reduce their risk of developing fatal
contributing factor. Childhood obesity is especially prevalent            health conditions in adulthood.41
in middle childhood and adolescence. It is driven by the
                                                                          Since the founding days of the UN, it has repeatedly sounded
introduction of unhealthy foods into a growing child’s diet
due to poverty, food insecurity, or lack of access to a wide              the alarm regarding the nutritional status of children in various
range of nutrients may all contribute to overnutrition.38 More            countries, regions, and the world, as a whole. Still, children
recent research has uncovered that a variety of indirect factors          remain at the center of the world nutrition crisis.42 With serious
also increase childhood obesity and obesity in general, such              consequences that may extend into later life, governments and
as fast-food marketing directed towards children, unhealthy               societies must prioritize the task of preventing and treating
school food environments, globalization and urbanization,                 childhood malnutrition.
and the widening socioeconomic divide.39 Concerning the
overnutrition crisis, the instability of governments and                  Nutrition in Early Childhood
societies to deliver nutritious diets of sufficient quality and           From the moment of birth through the age of five, early
quantity is compounded by many new social and economic                    childhood is an important time marked by impressive growth
pressures such as aggressive marketing and the provision of               and development. During this critical period in which the
too much processed, unhealthy foods. This makes this form                 foundations for the child’s long-term health and development
of malnutrition even more widespread and difficult to combat              are established, millions of children face many challenges in
than the other two forms.                                                 realizing their right to nutrition and health.43 Globally, 144
As the trend of overnutrition in children continues to rise,              million children under the age of five are affected by stunting,
there is increasing concern about the long-term health                    and nearly 80 percent of those children live in South Asia and
consequences childhood obesity may have as children grow                  Sub-Saharan Africa.44 Another 340 million children suffered
into adults. In the long term, overweight and obesity become              from micronutrient deficiencies in essential minerals and
metabolic risk factors of many diet-related non-communicable              vitamins such as iron, vitamin A and iodine.45 On the other
diseases (NCDs). NCDs refer to chronic diseases that tend                 end, the WHO estimates show that 38.2 million children
to be long in duration, resulting from a combination of                   under five years are considered overweight or obese.46 Lori
genetic, behavioral, and physiological factors. NCDs account              Lake, communication and education specialist at the Children’s
for the death of 41 million people annually, or 71 percent                Institute at the University of Cape Town, describes childhood
of all deaths worldwide.40 Poor nutrition and eating habits               malnutrition as a form of “‘slow violence’ that systematically
are underlying causes for many diet-related NCDs such as                  destroys a child.”47 Hence, immediate attention and action
38 United Nations Children’s Fund, Prevention of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: UNICEF Advocacy Strategy and Guidance (New
York: United Nations Children’s Fund, October 2020): 13, https://www.unicef.org/media/92331/file/Advocacy-Guidance-Overweight-
39 United Nations Children’s Fund, “The Changing Face of Malnutrition.”
40 World Health Organization, “Noncommunicable diseases.”
41 World Cancer Research Fund International, The link between food, nutrition, diet and non-communicable diseases: Why NCDs need to be considered
when addressing major nutritional challenges (London: World Cancer Research Fund International, 2014), https://www.wcrf.org/wp-content/
42 Peyvand Khorsandi, “UN agencies: Restore school meals or ‘risk losing a whole generation,’” World Food Programme, January 27, 2021,
43 United Nations Children’s Fund. First 1000 Days: The Critical Window to Ensure that Children Survive and Thrive. Pretoria: United Nations
Children’s Fund South Africa, May 2017, https://www.unicef.org/southafrica/media/551/file/ZAF-First-1000-days-brief-2017.pdf.
44 United Nations Children’s Fund. Nutrition, for Every Child: UNICEF Nutrition Strategy 2020–2030. New York: United Nations Children’s
Fund, December 2020: 7, https://www.unicef.org/media/92031/file/UNICEF%20Nutrition%20Strategy%202020-2030.pdf.
45 United Nations Children’s Fund. Maternal and Child Nutrition: UNICEF Programming Priorities to Respond to the Socio-economic Impacts of
the COVID-19 Pandemic. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, June 1, 2021, https://www.unscn.org/uploads/web/file/UNICEF-
46 World Health Organization, “Obesity and Overweight.”
47 Children’s Institute, “ ‘We are literally taking food out of the mouths of babes,’” University of Cape Town News, June 1, 2021, https://www.
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
                                                                              History and Description of the Issue                      |15
are needed to treat the millions of young children who are                Steps and introduced safe breast-milk substitutes to ensure
currently malnourished and prevent millions more from                     that infants receive the nutrition they need.52 Despite these
falling into this trap of “violence.”                                     efforts, however, less than half of newborns are breastfed in
                                                                          the first hour of life, and only three out of five infants in their
From the moment a child is born, nutrition plays an important
                                                                          first six months rely exclusively on breastfeeding.53 Continued
role in their health. Immediately after birth, UNICEF
                                                                          efforts are necessary to ensure the nutritional well-being of
recommends that the mother feeds their newborn with
                                                                          infants and protect them against preventable diseases driven
breastmilk. Breastmilk is not only a food source for an infant.
                                                                          by malnutrition.
It also serves as a “potent medicine” that meets the specific
needs of the child.48 In the first six months of life, mothers are        Past infancy, the nutritional needs of children continue
also recommended to exclusively breastfeed their infants as it            to grow. When children reach the age of six months, solid
lowers the risk of diseases such as diarrhea and pneumonia,               foods are introduced into their diets together with continued
both major causes of death among children under the age                   breastfeeding until the age of two. Consequently, the nutrition
of five. During this stage of child growth and development,               of children becomes greater per kilogram of body weight
there is no substitute for breastfeeding. India’s UNICEF                  between the ages of six and 23 months than at any other
office found that an infant who is not breastfed is more than             stage in childhood.54 This makes them especially vulnerable
14 times more likely to die from diseases and other health                to the consequences of malnutrition, in which many cases
and diet-related causes than an infant who had exclusively                could have long-term impacts on their brain development and
been breastfed.49 Later in life, the lack or absence of exclusive         physical growth as these children grow up into adults.55 Recent
breastfeeding can also predispose children to overweight,
                                                                          studies have also shown that poor diets in early childhood
obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases.50
                                                                          may also explain at least 22 percent of premature mortality
Breastfeeding is essential to the lifelong health of a child, and         cases in adulthood.56 Over the past 65 years, the World Food
the UN has launched many long-term education initiatives                  Programme (WFP) found that chronic malnutrition has
to promote healthy breastfeeding practices globally. In 1989,             contributed to more than two million premature deaths in
WHO and UNICEF presented “The Ten Steps to Successful                     Mexico alone.57 Despite these concerns, UNICEF found in
Breastfeeding” to raise awareness on the importance of                    2019 that one in three children between the ages of six and
breastfeeding in early childhood. This guide summarizes                   23 months were eating the minimum diverse diet required
the ways to support breastfeeding for new mothers and                     to satisfy their growing needs; many of these children’s diets
maternity and newborn services worldwide.51 20 years since                consisted of grains or processed foods and snacks high in sugar
its introduction, more than 152 countries have established                content, lacking a healthy eating pattern—a diet consisting of
Baby-Friendly Hospitals that have implemented the Ten                     a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, protein-rich

48 United Nations Children’s Fund. From the First Hour of Life: Making the case for improved infant and young child feeding everywhere. New York:
United Nations Children’s Fund, October 2016: 24-30.
49 “Early Childhood Nutrition,” United Nations Children’s Fund India, accessed June 23, 2021, https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-
50 United Nations Children’s Fund, Nutrition, for Every Child, 10.
51 “Ten steps to successful breastfeeding,” World Health Organization, accessed June 23, 2021, https://www.who.int/activities/promoting-
52 “Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding,” The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust, May 28, 2013, https://www.tensteps.org/
53 “Early childhood nutrition,” United Nations Children’s Fund, accessed June 14, 2021. https://www.unicef.org/nutrition/early-childhood-
54 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019, 74-76.
55 Alderman, Haddinott, and Kinsey, “Long Term Consequences,” 450-474.
56 GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators, “Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden
of Disease Study 2017,” Lancet 393, no. 10184 (May 11, 2019): 1961. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(19)30041-8.
57 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and World Food Programme, The cost of the double burden of malnutrition. The
World Food Programme, April 2017: 8, https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000110372/download/.
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
16|H      istory and Description of the Issue

 Mother cradling her baby at a nutrition rehabilitation center in Madhya Pradesh, India

foods, oils, fat-free and low-fat dairy products—necessary                                with the basic nutrients to meet their children’s needs.60 Hence,
for sustained growth and development.58 These disparities                                 education in these small, remote settings could help prevent
demonstrate the critical need for appropriate nutrition to be                             and treat child malnutrition by increasing a sense of awareness
introduced at each stage of childhood development.                                        on the importance of a balanced diet among the families of
                                                                                          young children. In Cambodia, another innovative solution has
There are many attributable factors for malnutrition in early                             been introduced to help alleviate the burden of severe acute
childhood. The Global Nutrition Report indicates that the                                 malnutrition in children under five. UNICEF, the French
rates of food introduction at each stage of early childhood                               National Research Institute for Sustainable Development,
and diet diversity were typically lower for children in poorer                            Copenhagen University, and Danish Care Foods partnered
households, rural communities, or with mothers who attained                               with the Royal Government of Cambodia. They developed
lower levels of education.59 To illustrate, in the tiny rural                             a new fish-based snack called Nutrix to treat children who
community Akabacuzi Village in Rwanda, 22 children had                                    are suffering from severe acute malnutrition. By making an
suffered from severe malnutrition as the mothers in the village                           affordable food item with locally sourced ingredients, the
were unaware of the nutritional needs of their children. To                               Cambodian government could readily produce and supply
remedy this, a local health worker began leading cooking                                  Nutrix to treat young children suffering from severe acute
lessons to help local mothers learn to cook balanced meals                                malnutrition.61 This is an example of a strategy that could be
58 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Childhood Nutrition Facts,” accessed June 25, 2021, https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/
59 United Nations Children’s Fund, Nutrition, for Every Child, 14-15.
60 United Nations Children’s Fund, The State of the World’s Children 2019, 77.
61 United Nations Children’s Fund, “New fish-based ready-to-use-therapeutic food to treat children with severe acute malnutrition in
Topic A: Preventing and Treating Malnutrition Among Children
                                                                              History and Description of the Issue                     |17
applied in other countries where direct, immediate action is             0.85 grades of schooling, and start school six months earlier.67
needed to treat children suffering severe forms of malnutrition.         Although direct nutritional intervention could alleviate the
                                                                         consequences of malnutrition in these young children, these
Beyond household food insecurity and poverty, recent
                                                                         issues show that early childhood malnutrition is a large-scale
reports published by UNICEF have drawn greater attention
                                                                         and complex problem that also requires solutions taking into
to some of the larger, systemic drivers of early childhood
                                                                         account underlying factors in a given community or country.
malnutrition. External shocks such as wars, natural disasters,
and poor governance have resulted in large-scale health crises           Despite these many challenges, the international community
affecting the nutritional status of many young children around           has also made some significant strides towards treating and
the world.62 For instance, the WFP has stated that the largest           preventing malnutrition in infancy and early childhood. At
nutritional program they have launched is in Yemen.63 Since              the beginning of 2020, the Global Nutrition Report revealed
the outbreak of civil war in 2014, the ongoing armed conflict            that the world has successfully reduced the number of
has left at least 2.3 million children under five requiring              stunted children from 165.8 million in 2012 to 149 million
treatment for acute malnutrition.64 In addition, the health              in 2018, representing a 10 percent decrease in global cases
burden of global climate change has already fallen upon the              due to a general increase in awareness and investment focused
shoulders of some countries. Since 2014, the southern region             on addressing undernutrition.68 These successes should
of Madagascar has been severely affected by adverse climate              encourage states to continue to ensure good nutrition for
conditions, with decreased rainfall making it exceptionally              infants and young children around the world.
challenging for Malagasy people to grow crops.65 This lack
of access to food has left nearly half of all children under             Nutrition in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
the age of five stunted.66 Children suffering through these
various external shocks are stripped of the opportunity to               Middle childhood and adolescence are also critical times for
grow and develop in the way in which children in conflict-               one’s growth and development, as this time is when habits
free, stable environments are able. In 2006, a research study            that persist into adulthood are formed.69 This demonstrates
was commissioned by the World Bank in which researchers                  that dietary habits formed during middle childhood—
studied malnutrition and its effects on capital formation in             both healthy and unhealthy—will likely remain until a child
rural Zimbabwe. Researchers have analyzed data on preschool              becomes an adult.70 Regardless of this significance, there are
children’s academic performance and health over a generation             relatively limited sources and studies that focus exclusively on
to account for children raised during periods of civil war,              the prevalence and consequences of malnutrition in children
droughts, or relative stability. Results have shown that if a            between the ages of five and 18 years compared to child
median child in the sample had been raised in a conflict-free            malnutrition in early childhood.71 However, the importance
environment where food was readily available, by adolescence,            of middle childhood cannot be overlooked as there are
they would be 3.4 centimeters taller, complete an additional             many more complicated reasons why these children eat both
Cambodia,” press release, December 17, 2018, https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/new-fish-based-ready-use-therapeutic-food-treat-
62 Alderman, Haddinott, and Kinsey, “Long Term Consequences,” 450-451; United Nations Children’s Fund, Nutrition, for Every Child, 26.
63 Symington, Annabel, and Peyvand Khorsandi, “Yemen: Famine around the corner, says World Food Programme,” World Food Programme,
March 1, 2021, https://www.wfp.org/stories/yemen-global-development-famine-un-conference-hunger-food-aid.
64 United Nations Children’s Fund, “Acute malnutrition threatens half of children under five in Yemen in 2021: UN,” press release,
February 11, 2021, https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/acute-malnutrition-threatens-half-children-under-five-yemen-2021-un.
65 United Nations Children’s Fund Australia, “It’s 2021, so why are there still malnourished children in this world?,” UNICEF, February 16,
2021, https://www.unicef.org.au/blog/news-and-insights/february-2021/malnutrition-children-worldwide.
66 United Nations Children’s Fund Australia, “why are there still malnourished children?”.
67 Alderman, Haddinott, and Kinsey, “Long Term Consequences,” 470-472.
68 United Nations Children’s Fund, Nutrition, for Every Child, 5.
69 Zohra Lassi, Anoosh Moin, and Zulfiqar Bhutta, “Nutrition in Middle Childhood and Adolescence,” Disease Control Priorities 8 (November
2017), 133, http://dcp-3.org/sites/default/files/chapters/DCP3%20CAHD_Ch%2011.pdf.
70 Lassi, Moin, and Bhutta, “Nutrition in Middle Childhood,” 133.
71 Rae Galloway, “Global Nutrition Outcomes at Ages 5 to 19,” Disease Control Priorities 8 (November 2017): 37, http://dcp-3.org/sites/default/
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