Page created by Christopher Farmer
   2 5 - F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 2

We, at Team Vedhik is happy to introduce a new initiative - "Daily Current
Affairs_The Hindu" compilations to help you with UPSC Civil Services
Examination preparation. We believe this initiative - "Daily Current
Affairs_The Hindu" would help students, especially beginners save time
and streamline their preparations with regard to Current Affairs. A content
page and an Appendix has been added segregating and mapping the
content to the syllabus.
It is an appreciable efforts by Vedhik IAS Academy helping aspirants of
UPSC Civil Services Examinations. I would like to express my sincere
gratitude to Dr. Babu Sebastian, former VC - MG University in extending
all support to this endeavour. Finally I also extend my thanks to thank
Ms. Shilpa Sasidharan and Mr. Shahul Hameed for their assistance in the
preparing the compilations.
We welcome your valuable comments so that further improvement may
be made in the forthcoming material. We look forward to feedback,
comments and suggestions on how to improve and add value for students.
Every care has been taken to avoid typing errors and if any reader comes
across any such error, the authors shall feel obliged if they are informed
at their Email ID.

Editorials - Understanding the Indus Waters Treaty
                                                 GSP 02 A
News - World shocked by Russia’s full-scale invasion of
Ukraine Part I
                                                 GSP 02 A
News - World shocked by Russia’s full-scale invasion of
Ukraine Part II
                                                 GSP 02 A
Editorials - Russia’s NATO problem
                                                 GSP 02 B
Editorials - The Russian Aggression on Ukraine and
International Law
                                                 GSP 02 B
Editorials - Shaking up Europe’s security architecture
                                                 GSP 02 C
News - China says it ‘understands’ Russia’s ‘legitimate
security concerns’
                                                 GSP 02 C
News - Jaishankar speaks to EU, U.K. Ministers
                                                 GSP 02 C

News - Modi talks to Putin, calls for ceasefire
                                                   GSP 02 C
News - Ukrainians wake up to thunder of war
                                                   GSP 02 C
News - SC clears decks for release of Gangubai Kathiawadi
                                                   GSP 02 E
Editorials - Is the new economy creating new jobs
                                                   GSP 03 A
Editorials - Ploughing a new channel for India’s food systems
                                                   GSP 03 F
News - U.S. group hacked Indian research institutes China firm
                                                   GSP 03 R
News - Air control must for operations at all levels, says IAF chief
                                                   GSP 03 T
World shocked by Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine
Eight killed, nine

                                                                                                                                  World shocked by
wounded, says
Ukraine official

                                                                                                                                  Russia’s invasion

Russia launched an all-out in-
vasion of Ukraine by land, air
and sea on Thursday, the big-                                                                                                     Three hours after Mr. Putin       separatists in the east later
gest attack by one state
against another in Europe                                                                                                         gave his order, Russia’s De-      said they had captured two
since the Second World War                                                                                                        fence Ministry said it had ta-    towns, the RIA news agency
and confirmation of the                                                                                                           ken out military infrastruc-      reported. There was no im-
worst fears of the West.
   Russian missiles rained
                                                                                                                                  ture at Ukrainian air bases       mediate comment by auth-
down on Ukrainian cities,                                                                                                         and degraded its air defenc-      orities in Ukraine.
much to the shock of interna-                                                                                                     es, Russian media reported.          Russia announced it was
tional community. Ukraine
                                                                                                                                     Earlier, Ukrainian media       shutting all shipping in the
reported columns of troops
pouring across its borders in-                                                                                                    reported that military com-       Azov Sea. Russia controls
to the eastern Chernihiv,                                                                                                         mand centres in Kiev and          the strait leading into the
Kharkiv and Luhansk re-                                                                                                           the city of Kharkiv in the        sea where Ukraine has ports
gions, and landing by sea at     Cost of war: Firefighters try to douse fire set off by Russian bombings on the eastern Ukraine
the cities of Odessa and Mari-   town of Chuguiv on Wednesday. AFP
                                                                                                                                  northeast had been struck         including Mariupol.
                                                                                                                                  by missiles, while Russian           Global stocks and U.S.

upol in the south.
   Explosions could be heard     been killed and nine were         described as absurd propa-                                     troops had landed in the          bond yields dived, while the
before dawn in the Ukrainian     wounded by the Russian            ganda. “And for this we will
capital Kiev. Gunfire rattled    shelling, an adviser to the Uk-   strive for the demilitarisation
                                                                                                                                  southern port cities of Odes-     dollar and gold rocketed
out near the main airport.       rainian Minister of Internal      and denazification of Uk-                                      sa and Mariupol.                  higher after Mr. Putin’s ad-
   Ukraine’s President Volo-     Affairs said.                     raine,” Mr. Putin said.                                           A Reuters witness later        dress. Brent oil surged past
dymyr Zelensky said Kremlin                                           Russia’s Defence Ministry                                   heard three loud blasts in        $100/barrel for the first time
leader Vladimir Putin’s aim      Putin’s defence                   said its military destroyed 83
was to destroy his state. Uk-    Mr. Putin declared in a tele-     Ukrainian land-based targets                                   Mariupol. Russian-backed          since 2014.
rainian Foreign Minister         vised address that he had or-     and achieved all its goals in
Dmytro Kuleba said on Twit-      dered “a special military op-     Ukraine for Thursday, the In-
ter: “This is a war of aggres-   eration” to protect people,       terfax news agency said.
sion. Ukraine will defend it-    including Russian citizens
self and will win. The world     who had been subjected to         CONTINUED ON  PAGE 8
can and must stop Putin.”        “genocide” in Ukraine, an ac-     EDITORIAL  PAGE 6
   At least eight people had     cusation the West has long        MORE REPORTS  PAGES 8 & 11

                                                                                                                                                                         DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                                                   COURT E SY     T H E   H IND U
Russia’s NATO problem
         Putin seems unwilling to engage
      to address Russian security concerns

        ussia’s unjustifiable incursion into Ukraine fol-
        lowing weeks of military troop build-up on their
        shared border has drastically raised tensions in
the region with broader ripple effects across the world,
particularly for NATO countries and others with strateg-
ic connections to the two nations. Reports said that sev-
eral Ukrainian cities, including capital Kyiv came under
attack on Thursday morning, even as the UN Security
Council held an emergency meeting to stop the inva-
sion. U.S. President Joe Biden and the NATO and Euro-
pean Commission leadership vowed to impose “severe
sanctions” on Russia. This round of sanctions will over-
lay prior economic penalties imposed on Russian enti-
ties and individuals close to the political leadership,
and they are expected to include cutting off top Russian
banks from the financial system, halting technology ex-
ports, and directly targeting the Russian President.
Moscow can hardly be surprised at this backlash, for it
has shown little sympathy toward the idea of engaging
diplomatically on the Ukraine question to address Rus-
sian security concerns. Ever since Russia began amass-
ing troops on the Ukrainian border, the U.S., NATO, and
Europe have sought to press for diplomatic solutions.
This includes direct U.S.-Russia negotiations, and
French President Macron’s meeting with Mr. Putin.
    While the sense of frustration in western capitals ov-
er Mr. Putin’s intractability and aggression are palpa-
ble, and the use of severe sanctions stemming from that
is a strategic inevitability, it is unlikely that the prospect
of escalating violence and a devastating toll on human
life and property in Ukraine can be ruled out until Mr.
Putin’s broader questions on NATO are answered. At
the heart of his fears is the prospect of Ukraine joining
NATO and NATO troops potentially stationed at the bor-
der with Russia. NATO’s historical record, of its pen-
chant for expansionism, has likely fuelled such insecur-
ities. After the dissolution of the former Soviet Union,
the Eastern European military alliance, NATO, and Rus-
sia in 1997 signed the “Founding Act” on mutual rela-
tions, cooperation, and security. Disregarding the spirit
of this agreement, NATO quietly underwent five rounds
of enlargement during the 1990s, pulling former Soviet
Union countries into its orbit. Cooperative exchanges,
communications hotlines, and Cold War fail-safes such
as arms control verification have fallen by the wayside,
even more since Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014.
It may be the case that owing to Mr. Putin’s failure to de-
velop Russia into an economic powerhouse that natu-
rally attracted neighbouring countries and internation-
al capital to itself partly explains Moscow’s deflection of
attention to strategic questions relating to NATO and
Russia’s territorial integrity. But unless western nations
give assurances to Mr. Putin that NATO will not seek to
relentlessly expand its footprint eastwards, Moscow
will have little incentive to return to the negotiating ta-
ble. But Russia and Mr. Putin must realise that war is
not the means to peace and security.

                                                                      DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                 COURT E SY   T H E   H IND U

                                     The Russian Aggression on Ukraine
                                     and International Law
                                     What principles of International law are Russia breaking by its actions in eastern Ukraine?

                                      Pushkar Anand                                     limited operations such as an ‘in and out’
                                      Varsha Singh                                      operation. The Russian attack on Ukraine is
                                                                                        violative of the non-intervention principle,
                                     The story so far: The annexation of Crimea         and amounts to aggression under
                                     in 2014 by Russia, following the removal of        international law.
B  Yesterday, Russia launched        Victor Yanukovych as the President, was the           The UN General Assembly Resolution 3314
a full-scale invasion on             first major military flare-up in the               (1974) defines aggression as the use of armed
Ukraine. The Russian actions
                                     Russo-Ukrainian relations. The Crimean             force by a state against the sovereignty,
have been widely condemned
and raise several questions          annexation by Russia was met with                  territorial integrity or political
concerning violation of              imposition of sanctions. However, Russia is        independence of another state. Additionally,
international law.                   still in occupation of Crimea, and post 2014       allowing one’s territory to be used by
                                     its activities have centred around fomenting       another state for aggression against a third
B  The principle of
                                     separatists in eastern Ukraine. In January         state, also qualifies as an act of aggression.
non-intervention is enshrined        2021, the Ukrainian President Volodymyr            Accordingly, Belarus can also be held
in article 2(4) of the UN            Zelensky appealed the U.S. to let it join          responsible for aggression as it has allowed
Charter. It requires states to       NATO, following which Russia started               its territory to be used by Russia for
refrain from using force or          amassing troops near the borders of eastern        attacking Ukraine. Aggression is also
threat of using force against        Ukraine. Tensions escalated quickly from           considered an international crime under
territorial integrity or political   December 2021 when Russia demanded                 customary international law and the Rome
independence of any state.           NATO to give up its military activities in         statute establishing the International
The Russian attack on Ukraine
is violative of this principle,
                                     eastern Europe and Ukraine, followed by a          Criminal Court.
and amounts to aggression            Russian cyberattack on the Ukrainian                  Russia’s desire to keep Ukraine out of
under international law.             government website. On 22 February, Russia         NATO is a prime reason for its use of force
Russia’s desire to keep              recognised the self-declared Donetsk and           against Ukraine. This is violative of Ukraine’s
Ukraine out of NATO is a             Luhansk republics in the Donbass region of         political independence under article 2(4) as       arrive at a decision as Russia is a permanent     acquire nuclear weapons in the future, it      War-torn: Damaged radar
prime reason for its use of          eastern Ukraine, and sent Russian troops to        Ukraine being a sovereign state is free to         member and has veto power. However,               does not become a ground for invoking self     arrays and other equipment
force against Ukraine.               these territories. Finally, yesterday Russia       decide which organisations it wants to join.       Ukraine has a right under international law       defence by Russia. Further, mere               are seen at the Ukrainian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            military facility outside
                                     launched a full-scale invasion on Ukraine.         Also, by resorting to use of force, Russia has     to request assistance from other states in        membership in a defence alliance such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mariupol, Ukraine on February
B  Russia has claimed it is          The Russian actions have been condemned            violated article 2(3) which requires the states    form of military assistance, supply of            NATO cannot necessarily be considered as a     24, 2022.
acting in self-defence as            widely and raise several questions                 to settle their dispute by peaceful means in       weapons etc.                                      threat of aggression against Russia. Thus,
Ukraine could acquire nuclear        concerning violation of international law.         order to preserve international peace and             On the other hand, Russia has also             here too Russia cannot invoke self-defence.
weapons with the help of its                                                            security.                                          claimed that it is acting in self-defence. This      Russia can also not invoke anticipatory
western allies. However, the
                                     How is Russia violating the UN Charter?                                                               claim is questionable, as there has been no       self defence as such invocation according to
International Court of Justice
in the Legality of Threat of
                                     The principle of non-intervention in               What about the principle of                        use of force, or such threats against Russia      the Caroline test would require that the
Nuclear Weapons case held            domestic affairs is the foundational principle     self-defence?                                      by Ukraine. It has been claimed by Russia         necessity of self defence was instant,
that mere possession of              on which existing international order is           In face of the use of force by Russia, Ukraine     that Ukraine may acquire nuclear weapons          overwhelming, leaving no choice of means,
nuclear weapons does not             based. The principle is enshrined in article       has the right to self-defence under                with the help of western allies. However, the     and no moment for deliberation. However,
constitute a threat. Further,        2(4) of the UN Charter requiring states to         international law. The UN Charter under            International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the       this is not the case with Russia.
mere membership in a                 refrain from using force or threat of using        article 51 authorises a state to resort to         Legality of Threat of Nuclear Weapons case           Pushkar Anand is Assistant Professor at
defence alliance like NATO           force against territorial integrity or political   individual or collective self-defence, until the   held that mere possession of nuclear              the Faculty of Law, University of Delhi.
can also not be considered a                                                                                                               weapons does not necessarily constitute a
                                     independence of any state. It prohibits any        Security Council take steps to ensure                                                                Varsha Singh is Doctoral Research
threat of aggression.
                                     kind of forcible trespassing in the territory of   international peace and security. In this          threat.                                           Candidate at the Jawaharlal Nehru
                                     another state, even if it is for temporary or      case, it seems implausible for the UNSC to            Thus, even if Ukraine has, or were to          University, New Delhi.

Shaking up Europe’s security architecture
An order that does not accommodate Russia’s concerns through genuine negotiation cannot be stable in the long term
                                                         ture of the North Atlantic Treaty                                                                             would not be               met      through         der has to reflect current realities:
                                                         Organization (NATO) and U.S.                                                                                  negotiations.                                       it cannot be simply an outgrowth
                                                         policies.                                                                                                                                                         of the Cold War order, and it has to
                                                            Russia has repeatedly articulat-                                                                           Energy security                                     be driven from within. Also, a Eu-
                                                         ed its grievances: that NATO’s ex-                                                                            U.S. interests have also divided NA-                ropean order that does not accom-
                                                         pansion violated promises made                                                                                TO on energy security. For Germa-                   modate Russia’s concerns through
P.S. Raghavan                                            prior to the breakup of the Soviet                                                                            ny, the Nord Stream 2 (NS2) Rus-                    genuine negotiation cannot be sta-
                                                         Union; that Ukraine’s accession to                                                                            sia-Germany gas pipeline is the                     ble in the long term. France’s Pre-
                                                         NATO would cross Russia’s red                                                                                 cheapest source of gas for its in-                  sident Emmanuel Macron has

      he commencement of Rus-                            lines; and that NATO’s strategic                                                                              dustry. Others deem it a geopoliti-                 been making this point forcefully,
       sian military action in Uk-                       posture poses a continuing securi-                                                                            cal project, increasing European                    arguing for Europe to regain its

       raine brings down the cur-                        ty threat to Russia.                                                                                          dependence on Russian energy.                       strategic autonomy. He has called
tain on the first act of a bizarre                          NATO’s expansion as a politico-                     exposed the limitations of the                         This argument masks self-serving                    NATO “brain-dead” and said that
drama that has been playing out                          military alliance, even after the                      U.S.’s ability to bridge them. The                     interests. Ukraine fears the dimi-                  Europe, as a “geopolitical power”
over the past eight months. At the                       dissolution of the Soviet Union                        irony is that the divisions are of the                 nution of gas transit revenues, and                 should control its own destiny, re-
heart of it is the instability in the                    and the Warsaw Pact, was at the                        U.S.’s making. Its pressure on NA-                     also that if its importance for gas                 gaining “military sovereignty” and
post-Cold War security order.                            U.S.’s initiative. It was intended to                  TO in 2008 to recognise Ukraine’s                      transit declines, so will Europe’s                  re-opening a dialogue with Russia,
   The first act began with a meet-                      temper European ambitions for                          membership aspirations and its                         support in its disputes with Russia.                managing the misgivings of post-
ing between U.S. President Biden                         strategic autonomy from the sole                       encouragement for a change of go-                      The U.S.’s “geopolitical” argument                  Soviet countries.
and Russia’s President Vladmir Pu-                       superpower and to counter Rus-                         vernment in Kyiv in 2014, pro-                         against NS2 dovetails neatly with
tin in June last year, promising to                      sia’s resurgence. Recent expe-                         voked the Russian annexation of                        its commercial interest in export-                  Outlook for India
reverse seven years of relentless                        rience shows it may not be suc-                        Crimea. The subsequent armed                           ing LNG to Europe, reinforced by                    India has to brace itself for some
U.S.-Russia acrimony. Mr. Biden’s                        ceeding in either goal.                                separatist movement in eastern                         U.S. legislation for sanctions                      immediate challenges flowing
decision to reach out to Mr. Putin                                                                              Ukraine (Donbas) led to the Minsk                      against companies building gas pi-                  from the Russian actions. It will
signalled a U.S. geopolitical reba-                      NATO’s weakened glue                                   accords of 2014-15, which provid-                      pelines from Russia. Increasing                     have to balance the pressure from
lancing, seeking a modus vivendi                         NATO countries today span a geog-                      ed for a special status for this re-                   LNG exports to Europe is explicitly                 one strategic partner to condemn
with Russia and disengagement                            raphy of uneven economic deve-                         gion within Ukraine.                                   stated as a motivation for the sanc-                the violation of international law,
from conflicts in Europe and West                        lopment and a diversity of political                      Ukraine considers this an unfair                    tions. European countries that op-                  with that from another to under-
Asia, to enable a sharper U.S. focus                     traditions and historical con-                         outcome, and the U.S. has sup-                         pose NS2 are ramping up their                       stand its legitimate concerns. We
on domestic challenges and the ex-                       sciousness. Moreover, the original                     ported its efforts to reinterpret the                  LNG import infrastructure to in-                    were there in 2014, and managed
ternal challenge from its principal                      glue that held NATO together —                         accords to its advantage. While                        crease imports from the U.S.                        the pressures. As Russia-West con-
strategic adversary, China.                              ideological solidarity (free world                     some European countries sup-                              The manner in which NATO                         frontation sharpens further, the
                                                         against communist expansion)                           ported this line, France and Ger-                      countries implement the pro-                        U.S. Administration’s intensified
These were Putin’s terms                                 and an existential military threat —                   many — which brokered these                            mised harsh sanctions against Rus-                  engagement in Europe will inevita-
Mr. Putin saw this reengagement                          dissolved with the collapse of com-                    agreements — have periodically                         sia will demonstrate whether, how                   bly dilute its focus on the Indo-
as an opportunity to revive Rus-                         munism and the Warsaw Pact.                            tried to progress implementation,                      much and for how long, this crisis                  Pacific, causing India to make
sia’s flagging economy and expand                        There is no ideology to oppose                         in the effort to break the impasse                     will keep them united.                              some tactical calibration of actions
its freedom of political action glo-                     and threat perceptions vary, de-                       and resume normal engagement                              It is too early to say what Mr. Pu-              in its neighbourhood. Geopolitics,
bally.                                                   pending on geographical location                       with Russia, which serves their                        tin’s endgame is, and how costly                    however, is a long game, and the
   However, he wanted this en-                           and historical experience. This he-                    economic interests.                                    this adventure will be, in terms of                 larger context of the U.S.-China
gagement on equal terms. Russia                          terogeneity means a diversity of                          In recent months, the U.S. sig-                     lives and destruction, as well as in                rivalry could, at some point in the
would cooperate in this geopoliti-                       interests. American leadership has                     nalled that it would support the                       its political and economic impact.                  not too distant future, reopen the
cal rebalancing if its concerns are                      normally succeeded in papering                         full implementation of the Minsk                       Without justifying the manner in                    question of how Russia fits into the
met, so that it does not constantly                      over differences, but the growing                      accords, but apparently found it                       which Russia has chosen to “right”                  European security order.
have to counter moves to probe its                       ambitions of countries is making                       difficult to shake the entrenched                      the perceived “wrongs”, it has to
territorial integrity and constrain                      this increasingly difficult.                           interests sufficiently to make it                      be said that this crisis results from               P.S. Raghavan is a former Ambassador to
its external influence — which is                           The current crisis in Ukraine                       happen. This may have finally con-                     a broken security architecture in                   Russia and former Chairman of the
how Russia sees the strategic pos-                       has illustrated the divisions, and                     vinced Mr. Putin that his concerns                     Europe. A sustainable security or-                  National Security Advisory Board

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COURT E SY               T H E      H IND U
Jaishankar speaks
                                                                                                     to EU, U.K. Ministers
                                                                                                     Calls to change stance grow louder
                                                                                                     Suhasini Haidar
                                                                                                     NEW DELHI

                                                                                                     External Affairs Minister S.
                                                                                                     Jaishankar returned from a
                                                                                                     visit to Europe on Thursday
                                                                                                     morning to the news of the
                                                                                                     Russian attacks on Ukraine
                                                                                                     and the diplomatic fallout.
                                                                                                        He also took a number of
                                                                                                     calls from European leaders
                                                                                                     pressing the need for India

China says it ‘understands’ Russia’s                                                                 to change its position,
                                                                                                     which has thus far not criti-
                                                                                                     cised Russia’s actions, and
                                                                                                                                      S. Jaishankar

‘legitimate security concerns’                                                                       in particular, support a
                                                                                                     UNSC (United Nations Se-
                                                                                                     curity Council) resolution
                                                                                                                                      to table along with allies,
                                                                                                                                      which would include a con-
                                                                                                                                      demnation of the airstrikes
                                                                                                     and vote expected on Fri-        ordered by President Putin,
Wang speaks to Lavrov hours after invasion of Ukraine                                                day.                             an immediate ceasefire and
                                                                                                        The resolution is to be       withdrawal of troops, as
Ananth Krishnan                 Wang’s comments may be             backed Russia and focused         brought by the U.S. and Eu-      well as possibly put to vote
Hong Kong                       perceived as implicitly offer-     much of its coverage on NA-       ropean allies, affirming the     proposed punitive action,
China’s Foreign Minister        ing support. In the phone          TO and Russia’s broader se-       “territorial integrity of Uk-    including strict financial
Wang Yi told his Russian        call, Mr. Wang said “China         curity concerns.                  raine”, according to sourc-      sanctions.
counterpart Sergey Lavrov       always respects the sove-             “I believe Russia’s military   es. “Discussed the grave sit-       While the condemnation
on Thursday that Beijing        reignty and territorial inte-      operation is a reaction of        uation in Ukraine and how        and actions will undoubted-
“understands”       Moscow’s    grity of all countries.” “At the   Moscow toward Western             India could contribute to        ly be vetoed by Russia,
“legitimate security con-       same time,” he added, “the         countries’ exerting pressure      de-escalation efforts,” Mr.      which is also at present
cerns”. The comments from       Ukraine issue has a complex        on Russia for a long time,        Jaishankar tweeted about         holding the Presidency of
Mr. Wang in a phone call on     and specific historical lati-      showing that Moscow can’t         the call with European Un-       the UNSC, all eyes will be on
Thursday underlined Beij-       tude and longitude, and Chi-       tolerate anymore,” Yang Jin,      ion (EU) High Representa-        where countries like India
ing’s broad backing to Russia   na understands Russia’s legi-      a scholar at the Chinese Aca-     tive (HR/VP) Josep Borrell       will vote. In three state-
on the Ukraine issue, even as   timate security concerns.”         demy of Social Sciences, was      Fontelles, whose call was        ments made at the UN thus
its diplomats have called for      He also criticised NATO         quoted as saying by the           followed by the United King-     far, India has refrained from
a return to diplomacy. The      and called for a “balanced,        Communist Party-run Glo-          dom Foreign Secretary Liz        any criticism of Russian ac-
diplomatic process, howev-      effective and sustainable Eu-      bal Times.                        Truss. The EU, the U.K. and      tions. It also abstained on a
er, lies completely derailed    ropean security mechan-               The Chinese Embassy in         U.S. have announced an           vote to discuss the situation
following Russia’s invasion.    ism” which “completely             Ukraine,          meanwhile,      “unprecedented package of        in Ukraine earlier this
   Beijing hasn’t explicitly    abandons the Cold War              warned citizens to stay           sanctions” against Russia,       month, which was wel-
endorsed or criticised Rus-     mentality”.                        home but has not indicated        and have each separately ex-     comed by Russian officials.
sia’s actions, although Mr.        China’s media broadly           any plans to evacuate them.       pressed their hopes that In-        Officials have thus far ex-
                                                                                                     dia would also support their     plained India’s stand as a
                                                                                                     positions.                       “principled position” based
                                                                                                        In briefings ahead of Mr.     on pushing for diplomacy to
                                                                                                     Jaishankar’s visit to Germa-     resolve the situation.
                                                                                                     ny and France last week, Eu-        “The deterioration of the
                                                                                                     ropean diplomats had             security situation in Europe
                                                                                                     stressed that India would        is a result of mismanage-
                                                                                                     need to “pick a side” in the     ment or breakdown in big
                                                                                                     event of a Russian invasion      power relations. India
                                                                                                     or military attack on Uk-        should not be expected to
                                                                                                     raine.                           pay the price for the failures
                                                                                                        To begin with, India must     of their policies,” former In-
                                                                                                     consider its response to the     dian Ambassador to Russia
                                                                                                     resolution on Russian ac-        Venkatesh Verma told The
                                                                                                     tions that the U.S. proposes     Hindu.

                                                                                                                                     DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                            COURT E SY      T H E   H IND U
Modi talks to Putin, calls for ceasefire
He appeals for return to dialogue; safe exit of Indian citizens from conflict zone ‘highest priority’: PMO
Dinakar Peri                                                                                         dia. In this case Prime Mi-      war in the coming days.
Kallol Bhattacherjee                                                                                 nister Modiji can address           The Russian side claimed
NEW DELHI                                                                                            Mr. Putin. He can address        that the strikes are being car-
Prime Minister Narendra                                                                              our President. This is not       ried out with “high-precision
Modi appealed for an imme-                                                                           the time for protocol-bound      weapons” to minimise civi-
diate ceasefire and a return                                                                         statements. Your officials       lian casualties.
to dialogue in a conversation                                                                        said they are closely watch-
with Russian President Vladi-                                                                        ing the situation. This          ‘Expressed concern’
mir Putin on Thursday night,                                                                         means nothing. India is the      But the Ukrainian envoy ex-
the Prime Minister’s Office                                                                          founder of non-alignment.        pressed concern about the
(PMO) said in a statement.                                                                           We plead for the support of      safety of the civilians and In-
   Mr. Putin “briefed” Mr.                                                                           India. It’s the moment of        dian students under the sha-
Modi about the Russian deci-                                                                         truth and moment of desti-       dow of the conflict, saying
sion to attack several loca-                                                                         ny,” said Ambassador Igor        that precision weapons can-
tions in Ukraine, the PMO                                                                            Polikha of Ukraine, urging       not guarantee safety in such
said, adding that the safe exit   Earnest appeal: Prime Minister Narendra Modi with President        Mr. Modi to personally in-       a vast conflict and pressed
of Indian citizens from the       of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin. FILE PHOTO
                                                                        *                            itiate dialogue with Mr. Pu-     for urgent intervention from
conflict zone was India’s                                                                            tin to halt the Russian mili-    the international communi-
“highest priority”.               ty of the Indian citizens in     bring Indians stranded there      tary advances.                   ty, NATO, EU and India.
                                  Ukraine, especially students,    back, Foreign Secretary              However, Mr. Shringla            “We are not dictating to
Honest dialogue                   and conveyed that India at-      Harsh Shringla said.              said no disappointment had       our friends. We are pleading
“Prime Minister Modi reiter-      taches the highest priority to      Earlier the Ukrainian en-      been conveyed by the Ukrai-      that you can provide us mili-
ated his long-standing con-       their safe exit and return to    voy to India had forcefully       nian officials to India.         tary, diplomatic or any other
viction that the differences      India,” it said.                 pressed for India’s mediation        Mr. Polikha confirmed         kind of assistance,” said Mr.
between Russia and the NA-           At a meeting of the Cabi-     to stop the bloodshed.            that Russia has launched         Polikha, considered an exp-
TO group can only be re-          net Committee on Security                                          military assault from three      ert on Indian and south
solved through honest and         in Delhi, Mr. Modi reiterated    Envoy’s plea                      sides and that ground inva-      Asian affairs.
sincere dialogue,” said the       that the safety of Indians in    “We are deeply dissatisfied       sion had also begun early on        He said very few countries
statement. “The Prime Mi-         the conflict zone was the        with the Indian position. Al-     Thursday.                        in the world could influence
nister also sensitised the        “topmost concern”, and re-       ready 10-15 people were              Ambassador Polikha said       Russia and India was one of
Russian President to India’s      viewed the government’s ar-      killed. We are asking.. plead-    there was a possibility of the   those nations with special
concerns regarding the safe-      rangements for trying to         ing for the strong voice of In-   conflict turning into a bigger   ties with Moscow.
Conflict zone: Damaged radar arrays and other equipment at a Ukrainian military facility outside Mariupol after Russian missile strikes early Thursday; Ukrainian servicemen get ready to re
they attempt to leave Kiev city. AP/AFP

Ukrainians wake up to thunder of war
After Russian invasion, smoke rose from across cities, desperate people rushed to buy fuel, flee to safety
Associated Press

The missile fragment pierced
the ceiling of Mikhail Shcher-
bakov’s apartment in Khar-
kiv, Ukraine’s second largest
city. A Russian attack, after
weeks of warnings, had hit
   “I heard noise and woke
up. I realised it sounded like
artillery,” Mr. Shcherbakov
said. He jumped from the
couch and ran to wake his
mother, and something ex-
ploded behind him.
   The missile left a nearby
computer       and      teacup
shrouded with dust, instant
artefacts of Europe’s latest
   At dawn on Thursday, Uk-
rainians’ uneasy efforts at
normality were shattered.
Smoke rose from cities, even
well away from the country’s         Farther from the border, a       “I’m not afraid. I’m going     friends. “I’m not scared at      cognised by Russian Presi-
disputed eastern border.          morning commute trans-           to work. The only unusual         the moment. Maybe I’ll be        dent Vladimir Putin as inde-
                                  formed into chaos, with lines    thing is that you can’t find a    scared later,” resident Max-     pendent this week in a
‘Worst sunrise’                   of cars waiting at fuel sta-     taxi in Kiev,” one resident       im Prudskoi said.                prelude to the attack.
“Today I had the worst sun-       tions or fleeing from the cap-   complained, as air raid si-          Some residents waited at         As the day progressed,
rise in my life,” said another    ital, Kiev. People carrying      rens wailed.                      bus stops, seemingly on their    alarm rose across Ukraine.
Kharkiv resident, who gave        luggage took shelter in the         Many seemed unsure how         way to work, while others        People crowded grocery
her name only as Sasha. She       subway, unsure of where to       to react. Kiev’s main street,     rushed to leave the city that    stores. In Kharkiv, worried
rushed to her balcony and         go.                              Khreshchatyk, rippled with        is only about 15 km from the     residents inspected frag-
realised the sounds that had         Some panicked. Others         anxiety as people checked         front line with the Donetsk      ments of military hardware
woken        her       weren’t    clung to routine, with           their phones. Some walked         People’s Republic, one of        strewn across a children’s
fireworks.                        irritation.                      their dogs or waved at            two separatist-held areas re-    playground.

                                                                                                                                               DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                       COURT E SY        T H E   H IND U
SC clears decks for release
of Gangubai Kathiawadi
Petitioner claimed the film has defamed his mother
                                                                  which had held that free-
Legal Correspondent
                                                                  dom of expression was sa-
                                                                  crosanct and cannot be
The Supreme Court on                                              suppressed.
Thursday ruled in favour of
freedom of expression in the                                      No evidence
movies by dismissing a plea                                       The senior lawyer argued
to stay the release of Gangu-                                     there was no prima facie evi-
bai Kathiawadi, a film by                                         dence to prove that the peti-
Sanjay Leela Bhansali.                                            tioner, Babuji Shah, was in-
   A Bench led by Justice In-                                     deed Kathiawadi’s adoptive
dira Banerjee refused to ac-                                      son. Mr. Sundaram contend-
cept the allegation made by                                       ed that the cause of action
a man, who claimed to be        her. The film is based on the     extinguished with the death
Kathiawadi's adoptive son,      book Mafia Queens of Bom-         of the person.
that the film defamed his       bay published in 2011.               The apex court had ear-
mother.                            “This is about the rise of a   lier suggested a change in
                                woman and nobody thinks           the film’s title.
Based on book                   that the film is defamatory,”        However, Mr. Sundaram,
Appearing for Mr. Bhansali,     Mr. Sundaram argued.              on Thursday, informed the
senior advocate Aryama             Mr. Sundaram reminded          court that the film has alrea-
Sundaram and advocate Ro-       the court about its own land-     dy been cleared by the Cen-
hini Musa, countered that       mark judgment in the case         tral Board of Film Certifica-
the film, rather than de-       of S. Rangarajan v Jagjivan       tion. The name has been
meaning its central charac-     Ram in 1989, regarding the        published and widely adver-
ter and heroine, glorified      film Ore Oru Gramathile,          tised months ago.

                                                                                         DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                   COURT E SY   T H E   H IND U
Is the new economy creating new jobs?
 PARLEY               Startups can create high-quality jobs, which have a                                                                                                                         What do you think will be the              a public sector enterprise does,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  impact of the startups on the              where job creation is an important
                      flywheel effect, but their mandate is not job creation                                                                                                                      country’s employment scene?                metric. For a startup, it is a metric
                                                                                                                                                                                                  How do you think startups will             that is useful but it’s probably not a
                      India has added over 10 unicorns          venture capitalist funding, between                                                                                               change the nature of                       target.
                      (privately held startup companies         2011 and 2020, the compounded an-                                                                                                 employment?                                   Having said that, we also need to
                      valued at over a billion dollars) so      nual growth rate was 76%. Over                                                                                                                                               see where the requirement is. Job
                      far this year, which is a rate of near-   10,000 companies were funded in                                                                                                   PKJ: Directionally, it is true that        creation is an important require-
                      ly one every five days. This comes af-    those 10 years, and people expect                                                                                                 startups have created jobs. Fresh-         ment for economic growth. Jobs are
                      ter a record year of new unicorns         this number to grow because of the                                                                                                works started with a few dozen em-         like a pyramid, which is always
                      (44 in 2021), which pushed India up       potential in the economy. The                                                                                                     ployees and by the time it went pu-        broader at the bottom. We need to
                      to the third place globally, after the    growth might taper off over a period                                                                                              blic, there were 3,000. With that          be creating more jobs at the bottom
                      U.S. and China, in the Hurun Glo-         of time, but it is going to be there. A                                                                                           IPO, about 500 people became ‘cro-         so that the pyramid is stable. If star-
                      bal Unicorn Index 2021. But what          proportion of these companies are                                                                                                 repatis’. I personally know of do-         tups are creating more jobs at the
                      exactly does a unicorn valuation          going to become unicorns. Hence,                                                                                                  zens of people who have gone out           base of the pyramid, they are then
                      mean for the larger economy, and          when the base is increasing, the                                                                                                  and started their own companies            catering to the requirement of the
                      how do these technology-driven            number of unicorns is also going to                                                                                               with team sizes of five to 10. Many of     hour.
                                                                                                          SOMASHEKARA GRN

                      startups influence the employment         be increasing.                                                                                                                    them have enough capital and they
                      scenario in the country? Thillai Ra-         Now, let’s look at the environ-                                                                                                understand the market. So, the             Do you think that the Indian
                      jan and P.K. Jayadevan discuss this       ment. January 16 has been named as                                                                                                hope is that they will create high-        startup sector is overvalued?
                      question in a conversation moderat-       National Startup Day. If there is na-                                                                                             quality jobs and it will become a vir-
                      ed by P.J. George. Edited excerpts:       tional priority in terms of identify-                                                                                             tuous cycle. These are niche, high-        TR: In financial markets, asset pric-
                                                                ing, sustaining, supporting and re-                                                                                               paying jobs and in the larger              es are very dynamic and sentiments
                      India has added 10 unicorns in            cognising startups, that is going to           and the ecosystem is more suppor-                                                  scheme of things, the numbers may          can play a very important role in
                      just over 50 days this year,              lead to an increase in numbers;                tive. That is pretty much what is         > These
                                                                                                                                                         <       are high-quality jobs
                                                                                                                                                           which have a flywheel                  not be high. But these are high-qual-      valuation. When sentiments are
                      which is the highest rate so far          more unicorns are going to come.               happening now in the startup                     effect, which means               ity jobs which have a flywheel ef-         good, the valuation seems to be on
                      for the country. What do you                 However, the growth rate in the             space. Companies that are solving                employees will start their        fect, which means employees will           the higher side. There is a dominant
                      think are the fundamental                 number of unicorns between 2020                real problems with real customers                                                  start their own companies or invest        view that asset prices today are in-
                                                                                                                                                                own companies or invest in
                      reasons for this high rate now,           and 2021 was in excess of 300% and             should be the real winners. As for                                                 in newer startups and riskier ideas,       flated, not just for startups but in
                      and is it sustainable over time?          that is unlikely to be sustained. In           the unicorn valuations, they are out-            newer startups and riskier        and make bolder bets on                    the overall stock market. I think I
                                                                the financial markets, everything is           comes of bets that venture capital-              ideas, and make bolder            innovation.                                would subscribe to this dominant
                      Thillai Rajan: I was looking at the       in terms of cycles. We had the lar-            ists submit, and they understand                 bets on innovation.                   The question of mid-level, white       view that the asset prices today do
                      unicorns that have emerged from           gest number of IPOs in 2007, that is           the risks involved. The valuations        P.K. Jayadevan                           collar jobs has been around for a          not reflect true values, but then
                      India so far, and the number seems        108. In 2010, there were 66 and in             can go up and down since they have                                                 long time. Automation will shift           that’s the nature of the financial
                      to be 91. The first unicorn emerged       2021, 63. In between these years,              a lot to do with macroeconomic fac-                                                some of these jobs elsewhere, but I        markets.
Thillai Rajan         in 2011. From 2014, the number            there were some very deep valleys.             tors, cost of capital, demand, and        great talent building high-quality       wouldn’t say it’s killing those jobs.         I think angel investors and high
is Professor,         started to grow. In 2020, we had 10;      The same is going to be the case               supply. But fundamentally, good           technology products that are being       In a country like India, which has         net worth investors looking to in-
Department of         and in 2021, there were 44. I’ll give     with unicorns as well.                         companies are being built out of In-      adopted by enterprises and con-          access to the Internet and the global      vest in startups are very aware of
Management            another example here: In 1953, two           If you look at the number of in-            dia, and that’s why you will see val-     sumers. So, a huge amount of ven-        market, it is a net positive as we can     the risks and cycles of the stock
Studies, IIT-M, and   people climbed Mount Everest. To-         dustry classes that we have in India,          uations going up, and when it is          ture capital will come into India. In    participate in this labour market as       markets and these valuations and
co-founder, YNOS      day, we have 500 to 600 every year.       there are about 302 as per company             north of a billion, we have a             2006, there were maybe three or          it becomes more and more remote.           will be able to bear it. They will un-
Venture Engine        Becoming a unicorn is, in some cas-       registration. These industry classes           unicorn.                                  four funds, which would hesitantly                                                  derstand the risks of these valua-
                      es, like scaling a summit.                represent very strong areas of eco-               I just want to add a few things to     back some companies after due dili-      TR: What is the mandate for star-          tions because many of them are
                          The first unicorn in India was In-    nomic activity. If on an average we            what Professor Rajan said. First, In-     gence of six months or eight             tups? It is essentially innovation and     knowledgeable investors.
                      Mobi. It took the company about           take that there is a potential for             dia is an open market with a fairly       months. Nowadays, you see                growth. Through innovation and
                      five years to achieve unicorn status      three unicorns to emerge in each of            stable democracy, and having star-        cheques being cut over WhatsApp          growth, they are able to create an         PKJ: I think there is froth in the mar-
                      in 2011. The second unicorn was           these industry classes, we are talk-           tups as a national priority is a big      messages.                                impact. To achieve this growth and         ket. But venture capital is risk capi-
                      Flipkart. That company also took          ing about 1,000 unicorns. That is a            headwind. There are some kinks               I’m not an economist, but the         ability to innovate, startups take the     tal, and people who allocate a por-
                      about four to five years to achieve       strong potential for the growth to             that need to be ironed out, but the       view is that there was a little bit of   help of technology or people. There        tion of their wealth into venture
                      unicorn status. Hasura, which is the      continue. It may not be the strong             fact remains that it is one of the lar-   quantitative easing in the U.S. and      are some startups which will really        capital understand the risks well. I
                      latest unicorn, also took about five      growth that we see today, but there            gest markets in the world. Second,        interest rates have been kept low. Li-   take the help of a lot of people, like     think we also underestimate the ge-
                      years. Hence, the process of becom-       will be growth as long as the coun-            we have great data penetration. The       quidity in the market led to asset       food delivery aggregators. There are       nius of the markets. They know ex-
P.K. Jayadevan        ing a unicorn has not eased. But it       try’s economy is growing and ven-              cost of accessing the Internet is very    price inflation and stocks went up.      certain startups where growth will         actly which companies are just fic-
is author and         [unicorn status] has become a big         ture capitalist funding is growing.            low these days, and the consumer          Even cryptocurrency, a risky asset,      result in substantial job creation.        tion and which companies are
former startup        motivator for entrepreneurs, and                                                         base has become very big. The hope        went up. As the cost of capital be-      There will also be certain startups        actually churning out profits and
founder               it’s a summit that they would all like    P.K. Jayadevan: When Professor                 is that someday, all of these con-        came cheaper, more venture capital       which are largely technology-dri-          having good cash flows. Companies
                      to scale. More and more entrepre-         Rajan was talking about Mount Ever-            sumers will add up to a domestic          happened. ‘What do we do with            ven, where the employment oppor-           that don’t have great fundamentals
                      neurs are aiming for unicorn status       est, it reminded me of an example              market, which is big enough for           these funds? Hey, here is the great      tunity might not be very high, but if      will be weeded out. There are no
                      and this is one of the fundamental        that we used to talk about at Fresh-           these startups to make windfall re-       Indian open market with support          the startups are going to result in        two ways about it. If there is no path
                      reasons, from the demand side, for        works, the Chennai-based company               turns. It means the startups will es-     for startups, and great talent. Let’s    growth, this can, as Jayadevan put         to profitability, if there is no cash
                      the higher numbers.                       that went for IPO last year. We kept           sentially tap into that consumer          deploy it here.’ In India, I suspect     it, have a flywheel effect, which can      flow being generated, then you are
                          Now, look at it from the supply       talking about how Roger Bannister              base using digital technologies.          there is a little bit of a race [among   create a lot of employment either di-      looking at companies that have not
                      side. Unicorns are essentially ven-       ran the four first four-minute mile            Third, we saw some really good            venture capitalists] to provide fund-    rectly or indirectly.                      fundamentally discovered a busi-
Scan the QR code to   ture capitalist-funded companies,         many years ago and then we saw                 IPOs in the last few years. Zomato        ing for good companies, and that’s           But the mandate for startups is        ness model or a problem that they
listen to the full    which have reached a $1billion val-       many more people do it. Now, you               and Freshworks are great examples.        probably why the valuations are          not really in terms of creating jobs       really want to solve, even after be-
interview online      uation. If you look at the growth in      have more experienced coaches,                 Underlying all these companies is         sort of being pushed up.                 unlike what the government does or         ing in existence for many years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                COURT E SY                 T H E    H IND U
Ploughing a new channel for India’s food systems
The siloed approach of ‘agriculture’ serving ‘food security’ needs to give way to a science-society-policy interface
                                         levels. The Training & Visit (T&V)                                                                  quences of the Green Revolution.         technologies, extension activities
                                         system introduced in the 1970s                                                                      These are the loss of indigenous         and policies. Lastly, infrastructure
                                         with World Bank assistance was                                                                      landraces, soil nutrients deple-         and institutions supporting pro-
                                         key to the science-society inter-                                                                   tion, groundwater stress, exces-         ducers, agri-preneurs and agri mi-
                                         face as it established a cadre of                                                                   sive use of agrochemicals and its        cro, small and medium enterpris-
                                         agriculture extension specialists at                                                                residual presence in foods and en-       es (MSMEs) in their production
Manish Anand &
                                                                                 SUSHIL KUMAR VERMA

S. Vijay Kumar                           the local level.                                                                                    vironment, income gap between            value chain are central to the
                                            Although India is now self-suffi-                                                                large, marginal and small farmers,       transition.
                                         cient in food grains production in                                                                  and the gap between irrigated and           This should be aligned to the

   n an effort to spur national and      the macro sense, it has about a                                                                     rain-fed areas.                          national and State policy priorities
   regional action to deliver the        quarter of the world’s food inse-                                                                      Data compiled in the agro-cli-        such as the National Policy guide-
   United Nation’s 17 Sustainable        cure people, a pointer to the                                                                       matic zones reports of the Indian        lines 2012 of the Ministry of Agri-
Development        Goals     (SDGs)      amount of food necessary to allow                               An important takeaway from          Council of Agricultural Research         culture for the promotion of farm-
through transforming food sys-           all income groups to reach the ca-                           the Green Revolution-era is that       and the erstwhile Planning Com-          er producer organisations, and the
tems, the UN Food Systems Sum-           loric target (2,400 kcal in rural and                        for science to be relevant to socie-   mission of India reveal enormous         National Resource Efficiency Poli-
mit called for action by govern-         2,100 kcal in the urban set-up). Nu-                         tal outcomes, it has to be planned     potential for crop diversification       cy of 2019 of the Ministry of Envi-
ments in five areas: nourish all         trition indicators have marginally                           and executed within the theory of      and precision for enhanced crop          ronment, Forest and Climate
people; boost nature-based solu-         improved over the years. Howev-                              change. The necessary behaviou-        productivity based on soil type,         Change. It would encourage a re-
tions; advance equitable liveli-         er, macro- and micronutrient mal-                            ral changes in adopting the im-        climate (temperature and rainfall),      source efficient and circular eco-
hoods, decent work and empo-             nutrition is widespread, with                                proved seeds and practices             and captive water resources. The         nomy for production, processing
wered      communities;        build     18.7% of women and 16.2% of men                              brought about by the T&V system        livelihood of more than half of In-      and storage techniques of food
resilience    to    vulnerabilities,     unable to access enough food to                              in the 1960s enabled science to        dia’s working population is linked       products through renewable ener-
shocks and stresses; and acceler-        meet basic nutritional needs, and                            steer the process of change. In the    to agriculture and allied activities;    gy solutions, reduction of supply
ate the means of implementation.         over 32% of children below five                              context of the intensifying eco-       the sector has a direct influence on     chains and inputs (materials, wa-
Such a transformation in the In-         years still underweight as per the                           nomic, environmental and climate       the health and nutrition status of       ter, and energy). It would also en-
dian context would involve en-           recently released fifth National Fa-                         challenges and crisis, the need of     dependent communities. Thus,             sure the efficient use of by-pro-
hancing interfaces between the           mily Health Survey (2019-2021)                               the hour is a good theory of transi-   the focus should be on improving         ducts, thereby creating value
spheres of science, society and          phase 2 compendium.                                          tion encompassing the spatial, so-     farmers’ competitiveness, sup-           while using fewer inputs and gen-
policy, focusing on sustainability,         India is ranked 101 out of 116                            cial and scientific dimensions,        porting business growth in the ru-       erating less waste for long term
resource efficiency and circularity.     countries in the Global Hunger In-                           supported by policy incentives         ral economy, and incentivising           and large-scale impact.
                                         dex, 2021. Not surprisingly, wides-                          and mechanisms for achieving a         farmers to improve the environ-             Evidence has to be generated
Mix of science and policy                pread concerns about poverty,                                sustainable, resilient and food se-    ment. It is assumed that a meticu-       not only on the effects of food sys-
An active science-society-policy         malnutrition and the need for a se-                          cure agriculture. Else Ehrlich’s       lous review of agro-climatic zones       tems on economic, environmental
interface negated the prevailing         cond Green Revolution are being                              nuanced prediction, following the      could make smallholders farming          and social outcomes and their co-
negative atmosphere of the 1960s         made in tandem. The country fac-                             success of the Green Revolution,       a profitable business, enhancing         benefits and trade-offs but also on
when the inability to feed a grow-       es the dual challenge of achieving                           that humanity has postponed its        agricultural efficiency and socio-       understanding the levers of
ing population was propounded in         nutrition security, as well as ad-                           tryst with disaster might come         economic development, as well as         change and how to operate them.
two notable books:The Population         dressing declining land productiv-                           true. A theory of change ought to      sustainability.                          Clearly, science, society and poli-
Bomb by Paul Ehrlich, and Famine         ity, land degradation and loss of                            bring the focus back on sustaina-                                               cy have a lot to gain from an effec-
1975! by brothers William and Paul       ecological services with change in                           bility, resource efficiency and cir-   Keeping policy in mind                   tive interface encompassing the
Paddock. India’s Green Revolution        land use.                                                    cularity as the central pillars to-    Strengthening and shortening             range of actors and institutions in
in the 1960s, enabling food securi-                                                                   wards transforming food systems.       food supply chains, reinforcing re-      the food value-chain and a multi-
ty and addressing widespread             Need for ‘transition’                                                                               gional food systems, food process-       disciplinary and holistic ap-
hunger and poverty, was achieved         The siloed approach of ‘agricul-                             Enhancing sustainability               ing, agricultural resilience and         proach, along with a greater em-
not only through science and tech-       ture’ serving ‘food security’ needs                          An agro-climatic approach to agri-     sustainability in a climate-chang-       phasis     on     policy     design,
nology and the development of            must give way to ‘food systems’ for                          cultural development is important      ing world will require prioritising      management and behavioural
improved high-yielding varieties         ‘sustainability’ and ‘better nutri-                          for sustainability and better nutri-   research and investments along           change.
of rice and wheat but also through       tion’ and embrace the range of ac-                           tion. Harnessing the spatial diver-    these lines. A stress status of the
policy measures and development          tivities and actors involved in food                         sity of agricultural production sys-   natural resource base — soil and         Manish Anand is Senior Fellow, and
of institutional structure. It includ-   production, aggregation, process-                            tems adopting the principles of        water in different agro-climatic         S. Vijay Kumar is Distinguished Fellow
ed a vast agricultural research and      ing, distribution and consumption                            sustainability, resource efficiency    zones — will help understand the         and Lead, Food and Land Use Coalition
technology transfer system at the        embedded in their socio-econom-                              and circularity could correct the      micro as well as meso-level inter-       (India) at The Energy and Resources
national, regional, State and local      ic and physical context.                                     limitations and unintended conse-      ventions needed with regard to           Institute, New Delhi

                                                                                                                                                                                     DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                                                          COURT E SY         T H E   H IND U
U.S. group hacked Indian research institutes: China firm
Websites of Institute of Microbial Technology, Indian Academy of Sciences, Banaras Hindu University among those reportedly compromised
Ananth Krishnan                 nology (IMTech) under the                                          Equation Group’. In these        2013.” The report, which ex-    and scientific research insti-    ported cyber attacks from
Hong Kong                       Council of Scientific and In-                                      hacking files, researchers       plained the technicalities of   tutes — that had reportedly       China targeting a wide range
A new report from a Beijing-    dustrial Research — as well as                                     from Pangu Lab found the         how the backdoor worked,        been compromised in coun-         of institutions, including go-
based cybersecurity firm        the Indian Academy of                                              private key that can be used     said this was “a backdoor       tries, including both U.S. ad-    vernment departments.
said hackers linked with the    Sciences in Bengaluru. Web-                                        to remotely trigger the back-    communication technology        versaries and allies and             The Union Power Ministry
U.S. National Security Agen-    sites linked to Banaras Hindu                                      door Bvp47…a hacker tool         that has never been seen be-    partners, ranging from India      said last year that “state-
cy (NSA) were found to have     University were also listed as                                     belonging to ‘The Equation       fore, implying an organisa-     and Japan to China and            sponsored” Chinese hacker
inserted “covert backdoors”     being hacked into.                                                 Group’. Through further re-      tion with strong technical      Russia.                           groups had targeted various
that may have given them ac-                                                                       search, the researchers          capabilities behind it”.           The report is being            Indian power centres but ad-
cess to sensitive information   ‘Backdoors found’                                                  found that the multiple pro-        “As an advanced attack       framed by the Chinese me-         ded that the groups have
in dozens of countries, in-     The Beijing-based cyberse-                                         cedures and attack opera-        tool, Bvp47 has allowed the     dia as a rebuttal to U.S. alle-   been thwarted after govern-
cluding India, Russia, China    curity firm Pangu Lab re-                                          tion manuals disclosed by        world to see its complexity,”   gations of Chinese cyber-         ment cyber agencies warned
and Japan.                      leased a technical report ex-                                      the ‘Shadow Brokers’ are         it said. “What is shocking is   hacking.                          about their activities.
   Among the reportedly         plaining how it had found        by insiders.                      completely consistent with       that after analysis, it has        China-linked cyberattacks         This followed a report
compromised websites listed     the backdoors and linked it         “In 2016 and 2017,” the re-    the only identifier used in      been realised that it may       have targeted a number of         from a U.S. cybersecurity
in the report were those        to “unique identifiers in the    port said, “the ‘Shadow           the NSA network attack plat-     have existed for more than      U.S. institutions and become      firm linking an outage in
linked to one of India’s top    operating manuals of the         Brokers’ published two            form operation manual ex-        10 years.”                      a thorny issue in U.S.-China      Mumbai in 2020 to hacking
microbial research labs — the   NSA” that had come to light      batches of hacking files          posed by CIA analyst Snow-          The report listed dozens     relations.                        attacks by China-linked
Institute of Microbial Tech-    in the 2013 leak of NSA files    claimed to be used by ‘The        den in the PRISM incident in     of sites — many universities       Indian agencies have re-       groups.

                                                                 Air control must for operations
                                                                 at all levels, says IAF chief
                                                                 ‘Growth of aviation had revolutionised character of warfare’
                                                                 Dinakar Peri                      continues to evolve and mu-      preferred choice for most
                                                                 NEW DELHI                         tate, primarily fuelled by in-   operations. No other field
                                                                 China’s latest demonstra-         duction of new technology,       has seen such a rapid trans-
                                                                 tion of physically moving         emergence of new threats         formation in technology as
                                                                 one of its disabled satellites    and evolution of new para-       air power has seen in the
                                                                 into the graveyard orbit was      digms for war fighting,” he      last 120 years of its exis-
                                                                 bringing in newer threats in      said.                            tence,” he pointed out.
                                                                 the race to weaponise the            The unparalleled growth          Technology in this do-
                                                                 space domain, “hitherto           of aviation had revolutionised   main was niche, proprie-
                                                                 considered relatively safe”,      the character of warfare, he     tary and often under tight
                                                                 the Chief of the Air Staff, Air   said at the 13th Jumbo Majum-    State control, he said. The
                                                                 Chief Marshal (ACM) V.R.          dar international seminar or-    other challenge was to deve-
                                                                 Chaudhari said on Thurs-          ganised by the Centre for Air    lop doctrines, training phi-
                                                                 day. “Control of air has be-      Power Studies.                   losophy and concepts of op-
                                                                 come a prerequisite for con-         “The inherent speed,          erations. It would require
                                                                 duct of operations at all         reach, responsiveness and ac-    joint planning and execu-
                                                                 levels. Aerospace power           curacy of air power make it a    tion of plans.

                                                                                                                                                                                       DAILY NEWS ANALYSIS
                                                                                                                                                                             COURT E SY           T H E   H IND U
You can also read