2016-2017 Bulletin - Louisiana State University

 
2016-2017 Bulletin - Louisiana State University
2016-2017 Bulletin
2016-2017 Bulletin - Louisiana State University
2 School of Veterinary Medicine

About the Cover

“A Mother’s Touch,” an oil on masonite by Christopher Woodall of Concord, Virginia, was one of
the 75 accepted entries in the 2016 International Exhibition on Animals in Art at the LSU School
of Veterinary Medicine.
2016–2017 Bulletin 1

                 School of
        Veterinary Medicine Bulletin

                                 2016-2017 Issue • August 2016

The LSU catalog and bulletin series (ISSN 0744-4613, 359-070) is published by Louisiana State University and
Agricultural & Mechanical College four times a year: once in April, once in June, once in July, and once in
August. Periodicals postage paid at Baton Rouge 70803. Copies of this bulletin may be obtained from–and
change of address, undeliverable copies, and other mail sent to–School of Veterinary Medicine, LSU, Baton
Rouge, Louisiana 70803.

Statement of Accreditation
Louisiana State University and A&M College is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and
Schools Commission on Colleges to award baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate degrees. Contact the
Commission on Colleges at 1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, Georgia 30033-4097 or call 404-679-4500 for
questions about the accreditation of Louisiana State University and A&M College.

The AVMA Council on Education (COE) is the national accrediting agency for veterinary medical education
in the United States. The AVMA COE assures that minimum standards in veterinary medical education are
met by all AVMA-accredited colleges or schools of veterinary medicine, and that students enrolled in those
colleges or schools receive an education that will prepare them for entry-level positions in the profession.
The LSU program has met all essential requirements for an acceptable college or school as established by
the AVMA COE. Full accreditation was granted in 1977 and reaffirmed in 1984, 1991, 1998, 2005, 2010 and
2013.

Mission:
The LSU School of Veterinary Medicine is a dynamic community dedicated to saving and changing lives and
finding cures through outstanding clinical and community service, ground-breaking scholarly research and
educational excellence.

                                                                     Effective date of this bulletin • Fall 2016

                              LSU IS AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/ACCESS UNIVERSITY

                           PRODUCED BY THE LSU SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

                                     PRINTED BY LSU PRINTING SERVICES
2 School of Veterinary Medicine

This School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin           Graduate Student Responsibility
represents a flexible program of the current          As a graduate student, you must assume
educational plans, offerings, and requirements        full responsibility for knowledge of rules
that may be altered from time to time to carry out    and regulations of the Graduate School and
the purposes and objectives of the School and         departmental requirements concerning your
the University. The provisions of this publication    individual degree program. Since requirements
do not constitute an offer for a contract that        and programs are subject to change, you should at
may be accepted by you through registration           all times be aware of current regulations.
and enrollment in the University. The University
reserves the right to change any provision,
offering, or requirement at any time within           For More Information
the student’s period of study at the University.      If you would like more information about
LSU further reserves the right to require you to      veterinary programs and activities, please
withdraw from the University for cause at any time.   write or call the School of Veterinary Medicine,
                                                      Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
LSU assures equal opportunity for all qualified       70803; 225-578-9900, or contact specific offices
persons without regard to race, creed, color,         directly. Several offices are listed below for your
religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, national      convenience:
origin, physical or mental disability, marital
status, or veteran’s status in the admission to,      Veterinary Teaching Hospital
participation in, and treatment or employment
in the programs and activities the University         Large Animals • 225-578-9500
operates. Anyone having questions or complaints
regarding equal opportunity at LSU should contact     Small Animals • 225-578-9600
the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs, 304
Thomas Boyd Hall, LSU, Baton Rouge, Louisiana         Office of Admissions, School of Veterinary
70803; 225-578-8200. Persons believing they have      Medicine • 225-578-9537
been discriminated against contrary to federal law
are entitled to make an inquiry or file a complaint   E-mail: svmadmissions@lsu.edu
with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission, 701 Loyola Ave., Suite 600, New           Office of the Dean, School of Veterinary Medicine •
Orleans, Louisiana 70113; or the U.S. Department      225-578-9900
of Education, Office of Civil Rights, 1200 Main
Tower Building, Dallas, Texas 75202.                  http://www.lsu.edu/vetmed
2016–2017 Bulletin 3

                                                                     Contents

Veterinary School Calendar 2016-2017.............4                                         Fees & Financial Aid...........................................26
  Graduate Calendar 2016-2017.................................5                              Application Fee........................................................... 26
  The University................................................................8            Professional Fees........................................................ 26
  University Mission.........................................................9               Graduation Fees......................................................... 26
                                                                                             Other Fees.................................................................... 26
The School of Veterinary Medicine..................10
                                                                                             Fees - Veterinary Medicine Students................... 27
  History............................................................................ 10
                                                                                             Fees - Graduate Students........................................ 28
  Degrees......................................................................... 10
                                                                                             Required Fees.............................................................. 29
  Departments............................................................... 10
                                                                                             Payment of Fees......................................................... 31
  Veterinary Medicine Library................................... 11
                                                                                             Refund of Fees............................................................ 31
  Veterinary Teaching Hospital................................. 11
                                                                                             Veterans’ Benefits....................................................... 32
  Student and Faculty Code of Ethics.................... 11
                                                                                             Financial Aid................................................................ 32
The Professional Program.................................14                                  Scholarships Offered by the SVM......................... 35
  Admission Requirements........................................ 14
                                                                                           Student Services................................................38
  Residence Classification.......................................... 14
                                                                                             University Housing.................................................... 38
  Minimum Prerequisites for Admission............... 15
                                                                                             Student Health Center............................................. 38
  Admission Procedures............................................. 17
                                                                                             Student Accident and Sickness
  Scholastic Regulations............................................. 18
                                                                                             Insurance Plan............................................................. 38
  Pre-Exposure Rabies Vaccination......................... 20
                                                                                             Postal Service.............................................................. 38
  Professionalism........................................................... 20
                                                                                             University Recreation............................................... 39
  Academic Dishonesty............................................... 20
  Licensure Requirements.......................................... 21                      Courses of Instruction.......................................40
  Professional Curriculum (List)................................ 22                          Course Numbering System.................................... 40
                                                                                             Professional Courses................................................. 41
The Advanced Studies Program.......................23
  Graduate Academic Programs.............................. 23                              Graduate Courses..............................................46
  Areas of Specialization............................................. 23
                                                                                           Faculty................................................................52
  Admission..................................................................... 24
  Financial Assistance.................................................. 24
  Graduate Professional Studies.............................. 25
4 School of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary School Calendar 2016-2017
                                                                              All dates are subject to change.

  Fall Semester • 2016                              16      Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday

  August                                            17      Block 9, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
  8       Block 4, Phase II begins 9 a.m.           25      Dean’s Grand Rounds
  12-17   First Year Orientation                    28      Open House
  15      Semester begins
                                                    February
  15      Classes begin, Years II and III
                                                    3       Year III Phase 1 ends; Phase 2 Orientation
  17      Family Orientation and Coating Ceremony
                                                    3       Year III Coating Ceremony
  18      Classes begin, Year I
                                                    13      Phase 2 begins, Year III; Block 10

  September                                         22      Dean’s Grand Rounds
  5       Labor Day Holiday                         27-28   Mardi Gras Holidays, Years I and II
  6       Classes resume, Years I, II and III       28      Mardi Gras Holiday for Faculty and Staff
  6       Block 5, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
                                                    March
  28      Phi Zeta Research Emphasis Day
                                                    TBD     Great Rover Road Run

  October                                           13      Block 11, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
  3       Block 6, Phase II begins 9 a.m.           16-18   SAVMA Symposium, Iowa State University
  6-7     Fall Holiday, Years I-III                 29      Dean’s Grand Rounds
  26      Dean’s Grand Rounds
                                                    April
  31      Block 7, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
                                                    10      Block 12, Phase II begins 9 a.m.

  November                                          10-15   Spring Break begins, Years I and II
  14      Fall NAVLE Window begins                  10-22   Spring NAVLE Window
  24-25   Thanksgiving Holiday                      14      Good Friday Holiday
  28      Problem-based Learning begins, Year II    28      Awards & Honors Banquet
  30      Dean’s Grand Rounds
                                                    May
  December                                          5       Semester ends
  5       Block 8, Phase II begins 9 a.m.           8       SVM Commencement
  9       Problem-Based Learning ends, Year II      8       Block 1, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
  9       SVM semester ends
  10      Fall NAVLE window ends                    Summer Term • 2017
  19      Christmas and New Year’s Holidays begin   June
                                                    6       Block 2, Phase II begins 9 a.m.

  Spring Semester • 2017                            July
  January                                           4       Independence Day Holiday
  2       Christmas and New Year’s Holidays end
                                                    11      Block 3, Phase II begins 9 a.m.
  3       Semester begins, Years I, II and III
  3-17    Problem-based Learning, Year I
2016–2017 Bulletin 5

          Graduate Calendar 2016-2017
                                                                     All dates are subject to change.

Fall Semester • 2016                                   Winter session • 2017
August                                                 December
11-12   International Student Orientation              12       Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
17      New Graduate Student Orientation               12       Final date for dropping courses without
                                                                receiving a grade of “W”
22      Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
                                                       13       Final date for adding courses for credit and
24      Final date for submitting to Graduate
                                                                making section changes
        School applications for master’s and
        doctoral degrees to be awarded at fall         20       Final date for resigning from the University
        commencement                                            and/or dropping courses
24      Final date for “degree only” registration      23       Winter holiday begins, 7:30 a.m.

30      Final date for dropping courses without        January
        receiving a grade of “W”                       3        Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.
31      Final date for adding courses for credit and   3        Classes end, 10 p.m.
        making section changes
                                                       4        Final examinations

September                                              6        Final grades due, 9:00 a.m.
5       Labor Day holiday
6       Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.                      Spring Semester • 2017
                                                       January
October                                                4        International Student Orientation
6-7     Fall holiday begins, 7:30 a.m.                 5-6, 9   Freshman & Transfer Orientation
10      Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.                      10       Final date for submitting to the Graduate
                                                                School General Examination results for
10-15   Midsemester exams                                       the doctorate to be awarded at spring
23      Course scheduling for spring semester,                  commencement
        spring intersession, and summer term begins,   11       Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
        5:00 p.m.
                                                       13       Final date for submitting (or updating) to fhe
                                                                Graduate School “Applications for Degree” to
November
                                                                be awarded at spring commencement, 4:30
4       Final date for resigning from the University            p.m. deadline
        and/or dropping courses
                                                       16       Martin Luther King Day holiday
4       Final date to request rescheduling a final
        examination when three examinations are        17       Final date for “degree only” registration
        scheduled in 24 hours                          20       Final date for dropping courses without
13      Final date for submitting to the Graduate               receiving a grade of “W”
        School committee examination reports and       23       Final date for adding courses for credit and
        approved theses and dissertations                       making section changes
23      Thanksgiving holiday begins, 12:30 p.m.        25       Final date for submitting to the Graduate
28      Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.                               School “Requests for Final Exams”
                                                                (comprehensive exam, thesis/dissertation
                                                                defense) for degrees to be awarded at spring
December                                                        commencement
3       Classes end, 10 p.m.
5-10    Final examinations
16      Commencement
6 School of Veterinary Medicine

February                                                 15      Final date for dropping courses without
27-28   Mardi Gras holiday begins                                receiving a grade of “W”
                                                         16      Final date for adding courses for credit and
March                                                            making section changes
1       Classes resume, 12:30 p.m.                       23      Final date for resigning from the University
6-11    Midsemester exams                                        and/or dropping courses

14      Midsemester grades due, 9:00 a.m.                26      Classes end

24      Final date for resigning from the University     29      Final examinations
        and/or dropping courses
                                                         31      Final grades due, 9:00 a.m.
24      Final date to request rescheduling a final
        examination when three examinations are
        scheduled in 24 hours                            Summer Term • 2017
24      Final date for resigning from the University     Session A
26      Course scheduling for Summer Intersession,       May
        fall semester, and Winter session begins, 5:00
                                                         26      International Student Orientation
        p.m.
                                                         30      Freshman and Transfer Orientation begins
April
9       Spring Break begins                              June
                                                         1       Freshman and Transfer Orientation ends
17      Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.
                                                         1       Final date for “Degree Only” registration (all
10      Final date for submitting to the Graduate
                                                                 degree requirements, including document
        School General Examination Results for
                                                                 submission to the Graduate School must be
        the doctorate to be awarded at summer
                                                                 met), 4:30 p.m. deadline
        commencement
                                                         5       Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
10      Final date for submitting to the Graduate
        School committee examination reports and         7       Final date for dropping courses without
        approved theses and dissertations (4:30 p.m.             receiving a grade of “W”, 4:30 p.m. deadline
        deadline)
                                                         8       Final date for adding courses for credit and
26      Concentrated study period begins. No                     making section changes, 4:30 p.m. deadline
        meetings, social activities, athletic events,
                                                         8       F inal date to petition deans’ offices to
        or other extracurricular activities requiring
                                                                 invoke the Grade Exclusion Policy, 4:30 p.m.
        student participation will be scheduled; no
                                                                 deadline
        major examinations will be given in academic
        courses other than labs                          8       F inal date for “Degree Only” registration (all
                                                                 degree requirements, including document
29      Classes end
                                                                 submission and approval by the Graduate
30      Concentrated Study Period ends                           School must be met), 4:30 p.m. deadline
                                                         9       F inal date for submitting to the Graduate
May                                                              School “Requests for Final Exams”
1-6     Final exams                                              (comprehensive exam, theses/disertation
                                                                 degense) for degrees to be awarded at
9       Final grades (degree candidates) due, 9:00               summer commencement, 4:30 p.m. deadlin
        a.m.
                                                         25-28   Mid-term examination period
10      Final grades (non-degree candidates) due,
        9:00 a.m.                                        July
11-12   Commencement will be held over a 2-day           3       Mid-term grades due, 9:00 a.m.
        period
                                                         4       Independence Day holiday

Spring Intersession • 2017                               5       Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.
                                                         6       Mid-term grades due, 9:00 a.m.
May
15      Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.                         10      Final date for submitting to the Graduate
                                                                 School committee examination reports and
                                                                 approved theses and dissertations, 4:30 p.m.
                                                                 deadline
2016–2017 Bulletin 7

11      Final date for resigning from the University     Summer Intersession • 2017
        and/or dropping courses
                                                         August
24      Classes end
                                                         7       Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
25      Concentrated study day
                                                         7       F inal date for droppig courses without
26-27   Final examination period                                 receiving a grade of “W”, 4:30 p.m. deadline
                                                         8       Final date for adding courses for credit and
August                                                           making section changes, 4:30 p.m. deadline
1       Final grades (degree candidates) due, 9:00       8       Final date to petition deans’ office to
        a.m.                                                     invoke the Grade Exclusion Policy, 4:30 p.m.
2       Final grades (non-degree candidates) due,                deadline
        9:00 a.m.                                        10-11   International Student Orientation
4       Commencement, 9:00 a.m.                          11      Final date for submitting to the Graduate
                                                                 School General Examination Results
                                                                 for the doctorate to be awarded at fall
Session B                                                        commencement, 4:30p.m., deadline
                                                                 (minimum period of three months is required
May                                                              between completion of the General Exam
26      International Student Orientation                        and completion of the Final Defense)
30      Freshman and Transfer Orientation begins         14-17   Freshman and Transfer Orientation
                                                         15      Final date for resigning from the University or
June                                                             dropping courses, 4:30 p.m. deadline
1       Freshman and Transfer Orientation ends
                                                         16      New Graduate Student Orientation
1       Final date for “Degree Only” registration (all
                                                         18      Classes end, 10 p.m.
        degree requirements, including document
        submission to the Graduate School must be        19      Final examinations
        met), 4:30 p.m. deadline
                                                         23      Final grades due, 9:00 a.m. deadline
5       Classes begin, 7:30 a.m.
7       Final date for dropping courses without
        receiving a grade of “W”, 4:30 p.m. deadline
8       inal date for adding courses for credit and
        making section changes, 4:30 p.m. deadline
8       Final date to petition deans’ office to
        invoke the Grade Exclusion Policy, 4:30 p.m.
        deadline
25-28   Mid-term examination period
27      Final date for resigning from the University
        and/or dropping courses

July
4       Independence Day holiday
5       Classes resume, 7:30 a.m.
7       Classes end
8       Final exams
12      Final grades (degree candidates) due, 9:00
        a.m.

August
7       Final date for droppig courses without
        receiving a grade of “W”, 4:30 p.m. deadline
                                                                             All dates are subject to change.
8 School of Veterinary Medicine

                              The University

LSU today holds a prominent position in American      accredited post-secondary educational institutions
higher education and is committed to meeting the      founded in 1918; the National Association of State
challenge of pursuing intellectual development for    Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, founded in
its students, expanding the bounds of knowledge       1962 to represent the major public universities
through research, and creating economic               and land grant institutions; and the American
opportunities for Louisiana. LSU is in a state of     Association of State Colleges and Universities,
dynamic transformation–changing and evolving          a select group of leading public institutions of
to meet the needs of its students, faculty, and       higher education.
the people of Louisiana. LSU 2010, the national
flagship agenda, brings into focus the University’s   LSU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges
commitment to excellence at every level. The          of the Southern Association of Colleges and
goal of this agenda is to have LSU reach the upper    Schools to award bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral,
tier of national prominence by the year 2010, the     and professional degrees.
University’s 150th anniversary.
                                                      The LSU System, composed of nine institutions
LSU, one of only 21 universities nationwide           on 10 campuses in five cities, as well as 10 public
designated as a land-grant, sea-grant, and            hospitals in 10 cities, was established by an act
space-grant institution, also holds the Carnegie      of the Louisiana legislature on February 6, 1965.
Foundation’s Doctoral/Research–Extensive              Other components of the System are the LSU
designation. LSU’s instructional programs include     Agricultural Center (headquartered in Baton
197 undergraduate and graduate/professional           Rouge); the Hebert Law Center, Baton Rouge; the
degrees.                                              LSU Medical Center (with two campuses in New
                                                      Orleans and one in Shreveport and including the
The University attracts about 15 percent of the       Schools of Allied Health Professions, Medicine,
state’s total enrollment in higher education,         Dentistry, and Nursing, and Graduate School); the
and LSU students come from many ethnic and            University of New Orleans and LSU in Shreveport,
religious backgrounds. The student body consists      both four-year institutions; LSU at Alexandria and
of more than 30,500 students from 50 states and       LSU at Eunice, both two-year institutions; and the
approximately 120 foreign countries. Although the     Charity Hospital System.
average age of undergraduates is 21, many older
students also pursue degrees at LSU. The student      The governing body of the LSU System is the
body is 52 percent women and 48 percent men.          Board of Supervisors, composed of 16 members.
                                                      Chief administrative officers of the University
Since its first commencement in 1869, LSU             System are the President, Executive Vice President,
has awarded more than 194,000 degrees.                Vice President for Academic Affairs, Vice President
The University produces about 26 percent of           for Human Resources & Risk Management,
Louisiana’s bachelor’s graduates, approximately 23    and Vice President for Property and Facilities
percent of the master’s graduates, and about 55       Administration.
percent of the doctoral graduates. In 2005-06, LSU
awarded 5,799 degrees.                                The LSU Agricultural Center, including the
                                                      Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station and
With more than 170,000 alumni, LSU ranks in           the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service and
the top 10 percent in the nation in number            International Programs, has more than 200 faculty
of graduates. Its alumni have distinguished           members who hold joint appointments with LSU.
themselves in politics, agriculture, business,        The Experiment Station has research programs in
education, engineering, science, the arts, sports,    Baton Rouge and at branch stations throughout
and entertainment.                                    Louisiana. The Extension Service disseminates
                                                      results of research throughout the state through
The University is a member of the American            specialists, county agents, and home economists
Council on Education, an organization of              in every parish.
2016–2017 Bulletin 9

The Paul M. Hebert Law Center, originally            Mission
established in 1906, became an autonomous unit
of the LSU System in 1977. In 1979, it was renamed   As the flagship institution of the state, the
in honor of Paul M. Hebert, who served as dean       vision of Louisiana State University is to be a
from 1937 to 1977.                                   leading doctoral research–extensive university,
                                                     challenging undergraduate and graduate students
All references in this catalog to “Louisiana State   to achieve the highest levels of intellectual and
University,” “LSU,” or “the University,” are to      personal development. Designated as a land-grant,
be understood as meaning the institution in          sea-grant, and space-grant institution, the mission
Baton Rouge (whose full name is Louisiana State      of Louisiana State University is the generation,
University and Agricultural & Mechanical College).   preservation, dissemination, and application of
Any reference to the LSU System or to any other      knowledge and cultivation of the arts.
institution(s) within the System will be clearly
indicated.

Louisiana State University campus
10 School of Veterinary Medicine

The School of Veterinary Medicine

History                                                 Degrees
The school admitted its first students to the           The School of Veterinary Medicine offers the
professional curriculum during the 1973-74              professional Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM)
academic year. The original entering class              degree. Advanced degrees–the Master of Science
consisted of 36 students, all residents of Louisiana.   and Doctor of Philosophy–in veterinary medical
The school participates in the Southern Regional        sciences are offered through the Graduate School.
Education Board’s (SREB) program for education
in veterinary medicine. Training contracts provide
a limited number of entering spaces for qualified       Departments
candidates from Arkansas. In addition, a limited
number of highly qualified, nonresident applicants      Comparative Biomedical Sciences
are admitted under the school’s special admission       The Department of Comparative Biomedical
policy.                                                 Sciences is responsible for instruction in a major
                                                        portion of the professional curriculum in Year I:
The school has an excellent faculty supported
                                                        namely, anatomy (cell/molecular, developmental,
by modern equipment. The Veterinary Medicine
                                                        microscopic, and gross) and physiology. Gross
Building, located on the west side of the campus
                                                        anatomy and histology each have laboratory
near the Mississippi River, was dedicated
                                                        sessions that correlate with lecture presentations.
in October 1978. It houses three academic
                                                        Other first year courses include biochemistry and
departments, the Veterinary Medicine Library, the
                                                        neuroscience. Pharmacology and toxicology are
Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and the Louisiana
                                                        presented as separate courses in Years II and III.
Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. The
facilities at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital are      Opportunities also exist for students in the
used as laboratories providing students with            professional curriculum to conduct research in the
introductions to clinical cases and animal disease      laboratories of various faculty under the auspices
problems, as well as to methods and techniques          of an NIH T32 training grant, Merck-Merial or
used in their solution. The clinical case load at       individual research grants of the faculty.
the hospital, in-field services, and herd health
programs offer ample opportunities for education        The department is actively engaged in biomedical
of the complete veterinarian.                           research with an underlying theme of molecular
                                                        medicine. Numerous extramurally funded faculty
The school library, located in the Veterinary           participate in an active graduate training program.
Medicine Building, provides a resource sufficient       Advanced study leads to the MS or PhD degree
to support programs in instruction, research, and       in veterinary medical sciences. Central research
service.                                                facilities include a microscopy center, analytical
                                                        chemistry laboratory with proteomics capabilities,
The AVMA Council on Education (COE) is the
                                                        an inhalation research facility, and an aquatic
national accrediting agency for veterinary medical
                                                        research facility with a zebrafish colony. Research is
education in the United States. The AVMA COE
                                                        ultimately oriented toward improving animal and
assures that minimum standards in veterinary
                                                        human health and in expanding basic biomedical
medical education are met by all AVMA-accredited
                                                        knowledge.
colleges or schools of veterinary medicine, and
that students enrolled in those colleges or schools
receive an education that will prepare them for         Pathobiological Sciences
entry-level positions in the profession. The LSU        The Department of Pathobiological Sciences
program has met all essential requirements for an       provides teaching and training in the emphasis
acceptable college or school as established by the      areas of bacteriology, epidemiology, immunology,
AVMA COE. Full accreditation was granted in 1977        parasitology, pathology, and virology.
and reaffirmed in 1984, 1991, 1998, 2005 and 2010       Departmental faculty are involved in all levels of
and 2013.                                               the professional curriculum, providing lecture
                                                        and laboratory experiences in bacteriology,
2016–2017 Bulletin 11

mycology, immunology, epidemiology, pathology,          School of Veterinary
parasitology, community health, and virology, as
well as instruction in the practical application of     Medicine Library
necropsy techniques, all using cases received from      The LSU School of Veterinary Medicine Library
the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and the Louisiana      is the major health science library in the greater
Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory.                   Baton Rouge area. The library is a member of the
                                                        Louisiana Library Network and the South Central
Advanced studies in the department lead to the          Region of the National Network of Libraries of
MS and PhD degrees in veterinary medical sciences       Medicine. The Library is a significant partner in the
for both DVM and non-DVM graduate students.             educational and research programs of the School
Graduate courses are offered in all disciplines         of Veterinary Medicine. Centrally located on the
associated with the department. Basic and applied       first floor of the School of Veterinary Medicine, the
research is conducted in the areas of molecular         Library offers both print and electronic resources
pathogenesis, disease processes, infectious and         dealing with all aspects of veterinary medicine.
parasitic diseases, and host response to disease.       Patrons have access to not only those resources
                                                        unique to the SVM Library, but also the resources
The departmental faculty provides a variety of          provided by the main campus libraries.
services in support of the clinical and instructional
programs of the school, including clinical              The Library’s collection includes topics of human
pathology, cytology, postmortem examination,            medicine, comparative medicine, public health,
diagnostic parasitology, and aquatic animal             the animal sciences, and other related areas.
disease diagnosis. Central research services include    Provided each fall is an orientation to incoming
a molecular biology center, Gene Lab, a flow            students. This orientation is available to anyone
cytometry lab, and a histology lab.                     upon request throughout the year. Reference
                                                        and interlibrary loan services are also available.
Veterinary Clinical Sciences                            The library is consistently moving forward in
                                                        its partnership with the veterinary medicine
The Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences
                                                        community and looks forward to working with
has responsibility for the instructional program
                                                        you.
in the diagnosis, treatment, and control of animal
diseases. Departmental faculty contributes a major
share of the instruction in Years II, III, and IV and
participates in problem-based learning in Years         Veterinary Teaching
I, II, and III. Classroom lectures and discussions of   Hospital
the diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment
                                                        LSU’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital offers
of diseases are augmented by laboratory training
                                                        outstanding clinical service with over 40 board-
in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.
                                                        certified specialists on staff. Our veterinary
Those members of the faculty with concurrent
                                                        hospital also provides a clinical education for
appointments to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital
                                                        veterinary students, interns and residents; over
provide in-depth clinical training to students
                                                        80% of the veterinarians in Louisiana were trained
registered in Phase II courses.
                                                        in our hospital. The VTH has a large case load
The modern veterinary teaching hospital,                (approximately 100 cases/ day) and is open 24
complete with sophisticated diagnostic                  hours/day, 365 days/year.
equipment, accepts animal patients from
Louisiana and surrounding states for diagnosis and
treatment. This facility enables the faculty to offer   Student and Faculty
advanced training to interns and residents and          Code of Ethics
continuing education to veterinary professionals.
                                                        I. Preamble
Advanced studies in the department lead to              The students and faculty of the LSU School of
the MS and PhD degrees in veterinary medical            Veterinary Medicine consider the cultivation of
sciences. Research is conducted by departmental         ethical standards by its members to be of primary
faculty on projects related to the clinical sciences    importance in upholding the honor and integrity
in collaboration with other departments of the          of the veterinary profession. The school expects
school and University.                                  its members to maintain standards of personal
                                                        discipline that are in harmony with its educational
12 School of Veterinary Medicine

goals; to observe national, state, and local laws     III. Responsibility
as well as school and University regulations; and     The establishment of a relationship based on
to respect the rights, privileges, and property       trust is the responsibility of every member of the
of others. An atmosphere more conducive to            community. The members should, therefore, take
education will be promoted by a mutual respect        positive steps to maintain this atmosphere and to
and trust among the members of the community          correct any situation that might damage it.
of students and faculty. The status of such a
relationship between students and faculty will
depend on the behavior of these individuals, and      IV. Institution and Amendment
the responsibility of defining acceptable behavior    This document will become an official statement
will fall upon the student/faculty community as a     of the community of students and faculty upon
whole.                                                vote of approval by two thirds of the members of
                                                      the student body and by approval of the faculty
II. Articles                                          body. This document, or any part thereof, may be
                                                      repealed or amended at any time, providing the
The members of the community of students and          proposal is presented orally to the members of
faculty endorse the following guidelines for their    the community and is posted for one month prior
mutual interactions. It must be emphasized that       to vote. A vote of approval by two thirds of the
these guidelines are of a general nature, provided    student body and approval by the faculty body is
as a basis for the intended mood of the document,     necessary for these changes.
and are not to be interpreted as a tool for airing
petty grievances.
                                                      V. Promulgation
A.   The members are expected not to engage           The Executive Board of the Student Chapter,
     in any conduct that tends to provide unfair      American Veterinary Medical Association, will
     advantage for students in any academic           provide all new members of the community with a
     matter. Examples of this provision include       copy of this document. In addition, the same board
     giving or receiving unauthorized aid during      shall explain the provisions of this document each
     an examination and harboring study               school year during the orientation of the incoming
     materials needed by an individual, class, or     freshman class.
     the student body as a whole.

B.   The members are expected not to extend to
                                                      VI. Addendum
     individual students privileged information       Within the School of Veterinary Medicine, the
     concerning examinations that gives unfair        pursuit of allegations through the following
     advantages to those students.                    outlined channels is strictly voluntary. The proper
                                                      channels, open to any member of the community
C.   The members are expected not to seek             who is aware of activity that might damage this
     privileged information concerning                trust, are the following:
     examinations in addition to that information
     that is disseminated to the entire class.        1.   privately consult the individual in question;

D.   The members are expected not to participate      2.   consult the mentor of the class, if this be
     in any conduct that intentionally obstructs or        appropriate; and/or
     disrupts a member’s education, teaching, or
     research, and they are expected not to cause     3.   consult the respective year coordinator, who
     intentional destruction or deprivation of the         may bring the matter to the faculty standing
     property of a member or the school.                   committee.

E.   The members are expected not to slander or       As a point of information to all members of the
     anonymously accuse each other.                   community, the above procedural channels
                                                      are summarized from the current editions of
F.   The members are expected not to accuse,          the following documents, as they apply to the
     publicly or privately, any member through        School of Veterinary Medicine: Faculty Handbook;
     any channel other than one in which such         Administrative Organization and Faculty
     person may have the opportunity to defend        Committees, School of Veterinary Medicine; Code
     himself or herself.                              of Student Conduct; and Bill of Student Rights.

                                                      (Approved by the student body and faculty, April
                                                      1976.)
2016–2017 Bulletin 13

Mary Leissinger, DVM (LSU SVM 2010), MS (2014), pathology resident, uses the LSU SVM’s transmission electron
microscope for a research project.
14 School of Veterinary Medicine

             The Professional Program

Admission Requirements                                  of credit for CLEP subject examinations may be
                                                        considered in those subjects recommended by
If you are contemplating a career in veterinary         various departments of the University upon receipt
medicine, you should acquire a sound foundation         of test scores indicating the student meets the
in the biological and physical sciences and a           minimum acceptable scores required by those
general knowledge of the arts and humanities            departments.
in both high school and college. In addition, you
should be motivated by a respect for animals, a
sincere desire to serve the public, a propensity for
the biological and medical sciences, and a deep
                                                        Residence Classification
interest in promotion of the health of animal           The LSU School of Veterinary Medicine determines
and human populations. You must have a high             eligibility for classification as a Louisiana resident
aptitude for scientific study and must possess an       based on LSU System regulations and evidence
excellent moral and ethical character.                  provided on the application for admission and
                                                        related documents. Regulations relate primarily to
Candidates for the DVM degree must complete             location of the home and place of employment.
a minimum of six years of college education.            Louisiana applicants must meet all residence
This includes two or more years of pre-veterinary       requirements, as stated in University regulations.
education and four years of professional
education. The pre-veterinary requirements may          A resident student is defined as one who has
be completed at LSU or at any other accredited          abandoned all prior domiciles and lived in the
college or university offering courses of the quality   state of Louisiana continuously for at least one full
and content of those prescribed in the LSU General      year (365 days) immediately preceding the first day
Catalog.                                                of classes of the term for which classification as a
                                                        resident is sought.
The minimum requirement of 66 semester hours,
including 20 hours of elective courses, may be          Individuals living within this state for one year
completed in two years. Successful completion of a      must be able to prove there was intent to maintain
pre-veterinary program does not ensure admission        a residence in Louisiana. Residing in Louisiana
to the school for professional training. Typically,     solely for educational purposes without evidence
there are more qualified applicants each year than      of the intent to remain in Louisiana will not be
there are spaces available to the entering class.       sufficient for classification as a resident, regardless
Instruction in the four-year program is available       of the length of time within the state.
only through the School of Veterinary Medicine
at LSU. Scholastic achievement is measured by           Factors considered in establishing residency,
performance in the prescribed pre-professional          although not necessarily conclusive, include:
courses. A minimum grade-point average of
3.0 (“A” = 4.00) in these courses is required for       • Financial independence from parents residing
consideration for admission. A grade of less              in another state or country;
than “C” in a required course is unacceptable.
Physical education activity courses may not be          • Reliance on Louisiana resources for financial
used as electives for meeting pre-professional            support;
requirements. Requirements are not waived in lieu
of work experience.                                     • Continuous presence in Louisiana during
                                                          periods when not enrolled as a student;
Credit earned through advanced standing is
acceptable, but is not used in the computation          • Commitments indicating the intent to stay in
of the grade-point average. Evaluation of the             Louisiana permanently;
applicant’s record in the pre-professional program
is made in accordance with LSU procedures. Credit       • Paying Louisiana income taxes as a resident
is not granted for College Level Examination              during the past tax year; and
Program (CLEP) general examinations. Granting
2016–2017 Bulletin 15

• The absence of these indicators in other              Affairs Office (e-mail: svmadmissions@lsu.edu;
  states during any period for which domicile in        Phone: 225-578-9538; Fax: 225-578-9546).
  Louisiana is asserted.
                                                        • Biological Science, 12 sem. hrs. - Must include
Special provisions have been made for adults              at least 8 sem. hrs. (Two-semester course
moving to Louisiana for employment purposes,              sequence with laboratory) in general biology or
military personnel stationed in Louisiana, and            introductory zoology at a level appropriate for
international students with immigrant visas. An           premedical students. Must also include at least 4
international student on a student visa is classified     sem. hrs. (One-semester course with laboratory)
as a nonresident. Resident classification and             in microbiology. LSU courses - Biology 1201,
all fees are audited and adjusted, if necessary,          1202, 1208, 1209, and 2051.
after each registration. Appropriate credits or
charges are then made to the student’s account.         • General Chemistry, 8 sem. hrs. - Must include
For additional information concerning the                 laboratory and must be at a level for science or
establishment of residency, contact the Office of         engineering majors. LSU courses - Chemistry
Undergraduate Admissions.                                 1201, 1202, 1212.

Applicants from Arkansas must be certified as           • Organic Chemistry, 3 sem. hrs. - Must cover
having residence or citizenship established as            aliphatic and aromatic compounds, with
required by the contract state. Inquiries should          emphasis on the biological aspects of organic
be addressed to: Arkansas Department of Higher            chemistry. LSU course - Chemistry 2060.
Education, 114 E. Capitol Avenue, Little Rock,
AR 72201-3818; phone number - (501)371-2000.            • Biochemistry, 3 sem. hrs. - Must include 3 sem.
Residents of Arkansas should also contact their           hrs. of basic concepts and an introduction to
program coordinator as early as possible for              the nature and physiological uses of natural
information concerning admission requirements,            substances. LSU course - Biochemistry 2083.
applications, and residence.
                                                        • Mathematics, 6 sem. hrs. - Must be at the college
Applicants who do not meet either of the two              algebra/trigonometry level or higher. LSU
residency classifications above are considered out-       courses - Mathematics 1021, 1022. If you qualify
of-state residents. If accepted as an out-of-state        for more advanced mathematics courses, you
resident, an applicant cannot change this status          may substitute Mathematics 1023 (5 sem. hrs.)
and will be considered an out-of-state resident for       for 1021 and 1022.
the entire four-year program.
                                                        • Physics, 6 sem. hrs. - Must be at a level for
                                                          science majors and must include mechanics,
Minimum Prerequisites                                     heat, sound, light, electricity, magnetism, and
                                                          topics in modern physics. LSU courses - Physics
for Admission                                             2001, 2002.
As a pre-veterinary student, you are encouraged to
familiarize yourself with admission requirements        • Communication Skills, 9 sem. hrs. – Must
for the professional program at the LSU School            include 6 sem. hrs. of English composition and
of Veterinary Medicine. You should seek                   3 sem. hrs. of public speaking or interpersonal
knowledgeable pre-veterinary counselors and/or            communication course. LSU courses – English
advice when enrolled in pre-professional programs         1001, English 2000 and Communication Studies
other than at LSU.                                        2010 or 2060 (1061 would also meet the Speech
                                                          Communication requirement).
A minimum of 66 total semester hours is
required for consideration for admission into the       Elective Courses, min. 20 sem. hrs. - In selecting the
professional DVM program. This must include                remaining required courses for admission to the
the 46 semester credit hours of the courses listed         professional program, you should consider the
below. More specific details regarding course              following:
descriptions can be found at the School of
Veterinary Medicine Admissions web site at www.         • The objective of the DVM program is to offer a
lsu.edu/vetmed/dvm_admissions. If there are any           well-rounded curriculum in veterinary medical
questions regarding equivalency of courses, please        education enabling the graduate to select from
contact the School of Veterinary Medicine Student         a wide range of professional opportunities.
                                                          The selection of elective courses in the pre-
16 School of Veterinary Medicine

  professional curriculum should reflect the            Important Information
  interests and the objectives of the candidate.
  Potential applicants should plan their programs       Regarding Coursework
  with the recognition that these elective courses      • All 46 credit hours listed above must be
  provide the only formal opportunity in the              completed by the end of the spring semester
  applicant’s college years to obtain a broad             prior to desired matriculation (for example, if
  general education.                                      applying for matriculation into the fall 2016
                                                          semester, all prerequisites must be successfully
• If you have completed advanced preparatory              completed by the end of the spring 2017
  courses in high school you are, in all probability,     semester).
  qualified to complete the prerequisites within
  four semesters. These students are encouraged         • New knowledge, especially in the sciences, is
  to take higher level university courses when so         accruing at a rapid rate and records of students
  permitted. Applicants who are inadequately              who have completed their pre-professional
  prepared may find it advantageous to complete           requirements several years prior to application
  the pre-veterinary requirements over a longer           will be carefully scrutinized.
  period.
                                                        • Students who are enrolled at accredited
• Although the primary objective of the                   institutions other than LSU must determine
  applicant may be to complete the pre-                   that courses taken conform in content and
  veterinary requirements, those who have not             quality to descriptions contained in the latest
  previously obtained a baccalaureate degree              issue of the LSU General Catalog, which can be
  are encouraged to plan for alternative career           accessed online (www.lsu.edu/catalogs). If there
  possibilities through registration in a degree-         is a question as to the course equivalence of a
  granting program which has similar course               course taken, please email admissions@vetmed.
  requirements. Several LSU curricula include all         lsu.edu. Note that full transcript evaluations are
  of the minimum mandatory requirements. Many             only performed once the application cycle has
  other curricula which do not specify all of the         begun.
  requirements allow them as electives.
                                                        • At least one course each in organic chemistry,
Since not all applicants will gain admission to           biology, and physics MUST be completed within
the School of Veterinary Medicine on their first          the last six years, and it is strongly advised that
attempt, they should continue in degree programs          ALL required science courses be completed
while making themselves more competitive in               within six calendar years immediately prior to
subsequent years. Some students may elect to              application (for possible Fall 2015 matriculation,
complete a baccalaureate degree in order to               all science courses should be completed no
pursue graduate training during the first and             further back than the Fall 2007 semester.)
second summers of the professional program.
                                                        • Prerequisites taken longer than 10 years ago
LSU undergraduate students may want to contact            will typically not be accepted. Written appeals
the College of Agriculture to inquire about the 3+1       regarding this 10-year policy can be sent to the
program. Through this program, students who               Director of Admissions at svmadmissions@lsu.
earn a seat in the School of Veterinary Medicine          edu. Appeals for this policy are evaluated on
following completion of the first three years of          a case-by-case basis and are only granted for
the Animal Science curriculum (102 hrs) may               limited circumstances.
receive the B.S. degree following the first year
of the professional DVM curriculum. Contact the         • Applicants may choose to re-take a course
LSU Department of Animal Sciences for more                to better master the subject at any point. If a
information.                                              course that is more than six years old is retaken,
                                                          the most recent grade will be used, otherwise all
                                                          grades and credit hours for the repeated course
                                                          will be used when computing grade point
                                                          averages.

                                                        • Credit earned through advanced standing
                                                          and advanced placement exams is acceptable
2016–2017 Bulletin 17

  but is not used in the computation of the grade      Admission Procedures
  point average. Evaluation of the applicant’s
  record in the pre-professional program is made       Admission to the School of Veterinary Medicine is
  in accordance with LSU procedures. Credit is not     granted only for the fall semester of each school
  granted for College Level Examination Program        year and only on a full-time basis. A prescribed
  (CLEP) general examinations. Granting of credit      number of student spaces is planned for each
  for CLEP subject examinations may be considered      class, and the formal application material with
  in those subjects recommended by various             all supporting credentials is required for each
  departments of the University upon receipt of        applicant. Students admitted and enrolled in the
  test scores indicating the student meets the         school must be capable of satisfactorily meeting
  minimum acceptable scores required by those          all requirements of the curriculum in veterinary
  departments.                                         medicine. Eligible candidates are chosen to be
                                                       interviewed by members of the Faculty Committee
• A Bachelor’s degree is not a requirement for         on Admissions and Scholastic Standing and are
  acceptance into the DVM program, although            carefully selected to ensure that they are properly
  applicants are strongly encouraged to follow an      motivated, competent to undertake the rigorous
  undergraduate degree path in the event that          courses of professional study, and capable of
  entrance into the DVM program is not granted. A      meeting the demands of a professional career.
  Bachelor’s degree (or any advanced degree) will
  not be substituted for prerequisite coursework.      The Faculty Committee on Admissions and
                                                       Scholastic Standing is responsible for determining
                                                       the application procedure and for selecting the
                                                       entering class in the professional curriculum. All
Graduate Record                                        pre-professional requirements must be completed
Examination (GRE)                                      by the end of the spring semester before fall
Applicants must take the General Graduate              matriculation in the LSU School of Veterinary
Record Examination (GRE) in the fall preceding         Medicine. Please visit the Admissions Office’s web
application or earlier (for example, if applying for   site at www.lsu.edu/vetmed/dvm_admissions for
matriculation into the fall 2017 semester, the GRE     more details on the application process.
must be received no later than October 1st, 2016).     Students reapplying must submit a completely new
Those students following a four-semester program       application for each application period. Academic
must complete this test soon after beginning the       and non-academic qualifications are considered
sophomore year. Appropriate preparation and            in the selection process. Selection for admission is
selection of a curriculum that contributes to an       based on the sum of the objective and subjective
acceptable score are strongly suggested. Applicants    scores. The exact combination of each component
who do not have GRE scores submitted by the final      to the total score may vary slightly from year to year
deadline will not be considered for admission.         and is determined by the Admissions Committee
                                                       and the Dean.
The School of Veterinary Medicine requires all
applicants to take the General Graduate Record         • An objective score that comprises approximately
Exam (subject-specific exams are not accepted).          65 percent of the final calculation is determined
Both the raw scores and the percentile scores            by the GPA in all required courses (approximately
are used in evaluating applicants, with only the         29 percent), the GPA in the last 45-60 hours
highest individual score being used. Scores are          (approximately 18 percent), and the score on the
only accepted via electronic transfer directly           GRE (approximately 18 percent).
from ETS, and applicants must have their scores
resent for every application cycle. The School of      • A subjective score comprises approximately
Veterinary Medicine has its own school code for          35 percent of the final calculation and is
the submissions of GRE scores. All GRE scores            determined by a review of the applicant’s folder
must be sent to the following codes when                 (approximately 15 percent), an interview (only for
submitting your GRE scores: School Code - 6381;          a select number of Louisiana, Arkansas and out-
                                                         of-state applicants - approximately 10 percent),
Department Code - 0617. For information about
                                                         and a holistic assessment by the admissions
registering for the GRE, contact the Educational
                                                         committee.
Testing Service at 1-800-GRE-CALL or visit their web
site at www.gre.org.                                   The objective evaluation is based on scholastic
                                                       achievement and standardized test scores. Official
18 School of Veterinary Medicine

transcripts of college course grades are examined       be considered by the Faculty Committee on
to determine scholastic achievement. The total          Admissions and Scholastic Standing include
objective score is derived from the grade point         undergraduate experience, GRE score, advanced
average on required courses, the grade-point            academic work, work experience, or participation
average on the most recent 45-60 semester               in special educational programs, as well as those
hours of course work, and the results of the GRE.       special attributes possessed by the applicant
New knowledge, especially in the sciences, is           that add to the cultural, educational, and/or
accruing at a rapid rate, so if you have completed      geographical diversity of the entering class.
our pre-professional requirements several years
prior to application, your records will be carefully    Please visit the School of Veterinary Medicine
scrutinized. It is advised that all required science    Admissions Office web site at www.vetmed.
courses should be completed within six calendar         lsu.edu/admissions for more information on
years immediately prior to application. At least one    admission requirements, residency classifications,
course in organic chemistry, biology, and physics       minimum prerequisites, admissions procedures,
must be completed within the last six years. Only       statistics, important dates and deadlines, and
Animal Science, Physical Science and Biological         much more.
Science courses are included in the Required
Course GPA. Social science, humanities, business,
kinesiology, and any general education courses are      Scholastic Regulations
NOT calculated into the Required Course GPA, but
are still calculated into the Last 45 Credit Hour GPA   All students should be familiar with the following
- except for kinesiology courses.                       rules governing academic probation and dismissal:

The subjective evaluation of applicants is based on     1.     You shall be placed on probation if your GPA
non-academic qualifications considered relevant         in all required courses (i.e., those courses required
to the determination of the applicant’s prospective     of all veterinary medical students) taken during the
performance in the veterinary medical curriculum        last semester in which you were enrolled is below
and in the practice of veterinary medicine.             2.00 (“C” average); if you receive any grade of “D+”
Motivation, maturity, attitude, interest, and other     that has been remediated up from an “F” (Phase
characteristics will be evaluated for all qualified     II courses only: see “Policy Concerning Failing
candidates, along with work experience, familiarity     Grades and Remediation in Phase II,” below); if
with animals, and reference information submitted       any required course is pending retesting; or if
in support of the application. These qualities are      you receive any grade of “F” in an elective course
evaluated by two separate committees. The first         (see “Policy Concerning Failure and Remediation
committee reviews the supporting documents              of Elective Courses in Phase I of the VMED
(autobiography, letters of recommendation,              Curriculum,” below).
transcripts, work experience, and familiarity with
                                                        2.   You may not be allowed to progress to the
animals). The second committee evaluates the
                                                        next semester until you have received a passing
individual through a personal interview. These
                                                        grade for all required courses in the semester
appraisals result in an average subjective score,
                                                        being completed.
which is added to the objective score to produce
the total numerical evaluation of the candidate.
                                                        3.   You shall not advance to the next year of the
Through this process, the professional judgment
                                                        professional curriculum with a cumulative GPA
of several faculty members is included in arriving
                                                        below 2.00.
at a final decision of recommended students for
the new class. Interviews are not granted to every
                                                        4.   You shall not advance to Phase II of the
Louisiana and Arkansas applicant, and only select
                                                        professional curriculum until you have received a
out-of-state applicants will be invited to interview.
                                                        passing grade for all required Phase I courses.
The final decision rests with the Dean of the
LSU School of Veterinary Medicine. The Faculty          5.     You shall not graduate from the professional
Committee on Admissions and Scholastic Standing         curriculum until you have received a passing grade
makes their recommendations to the Dean, who            for all required courses in Phase II.
then finalizes the offers of admission.
                                                        6.   You may be dismissed from the school.
Under exceptional circumstances, a limited
number of applicants not selected under the                  a. If you receive a grade of “F” in any required
above criteria may be admitted. Factors to              course in the curriculum
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