A-Level and University Guidance Handbook 2018-2019 - Oxford Campus - EF

 
A-Level and University
Guidance Handbook
2018-2019
Oxford Campus
Table Of Contents
 A Message From The Headmaster               2

 A Message From The A-Level Coordinator      2

 The A-Level Program                         3

 The A-Level Curriculum                      4

 Suggested Combinations Of Subjects         10

 Pathways to Success                        11

 EF Academy Oxford Language Policy          14

 Academic Honesty Policy                    16

 University Guidance at EF Academy Oxford   19

 Application Procedures                     25

                                             1
A Message From The Headmaster
Welcome to the A-Level program at EF Academy Oxford. A-Levels are a highly respected, traditional British
curriculum, recognised by leading universities.

The A-Level route allows students to focus sharply on three (or four) subjects. You may decide on A-Levels because
these subjects are directly relevant to your intended university course or career; or, perhaps because you are
especially strong in these subjects.

This guide is designed to give you detailed information on A-Level courses taught at EF Academy Oxford, as well as
the academic Pathways to Success which will help you to achieve the best possible results. If you have any questions,
please contact the A-Level Coordinator (Mr. Michael Liggins) or myself. All your teachers on the A-Level program,
together with the University Guidance Counsellors (Dr. Mark Zumbuhl and Mr. Cy Webber), are here to support you in
your studies and in the decisions that you need to make in order to achieve your university ambitions.

Dr. Paul Ellis,
Headmaster

A Message From The A-Level Coordinator
On behalf of the A-Level team I would like to welcome you to EF Academy Oxford. For most of you it is a new study
environment and a new country and way of life. This handbook is part of your orientation and is where your student
journey begins. It is designed to help you settle into the program, and to provide a source of reference material about
both the course and the school.

You will have a chance to settle in, make friends, and meet teaching staff and many other members of staff that are
here to support you. This is an intensive course requiring lots of hard work from you but, with effort and commitment,
you will have an excellent preparation for university study.

You will be allocated an Academic Tutor when you begin your studies. S/he will be with you throughout the course.
You will have a one-to-one review with them every two weeks and your tutor will also support you with any aspects
of your academic programme that you may have issues with.

If you have any problems or questions, ask any member of the EF Academy team; we will be happy to help.

We wish you every success for this academic year and hope that you will have a very enjoyable year.

Michael Liggins
Assistant Head (A-Levels)

2
The A-Level Program
Introduction
A-Level (GCE Advanced level) qualifications are one of the routes into UK universities. A-Levels are a two-year
program of study. Examinations take place at the end of the two years.

A-Levels are linear qualifications. This means that the exams are all taken at the end of the course, with the exception
of practical assessments in science subjects, which are taken during the course.

It is recommended that students take three subjects. Most top UK universities ask for three subjects. Examinations are
held in May and June at the end of the second year.

In addition to your A-Level subjects, all students will study English in preparation for taking the IELTS examination,
which is required for entry to UK universities. All students have a lesson each week in Pathways Support which covers
a range of topics from personal finance to university applications, and a core programme in all aspects of study skills.

Choosing The Right A-Level Course
As an international student, this may be the first time in your school career that you have a choice of subjects to
study. For some of you this is an exciting opportunity to start focusing on your chosen career path.
On arrival at EF Academy you will complete assessments in English and mathematics as well as testing to predict your
potential. You will need to decide which three subjects you wish to study in addition to English. Future university
courses and career aspirations can be affected by your A-Level subject choices, so it is important that an appropriate
program of study is followed. You will also have taster lessons before being asked to choose your final options.

All option choices will be checked by the A-Level Coordinator and University Guidance team using the results of your
assessments to ensure that you have chosen appropriate combinations which will allow you to fulfill your further
career aspirations.

To make informed subject choices, you will need to think carefully as you take the following steps:

Assess your ability in subjects:
Consider your results and your individual ability, then discuss these with your teachers.

Future course requirements:
Be very careful, do not narrow your options by dropping important subjects required for a university course.

Find out what courses cover:
Read the subject specifications in this handbook carefully.
Talk to teachers and second year students.

Think about your interest in the subject:
Do you really enjoy the selected subject?
Are you prepared to study additional material independently to enhance your knowledge?

Need help?
Academic Tutors and teaching staff can assist.
In summary, option choices are determined by evaluating the following:
Previous year’s study
Necessity for future career flexibility
Ability
Interest in and enjoyment of the subject

                                                                                                                       3
Completing Your Subject Choice
Which career are you interested in?
You will be required to complete a student subject option form. Some of you will already have a very good idea about
the choice of your career or the course you wish to study at university. You should give details of these on your
options form.

If you are unsure, we have got University Guidance Counsellors who can advise you. You may also think about the
following as you make your choices:
> Thinking about yourself and your ambitions - your skills, interests, talents and preferences
> Exploring career options – talk to our University Guidance Counsellors
> Working out what type of career area or job you want to work in
> Finding out how to get into this career area/job
> Choosing the subjects that lead to this career

General Support
Role of your Academic Tutor
You will meet your Academic Tutor during induction and you will have a one-to-one meeting once every 2 weeks at
8:40 or 8.50 a.m. Your academic tutor and your allocated Pathways Manager will be the first person to contact if you:
>   Feel homesick
>   Feel unwell
>   Have visa problems
>   Need advice on UCAS
>   Have concerns relating to the course
>   Have concerns about teaching
>   Have concerns about your academic progress
>   Have concerns relating to your accommodation

Your tutor may be able to help solve these problems himself/herself, or with the help of other people in the school.

The Academy Office
The Academy Office on the ground floor in Cotuit is where you will meet Nelli Janneler, our Office Manager and Visa
Compliance Officer. Your Pathways Managers are available in the basement of Cotuit, in B6. They will provide student
support and can give you friendly help and advice regarding police registration, visas, banking arrangements, official
college letters, sports facilities, etc.

The Pastoral Support Office
This is based at Cotuit Hall. The team will provide support on a wide range of pastoral issues.

The University Guidance Counsellors
They are based at Cotuit Hall. The team will provide support on a wide range of issues, dealing with the whole
university process from advice and support through to ensuring you are placed at university.

The A-Level Curriculum
Most students will select three subjects from the following A-Level curriculum. This will depend upon your selected
degree choice at university. (More guidance will be provided on your arrival.)

Biology                      Mathematics
Business Studies             Physics
Chemistry                    Psychology
Economics
Further Mathematics

4
Important: Some courses may not be offered due to insufficient student enrolment. In addition, it is not always
possible to accommodate all course selections due to scheduling conflicts.
The next section gives information about each of the subjects on offer as part of the A-Level curriculum.

A-LEVEL BIOLOGY

Exam board: OCR, www.ocr.org.uk
Prerequisites: Biology studied as part of the curriculum in the previous two years
Course Description:
The course has been designed to enable centres to deliver the content modules (Modules 2–6) using the framework provided. Practical work
undertaken to support teaching of the content will serve to cover the requirements of
the practical skills module (Module 1), which is assessed in the written examinations and through the Practical Endorsement.
The specification is divided into topics, each containing different key concepts of biology. Throughout the specification, cross-references
indicate the relevance of individual learning outcomes to the mathematical and practical criteria that are embedded in the assessments.
Course Content:
Module a: Development of practical skills in biology Assessment: Internal assessment for full A-Level
A Practical Workbook is to be submitted for the A-Level
Module: Communication, homeostasis and
energy
                                                        Module: Genetics, evolution and ecosystems
5.1.1 Communication and homeostasis
                                                        6.1.1 Cellular control
5.1.2 Excretion as an example of homeostatic
                                                        6.1.2 Patterns of inheritance
control
                                                        6.1.3 Manipulating genomes
5.1.3 Neuronal communication
                                                        6.2.1 Cloning and biotechnology
5.1.4 Hormonal communication
                                                        6.3.1 Ecosystems
5.1.5 Plant and animal responses
                                                        6.3.2 Populations and sustainability
5.2.1 Photosynthesis
5.2.2 Respiration
Assessment: 3 examinations
Biological processes (01) 100 marks (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Biological diversity (02) 100 marks (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Unified biology (03) 70 marks (1 hours 30 minutes, written paper)
Teacher to speak to: Dr Amy Webber, Friderdike Sherwood, Anthony Rose

A-LEVEL CHEMISTRY

Exam board: OCR, www.ocr.org.uk
Prerequisites: Ideally chemistry studied as part of the curriculum in the previous two years
Other learners without formal qualifications may have acquired sufficient knowledge of chemistry to enable progression onto the course.
Course Description:
Six theory modules contributing 100% in three written papers Practical endorsement in Chemistry assessed separately (pass or fail)
Course Content:

Unit 1: Development of practical skills in chemistry Assessment: in 3 written papers and practical endorsement

Unit 2: Foundations in chemistry Assessment: in 3 written papers

Unit 3: Periodic table and energy Assessment: in 2 written papers

Unit 4: Core organic chemistry Assessment: in 2 written papers

Unit 5: Physical chemistry and transition elements Assessment: in 2 written papers

Unit 6: Organic chemistry and analysis Assessment: in 2 written papers
Assessment of A-Level Chemistry – 3 examinations at the end of the second year, plus a practical endorsement for physics:
Paper 1 – Periodic table, elements and physical chemistry, 37%      (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Paper 2 – Synthesis and Analytical Techniques, 37% (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Paper 3 – Unified Chemistry, 26% (1 hour 30 minutes, written paper)
Practical endorsement (pass / fail) Non-examination assessment, reported separately
Teacher to speak to: Dr Amy Webber, Michael Busby, Nicholas Moulder

                                                                                                                                     5
A-LEVEL PHYSICS, TWO-YEAR COURSE

Exam board: OCR, www.ocr.org.uk
Prerequisites: Entry to the A-Level Physics course requires basic skills in mathematics. A grade C or above at IGCSE Mathematics or equivalent
is sufficient to be able to access the A-Level Physics course.
Course Description:
Physics at A-Level is all about observing the world around us, and looking at how we can measure and explain the things that we observe.
Physics ranges from the smallest quark to the largest galaxy, and attempts to find unifying ideas that can explain the universe. A-Level Physics
is a highly respected qualification. It can be taken with any subject combination, and makes an excellent choice alongside Mathematics and
Chemistry. Physics is essential for those students wishing to study for degrees in Engineering or Architecture, and is often required for
Computer Science courses.
Module 1 – Development of practical skills in physics
Physics is a practical subject. The development and acquisition of practical skills is fundamental. The Physics A-Level course provides students
with the opportunity to develop experimental methods and techniques for
analyzing empirical data. Skills in planning, implementing, analyzing and evaluating will be assessed in the written papers.

Module 2 – Foundations of physics
The aim of this module is to introduce important conventions and ideas that permeate the fabric of Physics. Understanding of physical
quantities, S.I. units, scalars and vectors helps physicists to communicate their ideas effectively within the scientific community.

Module 3 – Forces and motion
Students will learn how to model the motion of objects using mathematics, understand the effect forces have on objects, learn about the
important connection between force and energy, appreciate how forces cause deformation and understand the importance of Newton’s laws
of motion.

Module 4 – Electrons, waves and photons
The aim of this module is ultimately to introduce key ideas of quantum physics. Students will learn about electrons, electrical currents, wave
properties and electromagnetic waves. With the opportunity to appreciate how scientific ideas of quantum physics developed over time and
how their validity rested on the foundations of experimental work, students will gain their first insights into quantum physics itself.

Module 5 – Newtonian world and astrophysics
Students learn about thermal physics, circular motion, oscillations, gravitational fields, astrophysics and cosmology.

Module 6 – Particles and medical physics
In this module, students will learn about capacitors, electric fields, electromagnetism, nuclear physics, particle physics and medical imaging.

Assessment of A-Level Physics – 3 examinations at the end of the second year, plus a practical endorsement for physics:
Paper 1 – Modelling Physics           37%      (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Multiple choice and structured questions, covering modules 1, 2, 3 and 5
Paper 2 – Exploring Physics           37%      (2 hours 15 minutes, written paper)
Multiple choice and structured questions, covering modules 1, 2, 4 and 6
Paper 3 – Unified Physics       26%       (1 hour 30 minutes, written paper)
Structured questions and extended response questions, covering all modules
Practical endorsement (pass / fail) Non-examination assessment, reported separately Students complete a minimum of 12 practical activities
to demonstrate practical competence.
Teacher to speak to: Dr. Amy Webber, Nicholas Moulder

A-LEVEL MATHEMATICS

Exam board: Edexcel, www.edexcel.com
Prerequisites: Entry to the A-Level Mathematics course requires a good understanding of the IGCSE syllabus or equivalent as a prerequisite.
An induction test at the start of term will be used to assess students’ suitability to follow the course.
Course Description:
A-Level Mathematics is a well-respected qualification that UK universities view highly. It makes an excellent choice alongside science subjects
or disciplines such as Economics.
The course encourages logical thinking and a systematic approach to solving problems.
Course Content and Assessment
Paper 1: Pure Mathematics 1
Paper 2: Pure Mathematics 2
Each paper is a 2-hour written examination and each is worth 33.3% of the qualification
Content Topics: Proof, Algebra and functions, Coordinate geometry in the (x,y) plane, Sequences and series, Trigonometry, Exponentials and
logarithms, Differentiation, Integration, Numerical methods, Vector

6
Paper 3: Statistics and Mechanics
2-hour written examination worth 33.3% of the qualification
Section A Content: Statistical sampling, Data preparation and interpretation, Probability, Statistical distributions, Statistical hypothesis testing
Section B Content: Quantities and units in mathematics, Kinematics, Forces and Newton’s laws, Moments
Teachers to speak to: Barbara Garde, Grahame Hale, John Shepherd, Richard Pugsley

A-LEVEL FURTHER MATHEMATICS

Exam board: Edexcel, www.edexcel.com
Prerequisites: Entry to the A-Level Further Mathematics course requires students to have an excellent grasp Mathematics and a high score in
the induction test. Potential students should be fascinated by the subject.
Course Description:
A-Level Further Mathematics is a challenging course that requires students to develop logical thinking skills and work systematically. In total
six modules must be taken, three in the first year and three in the second year.

Further Mathematics accompanies other subjects well, particularly Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Economics and Business Studies.
Course Content and Assessment
Paper 1: Core Pure Mathematics 1
Paper 2: Core pure mathematics 2
Each paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes written examination and each paper is worth 25% of the qualification.
Content overview: Proof, Complex numbers, Matrices, Further algebra and functions, Further calculus, Further vectors, Polar coordinates,
Hyperbolic functions, Differential equations.
Paper 3: Further Mathematics Option 1
Written examination, 1 hour and 30 minutes, the paper is worth 25% of the qualification
Content overview: Further Pure Mathematics 1, Further Statistics 1, Decision Mathematics 1
Paper 4: Further Mathematics Option 2. Students take one of the four options above.
Written examination, 1 hour and 30 minutes, the paper is worth 25% of the qualification
Content overview: Further Pure Mathematics 2, Further Statistics 1, Further Mechanics 1, Decision Mathematics 1, Further Statistics 2, Further
Mechanics 2, Decision Mathematics 2. Students take one of the seven options above.
Teachers to speak to: Barbara Garde, Grahame Hale, John Shepherd, Richard Pugesly

A-LEVEL BUSINESS STUDIES

Exam board: AQA, www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/history
Prerequisites: Entry to the A-Level Business Studies course requires students to have an interest in the business world. Students should have
basic skills in Mathematics. A grade C or above at IGCSE Mathematics equivalent is sufficient to be able to access the Business Studies A-Level
course.
Course Description:
The courses encourages students to: develop an enthusiasm for studying business, gain holistic understanding of business in a range of
contexts, develop a critical understanding of organisations and their ability to meet society’s needs and wants, generate enterprising and
creative approaches to business opportunities, problems and issues, be aware of the ethical dilemmas and responsibilities faced by
organisations and individuals, acquire a range of relevant business and generic skills, including decision making, problem solving and apply
numerical skills in a range of business contexts.
A-Level Business Studies – two-year course
Subject Content:
1 What is business?
2 Managers, leadership and decision making
3 Decision making to improve marketing performance
4 Decision making to improve operational performance
5 Decision making to improve financial performance
6 Decision making to improve human resource performance
7 Analysing the strategic position of a business
8 Choosing strategic direction
9 Strategic methods: how to pursue strategies
10 Managing Strategic Change
All of the above is assessed
Paper 1 - Assessment
Written exam: 2 hours (100 marks in total), 33.3% of A-level
Questions
Three compulsory sections:

                                                                                                                                          7
Section A has 15 multiple choice questions worth 15 marks.
Section B has short answer questions worth 35 marks.
Sections C and D have two essay questions (choice of one from two) worth 25 marks each

Paper 2 - What’s assessed All content above
A written exam: 2 hours (100 marks in total), 33.3% of A-level
Questions
Three data response compulsory questions worth approximately 33 marks each and made up of three or four part questions
Paper 3 - What’s assessed All content above
A Written exam: 2 hours (100 marks in total), 33.3% of A-level
One compulsory case study followed by approximately six questions
Teachers to speak to: Cy Webber, Samuel Tibbenham

A-LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY

Exam board: AQA, www.aqa.org.uk
Prerequisites:
In order to be able to develop their skills, knowledge and understanding in psychology, students need to have been taught, and to have
acquired competence in, the appropriate areas of mathematics. Overall, at least 10% of the marks in assessments for psychology will require
the use of mathematical skills. These skills will be applied in the context of AS Psychology and will be at least the standard of higher-tier GCSE
mathematics.
Course Description: A-Level Psychology
This qualification is linear - students will sit all the exams at the end of their two-year course.
Course Content:
Social influence
Memory
Attachment
Psychopathology
Approaches in psychology 6 Biopsychology
Research methods
Issues and debates in psychology

Options
Option 1:
Relationships
Gender
Cognition and development

Option 2:
Schizophrenia
Eating behaviour
Stress

Option 3:
Aggression
Forensic psychology
Addiction

Paper 1: Introductory topics
Compulsory content 1 – 4

Paper 2: Psychology in context
Compulsory content 5 – 7

Paper 3: Issues and options in psychology
Compulsory content 8

Optional content, one from the following:
i) option 1, 9 – 11
ii) option 2, 12 – 14
iii) option 3, 15 – 17
Teachers to speak to: Claudia Cipolla

8
A-LEVEL ECONOMICS

Exam board: Edexcel, www.edexcel.com
Prerequisites:
Entry to the A-Level Economics course requires students to have interest in the global economy as well as markets. Students should have a
good grasp of IGCSE or equivalent Mathematics.
Course Description:
The course aims to allow students to develop an understanding of key economic concepts and theories through critical consideration of
current economic issues, problems and institutions that impact on everyday life. It develops analytical and evaluative skills and incorporates
the study of economic choices and markets as well as studying national and international issues
Course Content:
Paper 1: Markets and Business Behaviour
The nature of Economics
How Markets work
Market failure and government intervention
Business behavior and growth
Revenues, costs and profit

Assessment
Written paper: 2 hours (60 marks) Weighting: 35% of the total qualification

Paper 2: The National and Global Economy
Aggregate supply and aggregate demand and their interaction
Government economic policy objectives and indicators of national economic performance
Application of macroeconomic policy instruments; and the international economy
Taxation, Poverty and Inequality
Role of the state in the macro economy

Assessment
Written paper: 2 hours
Weighting: 35% of the total qualification

Paper 3: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
Students are required to apply their knowledge and understanding of all content, make connections to transfer high-order skills across all
four themes of Markets and Market Failure, The UK economy, Business Behaviour and Global Perspectives
Assessment
Written paper: 2 hours
Weighting: 30% of the total qualification

Unit F585: The Global Economy
Macroeconomic performance
Trade and integration
Development and sustainability
The economics of globalisation Assessment
Written paper: 2 hours (60 marks)
Weighting: 25% of total A-Level marks
Teachers to speak to: Michael Liggins, Andrew Seehusen

                                                                                                                                      9
Suggested Combinations Of Subjects
The actual choice of subjects is your decision but we will look at the combination based on your assessments at the
start of your first term at EF Academy. Although there will be some flexibility for the first 2-3 weeks, it is not advisable
to then change subjects as you will have missed the opportunity to be taught the key elements that form the
foundations of your A-Level course.

If you are studying sciences it is usual to have mathematics as a natural complement to the sciences, but it is also
acceptable to have a social science alongside a more traditional science-based curriculum. This would develop a
different set of skills that would make you a more rounded student. The same can be said
for following a social science route where the inclusion of a science or mathematics course adds a different
perspective. Choosing a combination that offers breadth as well as depth will put you in the strongest possible
position for university applications in the future.

Your final subject choices will be made as part of a discussion with the A-Level Coordinator and teaching staff. At EF
Academy we try to ensure that each student follows an appropriate program, which allows them to be successful,
reach their academic goals and fulfill future career aspirations.

If you are unsure about what course you wish to follow after A-Levels it is best to choose subjects that you enjoy and
are likely to make good progress in. We will help you come to the final decision.

Some suggested combinations are given below, but these are not the only combinations that you can choose.

SUBJECT 1                                    SUBJECT 2                                     SUBJECT 3

Mathematics                                  Chemistry                                     Physics/ Biology
Biology                                      Chemistry                                     Psychology
Economics                                    Business Studies                              Mathematics
Economics                                    Mathematics                                   Physics
Business Studies                             Physics                                       Mathematics
Further Mathematics                          Mathematics                                   Physics/ Chemistry

Study Materials
Once you have chosen your courses, the relevant textbooks will be ordered for you. You will also be given past
examination papers in class, when your teachers think it appropriate. Where necessary, calculators will also be
provided. You can buy stationery in the city centre.

You will need to buy your own stationery. A list of item is given below:
> A4 folders – one per subject
> A4 dividers to keep different sections of work separate
> Pens, pencils, rules and highlighters
> Lined, hole-punched paper
> Coloured pens/pencils
> Simple bilingual translation dictionary

Other suggested items:
> Stapler
> Hole puncher
> Scissors
> Glue
> USB memory stick

10
What You Can Do To Help Yourself To Achieve Higher Grades
>   TURN UP - Turn up to all lessons and on time.
>   BRING EQUIPMENT - Bring relevant notes to each lesson.
>   SLEEP - Sleep well enough to be able to concentrate in lessons – 9 hours a night is recommended.
>   THINK - Be willing to self and peer assess - so you are learning how to assess yourself, not just the teacher.
>   TACKLE BARRIERS - Eliminate the barriers to learning at school and at home – constantly checking your phone,
    watching TV, chatting to friends face-to-face or via social media, playing computer games, surfing the net without
    any sense of purpose, listening to music while working (known as ‘dual tasks’ – not often helpful). Don’t have your
    phone by your bed if it keeps you awake at night.
>   BE SELF-DRIVEN - Complete all the homework well and on time. You need to study for at least 4-6 hours per
    subject per week. Do not wait to be told to do things like write papers, read your textbook, read an article – do it
    without being asked.
>   BE RESILIENT - When learning gets tough, don’t give up: use a range of resources to overcome the challenge.
>   ACCEPT HELP - Seek support and always ask questions in class.
>   BE HEALTHY - Exercise, eat and drink healthy – play sports, run, join the gym, drink lots of water.
>   READ - read read read read

Pathways to Success
All academic programmes at EF Academy Oxford are built around the “Pathways to Success”. A Pathway is your
individual route to gaining an excellent diploma, a range of skills and admission to great universities.

Pathways incorporate academic and extra-curricular activities which will help you to develop your knowledge and
prepare for future careers. As part of the admissions process, the Course Co-ordinator and Director of University
Guidance have looked at your interests, abilities and subject choices and have made a recommendation as to which
Pathway is most appropriate for you. As you progress in your studies, your Tutor and other members of staff will work
with you to ensure that your Pathway is providing the best support for you to succeed.

                                >   The right academic subjects for your future.
                                >   Extra in-school support for your learning.
WHAT IS A PATHWAY?
                                >   Many different co-curricular activities.
                                >   Opportunities for internships and skills outside school.
                                >   EF Academy Oxford has an excellent record of placing students at top universities in the
                                    UK, USA, Europe and elsewhere.
                                >   Competitive undergraduate degree courses in the UK have a sharp focus on a particular
                                    subject (the major). In order to access these courses, you need a challenging academic
WHY ARE THERE
PATHWAYS?                           programme and the right subject choices, plus chances to develop skills and knowledge
                                    beyond the classroom.
                                >   Pathways allow students to focus on their areas of interest and access the maximum
                                    number of opportunities so they can develop the knowledge and skills which will impress
                                    university admissions tutors.
                                >   All students choose a Pathway.
                                >   Pathways are based around academic disciplines. For example: both an A-Level student
ARE PATHWAYS FOR IB                 and IB Diploma Student could be on the Engineering Pathway. Both students will study
DIPLOMA OR A-LEVEL?                 Maths and Physics (HL for IB Diploma) and take part in many of the same co-curricular
                                    opportunities; but their other subject choices and activities will reflect their individual
                                    plans.
                                >   Pathways are designed to give you the best options.
CAN I CHANGE                    >   If your interests or plans change, we can adjust Pathways to fit.
PATHWAYS?                       >   Co-curricular opportunities are open to everybody who could benefit from them, no
                                    matter what Pathway.
WHAT IF I DON’T KNOW            >   Don’t worry! This is very normal.
WHAT I WANT TO DO?              >   The course coordinators and university guidance counsellors will discuss different subjects

                                                                                                                       11
and pathways with you to make sure you have the best options.
                                >    Remember, that for most careers, it is more important that you have a good education and
                                     strong thinking skills, and all the Pathways will help you develop these.

The table below shows the available Pathways, some recommended subject combinations, examples of activities
inside and outside school which have taken place in the Pathways; and in the final column, examples of actual
university offers received by EF Academy Oxford.

                                                                                                                   EXAMPLES OF
                    TYPICAL                                                                                        ACTUAL
                                             EXAMPLES OF IN-                                ELEMENTS OF
                    SUBJECT                                          EXAMPLES OF                                   UNIVERSITY
                                             SCHOOL                                         UNIVERSITY &
PATHWAY             COMBINATIONS                                     OTHER PATHWAY                                 OFFERS GIVEN
                                             ACTIVITIES AND                                 CAREERS
                    FOR PATHWAY                                      ACTIVITIES                                    TO EF ACADEMY
                                             SUPPORT                                        SUPPORT
                    (A-LEVEL / IB HL)                                                                              OXFORD
                                                                                                                   STUDENTS
                    Science: At least 2
                    sciences +
                    Mathematics or a
                                                                     Talks @ Oxford
                    3rd science                                                                                    A*A*A*/41 Points:
                                                                     Mathematical
                    Engineering:                                                                                   Engineering @
                                             Field trips, e.g. to    Institute
                    Mathematics,                                                            Engineers, Energy      Cambridge
                                             Harwell Nuclear         Opportunities for
                    Physics + one other                                                     Industry &             University
                                             Research Facility       internships @
SCIENCE,            science / Further                                                       Environmental          AAB/35 Points:
                                             Organic Chemistry       Oxford University
TECHNOLOGY &        Maths                                                                   consultants @          Computer Science @
ENGINEERING                                  experiments at          science
                    Computer Science:                                                       school careers fair    King’s College
                                             Oxford University       departments
                    Mathematics;                                                            Opportunities for UK   London
                                             Engineering Society,    Summer projects
                    Physics                                                                 industry internships   ABC/30 Points:
                                             Maths Club              e.g. building robot
                    recommended                                                                                    Astrophysics @
                                                                     arm, network
                    Further                                                                                        Kent University
                                                                     infrastructure
                    Mathematics
                    recommended for
                    very able students
                                                                     Bioscience &                                  A*AA/38 Points:
                    Medicine: Chemistry
                                                                     Medicine Talks @                              Medicine @ Imperial
                    + Biology                BMAT test
                                                                     Oxford University,                            College London
                    Pharmacy:                preparation classes                            BMAT Essay
                                                                     e.g. on the                                   ABC/36 Points:
                    Chemistry. Biology is    with very                                      Preparation
BIO-MEDICAL                                                          pharmaceutical                                Cancer Immunology
SCIENCES            optional but             experienced doctors                            Medicine, Veterinary
                                                                     industry                                      @
                    recommended              Field trips, visiting                          Science & Pharmacy
                                                                     Health & Care                                 Bristol University
                    Biomedical               speakers e.g.                                  interview practice
                                                                     experience, e.g.                              BBC/30 Points:
                    Engineering: Maths,      neuroscience
                                                                     KEEN Charity, John                            Biomedical Sciences
                    Physics, Biology
                                                                     Radcliffe Hospital                            @ Keele University
                    Business:                                                                                      AAA/38 Points:
                    Economics, Business                                                                            Management @
                    Accounting &             Departmental field                                                    Warwick University
                    Finance:                 trips, e.g. to MINI,    Talks @ Said                                  ABB/34 Points:
                                                                                            EF Academy
                    Mathematics;             Coca-Cola               Business School                               Business
BUSINESS,                                                                                   International
                    Economics                Hult Global Business    Social Enterprise                             Management @
FINANCE &                                                                                   Internship Scheme
MANAGEMENT          recommended              Challenge               Masterclasses @ Hult                          Edinburgh
                                                                                            C.V./Résumé builder
                    Management:              Extended Essay          International                                 University
                                                                                            Interview Practice
                    Mathematics;             option and tutoring     Business School                               BCC/28 points:
                    Business and/or          for A- Level Students                                                 Global Management
                    Economics                                                                                      @ Coventry
                    recommended                                                                                    University
                    Economics:                                                                                     A*AA/38 Points: Law
                                             Houses of
                    Mathematics,                                     Global Leadership                             @ University College
                                             Parliament
INTERNATIONAL       Economics                                        Summit (@ Peru         Support classes to     London
                                             Oxford Magistrates
RELATIONS,          Law: Any                                         2017)                  prepare for TSA and    ABB/31 Points:
POLITICS, LAW,                               Court
                    combination of                                   Talks @ Oxford         LNAT tests             Economics & Politics
ECONOMICS                                    Model United
                    subjects                                         University, e.g. UN    Interview Practice     @ Newcastle
                                             Nations, Debate
                    International                                    Secretary General                             University
                                             Club
                    Relations/Politics: A-                                                                         BCC / 28 Points:

12
Level students                                                                                 Politics &
                should take at least                                                                           International
                1 essay-based                                                                                  Relations @
                subject. IB students:                                                                          Leicester University
                History and/or
                Philosophy
                Media/Communica-
                tion, Literature: At
                least 1 essay-based                                                                            A*AA/38 Points:
                subject                                        Theatre trips to                                Architecture @
                Architecture:                                  Oxford, London and                              University College
                Students are            Creative Writing       elsewhere                                       London
                                                                                       HAT, ELAT test and
                recommended to          Contest                Oxford Museums                                  ABB/34 Points:
ARTS, MEDIA &                                                                          essay preparation
                take at least 1 of      Visual Arts Club for   and Galleries:                                  History of Art @
CULTURAL                                                                               Interview & Portfolio
STUDIES         Mathematics and         portfolio              Ashmolean, Natural                              Courtauld Institute,
                                                                                       Presentation
                Physics                 development            History, Pitt Rivers;                           London
                                                                                       Practice
                For all creative arts   Art for Change         visits to London                                CCC/26 Points &
                degrees (e.g.: Fine                            galleries &                                     Portfolio: Fine Art @
                Art, Design,                                   museums, etc.                                   University of the
                Fashion), the                                                                                  Arts, London
                portfolio is most
                important
                                                                                                               UC Berkeley AAB
                                                                                                               UCLA AAB
                                                                                                               Chicago University
                See subject
                                                               Additional service      Preparation for         38-40 Points
                Pathways above;         In addition to
                                                               volunteering, e.g.      CommonApp and           University of
                top US/Canadian         following one of the
                                                               summer school           supplementary           Pennsylvania 38-40
                universities like to    above pathways, US
                                                               leadership              essays                  Points
                see students taking     applicants
SUPPLEMENTARY                                                                          ACT/SAT test            New York University
                the most                undertake:
PATHWAY:                                                       Support for             preparation             AAA
                challenging courses     Assembly
STUDENTS                                                       creativity and          (ACT test can be        Haverford College
APPLYING TO     available to them       presentations
                                                               entrepreneurship;       taken in-school)        36 Points
NORTH AMERICA   Some US
                                                               e.g. video editing                              University of
                universities will       Opportunities for
                                                               charity                 Practice for            Toronto A*AA-
                require SAT subject     peer support/
                                                                                       interviews with         ABB/36-40 Points
                tests: additional       mentoring in
                                                                                       alumni (standard for    McGill University
                help available from     classes
                                                                                       Ivy league schools)     AAB/37 Points
                subject teachers
                                                                                                               University of British
                                                                                                               Columbia ABC/35
                                                                                                               Points
                Additional
                                                                                       Additional
                preparation for         Extension
                                                                                       discussion
                universities which      masterclasses and      Internship
                                                                                       workshops to build
SUPPLEMENTARY   have additional         reading in subjects    opportunities to                                Cambridge, Oxford,
PATHWAY:                                                                               student confidence
                entrance                                       help university                                 Imperial and other
STUDENTS                                                                               in communicating
APPLYING TO     examinations and        Extra support for      research students                               top universities; see
                                                                                       ideas
ELITE           interviews.             school work            Preparation for                                 example offers in
                                                                                       Interview practice
UNIVERSITIES    Additional project      submitted in           Cambridge/ Oxford                               table above
                                                                                       with subject
                qualifications          support of             entrance tests
                                                                                       teachers and UG
                available for strong    application.
                                                                                       team
                students

                                                                                                                        13
EF Academy Oxford Language Policy
General Language Philosophy
The EF Academy community comprises students from a huge variety of national and cultural backgrounds who come
together to study and learn in order to facilitate cross- cultural understanding and develop a global network.

As languages are an integral part of such diversity, we recognise the value for all members of our school community
in being able to develop skills in additional languages, while maintaining their cultural identity and promoting their
mother tongue. Acquisition of more than one language opens access to different cultures and perspectives and helps
develop international- mindedness.

English is the language of instruction and access to learning is therefore dependent on a student’s ability to
comprehend and communicate effectively in this language. English should be the language of the classroom.
Consequently, a primary goal of our programs is to bring all students to A-Level of competence in the key areas of
reading, writing and listening. Students are also encouraged to develop skills in speaking, viewing and presenting to
enable them to access the curriculum fully and effectively and integrate socially within our community.

All teachers are considered language teachers and are therefore responsible for supporting students in reaching this
goal.

The Language Curriculum
At EF Academy Oxford, language refers to:
English:            The language of instruction
ESL:                English as a second language
Mother tongue:           The language(s) most frequently spoken in the home

Although the language of instruction is English, for the majority of students, English is not their mother tongue and
some speak one or more languages at home.

We aim to ensure students maintain their mother tongue and become additive bilinguals.

In the IB Diploma program, students may take English as either a Group 1 (A: Literature) or Group 2 (Language
Acquisition), depending upon their preference, level of proficiency and literacy in English and overall program. The
school sets high expectations of all its learners to set aspirational goals for language development.

The provision of SSST on the IBDP celebrates the diversity of language within our community. The curriculum offer in
Group 1 is regularly reviewed and aims to fit the profile of our intake and currently offers Language A: Literature in
German, Russian, Spanish and English. Students following an A-Level program are encouraged to complete
qualifications in their mother tongue.

The opportunity for students to develop English through ESL lessons for A-Level students or English B lessons
encourages learners to develop their language profile. The IBDP curriculum offer of ab initio and an alternative
Language B is also pivotal in our aim to promote language learning.

Language Identification And Placement In IB Diploma Program Or
A-Level Program
With this complex language situation within the school population, language learning is an important part of the
curriculum. It is therefore, important to identify the language profile of each student.

During the admission process, the language profile of students applying to join the Diploma program is identified to
inform the curriculum offer and ensure that students have the necessary linguistic level to successfully access the
curriculum.
All students are tested pre-arrival and then again as part of the induction program to ensure correct placement in
Group 1 and 2 and ESL classes.

14
It is recognised that students who join the school with less proficient English skills will need time to develop their
language skills in order to access the A-Level and IB curriculum. The preparation course focuses on developing
language skills to allow progression on to these courses.

Language On Campus
Students experience an enriched language immersion education in which English is the primary language of
instruction and one of the many languages of social interaction.

As English is the language of instruction students are encouraged to communicate in English in lessons. A seating
policy is used to encourage students to develop their academic English. However at times it may be appropriate for
students to exchange ideas and explore concepts in their mother tongue, even though the end product will be
presented in English. The preparation phase (researching, discussing, reflecting, etc.) can be carried out in the
students’ mother tongue in order to facilitate understanding. This is also useful in peer supported learning. Students
should be aware that speaking their mother tongue might exclude others. Teachers and other members of the school
community will encourage students to reflect on and adapt their use of mother tongue and English in accordance
with the tasks set

In order foster social integration in all aspects of the school community, Year 1 students share dormitories with
different language speakers.

Extracurricular opportunities for language development are also provided through the Activities Program. This
includes opportunities for public speaking, debating and taking part in the Oxford Literary Festival.

Teaching, Learning And Assessment
In accordance with the IB Standards & Practices, the following language assessment practices have been
implemented.

Prior knowledge
> All teachers should explore students’ prior knowledge, skills and understanding in an appropriate way before
   embarking on new learning experiences. Teachers are expected to highlight key words used within a lesson and
   encourage the use of translational dictionaries in class.

Formative Language Assessment
> A balanced range of strategies will be employed during the teaching and learning process to inform teachers and
   students about how language learning is developing.
> Students will be provided with regular and prompt feedback to inform and improve their language learning.
> Formative assessment and teaching are directly linked and provide feedback that is responsive to student needs
   and informs teaching practice.

Summative Language Assessment
> Summative assessment happens at the end of a teaching and learning experience and is planned for in advance
  and may take a variety of forms including presentations, discussion, projects and examinations.

Overview Of EF Academy Oxford Languages
For all A-Level courses English is the language of instruction.

In addition, all A-Level students are taught English as part of the curriculum and prepared for the IELTS examination,
which is prerequisite for many University courses in the UK.

Some students may be entitled up to 25% extra time in their examinations. This is dependent on their previous
schooling experience. Some A-Level students are also all entitled to use a simple bilingual paper translational
dictionary in their examinations.

                                                                                                                         15
Essential Agreements For The Teaching Of Language
All students:
> are encouraged to maintain, develop and value their own native language/mother tongue and to value and
    respect the native language of other students.
> are given access to language support/ESL provision as appropriate.
> receive a balanced program of instruction including opportunities for reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing
    and presenting.

Expectations About Language Use Around School
English is the working language of the school and students are encouraged to use it as often as possible. It is the
language of delivery in all classes except when language courses are being taught. Students are encouraged to take
responsibility for their own language acquisition and improvement and to respect the fact that in the majority of
classrooms English will be the only language understood by all present.

Extracurricular Activities
Opportunities for exposure and language development outside the classroom will include competitions, debates,
public speaking, art projects and the Oxford Literary Festival.

Academic Honesty Policy
Rationale
Academic honesty is of the utmost importance at EF Academy Oxford. All students are expected to work with
integrity, and in a principled manner when conducting academic research and producing formally and informally
assessed work. We wish to instill in our students an appreciation of the academic work of others, and that it is the
property of the author. Therefore it is essential for staff and students to acknowledge when the work of others has
been used.

EF Academy Oxford has the IB Learner Profile at the core of all it does, so therefore the Academic Policy will support
this ethos. Our students should be mindful of their responsibilities in avoiding plagiarism, collusion and duplication
within their work, and staff should lead from example in work they share within a professional capacity.

As a school we wish to promote the principle of academic honesty as outlined by the IB and JCQ. It is our aim to
develop learners who positively and naturally view academic honesty as a practice which remains with them
throughout their program of study and on into their lives beyond education.

Purpose
This Academic Honesty Policy is testament to our bid to create a learning environment where students and staff
respect the work of others. We expect students to produce original work that acknowledges the influence and words
of others.

This policy clearly outlines the school’s expectations for honesty in scholarly practice, the students’ responsibilities
and the role of the teachers in promoting this. The consequences of knowledgeable misconduct are also explained.

Expectations
EF Academy Oxford expects the following:
> All students understand the basic meaning and significance of academic honesty.
> All work produced by students is their own, authentic work.
> All work fully acknowledges the ideas and words of others.
> All students are aware of and follow the rules relating to the conduct of examinations.
> All students are aware of the different forms of malpractice and that all are unacceptable.
> That this policy refers to all work completed, whether it is an internal assessment, external assessment or an
     informally assessed assignment.

16
What Is Academic Honesty?
Academic honesty refers to the respect and acknowledgement given to original authorship and therefore ownership
of all forms of work. This includes, but is not limited to:
Works of literature
> Academic essays and journals
> Websites
> Scientific research and reports
>   Computer programs
>   Music
>   Visual artifacts (including diagrams and other illustrations of information)
>   Theatre arts
>   Photography

To be academically honest means that students should use referencing to recognise when they have been influenced
by and used something created by another.

What Is Academic Dishonesty And Malpractice?
Academic misconduct is a behaviour that results in, or may result in, the student or any other student gaining an
unfair advantage in one or more assessment components. These include the following and the definitions are as
stipulated by the IBO in their academic honesty documentation:
> Plagiarism - is defined as the representation, intentionally or unwittingly, of the ideas, words or work of another
  person without proper, clear and explicit acknowledgment. The use of translated materials, unless indicated and
  acknowledged, is also considered plagiarism.
> Collusion - is defined as supporting academic misconduct by another student, for example allowing one’s work to
  be copied or submitted for assessment by another.
> Misconduct in examinations - taking unauthorized material into an examination (whether the student uses it or
  not), behaviour that disrupts the examination or may distract other students and communicating with another
  student during the examination.
> Duplication of work - is defined as the presentation of the same work for different assessment components
  and/or Diploma Program requirements.
> Falsifying Data - creating or altering data that has not been collected in an appropriate way.

Procedure For Investigating Suspected Cases Of Academic Dishonesty
> If a teacher, or another member of staff, suspects that a student is in breach of the policy they should inform the
  Head of Department, who will, in turn, inform the Deputy Head of Academics.
> The matter will be investigated by the either the Head of Department or, in the case of external assessment, the
  Course Coordinator.
> The student will be advised of the concerns of the teacher, giving the student the chance to reply to the
  accusations.
> If it can be shown that inappropriate work has been submitted, the Head of Department or Course Coordinator
  will apply a penalty or sanction in line with the Academic Policy of the school the IBO and JCQ awarding bodies.

Consequences Of Academic Dishonesty
When, in the view of the Head of Department or Course Coordinator, there is sufficient evidence to implicate a
candidate, the candidate accused of malpractice will:
> be informed (preferably in writing) of the allegation made against them and what evidence there is to support
  that allegation
> have the opportunity to consider their response to the allegations (if required) and submit a written statement
> be informed of the possibility that information relating to a serious case of malpractice may be shared with other
  awarding bodies IBO and JCQ.
> be advised that a copy of the JCQ publication Suspected Malpractice in Examinations and Assessments: Policies
  and Procedures or IB equivalent can be found on the JCQ/IBO websites.

                                                                                                                        17
Sanctions And Penalties
The sanctions imposed will depend upon the severity of the malpractice.
The following sanctions can be imposed by the school, IBO or JCQ:
> Warning
> Loss of marks for a section
> Loss of marks for a component
> Loss of all marks for a unit
>    Disqualification from a unit
>    Disqualification from all units in one or more qualifications
>    Disqualification from a whole qualification
>    Disqualification from all qualifications taken in that series
>    Candidate debarred from entering any exams for a set period of time

Malpractice is considered a serious behaviour incident and will be treated as such. The procedures below will be
followed:
Any student who has found to be academically dishonest will have a record of this put into his or her student file and
this will be communicated to the student’s parents.
> If the work has been submitted as an official piece of coursework, it will not be accepted.
> If there is time, the student will be allowed to resubmit another piece of work in its place.
> If there is not time for the student to produce new work, he or she will normally not receive a grade for that course
    and, if an IB student, will therefore not receive an IB Diploma.

Students should recognise that they are ultimately responsible for their own work and that the consequences of any
breaches of the standard of academic honesty will be theirs alone. They should speak to teachers regularly about
their work and show drafts of it at various stages in the production process. They should ask teachers for advice if they
are at any time unsure of what they have done in relation to referencing sources.

Turnitin.Com
EF Academy currently uses turnitin.com as a useful tool for checking academy honesty. All Extended Essays and TOK
essays from September 2015 will be submitted this way. In addition, staff are encouraged to use this online tool for
other pieces of work, including internal assessments, particularly when they have a doubt about the integrity of an
individual assignment.

Good Practice Recommendations For Students
> Ensure that all sources you have consulted are acknowledged in your work using the referencing style agreed with
  your teacher.
> Make sure that information you have used is acknowledged in the body of the text and is fully listed in the
  bibliography.
> Use quotation marks or indentation to show all text that is someone else’s exact words and do not forget to show
  whose words they are.
> Cite your sources so that readers can find them; if you cannot state the origin of the source it is probably better not
  to use it.
> Make clear which words, ideas, images and works are not your own.
> Give credit for copied, adapted and paraphrased material.
> If you paraphrase an idea – that is if you restate it, but alter the exact wording – you must still cite that source.
> You must cite the source of images, maps, charts, tables, data sets, musical compositions, movies, computer
  source codes and song lyrics—any material that is not your own.
> Make clear where the borrowed material starts and finishes; this can be done by using quotation marks, using an
  “opening” indication and a closing page number.
> All sources cited in the text must also be listed in the bibliography (or reference list/list of works cited) and all
     sources listed in the bibliography (or reference list/list of works cited) must be cited in the text.

18
IB Sources:   Academy Honesty
> Academy Honesty in the IB
> Academic Honesty in the Diploma Program
> Conduct in the IB examinations

JCQ Sources:      http://www.jcq.org.uk/exams-office/malpractice

University Guidance at EF Academy Oxford
Introduction
This University Guidance section is intended to give you as much advice and support as possible to make the most
informed and ultimately successful decisions that you can.

This section is full of advice but be warned that advice is only useful if it is followed. You will find that there is
something you can do every month, starting from your very first month with us, to create the best university
application possible.

YEAR 1                                                                         YEAR 2

Select subjects
Get advice for possible future careers from University Guidance Counsellor
(UGC)
Visit EF University Fair
Visit universities                                                             Complete and send university applications
Complete research on university choices                                        Take aptitude tests if required
Meet regularly with UGC to start degree and university selection               Receive additional support to prepare for interviews if
Organise work experience / internships                                         required
Attend test preparation classes if required
Complete evidence for fundamental skills for university
Visit more universities
Start and complete draft of personal statement
Take part in as many Pathways activities as possible
Register for university application systems (UCAS and CommonApp)
90% of the work for your university applications will take place in Year 1. The more you do in Year 1, the more
successful you will be.

All of the above opportunities are organised for you but it is up to you to take advantage of them.

                                                                                                                               19
Subject Choices
There are some degrees which do require a specific subject whilst some do not. Here is a list of the most popular
courses students apply for and any obligatory A-Level subject requirements:

DEGREE COURSE                      A-LEVEL PREREQUISITE

Accounting                         Mathematics
Architecture                       Normally at least one of Physics / Mathematics and an art portfolio
Biology                            Biology
Chemistry                          Chemistry
Computer Science                   Mathematics
Dentistry                          Chemistry plus at least one other subject from Biology, Physics and Mathematics
Economics                          Mathematics; Economics recommended
Engineering                        Physics and Mathematics
Geography                          Geography
Law                                At least one humanities subject
Mathematics                        Mathematics and Further Mathematics
Medicine                           Chemistry plus at least one other subject from Biology, Physics and Mathematics
Physics                            Physics and Mathematics
Psychology                         BSc Psychology degrees often require Mathematics
International Relations/Politics   No specific requirements, but at least one essay-based A-Level recommended
Management/Business Studies        No specific requirements (a small number of courses do require Mathematics)

Mathematics and Further Mathematics A-Levels:
For A-Level students studying both mathematics and further mathematics, if you apply for a Mathematics or
Engineering degree, most universities will consider these two subjects as two separate A-Levels.
If you apply for a non-mathematics-based degree such as Accounting or Management, then you should check to see
if the universities you want to apply to will consider them as two different subjects. A student studying mathematics,
economics and physics may be seen as having a wider subject range than a student following mathematics, further
mathematics and economics. This could be a disadvantage when admissions officers look at applications.

A very good document to read with regard to subject choices is on the Russell Group website
(http://www.russellgroup.ac.uk/) entitled ‘Informed Choices’ which gives advice on this topic. The Russell Group is a
group of the best UK universities.

The Importance Of Year 1
Grades:
> Universities in the UK, USA, Canada, The Netherlands and Australia require schools to provide predicted final
   grades up to 11 months before you actually receive your final results.
> Teachers will get a good idea of your predicted grades from your Year 1 performance in assignments and
  examinations.
> For applications to the USA and Canada, Year 1 is even more important. A North American college will look very
  closely at your grades for Year 1 as an indicator of your academic ability and your commitment to your studies.

Pathways
Making the most of the opportunities provided in the Pathways to Success will help to make your university
application stand out. Every week, you will be notified of activities and support your Pathway(s) and participating in
these will give you a greater chance of success.

20
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel