Page created by Javier Doyle


August 04, 2020
Major Changes in the Way We Teach Post-Secondary Students
                                                                                 What is clear is major changes, in the way we teach post-secondary
                                                                                 students, are triggered by the sudden immersion of many into online
                                                                                 learning as a result of COVID-19 and the new technologies that increase
                                                                                 flexibility in, and access to, post-secondary education. Indeed, we can
                                                                                 already see institutions exploring the implications of these developments
                                                                                 for program and course delivery beyond the pandemic.
                                                                                 In looking at what is being learned and the implications for students,
                                                                                 faculty, staff, and institutions, we highlight:
                                                                                 • Several key developments in online learning and how they impact our
                                                                                   understanding of pedagogy;
                                                                                 • More than 100 examples of applications of these developments in
                                                                                   innovations in colleges and universities in Ontario, across Canada, and
                                                                                   internationally, selected from Contact North | Contact Nord’s Pockets
                                                                                   of Innovations Series on teachonline.ca; and
                                                                                 • Seven questions for you to consider about the implications of changes
                                                                                   in pedagogy and student learning.
                                                                                 This consideration of how technology is changing the way we teach and
                                                                                 learn, leading to the emergence of a new pedagogy, continues to be the
                                                                                 most popular feature on teachonline.ca since its posting in 2012, drawing
                                                                                 in an average of 100 new and returning readers every week. This revised
                                                                                 and updated 2020 version is intended to offer new angles and resources
                                                                                 to readers and inspire new approaches.

                                                                                 We also developed two other resources to support the exploration of the
                                                                                 emerging pedagogy, including: a webinar series featuring experts from
                                                                                 around the world and an “Ask An Expert” resource where readers pose
                                                                                 questions about teaching and learning and Contact North | Contact Nord
                                                                                 research associates provide responses.
                                                                                 As the literature documenting examples of success in online learning
                                                                                 during the pandemic emerges, new contributions will appear on
                                                                                 But before we explore the specifics, it is helpful to understand context. The
                                                                                 current and sudden exposure of so many to online teaching as a result of
                                                                                 the pandemic accelerated developments already occurring.

                                                                                 SEVEN KEY DEVELOPMENTS TRIGGERING THIS NEW PEDAGOGY
                                                                                 Changes in society, student expectations, and technology were already
                                                                                 motivating university and college faculty and instructors to rethink
                                                                                 pedagogy and teaching methods before the pandemic. Canada has
                                                                                 thousands of online courses and programs – there are 20,000 online
                                                                                 college and university courses for credit in Ontario alone. Their number
                                                                                 has been steadily growing since 1994, when the first fully online graduate
                                                                                 degree programs were launched in Canada. Now online programs and
                                                                                 courses are seen as strategic investments by colleges and universities
                                                                                 eager to increase access and flexible learning routes for their programs
                                                                                 and students. Of all colleges, universities, polytechnics and CEGEP’s in
Canada, by far the greatest majority offer courses and programs online
                                                                                 with others offering a mix of online and on-campus programs.

                                                                                 New Demands of a Knowledge-Based Society
                                                                                 There are a number of separate factors at work in the knowledge-based
                                                                                 society. The first is the continuing development of new knowledge, making
                                                                                 it difficult to compress all students need to know within the limited
                                                                                 time span of a post-secondary program or course. This means helping
                                                                                 students to manage knowledge - how to find, analyze, evaluate, and apply
                                                                                 knowledge as it constantly shifts and grows.
                                                                                 To put this is context, between 2003 and 2016 the number of academic
                                                                                 papers published world-wide doubled and have doubled again between
                                                                                 2016 and 2020. There are now over 1.8 million scientific papers
                                                                                 published annually in over 28,000 journals. India alone published over
                                                                                 136,000 science and engineering papers in 2018 and the rate of Indian
                                                                                 publications is growing at close to 11% per annum.
                                                                                 The second factor is the increased emphasis on applying knowledge to
                                                                                 meet the demands of 21st century society, using skills such as critical
                                                                                 thinking, independent learning, the use of relevant information technology,
                                                                                 software, and data within a discipline, and entrepreneurialism. The
                                                                                 development of such skills requires active learning in rich and complex
                                                                                 environments, with plenty of opportunities to develop, apply, assess and
                                                                                 practice such skills.
                                                                                 Thirdly, it means educating students with the skills to manage their own

                                                                                 learning throughout life, so they can continue to learn after graduation.
                                                                                 Life-long learning, especially given expectations about rapid developments
                                                                                 impacting the future of work, is now an imperative of governments around
                                                                                 the world committing to developing a skilled workforce. With the pandemic
                                                                                 likely to induce a global recession, demonstrable and certifiable skills will
                                                                                 become key to securing and retaining work.
                                                                                 As governments shift their funding models to outcome-based funding,
                                                                                 giving emphasis to the connection between learning and employment,
                                                                                 the “global competencies” needed for work and sustainable development
                                                                                 coupled with the skills related to specific employment opportunities are
                                                                                 being given new emphasis.

                                                                                 New Student Expectations
                                                                                 Student demographics have been changing for some considerable
                                                                                 time – more mature students, more students combining work and
                                                                                 study, more students looking for flexible learning options. While school
                                                                                 leavers are still an important segment of the college and university
                                                                                 student body, they no longer are the dominant drivers of the strategies
                                                                                 pursued by the institutions which look to broader markets, especially
                                                                                 international markets.
                                                                                 Even the most idealistic students expect to find good jobs after several
                                                                                 years of study, jobs where they can apply their learning and earn a
                                                                                 reasonable income. This is especially true as tuition and other educational
                                                                                 costs increase. Students expect to be actively engaged in and see the
relevance of their learning to the real world. Indeed, about 60% of all
                                                                                 undergraduate students in Canada are enrolled in one of four fields of
                                                                                 study: social and behavioural sciences and legal studies (but not law),
                                                                                 business, management and public administration; physical and life
                                                                                 sciences and technology; and the humanities. Almost all college students
                                                                                 are studying work-related programs.
                                                                                 Today’s students grew up in a world where technology is a natural part of
                                                                                 their environment. Their expectation is that technology is used whenever
                                                                                 appropriate to help them learn, develop essential informational and
                                                                                 technological literacy skills, and master the fluency necessary in their
                                                                                 specific subject domain. This is one reason blended learning has grown
                                                                                 in use across schools, colleges and universities and why some are now
                                                                                 exploring a “flipped classroom” approach to learning.
                                                                                 Blended and online learning are a feature of most strategic plans for
                                                                                 colleges, universities and polytechnics. The plans have been given a new
                                                                                 emphasis as the pandemic forced online learning everywhere.

                                                                                 New Technologies
                                                                                 Continuing advances in digital technologies, social media, and mobile
                                                                                 devices such as smartphones and tablets, give the end user, the student,
                                                                                 much more control over access to and the creation and sharing of
                                                                                 knowledge. This empowers students, and faculty and instructors are
                                                                                 finding ways to leverage this enhanced student control to increase their
                                                                                 motivation and engagement. More recently, developments in artificial
                                                                                 intelligence for teaching and learning, virtual and augmented reality and

                                                                                 simulations and serious games have further emphasized the importance
                                                                                 of technology enabled learning

                                                                                 Fast Changing World of Work
                                                                                 As the nature of work changes – more project-based work, flattened
                                                                                 organizational structures, new human:technology relationships, more
                                                                                 global networks and supply chains – then the need for skills development
                                                                                 and learning “on the job” become clear. Given the expectation that these
                                                                                 developments will each accelerate and impact between 30-40% of all jobs,
                                                                                 then constant learning becomes a driver for anytime, anywhere learning.
                                                                                 Now that the pandemic has disrupted the global economy – the IMF
                                                                                 predicts a 5% fall in global GDP with some industries disrupted for
                                                                                 many years to come (e.g. hospitality and tourism, travel, banking and
                                                                                 financial services, retail) and high unemployment for some time to come
                                                                                 – upskilling and reskilling will become a strong focus for government
                                                                                 investment in higher education. Already, micro-credentials are being seen
                                                                                 as a response to this challenge.
                                                                                 Work will change significantly over the coming decade. Recent
                                                                                 innovations and developments in flexible, competency based learning
                                                                                 and assessment will give new impetus to online learning and work-related
                                                                                 skill development.

                                                                                 OF THIS NEW PEDAGOGY
                                                                                 As faculty and instructors become more familiar with digital technologies
                                                                                 for teaching and learning, pedagogical responses and strategies are
                                                                                 emerging. The seven developments listed below impacted on how teaching
                                                                                 is structured and how and where learning happens.

                                                                                 1. Blended Learning
                                                                                    Until recently, there was a clear dichotomy between classroom-
                                                                                    based teaching, often supplemented by technologies, a learning
                                                                                    management system, and digital resources, and fully online teaching,
                                                                                    in which an entire course is provided online.
                                                                                    Now there is a much closer integration of classroom and online
                                                                                    teaching under the generic term of blended or hybrid learning, where
                                                                                    classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, with substantial time
                                                                                    being used for online learning.
                                                                                    In the ‘flipped’ classroom, the instructor may record a lecture and/or
                                                                                    provide access to videos, readings, open education resources, quizzes,
                                                                                    and other resources which students work through prior to coming to
                                                                                    class. Classroom time is spent on interaction among students and
                                                                                    with the instructor, whether through discussion, problem-solving, case
                                                                                    studies, practical exercises, or lab work. Materials are often designed
                                                                                    to be used after class for review and assignments.
                                                                                    Successful blended teaching and learning require a focus on what may

                                                                                    best be done on campus, such as face-to-face interaction between
                                                                                    students and instructors, and what may best be done online, such
                                                                                    as providing flexibility and wide access to resources and experts.
                                                                                    This requires a re-thinking of teaching and learning practice, as well
                                                                                    as classroom layouts, as more interaction takes place, involving
                                                                                    the students, instructors, and outside experts who participate in-
                                                                                    person or virtually. Teaching models for both classroom and online
                                                                                    delivery must be reconsidered and recalibrated in response to new
                                                                                    technological capacities.

                                                                                 2. Collaborative Approaches To The Construction Of Knowledge/
                                                                                    Building Communities Of Inquiry And Practice
                                                                                    From the early days of online learning, there was an emphasis on
                                                                                    enabling students to construct knowledge through questioning,
                                                                                    discussion, sharing of perspectives and sources, analysis of resources
                                                                                    from multiple sources, and instructor feedback. Social media
                                                                                    encouraged the development of communities of practice, where
                                                                                    students share experiences, discuss theories and challenges, and
                                                                                    learn from each other. The professor is no longer responsible for
                                                                                    delivering all of the knowledge or even providing all of the sources
                                                                                    for learning – but maintains a critical role as guide, facilitator, and
                                                                                    assessor of the learning.
                                                                                    Some instructors encourage contributions and reflections from the
                                                                                    wider public, to accompany formal courses that are ‘private’ to enrolled
students, thus opening up courses to external expertise, and providing
                                                                                    students with important contacts and networks outside the institution.
                                                                                    Most instructors have not experienced learning, much less teaching, in
                                                                                    such collaborative environments, especially when facilitated through
                                                                                    technology. It requires a re-consideration of roles, authority, and how
                                                                                    learning is achieved and measured.
                                                                                    Most recently, a model of how this constructivist approach to teaching
                                                                                    and learning can occur has been developed which gives emphasis
                                                                                    to the idea that the “class” is a community engaged in a serious
                                                                                    inquiry into a body of knowledge, guided by the teacher. Known as the
                                                                                    community of inquiry model, it has garnered a lot of attention and is
                                                                                    now an embedded idea in instructional design. It is built on a simple
                                                                                    principle: the more engaged learners are with their learning, the more
                                                                                    likely they are to be successful.

                                                                                 3. Use Of Multimedia And Open Educational Resources (OER)
                                                                                    Digital media, YouTube videos such as TED talks or the Khan
                                                                                    Academy and, increasingly, open educational resources in the
                                                                                    form of short lectures, animations, simulations, virtual labs, virtual
                                                                                    worlds and many other formats enable instructors and students to
                                                                                    access and apply knowledge in a wide variety of ways. There are
                                                                                    now many thousands of examples of stand-alone, open educational
                                                                                    resources that can be downloaded free for educational use. Examples
                                                                                    include MIT’s OpenCourseWare, the OER Commons and the UK Open
                                                                                    University’s OpenLearn.

                                                                                    OER can be provided as core course content, or specifically targeted
                                                                                    to helping students who struggle to keep up or have not fully mastered
                                                                                    key concepts or techniques. OER also appeal to an increasingly large
                                                                                    group of students, inside and outside post-secondary education, who
                                                                                    are interested in a topic, but don’t want to enrol in a formal program or
                                                                                    course. Since we began capturing innovative developments a decade
                                                                                    ago, OER has become a major resource for rapid course development
                                                                                    and for lowering the costs of learning for many students.
                                                                                    Even text books are changing to incorporate video and audio clips,
                                                                                    animations and rich graphics, as well as becoming more interactive,
                                                                                    allowing both instructors and students to annotate, add or change
                                                                                    material including assessment exercises and feedback. e-Texts are
                                                                                    developed to take advantage of open source material as a way of
                                                                                    reducing student expenditure on books and facilitating updating of
                                                                                    content. These electronic texts are, of course, accessible via mobile
                                                                                    smartphones, tablets, e-readers and other mobile devices.
                                                                                    Using multimedia for education is not new, but, with the Internet, the
                                                                                    selection and integration of appropriate sources – by both instructors
                                                                                    and students – raises questions of quality, timely and appropriate
                                                                                    usage, multiple points of view, and packaging of a wide range of
                                                                                    resources within the framework of course-specific learning objectives
                                                                                    and assessment practices. Balancing the use of multimedia and open

educational resources with instructor-delivered content raises issues
                                                                                    of course ownership and measurable learning outcomes.

                                                                                 4. Increased Student Control, Choice, And Independence
                                                                                    Students can now access a variety of content, free of charge, from
                                                                                    multiple sources via the Internet. They can choose alternative
                                                                                    interpretations, areas of interest, and even sources of accreditation.
                                                                                    Students have tools, such as smartphones and video cameras, to
                                                                                    collect digital examples and data can be edited and used in student
                                                                                    work. Thus, strictly managing a set curriculum in terms of limited
                                                                                    content chosen by the instructor becomes less meaningful. The
                                                                                    emphasis shifts to deciding what is important or relevant within a
                                                                                    subject domain.
                                                                                    Students within any single ‘class’ are likely to have multiple needs.
                                                                                    Within the framework of the learning objectives, more flexible
                                                                                    approaches to content choice, delivery, assessment, and other
                                                                                    factors are emerging. Equally important is educating students to take
                                                                                    responsibility for their own learning and approach this as a skill to be
                                                                                    taught and learned.
                                                                                    This approach challenges the instructor to move away from selecting
                                                                                    and transmitting information in large blocks or chunks, such as a
                                                                                    one-hour lecture, or providing a single textbook, to guiding students to
                                                                                    find, analyze, evaluate, and apply information relevant to a particular
                                                                                    subject domain. This ‘relevance’ becomes more negotiated between
                                                                                    instructor and student. Indeed, the term ‘instructor’ becomes

                                                                                    misleading in this context, as the role moves more to that of facilitator
                                                                                    with less control over where and how learning takes place, and often
                                                                                    entering into negotiation over exactly what the content is.

                                                                                 5. Anywhere, Anytime, Any Size Learning
                                                                                    The development of ‘any size’ learning is seen in the creation of
                                                                                    smaller modules, such as those offered through the ‘Learn on
                                                                                    Demand’ program at the Kentucky Community and Technical College
                                                                                    System, that can be built or aggregated into certificates, diplomas or
                                                                                    even full degrees, and which can also be used as stand-alone, free,
                                                                                    open resources. These smaller modules fit the needs of many full-time
                                                                                    students who are working part-time, as well as those needing greater
                                                                                    flexibility or additional help with their learning.
                                                                                    There is growing demand from students for short, ‘just in time’
                                                                                    learning modules that fit an immediate learning need. The creation
                                                                                    and aggregation of these modules for credit requires reconsideration
                                                                                    of course structure and the crediting of learning that is not equivalent
                                                                                    to a full course completion. In the evolving world of open access to
                                                                                    learning, students who successfully complete such modules may be
                                                                                    awarded ‘badges’ or microcredentials, with the possibility of credit
                                                                                    transferred at a later time into a more formal program. For example,
                                                                                    a continuing education microcredit may be transferred as an elective
                                                                                    course into a graduate degree. Now that governments in Canada and
                                                                                    Singapore, for example, have introduced training and learning tax
credits, such short courses (especially if they can be “stacked” to form
                                                                                    a certificate or diploma) will become a growing feature of education
                                                                                    beyond school.
                                                                                    Mobile learning, with smartphones, tablets and other devices, is
                                                                                    the basis of the anywhere, anytime learning provided through online
                                                                                    learning. Offering content, quizzes, multimedia resources, and
                                                                                    connections among students using mobile devices requires a new look
                                                                                    at course design, content packaging, and a consideration of limitations
                                                                                    of data packages. How to best integrate mobile devices into course
                                                                                    delivery and assessment is a field of continuing exploration.

                                                                                 6. New Forms Of Assessment
                                                                                    Digital learning can leave a permanent ‘trace’ in the form of student
                                                                                    contributions to online discussion and e-portfolios of work through the
                                                                                    collection, storing and assessment of a student’s multimedia online
                                                                                    activities. Peer assessment involves students in the review of each
                                                                                    other’s work, providing useful feedback that may be used in revision of
                                                                                    documents and a better understanding of issues.
                                                                                    Learning analytics facilitate tracking of learning demonstrated
                                                                                    through student digital activities easier and more scalable. Such
                                                                                    analytical feedback to students can be continuous throughout a
                                                                                    course, resulting in early diagnostics that enable students to focus
                                                                                    on areas of weakness before a final assessment. Instructors can
                                                                                    also use analytics to assess the quality and usefulness of course
                                                                                    resources and track student participation, providing opportunities for

                                                                                    intervention if necessary. Work in artificial intelligence looks at guiding
                                                                                    students through programs of learning with resources and at a pace
                                                                                    that matches their needs, interests and capacities. New accreditation
                                                                                    methodologies based on competencies foster greater clarity and ease
                                                                                    for transferability and recognition of credits and learning.
                                                                                    The accessibility of such demonstrations of learning offers many
                                                                                    advantages both to students and instructors, compared with
                                                                                    traditional forms of assessment. New challenges also arise concerning
                                                                                    what type of learning to assess, student support in using technology
                                                                                    for sophisticated demonstrations of learning, and issues of security
                                                                                    for exams. Not all students are as fluent and secure in their use of
                                                                                    technology for learning and assessment as their continuous texting
                                                                                    may indicate.
                                                                                    There are many new developments in assessment of student learning,
                                                                                    which are captured in a recent contribution to teachonline.ca

                                                                                 7. Self-Directed And Non-Formal Online Learning
                                                                                    While a minority of students may be fully capable of managing their
                                                                                    own learning and have a long history of self-directed and non-formal
                                                                                    learning in adult education, recent developments such as OER and
                                                                                    MOOCs provide many more potential students with support and
                                                                                    encouragement for self-directed or non-formal learning. The availability
                                                                                    of free open educational resources, combined with social networking
(especially You Tube and LinkedIn learning), enables large numbers
                                                                                    of students to access knowledge without the necessity for meeting
                                                                                    institutional prior admission requirements, following a set course,
                                                                                    or having an instructor. Computerized marking and peer discussion
                                                                                    and assessment provide, in some cases, students with support and
                                                                                    feedback on their learning.
                                                                                    Opportunities for self-directed and non-formal online learning are likely
                                                                                    to play an increasingly important role in learning, especially in the
                                                                                    emerging post-COVID-19 economy.

                                                                                 THREE EMERGING PEDAGOGICAL TRENDS
                                                                                 Clearly indicated in these developments are some common factors
                                                                                 or trends:
                                                                                    1. A move to opening up learning, making it more accessible and
                                                                                       flexible. The classroom with information delivered through a lecture
                                                                                       is no longer the unique centre of learning.
                                                                                    2. An increased sharing of power between the instructor and the
                                                                                       student. This is manifest as a changing instructional role, towards
                                                                                       more support and negotiation over content and methods, and a
                                                                                       focus on developing and supporting student autonomy. On the
                                                                                       student side, this can mean an emphasis on students supporting
                                                                                       each other through new social media, peer assessment, discussion
                                                                                       groups, even online study groups but with guidance, support and

                                                                                       feedback from learning and content experts.
                                                                                    3. An increased use of technology, not only to deliver teaching, but
                                                                                       also to support and assist students and to provide new forms of
                                                                                       student assessment.
                                                                                 It is important to emphasize these are emerging pedagogical trends. More
                                                                                 experience, evaluation, and research are needed to identify those that will
                                                                                 have lasting value and a permanent effect on the system.

                                                                                 HOW THIS NEW PEDAGOGY IS TRANSFORMING TEACHING
                                                                                 AND LEARNING
                                                                                 Faculty, instructors, and teaching and learning specialists in post-
                                                                                 secondary institutions are rethinking pedagogy and designing resources,
                                                                                 programs and courses that benefit from new approaches to teaching and
                                                                                 learning. More than 100 selected innovations, featured in Contact North |
                                                                                 Contact Nord’s Pockets of Innovation Series, from over 100 post-secondary
                                                                                 institutions in Ontario, across Canada and around the world illustrate each
                                                                                 of the seven key elements outlined above. Links are provided to the full
                                                                                 description of each innovation.

                                                                                 1. Blended learning
                                                                                    Students at Niagara College in Ontario can enrol in iLearn, a course
                                                                                    focused on becoming independent technologically-literate and
                                                                                    effective learners. They learn in a variety of delivery modes – face-to-
face, in a blended format and fully online to facilitate the development
                                                                                    of flexible skills.
                                                                                    At Canadore College and Durham College in Ontario, blended learning
                                                                                    was designed for apprenticeship programs, so students can learn and
                                                                                    apply their skills in their workplaces, allowing them to stay close to
                                                                                    home, with short and intense sessions in college labs.
                                                                                    The Faculty of Arts and Science at Queen’s University in
                                                                                    Ontario developed a Blended Learning Initiative to encourage
                                                                                    more active learning, especially in first-year and large
                                                                                    enrolment classes. Differing designs in blended courses
                                                                                    in Sociology, Calculus, Classics and Psychology match content with
                                                                                    student needs and engagement strategies.
                                                                                    The School of Nursing at Lakehead University in Ontario offers blended
                                                                                    programs for admissions preparation, nursing degrees and post-
                                                                                    graduate education, serving students across northwestern Ontario and
                                                                                    allowing them to stay in their communities to learn.
                                                                                    A blended learning course on the integration of technology into
                                                                                    teaching at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières in Canada uses
                                                                                    synchronous technology to encourage student interaction and to
                                                                                    ensure the content is always current.
                                                                                    At the University of Iceland, students in the Faculty of Education
                                                                                    choose a MOOC with content related to their program to follow as part
                                                                                    of their course. In their assessments, students describe the MOOC,
                                                                                    analyze its pedagogical structure and use of technology, and consider

                                                                                    its implication, both for them as students and prospective teachers
                                                                                    and for the University.

                                                                                 2. Collaborative approaches to the construction of knowledge/
                                                                                    building communities of practice
                                                                                    To ensure students are aware of and able to use the latest professional
                                                                                    software, students in a Graphics Design course at George Brown
                                                                                    College in Ontario work in groups to explore, assess and report on
                                                                                    the latest online versions to their classmates, as well as preparing
                                                                                    documentation for future students.
                                                                                    Experience at the University of Toronto in Ontario highlights the
                                                                                    structure, functioning and outcomes of online communities of
                                                                                    practice among students in a medical visualization program, end-of-
                                                                                    life care physicians, and a cultural competence program for health
                                                                                    care professionals.
                                                                                    In graduate degree courses in the Faculty of Education at Nipissing
                                                                                    University in Ontario, students share and create knowledge through
                                                                                    carefully assessed participation in discussion boards, as well as peer
                                                                                    and self-assessments.
                                                                                    Using synchronous learning strategies, graduate students at
                                                                                    the University of Ontario Institute of Technology work together to
                                                                                    learn share and create knowledge. The teacher provides enough
                                                                                    information, guidance, and structure to allow students to build their
knowledge and skills, while, at the same time, not being the dominant
                                                                                    presence in class.
                                                                                    An online course in Aboriginal Literature at Memorial University of
                                                                                    Newfoundland in Canada uses Talking Circles, a foundational approach
                                                                                    in Aboriginal pedagogy that encourages dialogue, respect, the co-
                                                                                    creation of learning content, and social discourse.
                                                                                    The Center for Technology, Education and Cultural Diversity in Israel
                                                                                    offers online courses bringing together students from Jewish religious,
                                                                                    Jewish secular and Arab Muslim teacher education colleges, using a
                                                                                    pedagogical model integrating educational discussion and cooperation
                                                                                    to build mutual trust and respect.
                                                                                    The essential characteristic of an online Ed.D. program at
                                                                                    the University of Florida in the United States is building an academic
                                                                                    community of practice for learning and support throughout and even
                                                                                    after the program, based on the Community of Inquiry framework that
                                                                                    incorporates faculty, social, cognitive and learner presence.

                                                                                 3. Use of multimedia and open educational resources
                                                                                    Georgian College and Loyalist College in Ontario integrate virtual reality
                                                                                    and simulations in Programs, including Child and Youth Worker for
                                                                                    practice in dealing with difficult clients, Justice Studies with a
                                                                                    simulation for border security training, and clinical practice for health
                                                                                    care students.
                                                                                    At Seneca College in Ontario, social media tools are used in courses

                                                                                    in the School of Marketing, not only to share content and insights, but
                                                                                    also for increased student engagement, responsibility for learning, and
                                                                                    skills for independent and interdependent learning.
                                                                                    Digital Education Strategies (DES) in The G. Raymond Chang School
                                                                                    of Continuing Education at Ryerson University in Ontario produces a
                                                                                    wide variety of educational resources for use in courses at Ryerson
                                                                                    and open to other institutions, including documentaries to generate
                                                                                    discussion, present multiple viewpoints, and encourage students to
                                                                                    take action.
                                                                                    An Ethics in Sports course at the University of Windsor in Ontario
                                                                                    involves students in debates on controversial topics in sports, followed
                                                                                    by very active exchanges of reflections, opinions, and comments on
                                                                                    Twitter. Input is often received from people outside the class who
                                                                                    follow the debate and discussion.
                                                                                    At the University of Toronto Mississauga in Ontario, the professor, a
                                                                                    learning technology specialist and students work together to determine
                                                                                    which software is most effective for the various aspects of language
                                                                                    learning and practice.
                                                                                    The Justice Institute of British Columbia in Canada created a decision-
                                                                                    making simulation for use in its Emergency Preparedness Program,
                                                                                    with participants working in small groups in real-time, with carefully
                                                                                    monitored activities and ongoing delivery of information.
                                                                                    The Ministry of Higher Education and Research in France supported
the development of eight Digital Thematic Universities, organizations
                                                                                    through which member institutions cooperate to develop OER. A single
                                                                                    portal provides access to the 34,000 OER from all digital universities
                                                                                    on one site.
                                                                                    Dublin City University in Ireland developed the Student Success
                                                                                    Toolbox, a suite of OER tools for adults considering attending post-
                                                                                    secondary education to help them through the decision stage, prepare
                                                                                    to begin a program, and take on the first few weeks of attendance.

                                                                                 4. Increased student control, choice, and independence
                                                                                    Support for student choice and independence is central to
                                                                                    delivery, support and assessment models in numerous colleges
                                                                                    in Ontario, including Collège Boréal, Cambrian College, Canadore
                                                                                    College, Confederation College, Northern College and Sault College.
                                                                                    Courses are offered in varying combinations of face-to-face,
                                                                                    synchronous and asynchronous, with online access to resources and
                                                                                    support, so students can choose the mode and timing that best suits
                                                                                    their circumstances.
                                                                                    In the Faculty of Education at Western University in Ontario, a graduate
                                                                                    course features collaborative learning, with the instructor functioning
                                                                                    as a co-learner. Each student researches, writes, illustrates, presents,
                                                                                    and self-assesses the effectiveness of an online module, as well
                                                                                    facilitating a productive and focused discussion.
                                                                                    A blended learning course in Organic Chemistry at Wilfrid Laurier

                                                                                    University in Ontario stresses the development of independent
                                                                                    learning, with the instructor using learning analytics on student activity
                                                                                    prior to each class and their formative assessments to guide the
                                                                                    content of the face-to-face lecture and practice sessions.
                                                                                    Self-study quests, based on a mobile app used in forestry and soil
                                                                                    science courses at the University of British Columbia in Canada,
                                                                                    take students into forest environments to find, classify and report on
                                                                                    findings based on set questions.
                                                                                    The University of Barcelona in Spain provides free access to non-credit
                                                                                    language learning online for students, faculty and staff, with support
                                                                                    through the Self-Access Language Centre. More than 5,000 students,
                                                                                    faculty and staff, completing more than 100,000 hours of study, took
                                                                                    advantage of this resource.
                                                                                    A MOOC developed at the Norwegian University of Science and
                                                                                    Technology offers students flexibility in learning resources, pace of
                                                                                    learning, contribution to online discussions, timing of assessments
                                                                                    – and the opportunity to register in the course for credit after the
                                                                                    successful completion of three of the fifteen modules.

                                                                                 5. Anywhere, anytime, any size learning
                                                                                    Algonquin College in Ontario developed an e-textbook initiative in
                                                                                    cooperation with major publishers with the goal of providing 100% of
                                                                                    students with 100% of their resources 100% of the time - all online
                                                                                    and accessible to mobile devices so learning is when and where the
students choose. The online texts are enhanced with multimedia,
                                                                                    quizzes and other features to make learning more engaging and
                                                                                    available at costs significantly lower than print texts.
                                                                                    Confederation College in Ontario combines online courses from its
                                                                                    multiple campuses to expand student options, as well as offering
                                                                                    courses, developed at and offered through other colleges in
                                                                                    the OntarioLearn consortium, which were assessed for equivalency to
                                                                                    Confederation courses.
                                                                                    The University of Ottawa in Ontario offers two open source mobile
                                                                                    applications suitable for students and a wider public. One app, called
                                                                                    Nature Watch, provides tools for active monitoring and reporting
                                                                                    of species and other environmental change indicators. The second
                                                                                    supports health care workers in clinics to gather information from, and
                                                                                    provide care, to migrants and refugees.
                                                                                    To provide enhanced access for online and face-to-face students in
                                                                                    anatomy courses, Western University in Ontario offers a virtual slide
                                                                                    set, available as OER, which includes two-dimensional anatomy slides
                                                                                    and interactive 3D depictions of the brain. Students can interact
                                                                                    with these specimens as they would with the ones in the lab, with
                                                                                    additional capacity for magnification.
                                                                                    Many programs at the University of Waterloo in Ontario include
                                                                                    cooperative education work terms. As part of this experience,
                                                                                    students are required to complete online courses that stress skills,
                                                                                    such as team work and communication, considered by employers.

                                                                                    Lectures, theory, and best practices are provided online, while the
                                                                                    active learning is through practice, participation, and reflection in the
                                                                                    To better serve its online students across Canada and beyond, Yorkville
                                                                                    University in Canada devised strategies for assessing, instructing
                                                                                    and communicating with their students during extended practicum
                                                                                    sessions in workplace settings, regardless of their location.
                                                                                    Assessments include lengthy reviews of videotaped interactions with
                                                                                    clients, shared in a secure environment.
                                                                                    At the University of the Highlands and Islands in Scotland, programs
                                                                                    and courses are offered in multiple formats and locations to best suit
                                                                                    the content and the students. The designs include local programs,
                                                                                    learning in the field supplemented with online content, networked
                                                                                    programs for multi-campus delivery and fully online degree programs,
                                                                                    all supplemented with extensive online resources.

                                                                                 6. New forms of assessment
                                                                                    To better serve its many students on work sites in remote communities
                                                                                    and mining sites, Northern College in Ontario offers an e-proctoring
                                                                                    service that can be used for online exams and for hand-written tests
                                                                                    as well.
                                                                                    Various versions of e-portfolios are used in Ontario colleges and
                                                                                    universities, reflecting the content of the program and the nature of
the student assignments: Creative Learning Portfolios in the Pilon
                                                                                    School of Business at Sheridan College; cuPortfolios used in multiple
                                                                                    settings at Carleton University; recording and assessing practice
                                                                                    sessions, among many other uses in the Faculty of Music at Wilfrid
                                                                                    Laurier University; and documenting learning in Visual Arts and Built
                                                                                    Environment at the University of Windsor.
                                                                                    Peer assessment is supported through software designed at
                                                                                    institutions in Ontario, including peerScholar at the University of
                                                                                    Toronto and Peer Evaluation, Assessment and Review (PEAR) at
                                                                                    the University of Guelph.
                                                                                    Peer assessment is integrated into a graduate business diploma
                                                                                    program at Simon Fraser University in Canada, so small groups of
                                                                                    students provide marks and comments on each other’s work. The
                                                                                    purpose is formative, to encourage team interaction and consensus
                                                                                    building and to help develop skills of reflection and synthesis.
                                                                                    The Beuth University of Applied Sciences in Germany offers a program
                                                                                    to aid immigrants and refugees with IT skills in finding employment.
                                                                                    Online modules and coaching help develop the eight key skills outlined
                                                                                    by employers – such as team skills and language abilities relevant to
                                                                                    the IT field. Participants earn appropriate badges by demonstrating
                                                                                    their competencies.

                                                                                 7. Self-directed and non-formal online learning
                                                                                    Interest in exploring the potential of MOOCs to reach new students

                                                                                    in new ways at Fanshawe College in Ontario led to the development
                                                                                    and careful assessment of a MOOC on sustainable development. Four
                                                                                    levels of achievement are part of the design with a certificate awarded
                                                                                    for completion at each level.
                                                                                    SPARK (Student Papers and Academic Research Kit) at York
                                                                                    University in Ontario is an open source resource supporting
                                                                                    students in the development of research, writing, and learning skills.
                                                                                    Interactive modules, divided into topics such as note taking, academic
                                                                                    integrity and presenting arguments, offer guides, examples and
                                                                                    further resources.
                                                                                    Students at McMaster University in Ontario have access to two sets of
                                                                                    modules to increase their skills in information and geospatial literacy.
                                                                                    Each module is divided into segments, so students can focus on their
                                                                                    areas of greatest difficulty, using video, audio, text, and images for
                                                                                    learning content and quizzes to assess progress and understanding.
                                                                                    At Cape Breton University in Canada, a course shares the oral history
                                                                                    and traditional knowledge of the Mi’kmaq, a First Nation in Canada, as
                                                                                    presented by the knowledge keepers of Mi’kma’ki. The course could be
                                                                                    taken for credit and was also available as an open, free access course,
                                                                                    presented globally through live streaming.
                                                                                    The  in Canada offered two MOOCs that achieved completion rates of
                                                                                    over 20%. Each was offered over five weeks; one on personal financial
                                                                                    and tax literacy and the other on play in early childhood education.
Dual purpose MOOCs are developed and offered through the
                                                                                    Business School at Karlstads University in Sweden. Students can
                                                                                    register at the University and take MOOCs for credit or follow the
                                                                                    open networked courses online for a certificate of participation. As
                                                                                    all course materials are available under Creative Commons licensing,
                                                                                    they can be re-packaged and re-used, such as the use of videos in
                                                                                    on-campus courses.
                                                                                    Students are offered the possibility of learning about the ancient
                                                                                    writing system of Babylonian cuneiforms through a MOOC from
                                                                                    the Università Ca’ Foscan in Italy. The MOOC was also offered on
                                                                                    EduOpen, a network of 15 Italian academic institutions offering free
                                                                                    access to more than 60 MOOCs. Some of the MOOCs can result in
                                                                                    credits by paying a fee and taking an exam with the partner university.

                                                                                 IMPLICATIONS AND QUESTIONS
                                                                                 There is a groundswell of change taking place in teaching methods. As
                                                                                 Contact North | Contact Nord’s Pockets of Innovation Series reveals,
                                                                                 across Ontario, Canada and around the world, innovative applications of
                                                                                 technology to teaching and learning are being developed, researched,
                                                                                 and evaluated. The experience of remote teaching in the pandemic is also
                                                                                 being closely watched for examples of innovative and for failures from
                                                                                 which we can learn and already some insights are beginning to emerge,
                                                                                 especially as it relates to design.
                                                                                 Some questions related to your experience in adapting the new pedagogy

                                                                                 are listed below. Given your experience of teaching through a synchronous
                                                                                 platform (Zoom, Adobe Connect, Google Meet) and an asynchronous
                                                                                 platform (Blackboard, Canvas, Moodle, D2L’s Brightspace), these are
                                                                                 intended to encourage thoughtful reflection on your practice.

                                                                                 Impact on Teaching and Course Design
                                                                                 A new pedagogy is intrinsically linked to teaching practice and strategies
                                                                                 for course design, delivery and assessment.
                                                                                 • What new factors do you take into account in your teaching and course
                                                                                   design and what elements of classroom practice do you maintain?
                                                                                 • What have you learned about student’s needs, preferences, concerns,
                                                                                   and success rates with online learning? What surprised you? What
                                                                                   delighted you?
                                                                                 • How are you leveraging the emerging research on how students learn
                                                                                   and the importance of students co-creating knowledge through project-
                                                                                   based and group-based learning into your learning design?
                                                                                 • What specific strengths and limitations for online delivery are linked
                                                                                   to the subject matter, which you teach or for which you prepare
                                                                                 • What new approaches to assessment are you looking to explore and
                                                                                   adopt – are these new designs focused on continuous and authentic
Impact on Student Learning
                                                                                 Student learning is the other key component of an emerging pedagogy,
                                                                                 with their success as the goal of all our efforts.
                                                                                 • What new demands are students making in terms of how they want to
                                                                                   be taught and assessed and what are your responses?
                                                                                 • What are students saying about the conditions under which they
                                                                                   experience online learning? Are their limits to access, use of
                                                                                   technology and their technological skills which impacts their learning?
                                                                                 • What new roles are students taking in their online or hybrid learning
                                                                                   and how has this changed your teaching practice?
                                                                                 • What new areas of student support are being built into course
                                                                                   structures to facilitate effective online learning and what new
                                                                                   strategies are developed to deliver them?

                                                                                 Technological Choice
                                                                                 Aligning pedagogy, subject matter, assessment, and student access and
                                                                                 success with appropriate technologies, software, and online strategies is
                                                                                 the ongoing challenge of online teaching and learning.
                                                                                 • Which technologies are you using and what strengths and challenges
                                                                                   do they present for online and hybrid course design delivery,
                                                                                   assessment, student interaction, and student support?
                                                                                 • What technologies do students use to undertake research, practical
                                                                                   work, lab work and other activities over and above the technology

                                                                                   provided by the college or university?
                                                                                 Technology allows us to teach differently, to meet new needs as well as old
                                                                                 ones. Students can also learn differently, with access to digital content,
                                                                                 mobile delivery, new forms of assessment, learning analytics to guide
                                                                                 choices and progress, and interaction and communication with peers
                                                                                 around the world. As outlined above, students can now take active roles in
                                                                                 the sharing of knowledge and shaping their own learning.
                                                                                 As shown in the examples above, technology helps drive innovation in
                                                                                 teaching and learning. But equally important are the decisions faculty and
                                                                                 instructors make about how best to use technology for what purposes
                                                                                 and how they define their roles as teacher, guide, facilitator and/or
                                                                                 learning participant.

You can also read