Annotated Bibliography: Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)

Annotated Bibliography: Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)
Annotated Bibliography:
Homelessness Studies Completed by
Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)

Roxanne Felix-Mah
Erica Roberts
Dr. Carol Adair

Prepared for:
Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community Research
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
April 2014
Annotated Bibliography: Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)
In 2014, the Housing and Homelessness Research Strategy for Alberta was developed to identify research priorities to advance
knowledge and understanding of housing and homelessness in Alberta. This research strategy is one of the first outcomes of an
innovative research partnership between the Alberta Interagency Council on Homelessness and the Alberta Centre for Child, Family
and Community Research and will serve to generate and mobilize evidence to inform Alberta Interagency Council on Homelessness
priorities, decisions and recommendations relevant to A Plan for Alberta: Ending Homelessness in 10 Years.

Research priorities, with specific areas of emphasis, emerged from an extensive review of the literature and consultation with
stakeholders. These priorities are:
    1. Homelessness Prevention and Early Intervention
            a. Structural Factors
            b. Gaps in Systems of Care and Support
            c. Migration and Employment
            d. Identification of Those-At-Risk
    2. Effectiveness of Interventions
    3. Continuum of Housing and Homelessness Supports and Services
            a. Rural Homelessness
            b. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing and Supports
            c. Community Support, Engagement and Mobilization for Homelessness
It was also identified that the unique needs and special circumstances of vulnerable populations and Aboriginal Peoples are to be
studied in relation to each priority.

This annotated bibliography provides information on research studies conducted or led by Alberta researchers in these research
priority areas between the years of 2010-2014. It builds upon the Homelessness-Related Research Capacities in Alberta: A
Comprehensive Environmental Scan 1990-2010 Final Report completed by Dr. Katherine Kovacs-Burns and Dr. Solina Richter, a
foundational document for the Housing and Homelessness Research Strategy for Alberta. A published synthesis1 of this document is
available in the Canadian Journal of Urban Research.

Recommended Citation
Felix-Mah, R., Roberts, E. & Adair, C.E. (2014). Annotated Bibliography: Studies completed between 2010-2014 by Albertan
researchers in identified research priorities for homelessness research. AB: Alberta Centre for Child, Family & Community Research.

Keywords: housing, homelessness, research strategy, research priorities, Alberta

1Burns, K., & Richter, S. (2011). Alberta's Urban Homelessness Research Capacities: A Comprehensive Environmental Scan from 1990 to
2010. Canadian Journal Of Urban Research, 20(2), 71-90.
1. Homelessness Prevention & Early Intervention
1A. Structural Factors
1A. Structural Factors                           1A. Structural Factors
Citation                                         Synopsis
Jones, M. E., Shier, M. L., & Graham, J. R.      This article describes innate factors of intimate relationships that contribute to a situation of
(2012). Intimate Relationships as Routes into    homelessness for men and women. We conducted interviews with 61 people experiencing
and out of Homelessness: Insights from a         homelessness in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We were particularly interested in documenting with
Canadian City. Journal of Social Policy, 41,     greater specificity their perceptions of their individual pathways to and from homelessness.

Jones, M. E., Shier, M. L., & Graham, J. R.      This article argues that homelessness in Calgary, Canada is entrenched, in part, due to a
(2013). Social exclusion and self-esteem:        systemic cycle of exclusion and defensive tactics carried out by those who are homeless and
The impact of the identity–bureaucracy           employed. A major proportion of this systemic exclusion occurs via a number of societal
nexus on employed people experiencing            institutions: the provincial welfare structure in place to assist those in need; the provincial registry
homelessness in Calgary, Canada. Journal         system for identification and licensing; the banking system, employment service providers; and the
of International and Comparative Social          civil society organizations that provide shelter. Through one-to-one interviews with employed
Policy, 29(2), 134-142.                          people experiencing homelessness in Calgary (n = 61) we found four identifiers that contribute to
                                                 maintaining the adverse situation facing those who find themselves homeless: security of, and
                                                 access to, replacement identification; access to banking; access to a mailing address; and
                                                 accessibility to stable, permanent employment. Without access to these elements re-establishing
                                                 social inclusion and navigating the transition to stable housing and non-vulnerable employment is
                                                 far more difficult.
Kolkman, J.; Ahorro, J. ; Varlen, K.; Moore-     An overview of research and provincial poverty strategies to support an Albertan provincial
Kilgannon, Bill. (2010). Time for Action:        strategy to reduce poverty, using the Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness as a model.
Working Together to End Poverty in Alberta.
Edmonton, AB: Public Interest Alberta and
Edmonton Social Planning Council.

Kolkman, J., Ahorro, J. Varlen, K., Moore-       An overview of research and provincial poverty strategies to support an Albertan provincial
Kilgannon, B. Sigurdson, L., Christiani, B., &   strategy to reduce poverty.
; MacDonald, S. (2011). In This Together:
Ending Poverty in Alberta. Edmonton, AB:
Public Interest Alberta, Alberta College of
Social Workers & Edmonton Social Planning

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                  3
1A. Structural Factors                             1A. Structural Factors
Citation                                           Synopsis
Kolkman, J. & Moore-Kilgannon, B. (2013).          The From Words to Action report contains updated information on the extent of child and family
From Words to Action: Alberta can afford a         poverty in Alberta. Also highlighted are the many worthwhile programs, services and initiatives
real poverty reduction strategy. Edmonton,         already underway that contribute to reducing poverty. This report outlines modest changes to the
AB: Public Interest Alberta, Alberta College       personal and corporate tax systems that would generate the revenues required to properly fund
of Social Workers & Edmonton Social                key poverty solutions. These solutions are also costed.
Planning Council                         
Kovacs-Burns,K. & Richter, S. (2010).
                                                   Attachment 5 lists various grey literature documents completed in this area between 1990-2010,
Homelessness-Related Research Capacities
                                                   under "VII. Prevention of Homelessness".
in Alberta: A Comprehensive Environmental

Lee, C.R., & Briggs, A. (2012) Poverty             This report provides an economic case for a preventative poverty reduction strategy in Alberta.
Costs: An Economic Case for a Preventative
Poverty Reduction Strategy in Alberta.
Calgary, AB: Vibrant Communities Calgary
and Action to End Poverty in Alberta

Lee, C.R., & Briggs, A. (2013). Reducing the       This report provides information on poverty and social indicators in Medicine Hat; on the definition,
Cost of Poverty in Medicine Hat: Moving            causes, effects and indicators of poverty; and on the current state of the six priority areas of action
from Charity to Investment. Calgary, Alberta:      for poverty reduction (Living Wages, Affordable Housing, Recreation, Education, Transportation
Vibrant Communities Calgary                        and Food Security).

Payne, J.D. (2013) Day In, Day Out:                This thesis explores the experiences of the homeless working poor in Calgary, Alberta through
Exploring the Experiences of the Homeless          semi-structured interviews with homeless sector service providers (n=7) and homeless working
Working Poor in Calgary, Alberta. Edmonton,        poor individuals (n=24). The results are interpreted within a capital theory framework. Results
AB, CAN: University of Alberta                     show this population's paths towards homelessness relate to shifts and shortages in capital,   particularly around a lack of familial and social networks and supports, economic challenges,
/uuid:9d0f0a00-2608-49bc-9689-                     education, training, or skill gaps, and health issues. The findings highlight the fact that homeless
2f952f31f6a2                                       working poverty amounts to more than financial issues and present implications for programs and

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                   4
1A. Structural Factors                          1A. Structural Factors
Citation                                        Synopsis
Shier, M. L., Jones, M. E., & Graham, J. R.     In a study that sought to identify the multiple factors resulting in homelessness from the
(2010). Perspectives of Employed People         perspective of 65 individuals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada who were both employed and homeless,
Experiencing Homeless of Self and Being         we found that participants' perceptions of being homeless emerged as a major theme which
Homeless: Challenging Socially Constructed      impacts their entry to and exit from homelessness. Four sub-themes related to these perceptions
Perceptions and Stereotypes. J. Soc. & Soc.     were identified: (1) perceptions of self and situation; (2) impact of being homeless on self-
Welfare, 37, 13.                                reflection; (3) aspects of hope to consider; and (4) perspectives on having a permanent residence.
                                                Analytically, these findings help challenge present stereotypes about homelessness and usefully
                                                inform social service delivery organizations.
Shier, M. L., Graham, J. R., & Jones, M. E.     In 2008 and 2009 we conducted one-to-one interviews with 61 people experiencing homelessness
(2011). Social Capital for Vulnerable Groups:   in an effort to investigate the concept of “pathways” from homelessness. Our findings show that
Insight from Employed People Experiencing       personal issues of identity, self-Esteem, and individualization were contributing factors to
Homelessness. Journal of Social Distress        developing social capital; and social service agency practices could contribute to how these are
and the Homeless, 19(3-4), 129-153.             experienced.

Shier, M. L., Jones, M. E., & Graham, J. R.     Pathways to and from homelessness were examined from the perspective of people who were
(2011). Social Communities and                  both employed and homeless in Calgary, Alberta. Based on data collected through semi-
Homelessness: A Broader Concept Analysis        structured open-end interviews (n = 61) with employed homeless people), we found that
of Social Relationships and Homelessness.       respondents identified aspects of five predominant social relationships that had the greatest
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social         impact on their present homeless situation: relationships with friends and family, acquaintances in
Environment, 21(5), 455-474.                    shared accommodation, landlords and employers, other homeless people, and the social service
                                                delivery system.
Tanasescu, A., & Smart, A. (2010). Limits of    A common explanation of immigrants' under-representation among the homeless population in
Social Capital: An Examination of               Canada is that kinship and community networks act as a buffer to absolute homelessness. This
Immigrants' Housing Challenges in Calgary,      paper draws on a larger study of housing difficulties among immigrants in Calgary to address the
The. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 37, 97.            ways in which social capital serves a buffering role, and under what conditions it loses its ability to
                                                prevent absolute homelessness.

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                 5
1A. Structural Factors                         1A. Structural Factors
Citation                                       Synopsis
Tutty, L., Bradshaw, C., Waegemakers           This literature review summarizes research, particularly published studies from the past decade or
Schiff, J., Worthington, C., MacLaurin, B.,    so, that focus on the risk factors, predictors and pathways in and out of homelessness.
Hewson, J.,... & McLeod, H. (2009). Risks      Unpublished research reports from reputable organization are also included. The primary focus
and Assets for Homelessness Prevention: A      was on factors that differentiate those that have become absolutely homeless from those that are
Literature Review for the Calgary Homeless     on the cusp of homelessness, either being relatively homeless, or living in hidden homelessness.
Foundation.                                    Notably, relatively few articles differentiate factors between housed and non-housed individuals.
                                               We also searched for articles on resilience and protective factors, again finding relatively few. A
                                               final focus of the literature review was studies on the pathways in and out of homelessness. This
                                               analysis identifies the assets and resiliencies of those from vulnerable populations who do not
                                               become homeless, and highlights protective factors or strategies that could prevent a journey into
                                               homelessness. These assets and protective factors form the core of a screening tool
                                               (Homelessness Asset and Risk Screening tool – HART) that can be used to identify vulnerability
                                               to homelessness in at-risk populations, and those not yet experiencing homelessness, in the hope
                                               of providing early interventions. The document presents research first on structural factors that
                                               have been causally linked to homelessness and then on individual factors – protective and risk -
                                               that affect homeless individuals across the life-span.
Yablonski, S. & O'Connor, S. (2013).
                                               This research project was undertaken by students in the Nursing Faculty at Grande Prairie
Presentation. Homelessness in Grande
                                               Regional College. A certain percentage of Rotary House clients that have established long-term
Prairie: an inability to sustain community
                                               community housing are returning to Rotary House. This qualitative research project used key
housing amongst Rotary House Clients.
                                               informant interviews with returning clients (n=7) to discover factors that contribute to the inability of
                                               Rotary House clients to sustain long-term housing.

                    1A. Social Determinants of Homelessness - Cross-Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations - Women
Sjollema, S. D., Hordyk, S., Walsh, C. A.,     The focus of this article is on the use of found poetry as a tool in qualitative research to examine
Hanley, J., & Ives, N. (2012). Found poetry–   the experience of precarious housing and homelessness among immigrant women in Montreal.
Finding home: A qualitative study of           The article provides a context for understanding female, newcomer homelessness and
homeless immigrant women. Journal of           summarizes the history of the found poem in a variety of disciplines with an emphasis on "social
Poetry Therapy, 25(4), 205-217.                work and the arts" context. This article also details the study methodology and illustrates the
                                               process of the found poem technique with two found poems used as data representation. The
                                               found poems we present in this article reveal two of the study's key findings related to causes of
                                               homelessness: unexpected crises (tipping points) and exploitation.

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                 6
1A. Structural Factors                          1A. Structural Factors
Citation                                        Synopsis
Thurston, W. E., Roy, A., Clow, B., Este, D.,   Housing insecurity is a major barrier to leaving domestic violence; it may force abused women to
Gordey, T., Haworth-Brockman, M., ... &         live in inadequate conditions or to return to their abusers. Immigrant women face additional
Carruthers, L. (2013). Pathways Into and Out    barriers. Longitudinal interviews with 37 abused immigrant women living in three Canadian cities
of Homelessness: Domestic Violence and          investigated key causes of housing insecurity. Results show a need to target systemic factors, a
Housing Security for Immigrant Women.           diversity of issues foregrounded along pathways into and out of homelessness, and complex
Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies,         indicators of risk. Advocacy is key to exiting abuse and obtaining secure housing, and cultural
11(3), 278-298.                                 competency in services is needed to adequately support immigrant women experiencing domestic

Tutty, L. M., Ogden, C., Giurgiu, B., &         Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused
Weaver-Dunlop, G. (2014). I Built My House      women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children
of Hope Abused Women and Pathways Into          leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently
Homelessness. Violence against women,           seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across
1077801213517514.                               Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were
                                                asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on
                                                themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts.

                       Social Determinants of Homelessness - Cross-cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations - Youth
Calgary Homeless Foundation. (2011). Plan     On the journey to end homelessness in Calgary, it became clear that young people (under the age
to end youth homelessness in Calgary.         of 24) require a plan tailored to their unique needs. Research and local consultations told us that
Calgary, AB.                                  most young people enter into homelessness largely as a result of difficulties in their families.
                                              Young people experiencing homelessness for the first time are likely leaving a setting in which
                                              their lives were governed by adult caregivers (i.e. parents, foster parents, group homes). The
                                              pathway into youth homelessness also often involves episodes of hidden homelessness (i.e.
                                              couch surfing, staying with friends).
Walsh, C., Newman, J., Spencer, B.,           This report examines the spectrum of vulnerability that many youth in Calgary experience and
Doucette, K., Joseph, J., Classens, M.,       seeks to provide a greater understanding of the challenges and strengths that have such a
Thompson, A., Gilmour, L. (2011) Towards      profound impact on youth as they transition to adulthood.
Resiliency for Vulnerable Youth. Calgary,
AB, CAN: Calgary United Way

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                           7
1B. Gaps in Systems of Care & Support
1B. Gaps in Systems of Care & Support        1B. Gaps in Systems of Care and Support
Citation                                     Synopsis
Cummings, G. & Rowe, B. (In progress).
Emergency department visits by homeless

Dong, K. (in progress). Data collected but   Research on vulnerable individuals (homeless and/or substance using adults presenting to the
paper not yet published. Edmonton, Alberta   Emergency Department) from inner city Edmonton using emergency services at Royal Alexandra
                                             Hospital regarding their need for broader spectrum of social services; The objectives were as
                                             follows: 1. To characterize patients presenting to the ED who are unstably housed and/or have
                                             acute or chronic substance use issues. 2. To assess the need for a broader spectrum of medical
                                             and social services. 3. To determine their health care resource utilization (hospital admissions and
                                             ED visits) over the next 6 months.
Iahtail, B. & Lafrance, J. (In progress).
Housing and support needs of Aboriginal
fathers in Edmonton involved with child
welfare and justice systems.
The Mustard Seed Edmonton, University of     In Canada, the link between incarceration and homelessness has been most fully described by a
Alberta. (2013). Housing Needs of Adults     recent Toronto study. According to Homeless and Jailed: Jailed and Homeless, a study conducted
Post-Incarceration in Edmonton.              by the John Howard Society of Toronto (2010) being homeless increases the likelihood of ending
                                             up in jail, while imprisonment increases the risk of homelessness. As Padgett et al. (2006) have
                                             argued, a ‘housing first’ approach to addressing the needs of those dealing with homelessness,
                                             mental illness, and drug addiction – common challenges to many leaving prison – is much more
                                             successful in dealing with mental illness and drug addiction issues than standard models of care.
                                             The research questions informing this project are: 1. What is the housing status of adults
                                             transitioning from correctional facilities into the Greater Edmonton Area into the community?
                                             2. Do releases from correctional facilities impact the homeless count in the Greater Edmonton
                                             area? 3. Does this demographic require additional support around issues pertaining to housing?

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                          8
1C. Migration & Employment
1C. Migration, Industry & Employment          1C. Migration & Employment
Citation                                      Synopsis
Kneebone, R. D., Emery, J. C. H., &           Homelessness in Alberta is overwhelmingly concentrated in Calgary and Edmonton, with almost
Grynishak, O. (2011). Homelessness in         two-thirds of total provincial shelter usage in the former. Calgary also experiences much greater
Alberta: The Demand for Spaces in Alberta's   fluctuations in shelter use. Three interconnected economic factors — the supply of rental
Homeless Shelters. School of Public Policy,   accommodations, the state of the labour market and the inward flow of jobseekers— go a long
University of Calgary.                        way toward explaining both Calgary’s unusually large share of Alberta’s homeless as well as the
                                              swings in shelter use. Calgary has proportionately less than half as many rental units as
                                              Edmonton and this gap is widening. Simultaneously, Calgary, more than any other Canadian city,
                                              attracts a significant share of migrants during times of economic growth increasing demand for
                                              affordable housing and then shelter space when the availability of housing approaches zero.
Shier, M. L., Jones, M. E., & Graham, J. R.   Labor market issues and challenges are primarily understood at an individual level, entrenched
(2012). Employment Difficulties Experienced socially in policies and initiatives that seek to improve the workplace skills of people having
by Employed Homeless People: Labor            difficulty attaching to the labor market, including people experiencing homelessness. In fact, the
Market Factors That Contribute to and         labor market is perceived to alleviate a person's situation of homelessness. In 2008 and 2009
Maintain Homelessness. Journal of Poverty,    qualitative data was collected from 61 employed people experiencing homelessness in Calgary,
16(1), 27-47.                                 Alberta, Canada, to better understand the intersection between the labor market and housing-
                                              related experiences. Respondents identified aspects of the labor market that were contributing to
                                              their current and ongoing situation of homelessness. Implications for practitioners are discussed to
                                              help address labor market attachment difficulties experienced by homeless people.
                                    Migration & Employment - Cross-Cutting Theme: Aboriginal Peoples
Belanger, Y. D., Weasel Head, G. 2013.         Aboriginal urbanization has occurred in most regions of Canada. Despite the growth of permanent
Urban Aboriginal Homelessness and              Aboriginal communities since the 1970s, academic and government reports have captured a
Migration in Southern Alberta. Final Report    startling level of Aboriginal mobility between cities and reserves, within cities, and between
prepared for the Alberta Homelessness          municipalities. An elevated level of Aboriginal overrepresentation among the homeless population
Research Consortium (AHRC). Edmonton,          is also evident. What has yet to be fully explored, is the link between urban Aboriginal
Alberta. April 30, 2013.                       homelessness and mobility in southern Alberta, and their respective and combined impact upon
                                               municipal service delivery and programs. This project employs qualitative interview data for the
                                               purposes of: (1) improving our theoretical understanding of this migration stream; (2) improving
                                               our conception of whether Aboriginal mobility influences urban Aboriginal homelessness; and, (3)
                                               whether a lack of programs and services is exacerbating urban Aboriginal homelessness and

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                           9
1C. Migration, Industry & Employment             1C. Migration & Employment
Citation                                         Synopsis
Thurston, W.E., Milaney, K., Turner, D.,         Aboriginal people are overrepresented in Canada’s urban homeless numbers and the same is true
Coupal, S. (2013). Final Report: No moving       for Calgary where the most recent count of homeless persons found 21% were Aboriginal and
back: A study of the intersection of rural and   38% of those found sleeping rough were Aboriginal. In the research project reported on here we
urban homelessness for Aboriginal people in      critically examined Aboriginal people’s experiences of migration from rural to urban settings and
Calgary, Alberta. Prepared for Human             how systems create and respond to homelessness. Specifically we explored the community’s
Resources and Skills Development Canada,         capacity to adequately respond in a timely way to an emergent need; coordination and resourcing
National Housing Secretariat. Available from     of systems of care; and culturally safe nature of current approaches to service provision.
Department of Community Health Sciences,
3rd Floor TRW, 3280 Hospital Drive NW,
Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                            10
1D. Identification of Those at Risk
1D. Identification of those at risk             1D. Identification of Those at Risk
Citation                                        Synopsis
Schneider, B. (2010). Housing people with       This article examines how written and spoken language are used to categorize potential residents
mental illnesses: The discursive construction   for supported housing designated for people diagnosed with severe mental illnesses. It examines
of worthiness. Housing, Theory and Society,     the discursive work of agency representatives as they construct versions of clients as appropriate
27(4), 296-312.                                 or inappropriate for housing. I show that what appear to be clear cut criteria for admission such as
                                                medication compliance, no history of violent behaviour and no active addictions are in fact
                                                contingent, locally negotiated categories that are used by agency representatives in flexible ways
                                                to determine worthiness for admission to supported housing. The categorization work of agency
                                                representatives in turn produces the meanings of the categories themselves. In doing the
                                                discursive work of categorization, agency representatives negotiate a "dilemma of caring" in which
                                                they must tread a careful path between the directives of the organizations they work for and their
                                                view of themselves as caring professionals. They also reaffirm the hegemonic bio-medical
                                                understanding of mental illnesses as "real" biological entities.
Tutty, L. M., Bradshaw, C., Hewson, J.,         The Homelessness Assets and Risk Screening Tool (HART) is used to identify vulnerability to
MacLaurin, B., Waegemakers-Schiff, J.,          homelessness in at-risk populations, but those not yet experiencing homelessness, in the hope of
Worthington, C., ... & Turner, A. (2013). On    providing early interventions. The purpose of the current research is to test the validity of the
the Brink? A Pilot Study of the                 HART, including its predictive validity with respect to identifying those at risk of homelessness. A
Homelessness Assets and Risk Tool (HART)        second objective is to determine the applicability of the HART tool in a Calgary context and assess
to Identify those at Risk of Becoming           the tool’s feasibility from an administrative perspective. This was achieved by utilizing the HART
Homeless.                                       tool with an initial sample of service recipients at multiple community agencies within the city of
                                                Calgary. This allowed us to test the tool’s content validity (the ability to capture elements of risk)
                                                and to test the HART’s predictive validity (ability to predict homelessness) by tracking a sub-
                                                sample of participants over a one-year period.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                               11
2. Effectiveness of Interventions
2. Effectiveness of Interventions              2. Effectiveness of Interventions
Citation                                       Synopsis

Calgary Homeless Foundation. (2011).           “Ending homelessness” is a complex and multifaceted endeavor. Case management has been
Research Report: Dimensions of Promising       identified as a critical aspect to successfully ending a person’s or family’s homelessness. Several
Practice for Case Managed Supports in          months of consultation and research facilitated by the Calgary Homeless Foundation led to the
Ending Homelessness.                           development of this report. Its purpose is to gain clarity on and to set dimensions around the
                                               promising practices essential for case managed supports to end homelessness.
Calgary Homeless Foundation. (2012).           The current project proposes to articulate a best practice framework for the development of a
Sustainable supports for adult males:          Supportive Employment program in Calgary. In collaboration with members of the Calgary Action
effective employment models to end             Committee on Housing and Homelessness’ Interagency Sector, this research sought to uncover
homelessness: research report of findings      the needs of working-aged homeless men and understand the barriers experienced to obtaining
and recommendations.                           and maintaining employment within the context of Calgary; a key player in the national. Key
                                               informants were interviewed from homeless-serving and private business sectors in order to better
                                               understand employment needs and barriers. In order to develop this framework, the following
                                               questions were investigated:
                                                    • What are the most effective employment models for homeless men with multiple barriers?
                                               For those who are not able to sustain employment due to chronic physical or mental health
                                               conditions, what interventions are most effective in assisting them to sustain stable housing?
Goering, P. N., Streiner, D. L., Adair, C.,    Housing First is a complex housing and support intervention for homeless individuals with mental
Aubry, T., Barker, J., Distasio, J., ... &     health problems. It has a sufficient knowledge base and interest to warrant a test of wide-scale
Zabkiewicz, D. M. (2011). The At               implementation in various settings. This protocol describes the quantitative design of a Canadian
Home/Chez Soi trial protocol: a pragmatic,     five city, $110 million demonstration project and provides the rationale for key scientific decisions.
multi-site, randomized controlled trial of a   Methods: A pragmatic, mixed methods, multi-site field trial of the effectiveness of Housing First in
Housing First intervention for homeless        Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, is randomizing approximately 2500
individuals with mental illness in five        participants, stratified by high and moderate need levels, into intervention and treatment as usual
Canadian cities. BMJ open, 1(2).               groups. Quantitative outcome measures are being collected over a 2-year period and a qualitative
                                               process evaluation is being completed. Primary outcomes are housing stability, social functioning
                                               and, for the economic analyses, quality of life. Hierarchical linear modeling is the primary data
                                               analytic strategy. The results of the multi-site analyses of outcomes at 12 months and 2 years will
                                               be reported in a series of core scientific journal papers. Extensive knowledge exchange activities
                                               with non-academic audiences will occur throughout the duration of the project.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                               12
2. Effectiveness of Interventions               2. Effectiveness of Interventions
Citation                                        Synopsis

Goering, P., Velhuizen, S., Watson, A.,         Over 900 individuals from our shelters and on our streets who have not been well served by our
Adair, C., Kopp, B., Latimer, E., & Ly, A.      current approach are now housed in adequate, affordable and suitable settings. Eighty six percent
(2012). At Home/Chez Soi Interim                of participants remain in their first or second unit (as of August 2012). At 12 months those in the
Report. Mental Health Commission of             Housing First intervention had spent an average of 73% of their time in stable housing. In contrast,
Canada.                                         those in treatment as usual (TAU) spend only 30% of their time in stable housing. This creates the
                                                possibility of better long term health and social functioning outcomes for individuals who have
                                                histories of trauma and poor health. Once housed many are beginning to take advantage of the
                                                safer places and the opportunities that are created to make better life choices – including pursing
                                                opportunities to engage in part or full-time employment.
LaPerle, A. (2012). Downtown street             This report describes the objectives and outcomes of the Downtown Street Outreach Initiative.
outreach initiative: Final evaluation report.   This project was designed to help homeless individuals in Edmonton make the transition from
                                                living on the street to adopting a more stable lifestyle, to help community stakeholders learn more
                                                about this group and the unique challenges they face, and to become more aware of service gaps
                                                and systemic barriers that homeless individuals in Edmonton experience.
Surood, S., McNeil,D., Cristall, M., Godbout,   This study is Phase II of a four-phased research proposal to examine functioning and other
J. & Zhou, H. (2012). Pathways to Housing-      outcomes in a Canadian Housing First program, the Pathways to Housing program in Edmonton,
Edmonton: A Homelessness Housing                Alberta that serves individuals with very serious, severe, persistent and multiple problems in their
Initiative (A Four-Phase Project).              health and living situations. Preliminary analyses of available data at baseline, and subsequent
                                                follow-ups show positive participant outcomes through their involvement in the program. At 12
                                                months, provision of a home provided improvement in living conditions, work and leisure activities,
                                                and overall total health outcomes. The results show promise with respect to the effectiveness of
                                                Housing First for housing stability and certain aspects of quality of life.
Waegemakers Schiff, J. & Rook, J. (2012).       Speedy implementation of a new initiative is often fraught with issues of fidelity in replicating the
Housing first - Where is the Evidence?          model program in other locations (McGrew, et al., 1994). Our search uncovered three founding
(Toronto: Homeless Hub).                        programs that can be considered housing first models. Because of their differences, we begin this
                                                review with a brief description of each and then turn our attention to the evidence base for housing
                                                first as reported in the academic literature. Because of the limited documentation of this approach,
                                                we will further the understanding of housing first by reviewing government documents and reports
                                                that provide an insight on this evolution and its current public acceptance. Finally, we critically
                                                examine the assumptions and gaps in the literature that require further evidence-based data.
Calgary Homeless Foundation (In-Progress)       Intervention analysis on HMIS data by population group and program model

   April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                              13
2. Effectiveness of Interventions              2. Effectiveness of Interventions
Citation                                       Synopsis

                         2. Effectiveness of Interventions - Cross Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations - Women
Brower, Krista (2012). Best practices:         As a component of the Healthy, Empowered, Resilient (H.E.R.) Pregnancy Program Year One
services and supports for street-involved      process evaluation, a literature review was conducted. The purpose was to identify elements of
pregnant and parenting women – A Review        successful programming and models similar to the work of the H.E.R. Program. The review was
of the Literature. Report prepared by Charis   designed to capture information on what similar programs are operating both in Canada and
Management Consulting for the Alberta          internationally to support street-involved pregnant women and youth. The review provides
Centre for Child, Family and Community         information on key questions and information sought about service delivery models for street-
Research, Calgary, AB.                         involved pregnant women. It summarizes and provides details on similar programming offered for
                                               street-involved pregnant women that align with the H.E.R. Program goals and principles.
OrgCode Consulting, Inc. & E4C. (2013).        In order to expand the existing body of evidence on how to best support chronically homeless
Intensive Case Management Considerations       women who have been involved in high-risk behaviour to become stably housed and end their
to Improve Housing Stability Amongst           homelessness, a nine-month, qualitative research project to engage with clients receiving housing
Women Involved in High-Risk and/or             and support through the E4C Housing First program was initiated. This study followed twelve
Exploitative Situations                        clients between February-March of 2012 and September-October of 2012, and gathered
                                               information about their lives and histories, their patterns of substance use, high-risk behaviour, and
                                               involvement with emergency services, both before and during the study period. In addition, the
                                               research examined how the participants’ quality of life was affected by becoming housed, using a
                                               range of indicators. The project aimed to answer four research questions: 1. What are the
                                               characteristics of the population? This includes age, past and present involvement with service
                                               delivery systems, and housing history. 2. Was involvement in high-risk and/or exploitative
                                               situations triggered as a result of clients’ homelessness, or did involvement in these situations
                                               predate homelessness? 3. What aspects of Housing First/ICM are currently working well, and how
                                               might amendments be made to improve service delivery and housing stability specifically for
                                               women? 4. Based on the available literature, which evidence-based or evidence-informed
                                               practices should be considered for working with this population?

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2. Effectiveness of Interventions              2. Effectiveness of Interventions
Citation                                       Synopsis

                          2. Effectiveness of Interventions - Cross Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations - Youth

Currie, C. L., & LaBoucane-Benson, P.         Some of the most vulnerable homeless are youth who are at special risk for gang recruitment,
(2011). Impacts of a peer support program     prostitution, and exploitation. The Links program began in 2005 as a three-year project bringing
for street-involved youth. Pimatisiwin: A     street-involved youth and university students together to increase understanding, foster supportive
Journal of Aboriginal & Indigenous            relationships, and enhance the knowledge and skills of each group. Emphasis was placed on
Community Health, 9(1).                       recruiting Aboriginal youth to the program. As a result 50% of street-involved youth who took part
                                              identified as Aboriginal. Qualitative evaluation data were collected via surveys, written
                                              assignments, and in-person interviews. Findings suggest the program created intense bonds
                                              between students and youth. Stereotypes were identified and broken down and youth were
                                              empowered to broaden their perspectives on what they could achieve. Both groups gained
                                              knowledge they can use to build a better future for themselves and their communities.
                              2. Effectiveness of Interventions - Cross Cutting Theme: Aboriginal Populations
Bird, C. E., Thurston, W. E., Oelke, N.,       Aboriginal peoples (First Nation, Métis, Inuit peoples) are highly overrepresented in homeless
Turner, D., & Christiansen, K. (2013)          populations. The need for culturally safe services and programs to address the multiple needs of
Understanding Cultural Safety: Traditional     Aboriginal people who are homeless is great. Cultural safety, according to our understanding, is a
and Client Perspectives. Final Report for      more advanced stage in cultural competence. The research project reported here investigated the
Funder, February 2013.                         concept of cultural safety as it applied to the delivery of homeless services for urban Aboriginal
                                               peoples from the perspective of Aboriginal Elders, clients and former clients, and staff in a non-
                                               Aboriginal organization. The partner organization in the research, Alpha House, provides a
                                               continuum of services for street involved people in four areas: outreach, shelter, detox, and
                                               housing. This project is part of a program of research to broaden understanding of how to enhance
                                               service and program delivery models when working with homeless Aboriginal clients so as to meet
                                               the goal of ending homelessness.
Bodor, R. (2011). Perspectives on the          In 2010, Homeward Trust Edmonton (HTE) proposed to explore their Housing First Support
Housing First Program with Indigenous          Program delivery to Aboriginal people. It was to be a strengths-based qualitative research project
Participants. Accessed from:                   that would assess the successes of the program, as well as identify gaps in services, and/or
                                               challenges in service delivery for Aboriginal peoples. In July 2011, the Blue Quills First Nations
                                               College - Research Team (BQFNC-RT) submitted two reports – the attached thematic document
                                               and an “Interactive Text” – a 35-minute play rooted in the voices of the people interviewed for the
                                               assessment. Both reports grew out of an Indigenous Research Methodology that focuses on
                                               ceremony and stories as the foundation of Aboriginal epistemology. Ceremony generates space
                                               for making enquiries and is essential to gaining knowledge through the sharing of stories and
                                               experiences through Circle Process. HTE and BQFNC wishes to honor the individuals who agreed
                                               to be interviewed, as well as the BQFNC and Housing First teams for their dedication and
                                               acceptance to the project.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                            15
2. Effectiveness of Interventions              2. Effectiveness of Interventions
Citation                                       Synopsis

Thurston, W.E., Oelke, N.D., Turner, D., &    Cultural safety in policies, procedures and practices is foundational to creation of best practices in
Bird, C. (2011). Final Report: Improving      Aboriginal homelessness services. In developing cultural safety, partnerships with Aboriginal
housing outcomes for Aboriginal people in     organizations within and outside of the homelessness sector may be needed and resources are
Western Canada: National, regional,           needed to build the relationships that partnerships require. Aboriginal specific funding envelopes
community and individual perspectives on      can be used more effectively where they exist and can build in partnership development and
changing the future of homelessness.          capacity development within the Aboriginal community where needed. Ending Aboriginal
Prepared for Human Resources and Skills       homelessness will take greater effort in the economic development and education sectors. This
Development Canada, National Housing          project provided the first attempt to provide an extensive overview of organizations that offer
Secretariat.                                  services and programs to homeless populations, with a particular focus on Aboriginal populations.
                                              But, more importantly, the project identified existing success stories, and used the information
                                              gathered from organizations seen by their peers and their clients as providing effective services, to
                                              create a framework for improving service delivery to Aboriginal peoples, service delivery that is
                                              culturally safe and effective for Aboriginal people.
                             2. Effectiveness of Interventions - Cross Cutting Theme: Persons with Disabilities
Calgary Homeless Foundation (In-Progress)      Promising Practices in Delivering Housing and Support Interventions to Chronically and
                                               Episodically Homeless with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DIsorder

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                              16
3. Continuum of Housing & Homelessness Supports & Services
3A. Rural Homelessness
See Review by Jeanette Waegemakers-Schiff and Alina Turner (2014).

3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term          3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
Housing & Supports                              Synopsis
City of Edmonton Housing Branch (2010).         This paper intends to provide information to further discussion around how to encourage diverse
Options to encourage diverse inclusive          inclusive housing in Edmonton. It frames relevant issues, identify key Edmonton neighbourhoods
housing in neighbourhoods across                in distress, proposes a protocol for non-market housing development and outlines three policy
Edmonton.                                       options.

Cook, D., Initiative, C. P. R., Kneebone, R.,   At the request of the Calgary Poverty Reduction Initiative’s Stewardship Committee, the Affordable
& O’Brien,K. H. H. (2012). Proposed             Housing Working Group developed a strategy focused on the issues of housing and homelessness
Affordable Housing Strategy.                    in the context of poverty reduction. The working group’s recommendations center on the concept
                                                of an Affordable Housing Charter. Affordable housing is a critical issue in ongoing discussions
                                                between Alberta’s major urban centers and the Government of Alberta regarding city charters as it
                                                presents a key opportunity to deliver more streamlined services for the benefit of our communities.
                                                Within this shifting context where the provincial-municipal roles and responsibilities are being
                                                reconsidered, a locally-driven affordable housing development and management model could be
                                                implemented where leadership and service delivery is coordinated at the community level. The
                                                roles of federal and provincial governments would be to support local leadership through enabling
                                                policy and resources.
Cummings, G. & Rowe, B. (In progress).
Accessibility of housing programs for brain-
injured homeless populations.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                            17
3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term            3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
Housing & Supports                                Synopsis
Downie, R. (2011). The City of Red Deer
                                                  The focus of this study has been the examination of current and future housing needs and support
and Red Deer & District Community
                                                  services, as well as the identification of existing gaps and anticipated programs and services to be
Foundation: The City of Red Deer Housing
                                                  developed in response to these gaps.
and Homelessness Assessment Report.
                                                  The purpose of the study has been to provide the City of Red Deer and the Red Deer District and
                                                  Community Foundation with up-to-date information of current and future housing needs and to
                                                  identify current and future gaps between existing programs and services. The resulting information
                                                  is used in evaluating and targeting the housing needs of the city’s residents in line with the City of
                                                  Red Deer’s 10 Year Vision and Framework for ending homelessness and the 5 Year
                                                  Implementation Plan for housing and homelessness strategies.
Edmonton Homeless Commission. (2011).             Since 2009, the Edmonton Homeless Commission (EHC) has overseen numerous partners
Final Report: Study of the Homeless in            working to implement A Place to Call Home – Edmonton’s 10 Year Plan to End Homelessness
Edmonton with Intensive Needs.                    (The 10 Year Plan). In alignment with The 10 Year Plan, the EHC recently identified the need to
                                                  explore better ways to house and support a segment of the homeless population whose intensive
                                                  needs have not been addressed effectively to date by the housing and support options available in

Goldblatt, A., Felix, R., Chotai, V., & Fleger,   The Housing Support Services Hub (“Hub”) was launched in 2008 in Edmonton as an interagency
M. (2011). Prepared for the Housing Support       strategy to enhance the capacity of 13 member agencies to secure housing, prevent evictions and
Services Hub, Edmonton, Alberta. Final            increase the housing stability of the people with whom they work. This report highlights some of
Report: Systemic Barriers to Housing              the systemic barriers that had an unintended negative impact on individuals' and families' ability to
Initiative.                                       access and maintain stable housing. The report was used to facilitate an initial dialogue to facilitate
                                                  joint problem solving on these barriers between community and government.

Homeward Trust Edmonton. (2013).                  This report focuses on the results of an in-depth examination of housing retention challenges in
Understanding tenancy failures and                Edmonton. The research questions were as follows 1) Why do some tenancies fail thereby
successes: final report: a research project by    necessitating re-housing sometimes on multiple occasions? 2) What best practices are in use
Edmonton Social Planning Council and              locally and elsewhere to maximize housing retention? 3) What practical and effective measures
Edmonton Coalition on Housing and                 can be put in place to reduce the risk of tenancy failure due to negative circumstances?
Homelessness. Accessed from:                      While the re-housing mandate of Edmonton’s Housing First program brought the challenge of
                                                  housing retention into sharper focus, housing retention is a broader challenge affecting most low
                                                  income and many modest income tenants.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                  18
3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term         3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
Housing & Supports                             Synopsis
John Howard Society of Alberta (2014).         This discussion paper provides an overview of social impact bonds from several countries as they
Social impact bonds and their potential for    pertain to criminal justice matters. It focuses on how social impact bonds are structures and how
corrections Alberta programming.               success criteria are measured. It also examines the feasibility of social impact bonds projects that
                                               may be explored in regards to reducing the recidivism rate of offenders with short-term
                                               prison/custody sentences.

Kovacs-Burns,K. & Richter, S. (2010).
                                               Attachment 5 lists various grey literature documents completed in this area between 1990-2010,
Homelessness-Related Research Capacities
                                               under "IV. Housing and Homelessness".
in Alberta: A Comprehensive Environmental

Noble, C. & Selinger, C. (2012). Calgary       This housing needs assessment provides information on who is in need of affordable housing and
Affordable Housing Needs Assessment.           what types of affordable housing are deficient.
Calgary, AB: The City of Calgary, Affordable
Housing Division                               housing/Housing%20Needs%20Assessment%20June%202012.pdf?noredirect=1

Schiff, R., Waegemakers-Schiff, J., &          This review of over 750 reports from academic and grey literatures examines the evolution of
Schneider, B. (2010). Housing for the          policy and best practice movements that have linked housing, treatment, and supports for persons
Disabled Mentally Ill: Moving Beyond           with a mental illness disability. A notable gap in this literature is that reports assume homogeneity
Homogeneity. Canadian Journal of Urban         among this population with the disability as the prime criteria for housing type. Canadian
Research, 19(2).                               acceptance of a diverse society includes acceptance of subpopulations that have significant and
                                               unique needs, which are unaccounted for in this housing literature. These include people who are
                                               "hard to house" because of severe functional impairments, the elderly, those of Aboriginal or non-
                                               Western (European) ethnic origin, and people in small town and rural settings. This synthesis of
                                               the literature challenges the unspoken assumption that all persons disabled by a mental illness
                                               need or accept a uniform housing approach.

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                              19
3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term          3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
Housing & Supports                              Synopsis
Tsenkova, S., & Witwer, M. (2011). Bridging     In the context of growing shortages of affordable housing in Alberta, the policy discourse in the last
the Gap: Policy Instruments to Encourage        decade has centered on ways to get the private sector involved through a variety of public-private
Private Sector Provision of Affordable Rental   partnerships, policy incentives and regulatory measures. This research explores alternatives for
Housing in Alberta. Canadian Journal of         private sector engagement in the provision of affordable housing focusing on four clusters of policy
Urban Research.                                 instruments-regulatory/planning, fiscal, financial and institutional. The article provides a much-
                                                needed overview of challenges and opportunities in Alberta using conceptually appropriate
                                                analytical framework, fresh empirical evidence, case study analysis and insights from the practical
                                                experiences of industry professionals. It argues that a much more robust and sustainable system
                                                of direct subsidies is required to bridge the funding gap between the cost of development and
                                                potential revenue generation in affordable rental housing. In addition to fiscal support from senior
                                                governments and improved access to more affordable long-term finance, it suggests that
                                                municipalities can play a significant role in facilitating private sector involvement by creating a
                                                positive planning and policy environment. Key recommendations in that regard focus on density
                                                bonusing, streamlined development approval and acquisition of land through land trusts and land
          3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports - Cross Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations: Youth

Kovacs-Burns,K. & Richter, S. (2010).
                                                Attachment 4 lists various published research literature between 1990-2010 under "homeless
Homelessness-Related Research Capacities
                                                youth". Attachment 5 lists various grey literature documents completed in this area between 1990-
in Alberta: A Comprehensive Environmental
                                                2010, under "XII. Youth Homelessness/Homeless Youth".

          3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports - Cross Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations: Women

Kovacs-Burns,K. & Richter, S. (2010).
                                                Attachment 4 lists various published research literature between 1990-2010 under "homeless
Homelessness-Related Research Capacities
in Alberta: A Comprehensive Environmental

        3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports - Cross Cutting Theme: Vulnerable Populations: Newcomers
Kovacs-Burns,K. & Richter, S. (2010).
                                            Attachment 5 lists various grey literature documents completed in this area between 1990-2010,
Homelessness-Related Research Capacities
                                            under "V. Immigrants and Homelessness".
in Alberta: A Comprehensive Environmental

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                               20
3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term             3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports
Housing & Supports                                 Synopsis
Murphy, L. (Doctoral Thesis). Housing
                                                   Project focused on understanding housing precariousness for low income Aboriginal and
Vulnerability, Social Capital, and Mobility -- A
                                                   Newcomer families in Edmonton (using the Families First dataset). Quantitative methods
Case Study of Newcomer Immigrant and
                                                   (regression, descriptives) to estimate housing indicators and to get a benchmark for Indigenous as
Indigenous Families. (In Progress)
                                                   well as immigrant families, as compared to the overall sample population. Qualitatively, looking at
                                                   case worker notes to get a sense of what those statistics mean for families in their lived
                                                   experience--namely themes of housing as well as emergent strategies that families use in terms of
                                                   housing. Maps also used to explore where families were living and where they moved during the
                                                   project (families listed postal codes) to get a sense of 'livability'--where families were located, as
                                                   well as where they were moving from and where they were moving to.

                    3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports - Cross Cutting Theme: Families
Calgary Homeless Foundation (In Progress)
                                          Permanent Supportive Housing for Homeless Families with Complex Needs

                  3B. Coordinated Planning for Long-term Housing & Supports - Cross Cutting Theme: Aboriginal Peoples

Belanger, Y. D., Weasel Head, G, &                 This paper explores the current state of urban Aboriginal housing in Canada, by providing an up-
Awosoga, O. (2012). Housing and Aboriginal         to-date mapping of national urban Aboriginal housing conditions. This paper demonstrates that
People in urban centres: A quantitative            home ownership helps to reduce the gap between mainstream and Aboriginal rates of core
evaluation. Aboriginal Policy Studies, 2(1).       housing need, for Aboriginal renters are substantially worse off than their non-Aboriginal
                                                   counterparts in terms of core housing need and overcrowding.           tis and on-Status Indians are
                                                   also more likely to become homeowners than Status Indians and Inuit. A cyclical process is
                                                   identified that hinders urban Aboriginal homeownership, and home rental advancement is also
                                                   discussed. Existing federal housing programs are inadequate to address the housing and
                                                   homeless issues identified. We highlight the need to establish proactive policies, the goal being to
                                                   facilitate individual transition into urban centres, thereby helping to ameliorate existing housing
Belanger, Y.D, Weasel Head, G., Awosogo,           This report sought to determine the current state of urban Aboriginal housing and how it can be
O. (2012) Assessing Urban Aboriginal               improved. An up-to-date mapping of Aboriginal people’s housing conditions in urban areas is
Housing and Homelessness in Canada.                provided. (The full report of the paper cited above).
Ottawa, ON, CAN: National Association of 
Friendship Centres (NAFC) and the Office of        _6_May_2012.pdf
the Federal Interlocutor for Metis and Non-
Status Indians )OFI)

  April 2014 – Homelessness Studies Completed by Albertan Researchers (2010-2014)                                                                  21
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