Aqueduto.com - An Annotated Bibliography Online Language Teacher Education

 
Online Language Teacher Education:
An Annotated Bibliography
         A commissioned bibliography for the
 Association for Quality Education and Training Online

       aqueduto.com
              Denise E. Murray, Macquarie University
              MaryAnn Christison, University of Utah
About this bibliography                             provide but one way of sorting the
This bibliography is made available free of         contributions of these papers. We have
charge by Aqueduto, and is available from           included a variety of materials from a range of
our website at: http://aqueduto.com/
research/.                                          sources with varying quality: some are peer
                                                    reviewed and others are less formal. Many of
You may download, print, distribute and             the OLTE-specific research studies used the
share the bibliography in hard copy or              community of inquiry (CoI) framework of
electronic means so long as it is not edited,       social presence, teaching presence, and
changed, redesigned or broken up into
smaller sections.                                   cognitive presence. This framework was
                                                    initially articulated in Garrison, Anderson, &
Please use the following details to refer to this   Archer (2000) and is included under
publication:                                        foundational papers.

Murray. D.E. and Christison, M. (2020). An
Annotated Bibliography for Online Language          Elsewhere (Christison & Murray, 2017), we
Teacher Education. Aqueduto, Norwich.               have classified “OLTE into five different types
                                                    based on how online technologies are being
                                                    implemented in the design of courses—
                                                    enhanced, blended/hybrid, flipped, online
                                                    with a synchronous component, and
                                                    asynchronous online” (p. 17). In this
                                                    annotated bibliography, we have included all
                                                    types, not only those courses and programs
                                                    that are fully online, because there are few
To organize the articles, chapters, and books
                                                    extant empirical research studies that fall into
in this annotated bibliography for online
                                                    that category. We have also included articles
language teacher education (OLTE), we have
                                                    on the use of videos for promoting teacher
created three categories for the documents:
                                                    reflection. While these articles are not specific
(1) research, (2) foundational, (3) and
                                                    to OLTE, the use of video in OLTE is thought
commentary/descriptive. Research papers
                                                    to be a useful tool, especially for the
are focused primarily on reporting results
                                                    practicum.
from one empirical research study or from a
series of studies. Foundational papers and
                                                    Note: There are many gaps in the extant
books may not be about OLTE directly, but
                                                    research literature on OLTE. An AQUEDUTO
they are included because the ideas
                                                    commissioned literature review identifies
presented in these documents have been
                                                    these gaps and recommends areas for future
used to form the basis for theoretical and
                                                    research. The review is available at:
instructional frameworks that have influenced
OLTE and its research base or have the
                                                    http://aqueduto.com/research/
potential to do so. Commentary and
descriptive papers offer opinions and
remarks on specific aspects of research or
describe experiences related to and
reflections on OLTE. These categories

                                                                                                  2
Research Papers                        persevered were individually invested in
                                                    completing the required work, rather than in
Arnold, N., & Ducate, L. (2006). Future             the collaborative interactions. There was a
foreign language teachers’ social and               high dropout rate, which the researchers
cognitive collaboration in an online                presumed was due to primitive technology
environment.    Language  Learning    &             and poor tutoring.
Technology, 10(1), 42–66.
                                                    Brooke, M. (2014). Developing the reflective
Arnold and Ducate studied the use of                practice capabilities of pre-service trainees
discussion boards in a foreign language             through online means. 4th CELC Symposium
methodology course at two universities in the       Proceedings (pp. 50-60). Retrieved from
United States. They used the communities of         http://www.nus.edu.sg/celc/research/
inquiry (CoI) framework for their analysis of the   books/4th%20Symposium%20proceedings/8).
data, finding that the participants were highly     %20Mark%20Brooke%2017-10-2014.pdf
engaged in dialoging with their peers.
Participants used this social presence to           Brooke studied preservice ESOL teacher
develop their understanding of pedagogy.            learners during a practicum, wherein they
Arnold and Ducate attributed cognitive              reflected on and shared their experiences
presence to the structure of the discussions:       through asynchronous e-journaling and
the teacher educators did not participate in        collaborative discussion forums. For their
the discussions but were responsible for            reflections to result in new understandings of
assigning specific topics and developing            language teaching, he found that he needed
grading criteria for the discussions, thus,         to use intensive, explicit scaffolding through
focusing students’ attention on one another         questioning. Participants asked themselves:
and the topic.                                      What did I already know but still benefited
                                                    from when teaching in school? What did I not
Banegas, D. L., & Manzur Busleimán, G.              know but learned from observing teaching in
(2014). Motivating factors in online language       school? What would I like to implement in my
teacher education in southern Argentina.            own teaching? What are my comments on and
Computers & Education, 76, 131–142.                 reactions to the experiences that I have had?

Banegas & Busleimán used an online survey           Chiero, R., & Beare, P. (2010). An evaluation
and interviews to investigate motivation in an      of online versus campus-based teacher
online English language teacher training            preparation Programs. MERLOT Journal of
course for practicing teachers across               Online Learning and Teaching, 6(4). Retrieved
Patagonia, Argentina. Some teachers needed          fromhttp://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no4/
a degree to continue teaching, while others         chiero_1210.pdf
were interested in English language teaching
(ELT) but could not move to towns for such          The purpose of this study was to compare an
training. The authors found that students           innovative online teacher education program
were motivated to participate in the course to      with traditional campus-based programs
obtain the qualification. Those who                 within a large state university system in the
                                                    United States. The study analyzed data from

                                                                                                3
annual systemwide evaluations of teachers.         Through the use of a survey, Copland and
Participants were supervisors and program          Garton explored the impact of an OLTE
graduates who had completed one year of            course on teachers being able to implement
professional teaching. Results showed that         new ideas and approaches from the OLTE
supervisors’ ratings were consistently higher      course into their own ELT classrooms. For
for teachers from the online program for both      comparison, on campus students also
the selected campus-based programs and             completed the survey. They found that the
the system as a whole. Characteristics             online program promoted continuing
identified in the literature on effective online   professional development and career growth
learning and on effective teacher preparation      of online teachers through this situated
provided the frameworks that were used to          learning. However, they noted that the
describe the advantages of online teacher          cohorts in the two programs differed
education programs over the traditional            considerably, which may have affected the
pathways.                                          results.

Contijoch-Escontria, M. C., Burns, A., &           Crichton, R., Edmett, A., & Mann, S. (2019).
Candlin, C. N. (2012). Feedback in the             Video based observation and feedback for
mediation of learning in online language           Thai in-service teachers: The mentor’s role.
teacher education. In L. England (Ed.), Online     ELTED, 22, 27-42.
language teacher education: TESOL
perspectives (pp. 22-77). New York, NY: Taylor     This article focused on analyzing mentors’ and
& Francis.                                         Thai teachers’ interviews, as well as
                                                   recordings of teacher-mentor discourse. The
Contijoch-Escontria, Burns, and Candlin            purpose of the study was (1) to elaborate on
examined how feedback in OLTE mediates             elements of the mentors’ role that helped
learning. They conducted an analysis of the        Thai teachers reflect on their practice and (2)
feedback discourse from tutors to teacher          to determine how mentors could support a
learners in a masters’ level program in Mexico     video-based intervention. The data came
and analyzed data from questionnaires and          from a process wherein the mentors guided
interviews with both tutors and learners. They     teachers’ reflections on videos of their own
found that the tutors needed to reflect            teaching and videos of other Thai teachers;
critically on their methodological procedures      both online and face-to-face discourses were
and assessment practices, with a specific          used. The research also considered the
focus on the language used in the feedback,        mentors’ roles, identities, and interactions.
to prevent misunderstandings that resulted         Interviews revealed some of the challenges
from online communication.                         and affordances that video observations
                                                   provided in this process.
Copland, F., & Garton, S. (2012). Life after
online learning. In L. England (Ed.), Online       Edmett, A.W. (2018). Online professional
language teacher education: TESOL                  development of English teachers: An analysis
perspectives (pp. 64-77). New York, NY: Taylor     of cognitive presence via the community of
& Francis.                                         inquiry framework (Unpublished doctoral

                                                                                                4
dissertation),   University   of   Bath,   Bath,   collaborative activity of two groups, and
England.                                           teachers’ perceptions of the collaboration
                                                   that took place.
This study explored the educational benefits
of online dialogue using a Community of            Eröz-Tuğa, B. (2013). Reflective feedback
Inquiry (CoI) framework, which allows learners     sessions using video recordings. ELT Journal,
to collaboratively construct knowledge             67, 175–183.
through critical discourse. CoI research has
suggested that higher levels of reflective         The practicum is an important component in
thought are not occurring in online                the education of pre-service teachers. It
discussions.     This    doctoral    research      introduces prospective English language
investigated the extent to which teaching          teaching (ELT) professionals to the real world
presence, in other words, the online course        of teaching, which includes observing
design and facilitation, affected the              experienced teachers and putting theoretical
development of reflective thought. Two             knowledge into practice. This article
groups of in-service teachers were given           presented the results of a qualitative case
differing discussion forum tasks. Results          study investigating the contribution of
showed that the group using debate and case        reflective feedback sessions, which used
study-type tasks had increased incidences of       video recordings, to the professional
cognitive presence.                                preparation of English language pre-service
                                                   teachers. The results demonstrated the
Ernest, P., Catasús, M. G., Hampel. R.,            importance of clarifying expectations for
Heiser. S., Hopkins. J., Murphy. L., &             teaching, sharing assessment criteria in
Sticker,   U. (2013). Online teacher               advance, and giving regular feedback on
development: collaborating in a virtual            teaching performances. Using videos of
learning environment. Computer Assisted            teachers’ own classroom presentations
Language Learning, 26(4), 311-333.                 contributed to the development of teaching
                                                   skills and was more effective that simply
Because teachers play an important role in         talking about teaching.
facilitating learner collaboration online, they
need skills to do so successfully. This research   Gakonga, J. (2012). Collaboration or bust? An
was piloted by two universities with the aim of    inquiry into the use of differing on-line models
advancing teachers’ experiences of online          of delivery for a pre-service grammar course
group work. Twenty teachers trialed a set of       for English teachers (Masters dissertation).
pilot activities to raise awareness of factors     University of Warwick. Retrieved from https://
that contribute to successful collaborative        www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/
online activity. The research examined the         files/jo_gakonga_glt_0.pdf.
competences and skills of the teachers as they
implemented the activities. Quantitative and       The Internet has changed teacher education
qualitative data were collected, allowing          so that many in-service courses are now
researchers to examine the amount of               offered exclusively online. This mixed
participation among participants, the              methods study traced the development of an

                                                                                                5
online course that was aimed at teacher            Hall and Knox reported on an international
language awareness. It described how the           survey of OLTE providers to present an
course could be taught most effectively using      understanding of the range of programs and
a range of technology and a balance of             their characteristics. They identified 116
interactive and independent learning.              programs, receiving responses from 24
Synchronous learning using a virtual               individuals from 23 institutions. These
classroom and asynchronously accessed              institutions represented a variety of different
recordings were compared. Results showed           types in terms of size, utilization of
that asynchronously accessed recordings            technology, qualifications offered, quality,
were preferable because they were both             staffing configurations, and geographical
convenient and pedagogically useful,               location. Respondents identified issues, such
allowing for the freedom to replay, pause,         as the need for quality standards, the high
take notes, and consult other reference            workload, the challenge in communicating
materials for the consolidation of learning.       digitally, and their changing roles as teacher
The results also showed that asynchronous          educators. The authors conclude with a
collaborative learning via the Internet had        discussion of the need for research into the
motivational value as the majority of              challenges and affordances of OLTE.
participants in this study preferred
independent learning.                              Hall, D. & Knox, J. S. (2012). Investigating
                                                   assessment in online discussions: A case study
Garton, G., & Edge, J. (2012). Why be an           of peer assessment in an LTED course. In L.
online learner in TESOL? In L. England (Ed,),      England (Ed,), Online language teacher
Online language teacher education: TESOL           education: TESOL Perspectives (pp.137-153).
Perspectives (pp.9-21). New York, NY:              New York, NY: Routledge.
Routledge.
                                                   Hall and Knox first reported on the results of
Using student data, Garton & Edge sought to        surveys administered to both OLTE providers
reconceptualize distance learning so that          and students, which comprised online
teacher learners were not considered to be         assessment issues, such as technology,
distant, but to be situated. In this               situated learning, and the pedagogical value
reconceptualization, the scaffolding of            of assessing discussions. The chapter then
concepts and different approaches to               reported on a case study in which they
practice supported teacher learning as course      investigated      peer      assessment      of
participants experimented with their own           contributions in online discussions from both
practice    in   context.    Through      this     distance and on campus students. Students
experimentation of action, reflection, and         found the task to be challenging as did the
action, teachers no longer saw theory and          instructors whose workload increased
practice as separate.                              significantly. The researchers concluded that
                                                   the innovation was worthwhile, but ultimately,
Hall, D. R., & Knox, J. S. (2009). Issues in the   the validity of peer assessment of online
education of TESOL teachers by distance            discussions was critically dependent on
education. Distance Education, 30(1), 63-85.       individuals’ responses to the task and context.

                                                                                                6
Johnson, M. (2002). The role of computer-       particular, the challenges of studying
supported discussion for language teachers:     complex       concepts      without    intense
What do the students say? CALICO Journal,       engagement with other students. They
20, 1, 59-80.                                   identified strategies they used to compensate
                                                for lack of engagement. They emphasized
This article reported on findings from the      both the importance of how quality
author's on-going study of the use of           instruction was organized, delivered, and
computer-mediated communication (CMC)           assessed and how technology could facilitate
to support postgraduate second-language         or hinder learning.
teacher education (SLTE). Participants were
students enrolled in a distance education,      Mann, S. & Talandis, Jr, J. (2012). Developing
computer assisted language learning (CALL)      communities of practice at a distance. In L.
course that used web-based conferencing to      England (Ed.), Online language teacher
support both required and optional              education: TESOL perspectives (pp. 122-136).
computer-based assignments. Transcripts of      New York, NY: Routledge.
students’ online communication were
analyzed to determine what they discussed       Mann and Talandis researched two different
and whether social cohesion in the              technologies for facilitating communities of
discussions was enhanced through use of         practice (CoPs) in university-based OLTEs: a
CMC. Findings from the study are reported       discussion list that was archived and a
according to organizing categories of social    platform for networking groups. The archive
interaction and the different tasks that        was available to potential students, course
affected     the   online    communicative      participants, and program graduates. The
exchanges. In addition, the article discussed   other platform was available to course
curriculum design features and the              participants and program graduates. The
implications of these design features for       researchers found that forming and
technology-enhanced instructional practice.     supporting online CoPs was highly complex
                                                and needed to be carefully designed for the
Legg, M. & Knox, J. S. (2012). Reflections on   CoP to be sustained. In particular, they
learning TESOL at a distance. In L. England     warned that the needs of individual CoP
(Ed,), Online language teacher education:       members should not be sacrificed in favor of
TESOL Perspectives (pp.54-63). New York,        the cognitive and social needs of the
NY: Routledge.                                  community.

Using narrative inquiry, Legg and Knox          McLoughlin, D. & Mynard, J. (2009). An
examined their own experiences in the same      analysis of higher order thinking in online
distance learning master’s program—Legg,        discussions. Innovations in Education and
when online discussion groups were available    Teaching International, 46(2), 147-160.
and Knox, when communication was
restricted to paper/post and primitive early    This paper described a study of online
email. They shared similar experiences          discussion forums as tools for promoting
around the social nature of learning, in        higher-order thinking. Online discussion

                                                                                            7
forum transcripts were collected over a 20        case reports. The results identified what
week semester, analyzed for evidence of           programs, workshops, and/or courses were
higher order thinking, and placed within one      being offered online, the levels at which such
of the model’s categories of triggering,          education was being offered (e.g.,
exploration, integration, or resolution, (see     undergraduate, diploma, masters’ degree,
Garrison et al, 2001 in foundational papers).     workshops, courses), and the issues that arose
The results showed evidence of higher-order       in delivering teacher education online and
thinking processes as the majority of the posts   how to address them. Of the 186 institutions
were categorized as exploration or                offering OLTE, 18 agreed to write case
integration. Specific conditions needed to be     reports. The issues identified through the
present in order for higher order thinking to     three data sets included distinguishing
arise, suggesting that initial teacher prompts    appropriate candidates for OLTE, developing
had a bearing on the nature of learners’ posts.   communities of practice, the intersection of
                                                  technology and pedagogy, and OLTE quality.
Murphy, E. (2004). Recognising and
promoting collaboration in an online              Murray, D. E., & Christison, M. A. (2017).
asynchronous discussion. British Journal of       Online    language     teacher     education:
Educational Technology, 35(4), 421-431.           Participants’ perceptions and experiences.
                                                  Retrieved from https://www.tirfonline.org/wp-
Murphy’s research of an online asynchronous       content/uploads/2017/03/
discussion among pre-service teachers of          TIRF_OLTE_2017_Report_Final.pdf.
French in a methods course was designed to
investigate the efficacy of a collaboration       This research focused on the experiences and
framework. The instrument consisted of a          perceptions of teacher educators (instructors)
continuum of six processes that move from         and teacher learners (students) in online
social presence through to producing shared       language teacher education (OLTE). To carry
artefacts. She found the instrument to be         out the study, two online questionnaires were
effective in uncovering the teachers’             developed. One hundred eighty-five
processes. Participants engaged primarily in      programs/courses were invited to participate
processes related to social presence and          and a total of 446 questionnaires were
articulating individual perspectives, but they    returned. The quantitative data were analyzed
did not reach a stage of sharing goals and        using Qualtrics, while the qualitative data
producing shared artefacts.                       were coded to create categories that related
                                                  to the main constructs represented in the
Murray, D. E. (2013). A case for online           research questions. The results shed light on
language teacher education. Retrieved from        who is participating in OLTE, teacher learners’
http://www.tirfonline.org/wp-content/             reasons for choosing OLTE, as well as both
uploads/2013/05/TIRF_OLTE_Two-                    teacher educators’ and teacher learners’
PageSpread_May2013.pdf.                           perceptions of the different types or
                                                  configurations possible for OLTE (i.e.,
Murray’s study on the state of OLTE involved      enhanced, hybrid, synchronous online),
a literature review, webpage analyses, and        indicators of quality, learning management

                                                                                               8
systems, and assessment practices.               Nunan conducted a case study of a web-
                                                 based course in a distance TESOL program to
Murray, D. E., & Christison, M. A. (2018).       determine the potential of this mode of
Online language teacher education: A review      delivery. Data included chat transcripts and
of the literature. A commissioned research       teacher learner interviews. He found that the
report for the Association of Quality            chat feature allowed teacher learners to
Education and Training Online. Norwich,          engage in conversations with one another
England: AQUEDUTO. Retrieved from http://        and the professor and was used to question
aqueduto.com/research/.                          how the knowledge from the course applied
                                                 to their own classrooms. The participants
The spread of English as the global language     found this new way of learning challenging,
for commerce, science, and technology and        especially when logjams occurred during chat
the development of new digital technologies      sessions. The author noted that web-based
have transformed transnational education         instruction could be used for collaborative
and made online learning the fastest growing     learning but could also facilitate traditional
area of education in the 21st century. As more   transmission modes.
OLTE programs emerge in response to the
demand for online learning, issues of quality    Pawan, F., Paulus, T. M., Yalcin, S., & Chang,
in OLTE naturally emerge and practitioners       C. (2003). Online learning: Patterns of
turn to research for guidance. The authors       engagement and interaction among in-
note that there is a dearth of research          service teachers. Language Learning &
available on OLTE, especially relative to        Technology, 7(3), 119–140. Retrieved from
learner outcomes. The authors structure their    http://llt.msu.edu/vol7num3/pawan/.
review of the research around the following
issues: (a) factors that determine how OLTE is   Collaborative interactions are an essential
defined; (b) various purposes teacher learners   element of any pedagogy that assumes that
have for learning online; (c) reasons why        learning    is    collaborative     and     that
teacher learners choose OLTE; (d) issues in      understanding develops as a result of
OLTE, such as the readiness of teacher           modeling, participation in, and reaction to the
learners, (d) the preparation of teacher         behaviors and thoughts of others. This study
educators for teaching online, (e) assuring      was conducted to analyze the collaborative
quality; (f) teacher educators’ and teacher      interactions that were used during
learners’ attitudes and perceptions; (g) and     discussions in three online classes. The goal
frameworks for examining OLTE. Six               was to support instructors in including
recommendations for OLTE are given.              collaborative interactions in their courses. As
                                                 a framework for the study, the practical inquiry
Nunan, D. C. (1999). A foot in the world of      model (Garrison et al., 2001) was used.
ideas: Graduate study through the internet.      Findings suggested that without explicit
Language Learning & Technology, 3(1): 43-60.     guidance from the course instructors,
Retrieved from https://www.lltjournal.org/       students engaged primarily in "serial
item/2286.                                       monologues." Three intervention strategies
                                                 were offered to increase collaborative

                                                                                              9
interaction during online discussions.               Participation in online communities is an
                                                     increasing need for future language teachers
Rodriquez, M. E. (2016). Effective                   and their professional development. This
pedagogical practice in online English               research        investigated     participation,
language teacher education. Unpublished              interaction patterns, and levels of social
doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona.        presence (SP) of pre-service English as a
Retrieved from https://repository.arizona.edu/       foreign language (EFL) teachers in online
bitstream/handle/10150/613241/                       communication within a longitudinal study
azu_etd_14601_sip1_m.pdf?sequence=1.                 and a blended learning setting. A second aim
                                                     was to explore social network analysis (SNA)
It is essential for providers of OLTE to             as an alternative method of measuring SP. The
demonstrate quality in online instruction and        results indicated that an online course that
for students to receive a quality educational        focused on tutoring skills and SP improved
experience. This study explored students’            preservice EFL teachers’ online participation
and instructors' perceptions of effective            skills. Increased interaction and the
pedagogical practices in OLTE. Participants          development of a more cohesive network
were 18 instructors and 125 former students          were observed as the course progressed. The
from non-credit certificate, professional            findings suggested a relationship between
development, and post-secondary credit               content analysis for SP (especially the
OLTE courses. Each participant completed an          interactive dimension) and SNA measures
online survey. Twenty-two students, eight            (centrality, influence, and prestige), showing
instructors, and two program coordinators            promise for SNA as an emerging research
participated in semi-structured interviews.          method for the investigation of SP.
Results of this study indicated that
participants had positive perceptions about          Shin, D., & Kang, H-S. (2017). Online
the current pedagogical practices. However,          language teacher education: Practices and
an analysis of surveys and interviews showed         possibilities. RELC Journal, 1-2. https://
that instructional strategies could be               doi.org/10.1177/0033688217716535.
improved as students perceived there to be
little variety in online instructional activities.   Along with the expansion of computer
The difference in perceptions of collaboration       technologies in education, an increasing
between the student and instructor groups            number of academic degrees and
surveyed was statistically significant. Students     professional development credentials in
also perceived instructor online presence to         language teacher education are offered
be low, particularly in the discussions.             online. Despite the rapid growth in the
                                                     number of OLTE programs, there is still a
Satar, H. M. & Akcan, S. (2018). Pre-service         dearth of research about OLTE, its
EFL     teachers’    online     participation,       implementation practices and its overall
interaction, and social presence. Language           efficacy. The aim of this article was to critically
Learning & Technology, 22(1), 157-183. https//       review emerging patterns surrounding OLTE
dx.doi.org/10125/44586.                              programs and to contribute to promoting the
                                                     efficacy of these programs. The review was

                                                                                                   10
based on a synthesis of the existing literature      sharing of ideas for empowering classroom
on OLTE and the supplementary studies of             teachers online. TESOL Journal, 5(3), 444-464.
other related areas, such as computer-
assisted language learning (CALL) and                In efforts to maintain America's global
computer-mediated communication (CMC).               competitiveness in the knowledge based
The authors discussed the purposes, learning         economy, teacher professional development
experiences, and evaluations of OLTE                 has moved to center stage. With increasing
programs with the aim of supporting teachers         numbers of English learners in U.S. schools,
through collaborative, reflective, and               several states have adopted mandatory
experiential learning. The discussion                professional development for classroom
illuminated critical issues and possibilities that   teachers, intended to equip them with the
emerged at the programmatic and                      knowledge and skills they need to shape
pedagogical levels of OLTE. The authors also         students’ future capacities to contribute to
identified the challenges unique to OLTE             the well-being of the country. This research
programs, as well as a future research agenda.       addressed the question of whether using
                                                     online delivery for teachers’ professional
Shin, J. K. & Bickel, B. (2012). Building an         development was a more viable option than
online community of inquiry with participant-        using school- or site-based programs. It then
moderated discussions. In L. England (Ed.).          described the frameworks that guided the
Online language teacher education (pp.               design and organizational structures for an
102-121). New York, NY: Routledge.                   online teacher development program for K12
                                                     teachers of English learners. Insights shared in
Shin and Bickel discussed the results of             this article might serve as guidelines for
multiple    investigations    into    building       framing the implementation of similar
communities of inquiry (CoIs) in online              programs that aimed to create empowered
professional development courses for                 teachers who know how to work with English
international English teachers. The program          learners.
used participatory discussions that were
moderated and modeled by instructors, with                     Foundational Papers
the goal of increasing participants’ cognitive
presence and distributing teaching presence          Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. R., &
by having participants became effective              Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching
starters and wrappers in online discussions.         presence in a computer conferencing
Although different instructors used different        context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning
instructional       approaches         (direct,      Networks, 5(2). Retrieved from http://
participatory, and facilitating), all courses        www.aln.org/pubications/jaln.v4n2/
were evaluated highly by teachers for both           v5n2...anderson.asp.
content and delivery.
                                                     Anderson et al.’s article presented a study that
Smith, S. U. (2014). Frameworks shaping and          applied the community of inquiry (CoI)
online professional development program for          framework to assess teaching presence in
K-12 teachers of ELLs: Toward supporting and         online graduate courses. The analyzed

                                                                                                 11
transcripts for the three categories of            online contexts. The areas of teacher
teaching presence found differences in the         development covered include the notion of
occurrence of the categories across different      adaptive expertise for lifelong learning as
courses.                                           teachers’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes are
                                                   not fully developed in pre-service programs
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the      and the complexity problem as teachers must
community of inquiry framework. The                deal with and juggle multiple academic and
International Review of Research in Open and       social goals on an ongoing basis.
Distributed Learning, 12(5). Retrieved from
http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/    Dede, C., Ketelhut, D. J., Whitehouse, P.,
view/924/1855.                                     Breit, L., & McCloskey, E. M. (2009). A
                                                   research agenda for online teacher
The role of social presence in the CoI             professional development. Journal of
framework is critiqued, and evidence is            Teacher Education, 60, 8-19.
presented that questions the extent of
knowledge co-construction that occurs in           This article highlights key online teacher
most higher education settings, thereby,           professional development (oTPD) areas that
challenging the framework’s underlying             need to be researched. The literature review
assumption. CoI has evolved from a                 documented that much work is anecdotal and
description of a learning process within a         focuses     on    describing    professional
social constructivist paradigm to an               development programs or “lessons learned”
empirically testable construct in an objectivist   without providing full details related to
one. The argument is that social presence          participants, setting, research questions,
does not impact cognitive presence in a            methods of data collection, or analytic
meaningful way and that best teaching              strategies. Research on oTPD needs to be
practices, which are suggested by CoI-based        conducted for software developers to know
studies, are informed by objectivist,              the best design features to include and for
cognitively oriented learning theories.            educators to remain informed about the types
                                                   of programs that support teacher change and
Darling-Hammond, L., Hammerness, K.,               student learning. The recommendations in
Grossman, P., Rust, F., & Shulman, L. (2005).      this article can be used to guide OLTE
The design of teacher education programs. In       scholarship toward the development of an
L. Darling-Hammond & K. Bransford (Eds.),          evidence-based conceptual framework.
Preparing teachers for a changing world:
What teachers should learn and be able to do       Education Endowment Foundation (EEF)
(pp. 390-440). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.         (n.d.). IRIS Connect: Developing classroom
                                                   dialogue and feedback through collective
This    chapter    reviews      classic      and   video reflection. Retrieved from https://
contemporary theory and research on teacher        educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/
learning and development. The areas of             projects-and-evaluation/projects/iris-connect.
teacher development covered are equally
important for teachers in face-to-face (f2f) and   This   paper    described    a   professional

                                                                                             12
development project that was aimed at             the research and was a core concept in
improving dialogue and feedback practices         defining cognitive presence in a CoI. The
among teachers in 11 schools through the use      practical inquiry model was used to
of online videos and collective video             operationalize cognitive presence for the
reflection. On the basis of a range of evidence   purpose of developing a tool to assess critical
from videos of lessons, interviews, and before    discourse and reflection. The authors
and after surveys; there was moderate             presented encouraging empirical findings
evidence of change in the school climate;         related to creating an efficient and reliable
strong evidence that out-of-class activities,     instrument to assess the nature and quality of
such as film clubs, promoted discussion of        critical discourse and thinking in a text-based
teaching and learning; moderate evidence of       educational context.
change in teachers’ thinking; and moderate
evidence of change in teachers’ practice. A       Gaudin, C., & Chaliès, S. (2015). Video
large majority of teachers responding to an       viewing in teacher education and professional
end-of-project survey were positive about the     development:       A    literature    review.
value of the project for their practice.          Educational Research Review 16, 41–67.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. & Archer, W.        This article reviewed the international
(2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based          literature on video viewing in teacher
environment: computer conferencing in             education and professional development.
higher education. The Internet and Higher         Two hundred and fifty-five articles were
Education, 2, 87–105.                             collected, summarized and categorized,
                                                  using a conceptualization that included four
Garrison et al.’s article articulated a new       aspects: teachers’ activities as they viewed
framework for analyzing higher education          classroom videos, the objectives of video
programs     taught        through    computer    viewing, the types of videos viewed, and the
conferencing. The framework identifies three      effects of video viewing on teacher education
components: social presence, teaching             and professional development. The findings
presence, and cognitive presence. According       suggested focused on three questions for
to the model, it is the interaction between the   guiding future research. These questions
three components that results in learning.        were related to (a) whether teachers were able
                                                  to identify and interpret teaching events using
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. & Archer, W.        video and create diverse objectives (for video
(2001). Critical thinking and computer            viewing and for including diverse videos), (b)
conferencing: A model and tool to access          whether video was being used in both
cognitive presence. American Journal of           preservice teacher education and in-service
Distance Education, 15(1), 87-105.                professional development, and (c) how it was
                                                  being used. The findings from this study have
This article described a practical approach to    potential for guiding future research in OLTE
judging the nature and quality of critical        as videos provide important tools for
discourse in a computer conference. A model       understanding teaching and learning in
of a critical community of inquiry (CoI) framed   classroom contexts.

                                                                                             13
Hockly, N., & Clandfield, L. (2010). Teaching         quality of online programs) of online teacher
online. Surrey, England: Delta Publishing.            preparation programs.

OLTE requires knowledge and skills in both            Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague,
teacher education and online teaching;                L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching
therefore, this book provides a critical              successful online courses in higher education:
resource for language teacher educators who           A literature review. Journal of Educational
are interested in OLTE, as well as language           Technology Systems, 46(1), 4-29.
teachers who are interested in online
teaching. It contains three distinct sections         This article synthesized prior empirical studies
that focus on the theory and practice of online       and provided an overview of the issues in
teaching, as well as on teacher development.          online courses. Three major categories of
The first section focuses on getting started,         findings were identified. Learners’ issues
designing and building online courses, and            included their expectations, readiness,
learning more about what tools are available          identity, and participation in online courses.
for teaching online. The second section               Instructors’ issues included changing faculty
focuses on practical activities for the four skills   roles, transitioning from face-to-face to
and using beginning and ending activities             online, time management, and teaching
effectively. The final section provides               styles. Content issues included the role of
resources and references for teacher                  instructors     in    content    development,
educators.                                            integration of multimedia in content, role of
                                                      instructional      strategies    in     content
Huss, J. A. (2007). Administrator attitudes           development, and considerations for content
toward online teacher preparation programs:           development.
Are principals logging on—or logging off?
Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/     Luyt, I. (2013). Bridging spaces: Cross cultural
EJ987301.pdf.                                         perspectives on promoting positive online
                                                      learning experiences. Journal of Educational
This study investigated the attitudes of U.S.         Technology Systems, 42(1), 3-20.
school principals toward the legitimacy of
online programs for the education of                  Online learning has been transformed into a
preservice teachers. A random cluster                 cross-cultural learning space as students from
sampling was used to select participants, and         non-English backgrounds enroll in credit-
a total of 326 principals completed the               bearing courses and adjust their thinking and
questionnaires. The results showed that               writing to adapt to online practices. This
principals were apprehensive about whether            article explored how the globalization of
teachers coming from online programs could            online learning has created unique challenges
develop appropriate dispositions toward               for teaching and learning online in terms of
teaching in face-to-face contexts and whether         how dominant Western educational practices
the social aspects of teaching would be               reinforce ways of knowing, thinking, and
compromised. They also worried about the              writing. The conclusion from the review was
ethical issues and the legitimacy (e.g., the          that online courses, including OLTE, can

                                                                                                  14
transform learning when culturally inclusive       and only five included measures of student
assignments are included.                          learning. Learning was principally defined as
                                                   perceived learning and assessed with a single
Marsh, B., & Mitchell, N. (2014). The role of      item on a closed-form survey. The authors
video      in     teacher       professional       expressed concerns over the soundness of
development. Teacher Development, 18(3),           such measures. The review indicated that
403-417.                                           deep and meaningful learning did not arise in
                                                   these research reports on CoI as learning was
Understanding the potential for video use is       associated with independent activities and
essential in OLTE as video can play a critical     didactic instruction and not with learning that
role in learning online and is a critical          resulted from sustained communication,
component of the teaching practicum. This          which is critical for the CoI framework. The
literature review focuses on the use of video in   results suggest that the research reports that
both preservice teacher education and in-          were considered in this article, neither
service professional development. Research         confirmed nor disconfirmed the efficacy of the
supports the use of video technology               CoI framework.
synchronously and asynchronously. It can
extend the quantity and quality of classroom       Zhao, Y., Lei, J., Lai, B. Y. C., & Tan, H. S.
observation experiences and, therefore, has        (2005). What makes the difference? A practical
the potential to help teachers develop their       analysis of research on the effectiveness of
observation skills, their abilities to analyze     distance education. Teachers College
teaching, and reflect on and learn from their      Record, 107, 1836-1884.
observations. In this article, the authors
describe how linking theory to practice,           The purpose of this study was to identify
developing pedagogical language, and               factors related to effectiveness in distance
learning through communities of practice           education. Although aggregated data of
might be achieved through the use of video in      available studies have shown no significant
e-contexts. Claims for gains that were made        difference in outcomes between distance
in relation to subject matter knowledge are        education and face-to-face education, further
less convincing.                                   examination of the differences revealed that
                                                   distance education programs, just like
Rourke, L. & Kauka, H. (2009). Learning in         traditional education programs, vary a great
communities of inquiry: A review of the            deal in their outcomes. Effectiveness in
literature. Journal of Distance Education, 23      distance education was associated with a
(1), 19-48.                                        number of different pedagogical and
                                                   technological factors. This study led to some
The purpose of this study was to investigate       important data-driven suggestions for and
learning within the CoI framework. Two             about distance education.
hundred and fifty-two research reports that
referenced CoI were reviewed. From the 252         Commentary or Descriptive Papers
reports, only 48 collected and analyzed data
for one or more aspects of the CoI framework       Bonadeo, F. S. (2013). Using a virtual

                                                                                              15
classroom in the practicum: Innovations and         in response to the TESOL Technology
enhanced practices. Argentinian Journal of          Standards Framework. She detailed the
Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 79-87.                   design and delivery features of the course, as
                                                    well as its content and pedagogical principles,
Bonadeo reflected on her experiences                its alignment to the standards, and the
teaching the practicum via the virtual              challenges faced in teaching CALL online.
platform, Moodle. Participants exchanged
and commented on lesson plans, materials,           Compton, L. K. L. (2009). Preparing language
and teaching ideas, as well as their practicum      teachers to teach language online: A look at
teaching experiences. This engagement in            skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer
the collaborative and reflective activities was     Assisted Language Learning, 22(1), 73-91.
instrumental in building a community of
practice (CoP) that continued after                 This paper reviewed and critiqued an existing
graduation.                                         skills framework for online language teaching
                                                    and highlighted the complexity of identifying
Bauer-Ramazani, C. (2006). Training CALL            online language teaching skills. The critique is
teachers online. In P. Hubbard & M. Levy            followed by an alternative framework for
(Eds.), Teacher education in CALL (pp.              online language teaching skills, which covers
183-200). Amsterdam, NL: John Benjamins             three categories of skills (technology,
Publishing Company.                                 pedagogy, and evaluation) at three levels of
                                                    expertise (novice, proficient, and expert). The
In her 2006 chapter, Bauer-Ramanazi                 framework is meant to guide language
explained how her college migrated from a           teacher education programs. This paper also
face-to-face course on computer assisted            uses a systems view (i.e., parts that are
language learning (CALL) to a fully online          connected and joined together by specific
distance course. She explained the                  relationships) to look at the roles and
implementation stages, principles, and              responsibilities of various stakeholders in an
structure of the course, as well as instructional   online learning system. Four major
tasks, and concluded with a discussion of           recommendations are provided to help
challenges and future directions training           language teacher training programs prepare
teachers online.                                    future language teachers for online language
                                                    teaching.
Bauer-Ramazani, C. (2017). Teacher training
with CALL online (distance): A standards-           England, L. (2012). Online distance TESOL in
based approach. In J. B. Son & S. Windeatt          the 21st century: From the trench. In L.
(Eds.), Language teacher education and              England (Ed.), Online language teacher
technology: Approaches and practices (pp.           education: TESOL perspectives (pp. 1-6). New
129-32). London, England: Bloomsbury                York, NY: Routledge.
Academic.
                                                    In this introductory chapter, England
In her 2017 chapter, Bauer-Ramanzi explained        described the landscape of OLTE in which her
how an online CALL course had been adapted          edited volume is situated. She overviews its

                                                                                                16
reach (who takes online classes and why),        Hall and Knox discuss the difficulties teachers
content (what is taught, who teaches online,     have when teaching online. They note that
and what media and devices are used), and        workloads are increased and administrative
status (the advantages and challenges of         support staff are a lifeline for students. They
online TESOL).                                   also acknowledge the marginalized status of
                                                 online teaching resulting from lack of upper
England, L. & Hall, D. (2012). The future of     management engagement in and awareness
online TESOL. In L. England (Ed.), Online        of their distant student population.
language teacher education: TESOL
perspectives (pp. 187-199). New York, NY:        Healey, D. (2012) Planning a distance
Routledge.                                       education course for language teachers:
                                                 What administrators need to consider. In L.
England and Hall note the proliferation of       England (Ed.), Online language teacher
OLTE and seek to chart future directions. They   education: TESOL perspectives (pp. 172-184).
outline key issues and also discuss the roles    New York, NY: Routledge.
and responsibilities of instructors and
administrators, paying particular attention to   Healey elaborates on the issues that
the need for standards of quality for OLTE       administrators need to address before the
provision.                                       development of fully online language teacher
                                                 education. These issues cover all stages of
Gruber, P. 2017). Blended approaches to          implementation        (planning,      course
teaching languages with computers. In J. B.      preparation, teaching, and marketing) in
Son & S. Windeatt (Eds.), Language teacher       terms of both the human resources and the
education and technology: Approaches and         technology infrastructure that need to be
practices (pp. 35-49). London, England:          selected and deployed.
Bloomsbury Academic.
                                                 Hockly, N. (2018). Video-based observation
Gruber describes a graduate course titled,       in teacher education. ELT Journal, 72(3), 1-7.
Technology and Language Learning, that he        doi: 10.1093/elt/ccy022.
teaches across three modes of delivery: face-
to-face, blended, and fully online. He details   Video recordings of classroom practice can
the course content, the course features, and     be effective vehicles for analyzing teaching
issues he has encountered relative to the        and supporting and developing reflective
different modes. The course uses a learning      practices among both pre-service and in-
management system in which all students are      service teachers. This article focused on the
required to participate.                         use of recorded video for self- and peer
                                                 observations for professional development
Hall, D. & Knox, J. (2012). Rewards and          rather than the use of video for external
challenges of online program administration.     evaluative purposes. Although the focus of
In L. England (Ed.), Online language teacher     this article was on face-to-face contexts, we
education: TESOL perspectives (pp. 137-153).     included it in this bibliography because video
New York, NY: Routledge.                         observation in OLTE is important, particularly

                                                                                            17
for the practicum. In addition, there is little   From results culture to quality culture (pp.
published research to date relative to online     252-261). New York, NY: Routledge.
practices; however, the article reviewed two
English    language    teacher      education     This chapter provided commentary on the
programs that involved teachers in viewing        meaning and quality of OLTE. Two important
videos.                                           factors framed the content of this chapter.
                                                  The first factor concerned the nature of OLTE
Humphries, S. & Mihai, F. (2012). Addressing      as the education of English language teachers
the challenges of online assessment: Practical    online is distinct from other types of teacher
solutions for TESOL instructors. In L. England    education and professional development in
(Ed,), Online language teacher education:         terms of its online delivery and interaction;
TESOL Perspectives (pp.39-53). New York,          therefore, it warrants consideration as an
NY: Routledge.                                    independent domain of research. The second
                                                  factor focuses on the tensions between the
Humphries and Mihai’s exploration of both         “ever-expanding possibilities of the online
summative and formative assessment was            space” (p. 252) and the temptation that
conducted through the lens of assessment          providers of OLTE face relative to OLTE. The
validity,   reliability, practicality, and        tendency is to view OLTE in terms of
authenticity. Within each concept, they           convenience and its financial benefits rather
articulated issues online teachers need to        than in terms of asserting quality.
consider, as well as recommendations for
designing online assessments.                     Kiddle, T., & Prince, T. (2019). Digital and
                                                  online approaches to language teacher
Khalsa, D. K. (2012). Creating communities of     education. In S. Walsh & S. Mann (Eds.) The
practice. In L. England (Ed.), Online language    Routledge handbook of English language
teacher education: TESOL perspectives (pp.        teacher education (pp. 111-125). New York,
81-92). New York: NY: Routledge.                  NY: Routledge.

Khalsa identified areas of OLTE research that     This chapter provides an overview of the
need to be explored to ensure that the            approaches available for using digital and
development of communities of practice            online tools and platforms for language
(CoPs) result in learning, such as shared         teacher education. As such, it is an important
identity, empowering human relationships,         article for OLTE. The authors provide a history
more student choices, trust in a virtual team     of digital technology in language and teacher
setting, guidelines for a virtual team setting,   education and consider challenges and
and issues of power.                              opportunities. In addition, they delve into
                                                  interaction, design, platforms and tools, and
Kiddle, T., & Dudeney, G. (2019). Monitoring      options for assessment. These variables are
and evaluating the quality of online TESOL        discussed in blended and fully online teacher
teacher education courses: Ensuring quality       education programs of various sizes. Finally,
assurance standards. In J. D. Agudo (Ed.)         the implications of these variables are
Quality in TESOL and teacher education:           considered for individuals and organizations,

                                                                                             18
for trainers and trainees, and for those who      course content was adapted for teacher
make decisions relative to digital teacher        learners who were proficient users of
education practices.                              technology. Taught both face-to-face and
                                                  online, the course focused on the content of
Kouritzin, S. (2002). The personal, practical,    language learning, but it did include an
and professional rewards of teaching MA-          optional practical tutorial for those who
TESOL courses online. TESOL Quarterly, 36         needed it.
(4), 621-624.
                                                  Nunan, D. (2002). Teaching MA-TESOL
 In this article, the author described her        courses online: challenges and rewards.
experiences using WEBCT for a pilot course        TESOL Quarterly, 36(4), 617-621.
with four TESOL teachers. Kouritzin
acknowledged that she faced each of the           In this paper, the author looked at the
challenges that Nunan (2002) had described,       challenges and rewards of developing and
but she added one more—the relentlessness         implementing a web-based master’s
of the reading and writing commitment that is     program in TESOL for a relatively new virtual
required of the online teacher.                   unversity. The program targeted TESOL
                                                  teachers working in parts of the world where
McAllister, P. G. (2012). Teaching research       opportunites for graduate study were limited.
methods in an online distance course. In L.       Four challenges were described along with
England (Ed.), Online language teacher            potential solutions.
education: TESOL Perspectives (pp.93-101).
New York, NY: Routledge.                          Nunan, D. (2012). Preface. In L. England (Ed.),
                                                  Online language teacher education: TESOL
McAllister described the challenges of            Perspectives (pp. vii-xv). New York, NY:
building a research methods course online,        Routledge
especially given students’ apprehension
regarding research methods courses in face-       As well as summarizing the themes of the
to-face contexts. She listed the essential        volume’s chapters, Nunan also traced his own
components for a successful course, including     experiences with OLTE and identified the
engagement in discussion forums, using            roles of online technology in learning: as a
rubrics for grading assignments in the course,    carrier of content, as a practice tool, as a
and explicit instruction.                         learning management system, and as a
                                                  communication device.
Motteram, G. (2017). Language learning and
technology: A thirty-year journey. In J. B. Son   Opp-Beckman, L. (2012). Administration of
& S. Windeatt (Eds.), Language teacher            online distance education: Academic services
education and technology: Approaches and          in support of ESOL e-learners. In L. England
practices (pp. 63-76). London, England:           (Ed,), Online language teacher education:
Bloomsbury Academic.                              TESOL Perspectives (pp.157-65). New York,
                                                  NY: Routledge.
Motteram explained how the masters’ degree

                                                                                             19
Opp-Beckman discussed the support                 London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
services, both human and computer-based,
that are needed to deliver online services to     The goal of Son’s volume was to provide
educators in remote and low-resourced             guidance on how teachers could develop the
settings. Participants from over 100 countries    knowledge, skills, and strategies they needed
identified their priorities, such as timely and   to use CALL in their classrooms. It includes
courteous communication, and then listed          specific suggestions for how to improve
other issues to consider, such as capacity.       language     teacher        education     and
                                                  development.
Son, J.-B., & Windeatt, S. (Eds.) (2017).
Language teacher education and technology:
Approaches and practices. London, England:        Please use the following details to
                                                  refer to this publication:
Bloomsbury Academic.

                                                  Murray. D.E. and Christison, M. (2020). An
Son & Windeatt’s edited volume is primarily       Annotated Bibliography for Online Language
focused on how CALL pedagogy is being             Teacher Education. Aqueduto, Norwich.
included in language teacher education
programs so that teachers have the
knowledge and skills for employing
technology in their language classes.
However, several chapters also discussed
teacher development courses that were
delivered online (chapters authored by Bauer-
Ramanazani, Gruba, Hubbard, Motteram,
and Son).

Son, J. B. (2017). CALL research, practice and
teachers’ roles. In J. B. Son & S. Windeatt,
Language teacher education and technology:
Approaches and practices (pp. 51-62).
London, England: Bloomsbury Academic.

Describing an elective masters’ course, Son
focused on the features of the course and the
issues and challenges in teaching it. The
features included task-based learning, the
teacher’s role in a CALL context, interaction,
and collaboration. The course was offered
both online and on-campus.

Son, J.-B. (2018). Teacher development in
technology-enhanced language teaching.

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