Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
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Asian Aucklanders and the arts is a partnership research initiative by Creative New Zealand, Auckland City Council and ASB Community Trust. Please contact us for more information, and copies of this report and our other research documents. We also welcome your feedback on this research. Please email us at email@example.com Creative New Zealand Northern Region -Auckland T +64 9 373 3066 E firstname.lastname@example.org W www.creativenz.govt.nz Auckland City Council T +64 9 379 2020 E email@example.com W www.aucklandcity.govt.nz ASB Community Trust T +64 9 360 0291 E firstname.lastname@example.org W www.asbcommunitytrust.org.nz
Contents Foreword 2 Attendance 18 Creative New Zealand 2 Four motivating factors 18 Auckland City Council 3 Events with particular appeal 19 ASB Community Trust 3 Triggers to attendance 19 Acknowledgements 4 Barriers to attendance 20 Participation 21 Introduction to the research 7 Triggers to participation 22 Why we did the research 8 Barriers to participation 23 What we wanted to know 8 Sharing stories 27 How the research was A snapshot of communities 28 conducted: methodology 9 Family stories 30 What we already knew: A creative perspective 39 demographics 10 Artists’ stories 40 What the ﬁndings tell us 13 Looking to the future 47 An overview 14 Reference group reﬂections 48 Some key ﬁndings 14 An international perspective 52 Attitudes to the arts 15 Deﬁning the arts 15 Using the research 53 Perceptions of New Zealand arts 15 Appendix 56 The role of the arts 16 What young people think 17 Useful organisations, Different stages of the media and networks 56 migrant experience 17 Origami kiwi instructions 58 ASB POLYFEST Chinese Ribbons Dance Group from Epsom Girls Grammar School. Photograph by Chris Traill
Tēnā koutou me ngā ahuatanga ō te wā. A tātou tini mate e hinga atu i ō tātou kainga maha ō te motu, rātou kua ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi haere atu ra. Te hunga takimano, kua riro ki te pō , te hokai a taiao, tauārai ō te pō. Ko te tirama taipo kia rātou, titoko ko te ao mārama ko tātou ko te tirama taiao ki a tātou. Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou katoa. Kei raro ngā pitopito kōrero e pā ana kia Creative New Zealand mō te mahitahi, rangahau ki te taha ō te iwi whānui kei Aotearoa e noho ana. A LITTLE MORE LIGHT Groupe F, Auckland Festival, AK07 opening event at the Auckland Domain. Photograph by John McDermott
Foreword Auckland City Council and ASB For Creative New Zealand, Auckland City Council Our aim is to nurture and showcase Auckland City Council’s policies to Community Trust on this project. undertaking this research has been an Auckland’s creative talent and ensure achieve this. Creative New Zealand, Auckland City exciting step in our ongoing work to Auckland City Council was pleased there are opportunities for all our New Zealand is a vibrant, multi- Council and ASB Community Trust engage with and develop opportunities to partner again with Creative communities to experience and cultural society built on a bicultural commissioned research company in the arts for Asian communities. New Zealand, and to be joined by participate in the arts. Our Asian foundation. This multiculturalism is Colmar Brunton in 2006 to undertake This report adds to a growing body of ASB Community Trust, in this communities are already involved reﬂected particularly in Auckland, qualitative research with Chinese, evidence that Creative New Zealand pioneering research project. in a broad range of arts and cultural our most populated region, where the Indian, Korean and Japanese is using to inform its work in this area. activities, and we are working Asian Aucklanders and the arts Asian population is growing rapidly. This research builds on what we communities in the Auckland region. Next year, we will be undertaking directly with some of these The aim of the research was to gain have already learned from the 2005 communities by supporting signiﬁcant A key priority for Creative both qualitative and quantitative an understanding of how Asian Aucklanders and the Arts project – events such as the Auckland New Zealand over the next three research on Asians and the arts as peoples engage with the arts. that Aucklanders believe the greatest International Cultural Festival, years is to work with communities part of our follow-up national study Foreword strength of our arts lies in our cultural Diwali Festival and the Auckland throughout the country to enhance on New Zealanders and the arts. The ﬁndings, presented in this report, diversity. The 2006 Census showed Lantern Festival. their engagement with the arts, both are an important ﬁrst step in our Kia hora te mārino, kia whakapapa that Asian peoples now account for 2 as participants and audiences. Cr Penny Sefuiva 3 journey to connect with and support pounamu te moana, kia tere te 24% of the Auckland city population It is heartening that the research This report is full of stories, insights kārohirohi. shows a high level of awareness of Chairperson the various communities in the – a 44% increase on 2001. Arts, Culture and Recreation Committee Auckland region whose origins lie and examples that provide us with such events. However, we also face Auckland City Council in the Asian region. an understanding of how we can The ﬁndings will inform our future ongoing challenges to break down best support the artists, artforms and work to ensure Auckland City Council barriers to participation and increase cultural traditions of this country’s has appropriate strategies in place to accessibility to our programmes diverse ethnic communities. engage successfully with this rapidly and services. growing sector of our community. One of Creative New Zealand’s roles However, we hope the research will be We want to develop a culturally ASB Community Trust Creative New Zealand is to work with arts organisations to inclusive city and this research useful to other local authorities in the build audiences for the arts and to Auckland region and beyond. supports our goal to use the arts as a ASB Community Trust welcomes This research into Asian Aucklanders provide New Zealanders with greater tool to foster greater cross-cultural the opportunity to work alongside and the arts will play an important access to the arts. The ﬁndings of this We also want to assist Auckland’s interaction. The arts can help bring Creative New Zealand and Auckland role in helping Creative New Zealand research will be an important tool arts organisations to build on the different communities together to City Council on this exciting research deﬁne, and work towards, a future to help reach Asian communities Stephen Wainwright ways they engage with and attract this share cultures and promote greater into Asian Aucklanders and their vision of the arts for all New Zealanders. and increase their attendance of and Chief Executive sector of the community through their understanding. I am sure this research attitudes to, attendance at and We were delighted to work with participation in the arts. Creative New Zealand programmes and activities. will prove invaluable in guiding participation in the arts.
This research will inform our development. In the arts, we support Acknowledgements programme development and help projects and organisations that foster ensure that we can respond to access, engagement and cultural Helen Bartle ( Creative New Zealand ), the growing needs of the diverse opportunities for all. Susan Brooker ( Auckland City communities that make up Auckland. Council ) and Chloe Harwood (ASB The Trust is researching each of It is also hoped that the research Community Trust ) led this project on the sectors it funds and this insight will provide other community behalf of these organisations. into Asian Aucklanders and the funders with valuable insights into Asian Aucklanders and the arts arts will complement that work. Our very special thanks go to the Asian communities and overcome It has given us the opportunity seven members of the reference barriers that stand in the way of their to learn more about Auckland’s group: Kitty Chiu, Ruth DeSouza, engagement with the arts. diverse communities and will help Alistair Kwun, Melissa Lee, Dr James This research was commissioned in guide our policy development. Liu, Dr Sapna Samant and Kentaro recognition of the growth of Asian Yamada. Their knowledge, insights communities within Auckland, and and generosity have been invaluable 4 we value the opportunity to engage in guiding this project. with these groups and learn more Thanks also to Cath Cardiff of about their histories, motivations and Creative New Zealand, who initiated challenges. As a major community this project, and to the Colmar funder in this region, our aim is to Brunton research team of Harry enrich the lives of people living in Pappaﬂoratos, Jon Carapiet, Debby Auckland and Northland by working Giness and Carl Sarney. in partnership with community We would also like to acknowledge organisations to achieve the widest the input and support we’ve had from possible levels of participation. tāngata whenua. Most of all, we wish To achieve our mission, we fund Jennifer Gill to thank the families, communities community organisations across six Chief Executive Ofﬁcer and artists who took part in this sectors: the arts, health and social ASB Community Trust research and provided us with such a services, education, sport and rich source of information. These are recreation, the environment and your stories and we greatly appreciate heritage, and community economic the time you took to tell them to us. DIWALI © Meng Cui (Sean). Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
Introduction qualitative and quantitative research, What we wanted to know What is it that might stop them joining 7. What are the attitudes of younger and artists either in their homes or to the research were published in New Zealanders and a book group or taking music lessons? people, under the age of 25, workplaces. Family interviews included the arts: Attitudes, attendance and What do we mean by the terms Why might they see the arts as a hobby towards the arts? multiple family members and were participation in 2005 and in Aucklanders “Asian communities” or “Asian rather than a viable career option? 8. What are the overall attitudes, conducted in English, with language and the arts: Attendance, participation Aucklanders”? This is a very broad both positive and negative, towards assistance provided where necessary. Among the aims of this research, and attitudes towards the arts in 2005. term, a label we have used in this New Zealand arts and artists? we wanted answers to the following This was a qualitative study to Why we did the research As well as surveying adult report to capture the individuals, questions: 9. What are the attitudes, both explore a range of perceptions families and communities in Auckland positive and negative, to the Asian Aucklanders and the arts New Zealanders, this research 1. What do Asian communities and Introduction to the research and experiences. Rather than Learning more about the diverse Asian whose origins lie in the Asian region. more traditional heritage arts in included additional face-to-face individuals deﬁne as the arts? setting pre-determined deﬁnitions of communities in the Auckland region New Zealand? interviews with Māori and Paciﬁc Auckland is a vibrant, multicultural 2. How do recent immigrant “attendance” and “participation”, and how individuals, artists and families 10. How do perceptions vary towards peoples to provide sufﬁcient sample society and the home of Asian peoples communities engage with the arts those taking part in the research engage with the arts in New Zealand the work of New Zealand-born size for analysis. Young people aged from many countries. However, this in terms of attitude, attendance and were free to deﬁne and describe their was the key focus of this research. artists and that of international between 10 and 14 years were also research focused on Chinese, Indian, participation? engagement in arts-related activities. artists who come to New Zealand? The Asian population is the fastest interviewed. The research did not Korean and Japanese communities 3. How does this differ from more 8 Participants in the research were 9 growing segment of New Zealand’s look speciﬁcally at Asian peoples. – the ethnic groups with some of the established migrants and people total population, with most of this recruited with the advice and support This latest research, therefore, largest representation in the Auckland of Asian descent who are born growth happening in Auckland. of the research reference group, provides a vital snapshot into the population. or have lived most of their life in Recognising the signiﬁcance of this through personal networks and by experiences of people living in New Zealand? trend, Creative New Zealand, Auckland who have diverse and often In undertaking this research, 4. What arts activities, events How the research was telephone, using the ConsumerLink Auckland City Council and ASB deep cultural connections to Asia. we wanted to explore three areas: and organisations in Auckland conducted: methodology panel. Participants were assured of Community Trust formed a partnership Asian peoples’ attitudes to the arts conﬁdentiality. Only qualitative research was under- do people currently attend and in 2006 to commission research on the arts events they attend Creative New Zealand, Auckland taken. At this stage, we were more participate in, and why? Sixteen families and nine artists Asian peoples and the arts. the arts activities they take part in. City Council and ASB Community interested in hearing the stories of our 5. What are the parental aspirations were interviewed. You can read some Trust commissioned Colmar Brunton In late 2005, Creative New Zealand survey participants than in knowing We were particularly interested in for their children in terms of arts of their stories on pages 28 to 45. to undertake a qualitative study with in partnership with Auckland City precise numbers of people engaged gaining insights into people’s cultural participation and attendance, and Ten community leaders were also Asian peoples about their engagement Council commissioned Colmar in any particular activity. That will heritage and experiences, and how why is this so? interviewed to provide background with the arts in the Auckland region. Brunton to conduct research on be the subject of a national follow- these inﬂuence their engagement 6. What are the main differences in and context to the interviews with New Zealanders’ attitudes to, up survey to New Zealanders and the with the arts. What are some of the arts attendance, participation and In-depth interviews were conducted families and artists. Although attendance at and participation arts research, to be undertaken by barriers that prevent them from going attitudes between the communities with Chinese, Indian, Korean and these community leaders were not in the arts. The ﬁndings, based on Creative New Zealand in 2008. to a play, a concert or an exhibition? we talked to? Japanese families, community leaders the main focus of the research,
their comments added depth to the length of time spent in New Zealand. What we already knew: the Paciﬁc population will make up research and highlighted issues and demographics 9.1% of the New Zealand population The community leaders were drawn trends in their communities. by 2021 ( cf. 6.7% in 2001 ). from a range of community groups, The Auckland region recorded the The families interviewed were: church organisations and other Other demographic trends, based on strongest population growth ( 12.4% ) six Chinese ( Taiwanese, Mainland associations and societies. the 2006 Census, show that: in New Zealand between 2001 and China, Singaporean, Hong Kong ) They included: the Asian population in Auckland 2006, according to findings compiled families four Chinese ( Taiwanese, City increased by 44% between by Statistics New Zealand ( www.stats. Asian Aucklanders and the arts four Indian families Mainland China, Singaporean, 2001 and 2006, and is 93,522 govt.nz ) following the 2006 Census. three Japanese families Hong Kong ) leaders ( 24% ) of Auckland City’s total three Korean families. two Indian leaders The Asian population is growing population of 382,539 two Japanese leaders faster than any other ethnic group in the Māori population in Family members included children two Korean leaders. New Zealand with a 48.9% increase New Zealand ( 565,329 ) increased between the ages of eight years between 2001 and 2006. On Census by 39,048 ( 7.4% ) between 2001 and and 25 years, and those who had All interviews were conducted Day 7 March 2006, the number of 2006. One in seven people identiﬁes 10 spent a varying length of time in between November 2006 and Asian peoples living in New Zealand with the Māori ethnic group. New Zealand. Some had spent more January 2007. Each family interview was 354,552. Approximately two- the Paciﬁc Island population in than 25 years in New Zealand or were was approximately two to two-and-a- thirds ( 234,222 ) live in the New Zealand ( 265,974 ) increased born here; some had been living in half hours in length. Interviews with Auckland region. by 14.7% between 2001 and 2006 New Zealand for at least 15 years individual community leaders and while others had only been here for artists were approximately one-and- The Māori, Asian and Paciﬁc Europeans now make up 67.6% between eight months and seven years. a-half hours in length. populations will all increase their of the New Zealand population, share of the New Zealand population followed by Māori ( 14.6% ). The artists interviewed included: A reference group, made up of Those who identify themselves as in the 20 years between 2001 and three Chinese ( Taiwanese, seven members representing a range “New Zealanders” ( a new option on 2021. It is predicted that: Mainland China, Singaporean, of Asian cultures and experience, census forms ) make up 11.1% of the the Māori population will make Hong Kong ) artists was also consulted during the project. population, followed by Asians (9.2%) up 16.5% of the New Zealand two Indian artists The group played a signiﬁcant role in and Paciﬁc Island peoples ( 6.9% ). population by 2021 ( cf. 15.1% two Japanese artists shaping and advising on the project. in 2001 ) The number of New Zealanders born two Korean artists. the Asian population will make up in the United Kingdom and Ireland These artists represented a range of 14.5% of the New Zealand remains steady at 6.6% while those ages and artforms, as well as a varying population by 2021 ( cf. 7% in 2001 ) born in Asia stand at 6.5%. DIWALI. Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
TURBULENCE The 3rd Auckland Triennial, Auckland Festival, AK07 at the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki. Photograph by John McDermott
What the ﬁndings tell us New Zealand is the size and diversity Some key ﬁndings Lack of time and having no one In attempting to deﬁne the arts, there populations of many countries in Asia of the Asian region. There are also to go with can be barriers to were comments about the difference and had some inﬂuence on interviewees’ It is important to remember that the differences in the role of the arts in attendance and participation. between arts activities that: perceptions of New Zealand arts. ﬁndings and perceptions outlined the country of origin, the level of Not knowing about an event or an were seen as elitist and inaccessible in this report are the result of a Typically, there was a sense that funding for the arts and the scale of artform – and how to ﬁnd out more versus arts that are more popular qualitative study and cannot be seen New Zealand’s size means that the An overview audiences. Clearly, language is also to represent the whole community. – is a common barrier to attendance and accessible quality of the performances and level an important factor in Asian peoples’ and participation. have a European or academic A key feature of this research was the However, there were some clear of artistic skills may not be as high as ability to engage with the arts in tradition versus contemporary art Asian Aucklanders and the arts huge diversity within and across the themes that emerged among the Younger Asian people are the international acts that come to New Zealand. typically more engaged with new were seen as sophisticated and What the ﬁndings tell us groups we talked to. This diversity artists, families and community Auckland. Associated with this were technologies, and have more “good” for you versus the arts that and range of views were reﬂected in a There are, however, some common leaders we spoke to. several other perceptions, including: exposure to new and evolving art are pure entertainment. number of ways, including: threads that emerged both across opportunities – and audiences These are some of the key ﬁndings. and artforms. a desire to hold on to traditional the migrant communities and with One young member of a new migrant – for the arts in New Zealand are The arts are seen as a part of values and also to embrace the wider New Zealand community. Artists can feel branded as “Asians” Indian family even asked: “Is sport relatively small everyday life. contemporary values As revealed in the research report even though they may have been an art?” 14 Food, socialising and the arts are funding for the arts is more limited 15 the degree of exposure to New Zealanders and the arts: born in New Zealand and see often entwined. Underpinning any deﬁnition of here than in some countries in Asia New Zealand lifestyles and attitudes, attendance and participation themselves as Kiwis. The arts create a sense of belonging the arts is a generational change career paths in the arts are limited traditions, inﬂuenced by the length in 2005, people engage in the arts and identity, passing on established in perceptions of what the arts are. and fewer artists can “make it” of time interviewees had lived in for enjoyment, self-expression and values and histories across For older generations, traditional or professionally. New Zealand and been able to community interaction. They like to generations. “high art” in the European academic engage with the wider community attend arts events with their families The perceived lack of funding and The arts bring communities together tradition deﬁnes what the arts are all levels of income or their peer group. and build bridges across cultures. Attitudes to the arts about. As the arts evolve, pushing limited career paths mean that some stage of life, ranging from school interviewees felt that in New Zealand, Throughout this report, we have Traditional Māori arts are seen as boundaries and incorporating new children through to young Deﬁning the arts people engaged more in the arts highlighted a number of opportunities New Zealand’s most distinctive media, younger generations have a professionals and the elderly in a voluntary or hobby capacity. that individuals, groups and artistic expression. The term “the arts” can mean broader deﬁnition of the arts. a wide variation of knowledge of A positive aspect of this is that organisations may ﬁnd useful when The boundaries between attending different things to different people, the arts and particular artforms. participation in the arts as a hobby they communicate with Asian and participating in the arts can be regardless of ethnicity. The Perceptions of New Zealand arts was seen by some as less intimidating For Asian peoples in Auckland – communities. blurred. interviewees’ responses to a question than in their country of origin. particularly those who were not born Proﬁciency in the English language asking them to deﬁne the arts reﬂected New Zealand is a small country with here – one of the main differences can be a barrier to attendance and their diverse experiences, interests and a population of just over four million. There was, however, an awareness of between their country of origin and participation. cultural traditions. This is in stark contrast to the dense some world-class New Zealand artists
and arts ( e.g. the ﬁlms Whale Rider opportunities for cross-cultural and landscape, and a different kind For many of the people we interviewed, Dance is another artform seen as migrant and second-generation and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, and participation in the arts. of life. Pursuing their arts interests the arts also provide a cultural a way to help maintain cultural experience. In a globalised culture such musicians Bic Runga, P Money, wasn’t a motivating factor. connection across generations, connection and also encourage cross- trends can be expected to continue. Kiri Te Kanawa and Brooke Fraser ) within their own culture and with cultural interaction: for example, the There also appears to be limited In some Asian cultural traditions, although the range of awareness other cultures. They can create a combination of Bollywood, Pasiﬁka and exposure to Paciﬁc arts. However, The role of the arts parental inﬂuence on young people’s was limited. A quantitative survey sense of belonging and address some Māori dance moves with break dancing. the Pasiﬁka Festival in Auckland City lives may continue longer into the life would be needed to identify the One particularly clear theme to fundamental questions. Where do I was mentioned as a great opportunity Young people tend to have greater of an adult child than in some other New Zealand artists that were known emerge from the research was that for come from? Which culture do I most Asian Aucklanders and the arts to experience Paciﬁc arts. There was exposure to Auckland’s multicultural traditions. For example, many parents to Asian peoples in Auckland. many Asian peoples, the arts, culture identify with? Where am I going? What the ﬁndings tell us also recognition of the strong family society than people from the older we interviewed expressed concern and identity are inextricably linked. Asked to describe what they saw as traditions in Paciﬁc communities that Many also see the arts as a way to help generation. Children, for example, about the viability of a career as an The arts are not regarded as a distinct traditional New Zealand art, the reﬂected some of the values in some non-Asian New Zealanders understand have cross-cultural experiences at artist in New Zealand. Although and separate practice but are a part of interviewees mentioned traditional Asian traditions. more about their culture. “Kiwi people school on a daily basis and are more there is limited evidence of parents everyday life. Māori arts. Typically, there was limited generally have no idea about our culture exposed to the shifting values of actively rejecting artistic careers for Underpinning some of the responses exposure to Māori arts - particularly For many, the arts within migrant other than the food that they have tried contemporary society. In some cases, their children, there was little support 16 to perceptions of Māori and Paciﬁc 17 contemporary Māori arts. Some spoke of communities play a vital role in at the numerous Asian restaurants in this can cause conﬂict within families for their children to pursue a career in arts is the fact that New Zealand the difference between what was termed bringing people together. Eating Auckland,” said one interviewee. about the continuation of traditional the arts. is a relatively new country without “high art” in the European academic together, sharing food and socialising values versus the adoption of new the long histories and traditions of Few of the young people interviewed tradition and traditional Māori arts with are all important cultural aspects of values in New Zealand. countries throughout Asia. Because What young people think as part of the family expressed an their roots in daily life and rituals. this and are closely connected to the of New Zealand’s “newness”, it may Typically, young people are more interest in pursuing a career in the way in which the arts are seen as a appear to lack depth in terms of Shopping, computer games, hanging engaged with new technologies, giving arts. The arts were seen as an interest part of everyday life. Shared values historical and cultural richness. out with friends, sport, texting, music them greater exposure to new and rather than a sensible career path. For some interviewees, Māori arts and It is interesting to note that Māori … all are activities that young people evolving art and artforms. The strong sports culture in this their values associated with ceremony, and Paciﬁc peoples also see their in New Zealand enjoy. Younger Asian country also creates an impression Different stages of the migrant spirituality and family resonated arts, culture and life intertwined. “I people we interviewed shared many Among the under 25-year-olds that New Zealand’s identity is experience with their own cultural values and don’t think of it as the arts. It’s just of the same interests as other young interviewed, there’s a sense that some expressed more through sport than traditions. These shared values part of our culture,” said one Māori New Zealanders. Music, especially are now part of a new global The length of time that Asian peoples through the arts. may provide opportunities for arts interviewee in the New Zealanders and rock and hip hop, was seen as “cool”. community and not bound only to a have been living in Auckland has a organisations to make connections It is important to note that many the arts research. A Paciﬁc interviewee It plays an important part in their lives Kiwi or a country-of-origin identity. signiﬁcant impact on their attitudes in their programming and marketing of the migrants we interviewed had said: “In our culture, the things people and is seen as a way of encouraging As other studies have suggested, this and the way they relate to the arts in of arts events. They may also offer moved to New Zealand for its lifestyle call arts are just part of life.” cross-cultural interaction. ﬂuid identiﬁcation is a part of the New Zealand.
For some new migrants, attending having a more complete connection Four motivating factors Expression and communication Events with particular appeal because of the suggestion of videos or participating in the arts is an with New Zealand culture and A fundamental reason for people’s and video games. There are four primary reasons why Movies, comedy and festivals opportunity to meet people at a traditions than newer migrants with involvement in the arts is personal Asian peoples may be motivated to appear to have particular relevance Performances that portray the migrant similar stage of migration and to share whom they might be confused. For expression and communication with attend arts events. These are: and interest across the different experience – displacement, retaining those experiences. However, for many some, this may lead to a sense of a loss others. This was also the case for the maintenance of tradition and communities interviewed. However, and developing an identity in a new new migrants to Auckland their main of their own heritage and a desire to diverse communities taking part in culture the study revealed a wide variation land – have particular appeal for focus is to settle, cope with a new reconnect with their communities. this research. outward expression and in the level of interest in individual many communities. However, some language, ﬁnd work and schools for At the same time, they may also Asian Aucklanders and the arts communication artforms and a quantitative study expressed concern at the stereotyping the children, establish a home and sense that they are being stereotyped Stimulation and fun What the ﬁndings tell us stimulation and fun would be needed to deﬁne this that can happen when the artists create a circle of friends. This can as “Asians” despite their long-term The arts as a form of entertainment and family involvement. interest more accurately. and writers have not experienced leave little room or time to engage connection with New Zealand. stimulation is an important motivation it themselves. Related to this was with the arts. to attendance. This means that some Auckland has a tradition of promoting Tradition and culture the desire to see Asian communities arts events are competing with other and supporting large cultural festivals. For longer-term migrants, the arts may This includes traditional storytelling portraying their own stories. forms of entertainment, including sport, These have particular appeal because have become a more central part of and plays, ﬁne art paintings ( often 18 eating out, shopping and, for younger they are often: 19 their social life and circle of friends. with religious themes ), visiting people, simply hanging out with friends. cross-cultural or showcasing a Triggers to attendance They may have more time than when Attendance museums and engaging in craft shows, The kinds of events mentioned in the particular culture they ﬁrst arrived and have a steady as well as heritage performance arts. There are many reasons why Asian interviews were the free arts/cultural free or low-cost income, enabling them to expand What makes Asian peoples attend The motivation here is to maintain a peoples attend arts events, including festivals in Auckland, Cirque du suitable for all family members. their engagement with the arts. arts events? Are their reasons for tradition and ensure cultural identity. a personal interest in a particular Soleil, music concerts ( particularly Of course, having more time and attending a play, a festival or an For some, this is about telling their For some of the people we interviewed, artform or performer. Other common contemporary music ), multi-media money will not necessarily motivate art gallery any different from other stories and making sure they are heard comedy can be a safe medium in triggers that emerged in the events and video installations. people to engage if they are not cultures in New Zealand? What are across the community and passed on which to both challenge stereotypes research are: interested in the arts. the barriers that discourage or prevent through the next generation. and portray familiar aspects of a invitations Family them from attending arts events? culture. Seeing their culture portrayed international acts For those who have been born in The Auckland Museum is seen as a The family is important in motivating in a humorous and affectionate way happening upon it by chance New Zealand ( the so-called 1.5 As already mentioned, the boundaries place where people can connect with Asian peoples to attend an arts or a was seen as highly relevant. supporting your own generation ) or have spent most of between attendance and participation a range of different cultures and their cultural event. As with other cultures, a social excursion. their lives here, the experiences and are not always as clearly deﬁned histories. It was often mentioned as one doing things together as a family is Typically, there was little relevance of the arts may be different for many of the Asian communities of the main places where different ethnic important. Activities that meet this understanding of what was meant by Invitations yet again. These people may identify taking part in this research as they are communities are exposed to Māori need include going to the circus, video installations. However, some A personalised invitation can provide as Kiwis ﬁrst and Asians second, for more traditional Western artforms. traditional artforms and performances. musicals and the museum. younger people expressed an interest people with security and a sense
of acceptance that they have been their own artists, whether they are trafﬁc congestion, parking and Once at the event, programmes can Importance of peers predominantly Pākehā New Zealanders, invited to represent their community friends, family or visiting artists from public transport issues. be an important information source The New Zealanders and the arts some interviewees thought they might or simply join the community in a their country of origin. Knowing the to enhance the audience’s enjoyment research showed that “having stand out and not feel accepted. This celebration or an arts-related event. artist can be highly appealing because Language and encourage future attendance. someone to go with” was an may simply be a perception or it may of the social interaction and sense of The level of proﬁciency in the English However, this is not the case if the important motivator in attending be based on actual experiences of not International acts community it may provide. language is an obvious barrier for language itself is a barrier. an arts event. Peer-to-peer being made welcome. The arrival in New Zealand of a well- many Asian peoples and is not simply marketing strategies and word-of- known international act, either as a about the difﬁculty of understanding Finding out about events mouth are powerful tools that arts Asian Aucklanders and the arts A social excursion A positive step local hero from their country of origin Attending an arts or cultural activity a performance. It can also create Clearly, people can’t go to an arts organisations can use in engaging What the ﬁndings tell us or as a world-class performer, can barriers to ﬁnding out about the event if they don’t know about it. with Asian communities. Actions to welcome Asian audiences is an opportunity to share time with have great appeal for a community. event, making a booking and then Asian communities have important and participants may help reduce family and friends, and to engage with Sometimes the visiting act is only reading the programme when you networks that share information feelings of exclusion. These might the wider community. Perceptions about arts events be as simple as a greeting, a well-known within a particular have arrived at the event. about activities, often via emails community but this can still create and newsletters. Sometimes, these Events in Asian communities, both conversation or a personalised Barriers to attendance Individuals and families with limited in their country of origin and in invitation to attend an event or take 20 a great deal of interest and drive networks are linked through a church 21 English tend to engage with their own New Zealand, often have a strong part in an arts activity. One way to attendance through community Many of the barriers for Asian peoples organisation, an association or a social language media, created locally by the social component. People eat, talk and deal with the language barrier is to networks and word-of-mouth. attending arts events are similar to the group, or the school community. community, or listen to broadcasts over move around, with the arts occurring liaise with community leaders barriers expressed by people who took the internet or other channels from their For families, schools are an important simultaneously as part of these social or networks. Happening upon it part in the New Zealanders and the country of origin. This means that some channel for information about arts and interactions. Sometimes the key trigger to arts research: for example, having no people are not getting exposed to some cultural events. Children can help with attending an event is happening upon one to go with and lack of time. For some interviewees, therefore, of the mainstream communications language and also act as a vehicle for it by chance – particularly for festivals Other barriers include: the idea of watching a performance promoting arts events in Auckland. communications about these events. and some shows. This indicates a lack of knowledge of a particular passively and in silence can lack Participation communication gap and the difﬁculty artform and not understanding its Informal word-of-mouth networks appeal. Indeed, there may be a fear for some migrant communities, lingo ( i.e. the artform “language” Language options can also be an extremely effective of censure if a comment or action Church choirs, piano, violin, drumming, especially for individuals with limited and idioms ) Making a booking for a show can way for people to ﬁnd out about is seen by other audience members drawing, ikebana, eggshell carving, English, in ﬁnding out about events. language be a daunting prospect for people events, as well as motivating them to as disruptive. calligraphy, animation, musicals and the cost, which might include with limited English. More language attend. “If friends are into it, and you origami are among a wide range of Supporting your own the ticket, getting there, and the options for people making online know what’s going on, and they want A sense of social exclusion was also traditional and contemporary arts As with any community, many of the associated social activity such as a or telephone bookings would help someone to go with, they’ll tell it to expressed. By going to certain arts activities that interviewees said they interviewees felt a need to support meal in a restaurant overcome this barrier. you and you go too.” events, where the audience is participated in.
Some of the people we interviewed afﬁliation with a community group connections with their community – vitality of their culture and religious opportunity to enjoy a hobby in their For new migrants, in particular, felt that community and voluntary arts involvement in church groups and at the same time maintaining cultural diversity. In some religious events, spare time and also maintain unique different priorities dominate their lives events are more signiﬁcant as a point religious festivals. values and sharing them with the next participation and attendance become cultural traditions. Sometimes, the in those early years after arrival. of engagement than professional arts. generation. For example, a woman may merged experiences, intertwined as hobby is purely for its own sake but One commonly expressed barrier is the Chinese community belong to an ikebana group to maintain both family members and friends interviewees also mentioned that a Because of the social role of the arts, issue of knowledge: not knowing about For some members of the Chinese her friendships with other Japanese either perform or support those they hobby could create opportunities for the boundaries between attending an an event or artform simply because it community, practising the arts is seen women, as well as to enjoy an artform know who are performing. work or travel. arts event and participating in the arts is unfamiliar; and not knowing where she has a personal interest in. Asian Aucklanders and the arts can be blurred. as a means of “using the other side Some interviewees saw the fusion of to ﬁnd out more or where to go to of the brain” and developing self- “Koreans like learning. They are What the ﬁndings tell us Some interviewees mentioned the traditional and modern expressions of participate in a particular artform. discipline. For example, learning to play compelled to learn things, including Communication channels relaxed atmosphere and environment the arts as a feature of the arts in the the piano or taking ballet lessons are learning artistic skills.” A number of community associations in New Zealand, which made it easier Indian community. While traditional Underfunded and undervalued seen as a means of self-improvement artforms enable people to maintain and societies in the Auckland region to perform as a non-professional. Another common barrier to and personal achievement. Interviewees also commented about represent Asian communities. and share their heritage, this modern participation among the people we the inﬂuence of peer pressure and These can be important channels For some people originating from “You don’t need to be perfect to expression ensures that the artforms interviewed was a sense that the arts 22 collective activities. They said that 23 for communicating with these the densely populated centres of be able to perform in front of your are never dull and allows everyone to in New Zealand were underfunded – Koreans were “more group-oriented communities, encouraging arts Mainland China and Hong Kong, peers here.” become involved. a sentiment related to the view that than Western individualism”. To be attendance and participation, and participating in some arts activities the arts may be undervalued. School events and dance competitions part of the group, they felt compelled supporting what is already taking is more achievable in New Zealand. Formal invitations, either from the are seen as a way of building an to do the same activity as others. In particular, interviewees told stories place. The appendix on page 56, Useful For example, having a piano in your Japanese Consulate or organisations awareness of some artforms, both within about people who participated in organisations, media and networks, own home to practise on is easier representing the Japanese community, and beyond the Indian community. certain arts events as performers. may be a good starting point. in New Zealand than in China and can be important access points for Barriers to participation One family mentioned with pride that a Their efforts had received limited Hong Kong because there are less participation in the arts. group of Paciﬁc Island children had won What is it that discourages or prevents acknowledgement and token space constraints. That said, the cost the Bollywood Dance Competition. For Asian peoples in Auckland from appreciation. Petrol vouchers and Triggers to participation of a piano and paying for lessons may Indian community them, this signalled both an accessibility participating in arts activities? Cost, certiﬁcates of participation were Across the communities, there are remain a barrier to participation. Creating and maintaining social and of the artform and a willingness to lack of time and different priorities often inadequate recognition of the several common triggers that encourage community networks is often the key embrace wider participation. are some of the common barriers time, effort and skills involved in arts participation. These include: Japanese community to participating in the arts for the emerging from the research – barriers participating in the event. They felt exposure to the arts at school, For some people of Japanese origin Indian community. Across people Korean community shared by many New Zealanders, as that this could result in fewer people combined with parental pressure living in Auckland, participating in of different age groups, there was a For people in the Korean community, revealed in the New Zealanders and participating in a particular artform or to participate the arts is a way of maintaining social common expression of enjoying the the arts can be an important the arts research. performing in certain arts events.
The costs associated with participation Language can also prove a barrier in are also an important barrier. If there terms of accessing sponsorship and is no or little external funding for a funding to participate in an artform group or individual to take part in an or put on a performance. A number artform, signiﬁcant challenges may of times, interviewees mentioned emerge in terms of ﬁnding a space for that they didn’t know where to go practice, spaces for performances, for funding and support. And if they buying materials for props, and even did know where to go, they found the Asian Aucklanders and the arts transporting or storing equipment. process difﬁcult. The cost of lessons was also A ﬁnal barrier that language can mentioned as a barrier to participation. present is trying to promote events beyond their own communities. Basic needs Typically, communities have their Help with basic needs such as own communication channels such as 24 storage for instruments and costumes, email, posters and media. These can transportation and affordable reach people within the community rehearsal/performance space would in their own language but they do support individuals and community little to reach the wider community or groups to maintain and even expand other ethnic groups who don’t share their engagement with the arts. that language. Language Promoting an event Not being able to read or speak A lack of English language skills English ﬂuently can be a barrier to may mean that some community participating in the arts. In the ﬁrst organisers and participants ﬁnd it place, it can be hard to ﬁnd out difﬁcult to promote their event to a just what arts activities there are to wider community. Offers of help in participate in. And then language can the design and implementation of be a barrier to engaging in the artform communications may be valued by itself and working with others. migrant communities. LANTERN FESTIVAL © Caprice Roussell. Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
PENUMBRA Auckland Festival, AK07 at Skycity Theatre. Photograph by John McDermott
Sharing stories interviewing process. However, it during the wave of migration in the motivated by the willingness to Auckland are important but there are become a sizeable community with is important to remember that the 1970s, were perceived to be English- experience other cultures and an few newspapers or television or radio an established presence in Auckland. following stories reﬂect individual speaking, educated and far less enjoyment of travel. However, this has programmes in the Japanese language. There is large diversity within the experiences and perceptions of the conservative than Chinese people also resulted in a level of transience community, which is made up of families and artists interviewed, from other areas. As one artist said, and fragmentation in the community, Korean community Indians from the sub-continent as For Asian communities, as with any and may not represent the full “They are just a lot more chilled out with its mix of settled and more recent Before the 1990s, the population of well as Fijian Indians. There is also a community, the arts are a way to tell range of views of Asian peoples in about Chinese tradition.” They mainly residents. Some see traditional culture Koreans living in New Zealand was mix of religions, including Christians, people’s stories – stories of their New Zealand. The names used here came to New Zealand for speciﬁc jobs suffering as a result. Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims. Asian Aucklanders and the arts culture, their history and their life low. But since then, there have been are pseudonyms and in some cases, and to ﬁll a skill shortage. With habits waves of migration to this country. experiences. These stories help For some Japanese people, it can Speaking English is more common personal details have also been and attitudes similar to those of middle- The Korean community in Auckland them make connections within their be a challenge to attend an arts among some Indian migrants compared changed. All the stories are extracts class Pākehā, adapting to their new has a strong church connection: Sharing stories own community and with other event with other people. They’re to other Asian peoples. However, this from more extensive proﬁles. home was comparatively easy for some. there are many church groups and communities, communicating across not sure whether to be honest in is not always the case – especially generations and cultures. People from Hong Kong, on the other six Saturday Korean schools. These their comments or say they enjoyed among the older community members. hand, were perceived as being more church groups tend to be a starting something because it’s the “right” There are some concerns that these 28 As in any ethnic group, communities point for cultural performance groups 29 traditional and conservative, and keen thing to say in Japanese culture. older people are not able to engage are made up of individuals. While and Koreans interested in participating there are common features that many A snapshot of to preserve the traditions of For some, therefore, it’s easier simply with the arts for the same reasons as communities their culture. in the arts can meet, network and ﬁnd not to attend than take a risk. their non-Indian peers: for example, of these individuals share, there is also audiences to perform to. people with a physical disability, a great diversity of attitudes and Interviewees also described the For others, an “ofﬁcial” invitation Chinese community The Korean Embassy and its Consulate transport, money and language. inﬂuences that affect the ways in which Chinese community as tending to to attend an event or participate in There was a perception among the Ofﬁce in Auckland are active in helping Asian peoples engage with the arts. be risk-averse. Young people were something acts as a seal of approval. For many, spiritual and cultural people we interviewed that the migrant to build a Korean cultural presence in encouraged to attend university and The smaller size of the Japanese traditions still play a strong role in This report also recognises that Chinese community in New Zealand New Zealand. However, the church- choose a degree that offered the best community compared to other Asian everyday life, and there are many migrant communities are continually has lost some of the skills of, and focused community, combined with opportunities with the lowest risk. communities in Auckland can also act religious and cultural festivals evolving as they respond to life in the interest in, Chinese traditional arts language issues, may limit engagement Auckland region, and to its diverse through the generations. as a barrier because there are fewer celebrated throughout the year. Japanese community with non-Korean communities. cultures and communities. speciﬁcally Japanese events to go to. Among Chinese peoples, there may be These days, Japan is seen as a mix Some Indians may have lost relative different levels of understanding and of East and West with its people There appears to be a limited Indian community economic strength and social status Not their real names familiarity with Chinese traditional quick to adapt to new environments. number of established community The Indian community has since moving to New Zealand and This section offers additional arts. For example, those from Many of those interviewed describe networks. The Japanese Consulate experienced a rapid increase in this may also have an impact on their perspectives gained through the Singapore and Malaysia, especially the decision to leave Japan as one and the New Zealand Japan Society of migration in the past ten years to ability to engage with the arts.
Family stories Chinese-inﬂuenced shows always This would encourage more people to Compared to Korea, attending arts weekday. In Singapore, they could go to New Zealand in 1997. They work catch their attention and they participate in and attend the arts. events is less affordable in New Zealand. out to see a show and have dinner in the public health sector, and have a Appealing to the mainstream usually try to go. “The Chinese shows That’s because the bigger population afterwards but here, they have to eat daughter, Anita, studying at university The Guangs, new migrant/born here, we’ve gone along to have been well- Earning a living in Korea means larger audiences and very early if they want to go out because and a son, Dan, at high school. from Mainland China attended by the Chinese community The Parks, new migrants from Korea therefore cheaper tickets. Transport nothing will be open once the show is “We’re a halfway transitional family,” Doris came to New Zealand from and often sell out. In fact, many Jin and his family moved to costs are also lower in Korea. ﬁnished. Parking is also a problem. Anita says. Mainland China for a holiday ten Chinese people are already involved New Zealand in 1996 from Korea. He Two or three Korean musicians come Attending the arts costs about the years ago and while she was here, she in the arts and I’m not sure there’s a is a teacher and his wife, Hee-Ju, is a Asian Aucklanders and the arts to New Zealand every year but the same in New Zealand as it does in “We value our Chinese heritage but met a New Zealand-born Chinese need to encourage more.” full-time home-maker. They have two tickets are usually too expensive. Singapore. They often work out the we have been westernised. A typical man, Steve, whom she married. They children studying at tertiary institutions. Doris enjoyed singing as a hobby when price per hour of entertainment when Chinese family would have Mum at have a daughter who is in Year 2 at Sharing stories she was younger and her daughter has Although Jin teaches languages, he Value for money deciding on the value of an event. home not working, no oil paintings primary school. Doris is a fulltime just started singing lessons. She will did a master of ﬁne arts in Korea as The Duans, long-term Chinese on the wall, and Dad doing most of mother and Steve is an accountant. They feel that in New Zealand also be taking piano lessons and ballet well as his teaching qualiﬁcation. migrants from Singapore the talking.” there is more opportunity to enjoy Most of their entertainment involves lessons. Doris says her own parents “You would never do just a ﬁne arts 30 Weng and his wife Mayling moved to participating in the arts as a lifestyle. 31 shopping or watching a movie, either could never afford proper music lessons degree … You need a way to actually Rick says that if they hear of Chinese New Zealand from Singapore in 1988 at the cinema or at home. Once a when she was a child. However, she make some money.” performers coming to New Zealand when Weng was offered an IT job “Singapore is more academic and month, they try to get to a show. They would discourage her daughter from they’re interested in going along as a Their daughter, Maria, is studying here and Mayling was able to ﬁnd a commercial. Everyone’s chasing the ﬁnd out about these shows from The choosing music or ballet as a career family. They enjoy catching up with visual arts and psychology. At the job in ﬁnance. dollars. It’s more important to have an New Zealand Herald, The Sunday path. That’s because it is so difﬁcult, people in the Chinese community when moment, she is looking for funding income ﬁrst and a lifestyle after that.” Star Times or the Chinese newspapers especially in New Zealand, to earn a They learn about arts events from the they go to festivals such as the Lantern for an exhibition space with one of available in Auckland. They also get decent living and have a secure future What Now book of events in Auckland, Festival and the Moon Festival. her fellow students. She is considering They think that people in the occasional email from TicketDirect, as a musician or dancer. City Scene and AK@Play. The library applying for funding but is also looking New Zealand are more accepting of They feel there is a lot on offer in and Doris sometimes listens to Chinese has other booklets too, and they often Overall, Doris and Steve think that at getting sponsorship from a private art as an occupation and that “it’s not New Zealand but it’s all much more radio and watches CCTV on SKY TV. come across events advertised in The Chinese people tend to be fairly company. She is more hopeful than so on the fringe”. expensive than in Hong Kong. “Hong New Zealand Herald or Central Leader. When they see an advertisement for conservative and become more so her father that it may be possible to Kong has easy access to a vast variety a show, they consider the dates ( Can as they get older. They suggest that pursue a career in the arts. However, They tend to work out what’s on and A non-essential item of arts events. We have an underground we make it then or will we be too shows need to be more mainstream she is aware of her father’s experience what they’ll attend on a month-by- The Pangs, long-term migrants railway to everywhere and there are busy? ), the venue ( How far away is it? and not so fringe: “Things we’ll expect and has followed his advice by month basis. One major barrier to from Hong Kong also big stadiums that seat up to 40,000 How do you get there? Is there easy to enjoy rather than expect to be studying a subject with more certain attending these events is not being Rick and Penny moved from Hong people. So it tends to be cheaper and parking? ), and the cost. confused by.” career opportunities. able to get food easily after 9pm on a Kong to South Africa in 1991, and then easier to attend arts events.”
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