Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...

Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
Attitudes, attendance
and participation in 2006
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
Asian Aucklanders and the arts
is a partnership research initiative by
Creative New Zealand, Auckland City
Council and ASB Community Trust.

Please contact us for more information,
and copies of this report and our other
research documents.

We also welcome your feedback
on this research. Please email us at

Creative New Zealand
Northern Region -Auckland
T +64 9 373 3066

Auckland City Council
T +64 9 379 2020

ASB Community Trust
T +64 9 360 0291
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...

Foreword                                       2       Attendance                                      18
Creative New Zealand                           2          Four motivating factors                      18
Auckland City Council                          3          Events with particular appeal                19
ASB Community Trust                            3          Triggers to attendance                       19
Acknowledgements                               4          Barriers to attendance                       20
                                                       Participation                                   21
Introduction to the research                   7          Triggers to participation                    22
Why we did the research                        8          Barriers to participation                    23
What we wanted to know                         8
                                                       Sharing stories                                 27
How the research was
                                                       A snapshot of communities                       28
conducted: methodology                         9
                                                          Family stories                               30
What we already knew:
                                                       A creative perspective                          39
demographics                                   10
                                                          Artists’ stories                             40
What the findings tell us                       13
                                                       Looking to the future                           47
An overview                                    14
                                                       Reference group reflections                      48
Some key findings                               14
                                                       An international perspective                    52
Attitudes to the arts              15
   Defining the arts                15                  Using the research                              53
   Perceptions of New Zealand arts 15
                                                       Appendix                                        56
   The role of the arts            16
   What young people think         17                  Useful organisations,
   Different stages of the                             media and networks                              56
   migrant experience              17                  Origami kiwi instructions                       58

ASB POLYFEST Chinese Ribbons Dance Group from Epsom Girls Grammar School. Photograph by Chris Traill
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
Tēnā koutou me ngā ahuatanga ō te
                  wā. A tātou tini mate e hinga atu i ō
                  tātou kainga maha ō te motu, rātou
                  kua ngaro i te tirohanga kanohi haere
                  atu ra. Te hunga takimano, kua riro
                  ki te pō , te hokai a taiao, tauārai ō
                  te pō. Ko te tirama taipo kia rātou,
                  titoko ko te ao mārama ko tātou ko te
                  tirama taiao ki a tātou. Tēnā koutou,
                  tēnā koutou, tēnā tātou katoa. Kei
                  raro ngā pitopito kōrero e pā ana kia
                  Creative New Zealand mō te mahitahi,
                  rangahau ki te taha ō te iwi whānui kei
                  Aotearoa e noho ana.

A LITTLE MORE LIGHT Groupe F, Auckland Festival, AK07 opening event at the Auckland Domain.
Photograph by John McDermott
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
Foreword                                     Auckland City Council and ASB              For Creative New Zealand,                   Auckland City Council                       Our aim is to nurture and showcase       Auckland City Council’s policies to
                                                                              Community Trust on this project.           undertaking this research has been an                                                   Auckland’s creative talent and ensure    achieve this.
                                 Creative New Zealand, Auckland City                                                     exciting step in our ongoing work to        Auckland City Council was pleased           there are opportunities for all our
                                                                              New Zealand is a vibrant, multi-
                                 Council and ASB Community Trust                                                         engage with and develop opportunities       to partner again with Creative              communities to experience and
                                                                              cultural society built on a bicultural
                                 commissioned research company                                                           in the arts for Asian communities.          New Zealand, and to be joined by            participate in the arts. Our Asian
                                                                              foundation. This multiculturalism is
                                 Colmar Brunton in 2006 to undertake                                                     This report adds to a growing body of       ASB Community Trust, in this                communities are already involved
                                                                              reflected particularly in Auckland,
                                 qualitative research with Chinese,                                                      evidence that Creative New Zealand          pioneering research project.                in a broad range of arts and cultural
                                                                              our most populated region, where the
                                 Indian, Korean and Japanese                                                             is using to inform its work in this area.                                               activities, and we are working
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                              Asian population is growing rapidly.                                                   This research builds on what we
                                 communities in the Auckland region.                                                     Next year, we will be undertaking                                                       directly with some of these
                                 The aim of the research was to gain                                                                                                 have already learned from the 2005          communities by supporting significant
                                                                              A key priority for Creative                both qualitative and quantitative
                                 an understanding of how Asian                                                                                                       Aucklanders and the Arts project –          events such as the Auckland
                                                                              New Zealand over the next three            research on Asians and the arts as
                                 peoples engage with the arts.                                                                                                        that Aucklanders believe the greatest      International Cultural Festival,
                                                                              years is to work with communities          part of our follow-up national study

                                                                                                                                                                     strength of our arts lies in our cultural   Diwali Festival and the Auckland
                                                                              throughout the country to enhance          on New Zealanders and the arts.
                                 The findings, presented in this report,                                                                                              diversity. The 2006 Census showed           Lantern Festival.
                                                                              their engagement with the arts, both
                                 are an important first step in our                                                       Kia hora te mārino, kia whakapapa           that Asian peoples now account for
    2                                                                         as participants and audiences.                                                                                                                                               Cr Penny Sefuiva                          3
                                 journey to connect with and support                                                     pounamu te moana, kia tere te               24% of the Auckland city population         It is heartening that the research
                                                                              This report is full of stories, insights   kārohirohi.                                                                             shows a high level of awareness of        Chairperson
                                 the various communities in the                                                                                                      – a 44% increase on 2001.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Arts, Culture and Recreation Committee
                                 Auckland region whose origins lie            and examples that provide us with                                                                                                  such events. However, we also face        Auckland City Council
                                 in the Asian region.                         an understanding of how we can                                                         The findings will inform our future          ongoing challenges to break down
                                                                              best support the artists, artforms and                                                 work to ensure Auckland City Council        barriers to participation and increase
                                                                              cultural traditions of this country’s                                                  has appropriate strategies in place to      accessibility to our programmes
                                                                              diverse ethnic communities.                                                            engage successfully with this rapidly       and services.
                                                                                                                                                                     growing sector of our community.
                                                                              One of Creative New Zealand’s roles                                                    However, we hope the research will be       We want to develop a culturally          ASB Community Trust
                                 Creative New Zealand                         is to work with arts organisations to                                                                                              inclusive city and this research
                                                                                                                                                                     useful to other local authorities in the
                                                                              build audiences for the arts and to                                                    Auckland region and beyond.                 supports our goal to use the arts as a   ASB Community Trust welcomes
                                 This research into Asian Aucklanders         provide New Zealanders with greater                                                                                                tool to foster greater cross-cultural    the opportunity to work alongside
                                 and the arts will play an important          access to the arts. The findings of this                                                We also want to assist Auckland’s           interaction. The arts can help bring     Creative New Zealand and Auckland
                                 role in helping Creative New Zealand         research will be an important tool                                                     arts organisations to build on the          different communities together to        City Council on this exciting research
                                 define, and work towards, a future            to help reach Asian communities             Stephen Wainwright                         ways they engage with and attract this      share cultures and promote greater       into Asian Aucklanders and their
                                 vision of the arts for all New Zealanders.   and increase their attendance of and        Chief Executive
                                                                                                                                                                     sector of the community through their       understanding. I am sure this research   attitudes to, attendance at and
                                 We were delighted to work with               participation in the arts.                  Creative New Zealand                       programmes and activities.                  will prove invaluable in guiding         participation in the arts.
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
This research will inform our                            development. In the arts, we support     Acknowledgements
                                 programme development and help                           projects and organisations that foster
                                 ensure that we can respond to                            access, engagement and cultural          Helen Bartle ( Creative New Zealand ),
                                 the growing needs of the diverse                         opportunities for all.                   Susan Brooker ( Auckland City
                                 communities that make up Auckland.                                                                Council ) and Chloe Harwood (ASB
                                                                                          The Trust is researching each of
                                 It is also hoped that the research                                                                Community Trust ) led this project on
                                                                                          the sectors it funds and this insight
                                 will provide other community                                                                      behalf of these organisations.
                                                                                          into Asian Aucklanders and the
                                 funders with valuable insights into
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                                          arts will complement that work.          Our very special thanks go to the
                                 Asian communities and overcome
                                                                                          It has given us the opportunity          seven members of the reference
                                 barriers that stand in the way of their
                                                                                          to learn more about Auckland’s           group: Kitty Chiu, Ruth DeSouza,
                                 engagement with the arts.
                                                                                          diverse communities and will help        Alistair Kwun, Melissa Lee, Dr James
                                 This research was commissioned in                        guide our policy development.            Liu, Dr Sapna Samant and Kentaro
                                 recognition of the growth of Asian                                                                Yamada. Their knowledge, insights
                                 communities within Auckland, and                                                                  and generosity have been invaluable
                                 we value the opportunity to engage                                                                in guiding this project.
                                 with these groups and learn more                                                                  Thanks also to Cath Cardiff of
                                 about their histories, motivations and                                                            Creative New Zealand, who initiated
                                 challenges. As a major community                                                                  this project, and to the Colmar
                                 funder in this region, our aim is to                                                              Brunton research team of Harry
                                 enrich the lives of people living in                                                              Pappafloratos, Jon Carapiet, Debby
                                 Auckland and Northland by working                                                                 Giness and Carl Sarney.
                                 in partnership with community
                                                                                                                                   We would also like to acknowledge
                                 organisations to achieve the widest
                                                                                                                                   the input and support we’ve had from
                                 possible levels of participation.
                                                                                                                                   tāngata whenua. Most of all, we wish
                                 To achieve our mission, we fund                            Jennifer Gill                          to thank the families, communities
                                 community organisations across six                         Chief Executive Officer
                                                                                                                                   and artists who took part in this
                                 sectors: the arts, health and social                       ASB Community Trust                    research and provided us with such a
                                 services, education, sport and                                                                    rich source of information. These are
                                 recreation, the environment and                                                                   your stories and we greatly appreciate
                                 heritage, and community economic                                                                  the time you took to tell them to us.

                                 DIWALI © Meng Cui (Sean). Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
DIWALI. Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
Introduction                                qualitative and quantitative research,     What we wanted to know                     What is it that might stop them joining   7. What are the attitudes of younger     and artists either in their homes or
                                 to the research                             were published in New Zealanders and                                                  a book group or taking music lessons?        people, under the age of 25,          workplaces. Family interviews included
                                                                             the arts: Attitudes, attendance and        What do we mean by the terms               Why might they see the arts as a hobby       towards the arts?                     multiple family members and were
                                                                             participation in 2005 and in Aucklanders   “Asian communities” or “Asian              rather than a viable career option?       8. What are the overall attitudes,       conducted in English, with language
                                                                             and the arts: Attendance, participation    Aucklanders”? This is a very broad                                                      both positive and negative, towards   assistance provided where necessary.
                                                                                                                                                                   Among the aims of this research,
                                                                             and attitudes towards the arts in 2005.    term, a label we have used in this                                                      New Zealand arts and artists?
                                                                                                                                                                   we wanted answers to the following                                                 This was a qualitative study to
                                 Why we did the research                     As well as surveying adult
                                                                                                                        report to capture the individuals,
                                                                                                                                                                                                             9. What are the attitudes, both
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      explore a range of perceptions
                                                                                                                        families and communities in Auckland                                                    positive and negative, to the
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                             New Zealanders, this research                                                         1. What do Asian communities and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Introduction to the research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and experiences. Rather than
                                 Learning more about the diverse Asian                                                  whose origins lie in the Asian region.                                                  more traditional heritage arts in
                                                                             included additional face-to-face                                                         individuals define as the arts?                                                  setting pre-determined definitions of
                                 communities in the Auckland region                                                                                                                                             New Zealand?
                                                                             interviews with Māori and Pacific           Auckland is a vibrant, multicultural       2. How do recent immigrant                                                         “attendance” and “participation”,
                                 and how individuals, artists and families                                                                                                                                   10. How do perceptions vary towards
                                                                             peoples to provide sufficient sample        society and the home of Asian peoples         communities engage with the arts                                                those taking part in the research
                                 engage with the arts in New Zealand                                                                                                                                            the work of New Zealand-born
                                                                             size for analysis. Young people aged       from many countries. However, this            in terms of attitude, attendance and                                            were free to define and describe their
                                 was the key focus of this research.                                                                                                                                            artists and that of international
                                                                             between 10 and 14 years were also          research focused on Chinese, Indian,          participation?                                                                  engagement in arts-related activities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                artists who come to New Zealand?
                                 The Asian population is the fastest         interviewed. The research did not          Korean and Japanese communities            3. How does this differ from more
    8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Participants in the research were             9
                                 growing segment of New Zealand’s            look specifically at Asian peoples.         – the ethnic groups with some of the          established migrants and people
                                 total population, with most of this                                                                                                                                                                                  recruited with the advice and support
                                                                             This latest research, therefore,           largest representation in the Auckland        of Asian descent who are born
                                 growth happening in Auckland.                                                                                                                                                                                        of the research reference group,
                                                                             provides a vital snapshot into the         population.                                   or have lived most of their life in
                                 Recognising the significance of this                                                                                                                                                                                  through personal networks and by
                                                                             experiences of people living in                                                          New Zealand?
                                 trend, Creative New Zealand,
                                                                             Auckland who have diverse and often
                                                                                                                        In undertaking this research,
                                                                                                                                                                   4. What arts activities, events           How the research was                     telephone, using the ConsumerLink
                                 Auckland City Council and ASB
                                                                             deep cultural connections to Asia.
                                                                                                                        we wanted to explore three areas:
                                                                                                                                                                      and organisations in Auckland          conducted: methodology                   panel. Participants were assured of
                                 Community Trust formed a partnership                                                     Asian peoples’ attitudes to the arts                                                                                        confidentiality.
                                                                             Only qualitative research was under-                                                     do people currently attend and
                                 in 2006 to commission research on                                                        the arts events they attend                                                        Creative New Zealand, Auckland
                                                                             taken. At this stage, we were more                                                       participate in, and why?                                                        Sixteen families and nine artists
                                 Asian peoples and the arts.                                                              the arts activities they take part in.                                             City Council and ASB Community
                                                                             interested in hearing the stories of our                                              5. What are the parental aspirations                                               were interviewed. You can read some
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Trust commissioned Colmar Brunton
                                 In late 2005, Creative New Zealand          survey participants than in knowing        We were particularly interested in            for their children in terms of arts                                             of their stories on pages 28 to 45.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             to undertake a qualitative study with
                                 in partnership with Auckland City           precise numbers of people engaged          gaining insights into people’s cultural       participation and attendance, and                                               Ten community leaders were also
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Asian peoples about their engagement
                                 Council commissioned Colmar                 in any particular activity. That will      heritage and experiences, and how             why is this so?                                                                 interviewed to provide background
                                                                                                                                                                                                             with the arts in the Auckland region.
                                 Brunton to conduct research on              be the subject of a national follow-       these influence their engagement            6. What are the main differences in                                                and context to the interviews with
                                 New Zealanders’ attitudes to,               up survey to New Zealanders and the        with the arts. What are some of the           arts attendance, participation and     In-depth interviews were conducted       families and artists. Although
                                 attendance at and participation             arts research, to be undertaken by         barriers that prevent them from going         attitudes between the communities      with Chinese, Indian, Korean and         these community leaders were not
                                 in the arts. The findings, based on          Creative New Zealand in 2008.              to a play, a concert or an exhibition?        we talked to?                          Japanese families, community leaders     the main focus of the research,
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
their comments added depth to the                  length of time spent in New Zealand.     What we already knew:                        the Pacific population will make up
                                 research and highlighted issues and                                                         demographics                                 9.1% of the New Zealand population
                                                                                    The community leaders were drawn
                                 trends in their communities.                                                                                                             by 2021 ( cf. 6.7% in 2001 ).
                                                                                    from a range of community groups,
                                                                                                                             The Auckland region recorded the
                                 The families interviewed were:                     church organisations and other                                                      Other demographic trends, based on
                                                                                                                             strongest population growth ( 12.4% )
                                   six Chinese ( Taiwanese, Mainland                associations and societies.                                                         the 2006 Census, show that:
                                                                                                                             in New Zealand between 2001 and
                                   China, Singaporean, Hong Kong )                  They included:                                                                        the Asian population in Auckland
                                                                                                                             2006, according to findings compiled
                                   families                                            four Chinese ( Taiwanese,                                                          City increased by 44% between
                                                                                                                             by Statistics New Zealand ( www.stats.
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                   four Indian families                                Mainland China, Singaporean,                                                       2001 and 2006, and is 93,522
                                                                                                                    ) following the 2006 Census.
                                   three Japanese families                             Hong Kong ) leaders                                                                ( 24% ) of Auckland City’s total
                                   three Korean families.                              two Indian leaders                    The Asian population is growing              population of 382,539
                                                                                       two Japanese leaders                  faster than any other ethnic group in        the Māori population in
                                 Family members included children
                                                                                       two Korean leaders.                   New Zealand with a 48.9% increase            New Zealand ( 565,329 ) increased
                                 between the ages of eight years
                                                                                                                             between 2001 and 2006. On Census             by 39,048 ( 7.4% ) between 2001 and
                                 and 25 years, and those who had                    All interviews were conducted
                                                                                                                             Day 7 March 2006, the number of              2006. One in seven people identifies
10                               spent a varying length of time in                  between November 2006 and
                                                                                                                             Asian peoples living in New Zealand          with the Māori ethnic group.
                                 New Zealand. Some had spent more                   January 2007. Each family interview
                                                                                                                             was 354,552. Approximately two-              the Pacific Island population in
                                 than 25 years in New Zealand or were               was approximately two to two-and-a-
                                                                                                                             thirds ( 234,222 ) live in the               New Zealand ( 265,974 ) increased
                                 born here; some had been living in                 half hours in length. Interviews with
                                                                                                                             Auckland region.                             by 14.7% between 2001 and 2006
                                 New Zealand for at least 15 years                  individual community leaders and
                                 while others had only been here for                artists were approximately one-and-      The Māori, Asian and Pacific                  Europeans now make up 67.6%
                                 between eight months and seven years.              a-half hours in length.                  populations will all increase their          of the New Zealand population,
                                                                                                                             share of the New Zealand population          followed by Māori ( 14.6% ).
                                 The artists interviewed included:                  A reference group, made up of                                                         Those who identify themselves as
                                                                                                                             in the 20 years between 2001 and
                                   three Chinese ( Taiwanese,                       seven members representing a range                                                    “New Zealanders” ( a new option on
                                                                                                                             2021. It is predicted that:
                                   Mainland China, Singaporean,                     of Asian cultures and experience,                                                     census forms ) make up 11.1% of the
                                                                                                                                the Māori population will make
                                   Hong Kong ) artists                              was also consulted during the project.                                                population, followed by Asians (9.2%)
                                                                                                                                up 16.5% of the New Zealand
                                   two Indian artists                               The group played a significant role in                                                 and Pacific Island peoples ( 6.9% ).
                                                                                                                                population by 2021 ( cf. 15.1%
                                   two Japanese artists                             shaping and advising on the project.
                                                                                                                                in 2001 )                                 The number of New Zealanders born
                                   two Korean artists.
                                                                                                                                the Asian population will make up         in the United Kingdom and Ireland
                                 These artists represented a range of                                                           14.5% of the New Zealand                  remains steady at 6.6% while those
                                 ages and artforms, as well as a varying                                                        population by 2021 ( cf. 7% in 2001 )     born in Asia stand at 6.5%.

                                 DIWALI. Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
Attitudes, attendance and participation in 2006 - Community ...
TURBULENCE The 3rd Auckland Triennial, Auckland Festival, AK07 at the Auckland Art
Gallery Toi o Tāmaki. Photograph by John McDermott
What the findings tell us                 New Zealand is the size and diversity     Some key findings                           Lack of time and having no one           In attempting to define the arts, there    populations of many countries in Asia
                                                                          of the Asian region. There are also                                                  to go with can be barriers to            were comments about the difference        and had some influence on interviewees’
                                                                                                                    It is important to remember that the
                                                                          differences in the role of the arts in                                               attendance and participation.            between arts activities that:             perceptions of New Zealand arts.
                                                                                                                    findings and perceptions outlined
                                                                          the country of origin, the level of                                                  Not knowing about an event or an           were seen as elitist and inaccessible
                                                                                                                    in this report are the result of a                                                                                            Typically, there was a sense that
                                                                          funding for the arts and the scale of                                                artform – and how to find out more          versus arts that are more popular
                                                                                                                    qualitative study and cannot be seen                                                                                          New Zealand’s size means that the
                                 An overview                              audiences. Clearly, language is also
                                                                                                                    to represent the whole community.
                                                                                                                                                               – is a common barrier to attendance        and accessible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  quality of the performances and level
                                                                          an important factor in Asian peoples’                                                and participation.                         have a European or academic
                                 A key feature of this research was the                                             However, there were some clear                                                                                                of artistic skills may not be as high as
                                                                          ability to engage with the arts in                                                                                              tradition versus contemporary art
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                 huge diversity within and across the                                               themes that emerged among the              Younger Asian people are                                                           the international acts that come to
                                                                          New Zealand.                                                                         typically more engaged with new            were seen as sophisticated and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             What the findings tell us
                                 groups we talked to. This diversity                                                artists, families and community                                                                                               Auckland. Associated with this were
                                                                                                                                                               technologies, and have more                “good” for you versus the arts that
                                 and range of views were reflected in a    There are, however, some common           leaders we spoke to.                                                                                                          several other perceptions, including:
                                                                                                                                                               exposure to new and evolving art           are pure entertainment.
                                 number of ways, including:               threads that emerged both across                                                                                                                                          opportunities – and audiences
                                                                                                                    These are some of the key findings.         and artforms.
                                   a desire to hold on to traditional     the migrant communities and with                                                                                              One young member of a new migrant           – for the arts in New Zealand are
                                                                                                                      The arts are seen as a part of
                                   values and also to embrace             the wider New Zealand community.                                                     Artists can feel branded as “Asians”     Indian family even asked: “Is sport         relatively small
                                                                                                                      everyday life.
                                   contemporary values                    As revealed in the research report                                                   even though they may have been           an art?”
14                                                                                                                    Food, socialising and the arts are                                                                                            funding for the arts is more limited     15
                                   the degree of exposure to              New Zealanders and the arts:                                                         born in New Zealand and see
                                                                                                                      often entwined.                                                                   Underpinning any definition of               here than in some countries in Asia
                                   New Zealand lifestyles and             attitudes, attendance and participation                                              themselves as Kiwis.
                                                                                                                      The arts create a sense of belonging                                              the arts is a generational change           career paths in the arts are limited
                                   traditions, influenced by the length    in 2005, people engage in the arts
                                                                                                                      and identity, passing on established                                              in perceptions of what the arts are.        and fewer artists can “make it”
                                   of time interviewees had lived in      for enjoyment, self-expression and
                                                                                                                      values and histories across                                                       For older generations, traditional or       professionally.
                                   New Zealand and been able to           community interaction. They like to
                                                                                                                      generations.                                                                      “high art” in the European academic
                                   engage with the wider community        attend arts events with their families                                                                                                                                  The perceived lack of funding and
                                                                                                                      The arts bring communities together                                               tradition defines what the arts are all
                                   levels of income                       or their peer group.
                                                                                                                      and build bridges across cultures.
                                                                                                                                                             Attitudes to the arts                      about. As the arts evolve, pushing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  limited career paths mean that some
                                   stage of life, ranging from school                                                                                                                                                                             interviewees felt that in New Zealand,
                                                                          Throughout this report, we have             Traditional Māori arts are seen as                                                boundaries and incorporating new
                                   children through to young                                                                                                 Defining the arts                                                                     people engaged more in the arts
                                                                          highlighted a number of opportunities       New Zealand’s most distinctive                                                    media, younger generations have a
                                   professionals and the elderly                                                                                                                                                                                  in a voluntary or hobby capacity.
                                                                          that individuals, groups and                artistic expression.                   The term “the arts” can mean               broader definition of the arts.
                                   a wide variation of knowledge of                                                                                                                                                                               A positive aspect of this is that
                                                                          organisations may find useful when           The boundaries between attending       different things to different people,
                                   the arts and particular artforms.                                                                                                                                                                              participation in the arts as a hobby
                                                                          they communicate with Asian                 and participating in the arts can be   regardless of ethnicity. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Perceptions of New Zealand arts           was seen by some as less intimidating
                                 For Asian peoples in Auckland –          communities.                                blurred.                               interviewees’ responses to a question
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  than in their country of origin.
                                 particularly those who were not born                                                 Proficiency in the English language     asking them to define the arts reflected     New Zealand is a small country with
                                 here – one of the main differences                                                   can be a barrier to attendance and     their diverse experiences, interests and   a population of just over four million.   There was, however, an awareness of
                                 between their country of origin and                                                  participation.                         cultural traditions.                       This is in stark contrast to the dense    some world-class New Zealand artists
and arts ( e.g. the films Whale Rider         opportunities for cross-cultural        and landscape, and a different kind        For many of the people we interviewed,      Dance is another artform seen as         migrant and second-generation
                                 and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, and       participation in the arts.              of life. Pursuing their arts interests     the arts also provide a cultural            a way to help maintain cultural          experience. In a globalised culture such
                                 musicians Bic Runga, P Money,                                                        wasn’t a motivating factor.                connection across generations,              connection and also encourage cross-     trends can be expected to continue.
                                 Kiri Te Kanawa and Brooke Fraser )                                                                                              within their own culture and with           cultural interaction: for example, the
                                                                             There also appears to be limited                                                                                                                                         In some Asian cultural traditions,
                                 although the range of awareness                                                                                                 other cultures. They can create a           combination of Bollywood, Pasifika and
                                                                             exposure to Pacific arts. However,        The role of the arts                                                                                                            parental influence on young people’s
                                 was limited. A quantitative survey                                                                                              sense of belonging and address some         Māori dance moves with break dancing.
                                                                             the Pasifika Festival in Auckland City                                                                                                                                    lives may continue longer into the life
                                 would be needed to identify the                                                      One particularly clear theme to            fundamental questions. Where do I
                                                                             was mentioned as a great opportunity                                                                                            Young people tend to have greater        of an adult child than in some other
                                 New Zealand artists that were known                                                  emerge from the research was that for      come from? Which culture do I most
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                             to experience Pacific arts. There was                                                                                            exposure to Auckland’s multicultural     traditions. For example, many parents
                                 to Asian peoples in Auckland.                                                        many Asian peoples, the arts, culture      identify with? Where am I going?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 What the findings tell us
                                                                             also recognition of the strong family                                                                                           society than people from the older       we interviewed expressed concern
                                                                                                                      and identity are inextricably linked.
                                 Asked to describe what they saw as          traditions in Pacific communities that                                               Many also see the arts as a way to help     generation. Children, for example,       about the viability of a career as an
                                                                                                                      The arts are not regarded as a distinct
                                 traditional New Zealand art, the            reflected some of the values in some                                                 non-Asian New Zealanders understand         have cross-cultural experiences at       artist in New Zealand. Although
                                                                                                                      and separate practice but are a part of
                                 interviewees mentioned traditional          Asian traditions.                                                                   more about their culture. “Kiwi people      school on a daily basis and are more     there is limited evidence of parents
                                                                                                                      everyday life.
                                 Māori arts. Typically, there was limited                                                                                        generally have no idea about our culture    exposed to the shifting values of        actively rejecting artistic careers for
                                                                             Underpinning some of the responses
                                 exposure to Māori arts - particularly                                                For many, the arts within migrant          other than the food that they have tried    contemporary society. In some cases,     their children, there was little support
16                                                                           to perceptions of Māori and Pacific                                                                                                                                                                                  17
                                 contemporary Māori arts. Some spoke of                                               communities play a vital role in           at the numerous Asian restaurants in        this can cause conflict within families   for their children to pursue a career in
                                                                             arts is the fact that New Zealand
                                 the difference between what was termed                                               bringing people together. Eating           Auckland,” said one interviewee.            about the continuation of traditional    the arts.
                                                                             is a relatively new country without
                                 “high art” in the European academic                                                  together, sharing food and socialising                                                 values versus the adoption of new
                                                                             the long histories and traditions of                                                                                                                                     Few of the young people interviewed
                                 tradition and traditional Māori arts with                                            are all important cultural aspects of                                                  values in New Zealand.
                                                                             countries throughout Asia. Because                                                  What young people think                                                              as part of the family expressed an
                                 their roots in daily life and rituals.                                               this and are closely connected to the
                                                                             of New Zealand’s “newness”, it may                                                                                              Typically, young people are more         interest in pursuing a career in the
                                                                                                                      way in which the arts are seen as a
                                                                             appear to lack depth in terms of                                                    Shopping, computer games, hanging           engaged with new technologies, giving    arts. The arts were seen as an interest
                                                                                                                      part of everyday life.
                                  Shared values                              historical and cultural richness.                                                   out with friends, sport, texting, music     them greater exposure to new and         rather than a sensible career path.
                                  For some interviewees, Māori arts and                                               It is interesting to note that Māori       … all are activities that young people      evolving art and artforms.
                                                                             The strong sports culture in this
                                  their values associated with ceremony,                                              and Pacific peoples also see their          in New Zealand enjoy. Younger Asian
                                                                             country also creates an impression                                                                                                                                       Different stages of the migrant
                                  spirituality and family resonated                                                   arts, culture and life intertwined. “I     people we interviewed shared many           Among the under 25-year-olds
                                                                             that New Zealand’s identity is                                                                                                                                           experience
                                  with their own cultural values and                                                  don’t think of it as the arts. It’s just   of the same interests as other young        interviewed, there’s a sense that some
                                                                             expressed more through sport than
                                  traditions. These shared values                                                     part of our culture,” said one Māori       New Zealanders. Music, especially           are now part of a new global             The length of time that Asian peoples
                                                                             through the arts.
                                  may provide opportunities for arts                                                  interviewee in the New Zealanders and      rock and hip hop, was seen as “cool”.       community and not bound only to a        have been living in Auckland has a
                                  organisations to make connections          It is important to note that many        the arts research. A Pacific interviewee    It plays an important part in their lives   Kiwi or a country-of-origin identity.    significant impact on their attitudes
                                  in their programming and marketing         of the migrants we interviewed had       said: “In our culture, the things people   and is seen as a way of encouraging         As other studies have suggested, this    and the way they relate to the arts in
                                  of arts events. They may also offer        moved to New Zealand for its lifestyle   call arts are just part of life.”          cross-cultural interaction.                 fluid identification is a part of the      New Zealand.
For some new migrants, attending           having a more complete connection          Four motivating factors                     Expression and communication               Events with particular appeal              because of the suggestion of videos
                                 or participating in the arts is an         with New Zealand culture and                                                           A fundamental reason for people’s                                                     and video games.
                                                                                                                       There are four primary reasons why                                                     Movies, comedy and festivals
                                 opportunity to meet people at a            traditions than newer migrants with                                                    involvement in the arts is personal
                                                                                                                       Asian peoples may be motivated to                                                      appear to have particular relevance        Performances that portray the migrant
                                 similar stage of migration and to share    whom they might be confused. For                                                       expression and communication with
                                                                                                                       attend arts events. These are:                                                         and interest across the different          experience – displacement, retaining
                                 those experiences. However, for many       some, this may lead to a sense of a loss                                               others. This was also the case for the
                                                                                                                          maintenance of tradition and                                                        communities interviewed. However,          and developing an identity in a new
                                 new migrants to Auckland their main        of their own heritage and a desire to                                                  diverse communities taking part in
                                                                                                                          culture                                                                             the study revealed a wide variation        land – have particular appeal for
                                 focus is to settle, cope with a new        reconnect with their communities.                                                      this research.
                                                                                                                          outward expression and                                                              in the level of interest in individual     many communities. However, some
                                 language, find work and schools for         At the same time, they may also
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                                                                          communication                                                                       artforms and a quantitative study          expressed concern at the stereotyping
                                 the children, establish a home and         sense that they are being stereotyped                                                  Stimulation and fun

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 What the findings tell us
                                                                                                                          stimulation and fun                                                                 would be needed to define this              that can happen when the artists
                                 create a circle of friends. This can       as “Asians” despite their long-term                                                    The arts as a form of entertainment and
                                                                                                                          family involvement.                                                                 interest more accurately.                  and writers have not experienced
                                 leave little room or time to engage        connection with New Zealand.                                                           stimulation is an important motivation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         it themselves. Related to this was
                                 with the arts.                                                                                                                    to attendance. This means that some        Auckland has a tradition of promoting
                                                                                                                       Tradition and culture                                                                                                             the desire to see Asian communities
                                                                                                                                                                   arts events are competing with other       and supporting large cultural festivals.
                                 For longer-term migrants, the arts may                                                This includes traditional storytelling                                                                                            portraying their own stories.
                                                                                                                                                                   forms of entertainment, including sport,   These have particular appeal because
                                 have become a more central part of                                                    and plays, fine art paintings ( often
18                                                                                                                                                                 eating out, shopping and, for younger      they are often:                                                                    19
                                 their social life and circle of friends.                                              with religious themes ), visiting
                                                                                                                                                                   people, simply hanging out with friends.     cross-cultural or showcasing a           Triggers to attendance
                                 They may have more time than when          Attendance                                 museums and engaging in craft shows,
                                                                                                                                                                   The kinds of events mentioned in the         particular culture
                                 they first arrived and have a steady                                                   as well as heritage performance arts.                                                                                             There are many reasons why Asian
                                                                                                                                                                   interviews were the free arts/cultural       free or low-cost
                                 income, enabling them to expand            What makes Asian peoples attend            The motivation here is to maintain a                                                                                              peoples attend arts events, including
                                                                                                                                                                   festivals in Auckland, Cirque du             suitable for all family members.
                                 their engagement with the arts.            arts events? Are their reasons for         tradition and ensure cultural identity.                                                                                           a personal interest in a particular
                                                                                                                                                                   Soleil, music concerts ( particularly
                                 Of course, having more time and            attending a play, a festival or an         For some, this is about telling their                                                  For some of the people we interviewed,     artform or performer. Other common
                                                                                                                                                                   contemporary music ), multi-media
                                 money will not necessarily motivate        art gallery any different from other       stories and making sure they are heard                                                 comedy can be a safe medium in             triggers that emerged in the
                                                                                                                                                                   events and video installations.
                                 people to engage if they are not           cultures in New Zealand? What are          across the community and passed on                                                     which to both challenge stereotypes        research are:
                                 interested in the arts.                    the barriers that discourage or prevent    through the next generation.                                                           and portray familiar aspects of a             invitations
                                                                            them from attending arts events?                                                                                                  culture. Seeing their culture portrayed       international acts
                                 For those who have been born in                                                       The Auckland Museum is seen as a            The family is important in motivating
                                                                                                                                                                                                              in a humorous and affectionate way            happening upon it by chance
                                 New Zealand ( the so-called 1.5            As already mentioned, the boundaries       place where people can connect with         Asian peoples to attend an arts or a
                                                                                                                                                                                                              was seen as highly relevant.                  supporting your own
                                 generation ) or have spent most of         between attendance and participation       a range of different cultures and their     cultural event. As with other cultures,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a social excursion.
                                 their lives here, the experiences and      are not always as clearly defined           histories. It was often mentioned as one    doing things together as a family is       Typically, there was little
                                 relevance of the arts may be different     for many of the Asian communities          of the main places where different ethnic   important. Activities that meet this       understanding of what was meant by         Invitations
                                 yet again. These people may identify       taking part in this research as they are   communities are exposed to Māori            need include going to the circus,          video installations. However, some         A personalised invitation can provide
                                 as Kiwis first and Asians second,           for more traditional Western artforms.     traditional artforms and performances.      musicals and the museum.                   younger people expressed an interest       people with security and a sense
of acceptance that they have been           their own artists, whether they are          traffic congestion, parking and            Once at the event, programmes can           Importance of peers                     predominantly Pākehā New Zealanders,
                                 invited to represent their community        friends, family or visiting artists from     public transport issues.                  be an important information source          The New Zealanders and the arts         some interviewees thought they might
                                 or simply join the community in a           their country of origin. Knowing the                                                   to enhance the audience’s enjoyment         research showed that “having            stand out and not feel accepted. This
                                 celebration or an arts-related event.       artist can be highly appealing because     Language                                    and encourage future attendance.            someone to go with” was an              may simply be a perception or it may
                                                                             of the social interaction and sense of     The level of proficiency in the English      However, this is not the case if the        important motivator in attending        be based on actual experiences of not
                                 International acts                          community it may provide.                  language is an obvious barrier for          language itself is a barrier.               an arts event. Peer-to-peer             being made welcome.
                                 The arrival in New Zealand of a well-                                                  many Asian peoples and is not simply                                                    marketing strategies and word-of-
                                 known international act, either as a                                                   about the difficulty of understanding        Finding out about events                    mouth are powerful tools that arts
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                             A social excursion                                                                                                                                                          A positive step
                                 local hero from their country of origin     Attending an arts or cultural activity     a performance. It can also create           Clearly, people can’t go to an arts         organisations can use in engaging

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What the findings tell us
                                 or as a world-class performer, can                                                     barriers to finding out about the            event if they don’t know about it.          with Asian communities.                  Actions to welcome Asian audiences
                                                                             is an opportunity to share time with
                                 have great appeal for a community.                                                     event, making a booking and then            Asian communities have important                                                     and participants may help reduce
                                                                             family and friends, and to engage with
                                 Sometimes the visiting act is only                                                     reading the programme when you              networks that share information                                                      feelings of exclusion. These might
                                                                             the wider community.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Perceptions about arts events             be as simple as a greeting, a
                                 well-known within a particular                                                         have arrived at the event.                  about activities, often via emails
                                 community but this can still create                                                                                                and newsletters. Sometimes, these          Events in Asian communities, both         conversation or a personalised
                                                                             Barriers to attendance                     Individuals and families with limited                                                  in their country of origin and in         invitation to attend an event or take
20                               a great deal of interest and drive                                                                                                 networks are linked through a church                                                                                          21
                                                                                                                        English tend to engage with their own                                                  New Zealand, often have a strong          part in an arts activity. One way to
                                 attendance through community                Many of the barriers for Asian peoples                                                 organisation, an association or a social
                                                                                                                        language media, created locally by the                                                 social component. People eat, talk and    deal with the language barrier is to
                                 networks and word-of-mouth.                 attending arts events are similar to the                                               group, or the school community.
                                                                                                                        community, or listen to broadcasts over                                                move around, with the arts occurring      liaise with community leaders
                                                                             barriers expressed by people who took
                                                                                                                        the internet or other channels from their   For families, schools are an important     simultaneously as part of these social    or networks.
                                 Happening upon it                           part in the New Zealanders and the
                                                                                                                        country of origin. This means that some     channel for information about arts and     interactions.
                                 Sometimes the key trigger to                arts research: for example, having no
                                                                                                                        people are not getting exposed to some      cultural events. Children can help with
                                 attending an event is happening upon        one to go with and lack of time.                                                                                                  For some interviewees, therefore,
                                                                                                                        of the mainstream communications            language and also act as a vehicle for
                                 it by chance – particularly for festivals   Other barriers include:                                                                                                           the idea of watching a performance
                                                                                                                        promoting arts events in Auckland.          communications about these events.
                                 and some shows. This indicates a               lack of knowledge of a particular                                                                                              passively and in silence can lack        Participation
                                 communication gap and the difficulty            artform and not understanding its                                                   Informal word-of-mouth networks            appeal. Indeed, there may be a fear
                                 for some migrant communities,                  lingo ( i.e. the artform “language”      Language options                           can also be an extremely effective         of censure if a comment or action        Church choirs, piano, violin, drumming,
                                 especially for individuals with limited        and idioms )                             Making a booking for a show can            way for people to find out about            is seen by other audience members        drawing, ikebana, eggshell carving,
                                 English, in finding out about events.           language                                 be a daunting prospect for people          events, as well as motivating them to      as disruptive.                           calligraphy, animation, musicals and
                                                                                the cost, which might include            with limited English. More language        attend. “If friends are into it, and you                                            origami are among a wide range of
                                 Supporting your own                            the ticket, getting there, and the       options for people making online           know what’s going on, and they want        A sense of social exclusion was also     traditional and contemporary arts
                                 As with any community, many of the             associated social activity such as a     or telephone bookings would help           someone to go with, they’ll tell it to     expressed. By going to certain arts      activities that interviewees said they
                                 interviewees felt a need to support            meal in a restaurant                     overcome this barrier.                     you and you go too.”                       events, where the audience is            participated in.
Some of the people we interviewed            affiliation with a community group         connections with their community –       vitality of their culture and religious      opportunity to enjoy a hobby in their     For new migrants, in particular,
                                 felt that community and voluntary arts       involvement in church groups and          at the same time maintaining cultural    diversity. In some religious events,         spare time and also maintain unique       different priorities dominate their lives
                                 events are more significant as a point        religious festivals.                      values and sharing them with the next    participation and attendance become          cultural traditions. Sometimes, the       in those early years after arrival.
                                 of engagement than professional arts.                                                  generation. For example, a woman may     merged experiences, intertwined as           hobby is purely for its own sake but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        One commonly expressed barrier is the
                                                                            Chinese community                           belong to an ikebana group to maintain   both family members and friends              interviewees also mentioned that a
                                 Because of the social role of the arts,                                                                                                                                                                                issue of knowledge: not knowing about
                                                                            For some members of the Chinese             her friendships with other Japanese      either perform or support those they         hobby could create opportunities for
                                 the boundaries between attending an                                                                                                                                                                                    an event or artform simply because it
                                                                            community, practising the arts is seen      women, as well as to enjoy an artform    know who are performing.                     work or travel.
                                 arts event and participating in the arts                                                                                                                                                                               is unfamiliar; and not knowing where
                                                                                                                        she has a personal interest in.
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                 can be blurred.                            as a means of “using the other side                                                  Some interviewees saw the fusion of                                                    to find out more or where to go to
                                                                            of the brain” and developing self-                                                                                                 “Koreans like learning. They are

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What the findings tell us
                                                                                                                        Some interviewees mentioned the          traditional and modern expressions of                                                  participate in a particular artform.
                                                                            discipline. For example, learning to play                                                                                          compelled to learn things, including
                                  Communication channels                                                                relaxed atmosphere and environment       the arts as a feature of the arts in the
                                                                            the piano or taking ballet lessons are                                                                                             learning artistic skills.”
                                  A number of community associations                                                    in New Zealand, which made it easier     Indian community. While traditional                                                    Underfunded and undervalued
                                                                            seen as a means of self-improvement                                                  artforms enable people to maintain
                                  and societies in the Auckland region                                                  to perform as a non-professional.                                                                                               Another common barrier to
                                                                            and personal achievement.                                                                                                         Interviewees also commented about
                                  represent Asian communities.                                                                                                   and share their heritage, this modern                                                  participation among the people we
                                                                                                                                                                                                              the influence of peer pressure and
                                  These can be important channels           For some people originating from             “You don’t need to be perfect to        expression ensures that the artforms                                                   interviewed was a sense that the arts
22                                                                                                                                                                                                            collective activities. They said that                                                 23
                                  for communicating with these              the densely populated centres of             be able to perform in front of your     are never dull and allows everyone to                                                  in New Zealand were underfunded –
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Koreans were “more group-oriented
                                  communities, encouraging arts             Mainland China and Hong Kong,                peers here.”                            become involved.                                                                       a sentiment related to the view that
                                                                                                                                                                                                              than Western individualism”. To be
                                  attendance and participation, and         participating in some arts activities                                                                                                                                       the arts may be undervalued.
                                                                                                                                                                 School events and dance competitions         part of the group, they felt compelled
                                  supporting what is already taking         is more achievable in New Zealand.          Formal invitations, either from the      are seen as a way of building an             to do the same activity as others.        In particular, interviewees told stories
                                  place. The appendix on page 56, Useful    For example, having a piano in your         Japanese Consulate or organisations      awareness of some artforms, both within                                                about people who participated in
                                  organisations, media and networks,        own home to practise on is easier           representing the Japanese community,     and beyond the Indian community.                                                       certain arts events as performers.
                                  may be a good starting point.             in New Zealand than in China and            can be important access points for                                                    Barriers to participation
                                                                                                                                                                 One family mentioned with pride that a                                                 Their efforts had received limited
                                                                            Hong Kong because there are less            participation in the arts.               group of Pacific Island children had won      What is it that discourages or prevents   acknowledgement and token
                                                                            space constraints. That said, the cost                                               the Bollywood Dance Competition. For         Asian peoples in Auckland from            appreciation. Petrol vouchers and
                                 Triggers to participation                  of a piano and paying for lessons may       Indian community                         them, this signalled both an accessibility   participating in arts activities? Cost,   certificates of participation were
                                 Across the communities, there are          remain a barrier to participation.          Creating and maintaining social and      of the artform and a willingness to          lack of time and different priorities     often inadequate recognition of the
                                 several common triggers that encourage                                                 community networks is often the key      embrace wider participation.                 are some of the common barriers           time, effort and skills involved in
                                 arts participation. These include:         Japanese community                          to participating in the arts for the                                                  emerging from the research – barriers     participating in the event. They felt
                                   exposure to the arts at school,          For some people of Japanese origin          Indian community. Across people          Korean community                             shared by many New Zealanders, as         that this could result in fewer people
                                   combined with parental pressure          living in Auckland, participating in        of different age groups, there was a     For people in the Korean community,          revealed in the New Zealanders and        participating in a particular artform or
                                   to participate                           the arts is a way of maintaining social     common expression of enjoying the        the arts can be an important                 the arts research.                        performing in certain arts events.
The costs associated with participation                 Language can also prove a barrier in
                                 are also an important barrier. If there                 terms of accessing sponsorship and
                                 is no or little external funding for a                  funding to participate in an artform
                                 group or individual to take part in an                  or put on a performance. A number
                                 artform, significant challenges may                      of times, interviewees mentioned
                                 emerge in terms of finding a space for                   that they didn’t know where to go
                                 practice, spaces for performances,                      for funding and support. And if they
                                 buying materials for props, and even                    did know where to go, they found the
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                 transporting or storing equipment.                      process difficult.
                                 The cost of lessons was also
                                                                                         A final barrier that language can
                                 mentioned as a barrier to participation.
                                                                                         present is trying to promote events
                                                                                         beyond their own communities.
                                   Basic needs                                           Typically, communities have their
                                   Help with basic needs such as                         own communication channels such as
                                   storage for instruments and costumes,                 email, posters and media. These can
                                   transportation and affordable                         reach people within the community
                                   rehearsal/performance space would                     in their own language but they do
                                   support individuals and community                     little to reach the wider community or
                                   groups to maintain and even expand                    other ethnic groups who don’t share
                                   their engagement with the arts.                       that language.

                                 Language                                                   Promoting an event
                                 Not being able to read or speak                            A lack of English language skills
                                 English fluently can be a barrier to                        may mean that some community
                                 participating in the arts. In the first                     organisers and participants find it
                                 place, it can be hard to find out                           difficult to promote their event to a
                                 just what arts activities there are to                     wider community. Offers of help in
                                 participate in. And then language can                      the design and implementation of
                                 be a barrier to engaging in the artform                    communications may be valued by
                                 itself and working with others.                            migrant communities.

                                 LANTERN FESTIVAL © Caprice Roussell. Source: Auckland Festival of Photography
PENUMBRA Auckland Festival, AK07 at Skycity Theatre. Photograph by John McDermott
Sharing stories                              interviewing process. However, it       during the wave of migration in the         motivated by the willingness to           Auckland are important but there are      become a sizeable community with
                                                                              is important to remember that the       1970s, were perceived to be English-        experience other cultures and an          few newspapers or television or radio     an established presence in Auckland.
                                                                              following stories reflect individual     speaking, educated and far less             enjoyment of travel. However, this has    programmes in the Japanese language.      There is large diversity within the
                                                                              experiences and perceptions of the      conservative than Chinese people            also resulted in a level of transience                                              community, which is made up of
                                                                              families and artists interviewed,       from other areas. As one artist said,       and fragmentation in the community,       Korean community                          Indians from the sub-continent as
                                 For Asian communities, as with any
                                                                              and may not represent the full          “They are just a lot more chilled out       with its mix of settled and more recent   Before the 1990s, the population of       well as Fijian Indians. There is also a
                                 community, the arts are a way to tell
                                                                              range of views of Asian peoples in      about Chinese tradition.” They mainly       residents. Some see traditional culture   Koreans living in New Zealand was         mix of religions, including Christians,
                                 people’s stories – stories of their
                                                                              New Zealand. The names used here        came to New Zealand for specific jobs        suffering as a result.                                                              Hindus, Buddhists and Muslims.
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                 culture, their history and their life                                                                                                                                      low. But since then, there have been
                                                                              are pseudonyms and in some cases,       and to fill a skill shortage. With habits                                              waves of migration to this country.
                                 experiences. These stories help                                                                                                  For some Japanese people, it can                                                    Speaking English is more common
                                                                              personal details have also been         and attitudes similar to those of middle-                                             The Korean community in Auckland
                                 them make connections within their                                                                                               be a challenge to attend an arts                                                    among some Indian migrants compared
                                                                              changed. All the stories are extracts   class Pākehā, adapting to their new                                                   has a strong church connection:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sharing stories
                                 own community and with other                                                                                                     event with other people. They’re                                                    to other Asian peoples. However, this
                                                                              from more extensive profiles.            home was comparatively easy for some.                                                 there are many church groups and
                                 communities, communicating across                                                                                                not sure whether to be honest in                                                    is not always the case – especially
                                 generations and cultures.                                                            People from Hong Kong, on the other                                                   six Saturday Korean schools. These
                                                                                                                                                                  their comments or say they enjoyed                                                  among the older community members.
                                                                                                                      hand, were perceived as being more                                                    church groups tend to be a starting
                                                                                                                                                                  something because it’s the “right”                                                  There are some concerns that these
28                               As in any ethnic group, communities                                                                                                                                        point for cultural performance groups                                               29
                                                                                                                      traditional and conservative, and keen      thing to say in Japanese culture.                                                   older people are not able to engage
                                 are made up of individuals. While                                                                                                                                          and Koreans interested in participating
                                 there are common features that many
                                                                             A snapshot of                            to preserve the traditions of               For some, therefore, it’s easier simply                                             with the arts for the same reasons as
                                                                             communities                              their culture.                                                                        in the arts can meet, network and find
                                                                                                                                                                  not to attend than take a risk.                                                     their non-Indian peers: for example,
                                 of these individuals share, there is also                                                                                                                                  audiences to perform to.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      people with a physical disability,
                                 a great diversity of attitudes and                                                   Interviewees also described the             For others, an “official” invitation
                                                                             Chinese community                                                                                                              The Korean Embassy and its Consulate      transport, money and language.
                                 influences that affect the ways in which                                              Chinese community as tending to             to attend an event or participate in
                                                                             There was a perception among the                                                                                               Office in Auckland are active in helping
                                 Asian peoples engage with the arts.                                                  be risk-averse. Young people were           something acts as a seal of approval.                                               For many, spiritual and cultural
                                                                             people we interviewed that the migrant                                                                                         to build a Korean cultural presence in
                                                                                                                      encouraged to attend university and         The smaller size of the Japanese                                                    traditions still play a strong role in
                                 This report also recognises that            Chinese community in New Zealand                                                                                               New Zealand. However, the church-
                                                                                                                      choose a degree that offered the best       community compared to other Asian                                                   everyday life, and there are many
                                 migrant communities are continually         has lost some of the skills of, and                                                                                            focused community, combined with
                                                                                                                      opportunities with the lowest risk.         communities in Auckland can also act                                                religious and cultural festivals
                                 evolving as they respond to life in the     interest in, Chinese traditional arts                                                                                          language issues, may limit engagement
                                 Auckland region, and to its diverse         through the generations.                                                             as a barrier because there are fewer                                                celebrated throughout the year.
                                                                                                                      Japanese community                                                                    with non-Korean communities.
                                 cultures and communities.                                                                                                        specifically Japanese events to go to.
                                                                             Among Chinese peoples, there may be      These days, Japan is seen as a mix                                                                                              Some Indians may have lost relative
                                                                             different levels of understanding and    of East and West with its people            There appears to be a limited             Indian community                          economic strength and social status
                                  Not their real names                       familiarity with Chinese traditional     quick to adapt to new environments.         number of established community           The Indian community has                  since moving to New Zealand and
                                  This section offers additional             arts. For example, those from            Many of those interviewed describe          networks. The Japanese Consulate          experienced a rapid increase in           this may also have an impact on their
                                  perspectives gained through the            Singapore and Malaysia, especially       the decision to leave Japan as one          and the New Zealand Japan Society of      migration in the past ten years to        ability to engage with the arts.
Family stories                             Chinese-influenced shows always            This would encourage more people to           Compared to Korea, attending arts           weekday. In Singapore, they could go         to New Zealand in 1997. They work
                                                                            catch their attention and they            participate in and attend the arts.           events is less affordable in New Zealand.   out to see a show and have dinner            in the public health sector, and have a
                                 Appealing to the mainstream                usually try to go. “The Chinese shows                                                   That’s because the bigger population        afterwards but here, they have to eat        daughter, Anita, studying at university
                                 The Guangs, new migrant/born here,         we’ve gone along to have been well-       Earning a living                              in Korea means larger audiences and         very early if they want to go out because    and a son, Dan, at high school.
                                 from Mainland China                        attended by the Chinese community         The Parks, new migrants from Korea            therefore cheaper tickets. Transport        nothing will be open once the show is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             “We’re a halfway transitional family,”
                                 Doris came to New Zealand from             and often sell out. In fact, many         Jin and his family moved to                   costs are also lower in Korea.              finished. Parking is also a problem.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Anita says.
                                 Mainland China for a holiday ten           Chinese people are already involved       New Zealand in 1996 from Korea. He
                                                                                                                                                                    Two or three Korean musicians come          Attending the arts costs about the
                                 years ago and while she was here, she      in the arts and I’m not sure there’s a    is a teacher and his wife, Hee-Ju, is a
Asian Aucklanders and the arts

                                                                                                                                                                    to New Zealand every year but the           same in New Zealand as it does in             “We value our Chinese heritage but
                                 met a New Zealand-born Chinese             need to encourage more.”                  full-time home-maker. They have two
                                                                                                                                                                    tickets are usually too expensive.          Singapore. They often work out the            we have been westernised. A typical
                                 man, Steve, whom she married. They                                                   children studying at tertiary institutions.
                                                                            Doris enjoyed singing as a hobby when                                                                                               price per hour of entertainment when          Chinese family would have Mum at
                                 have a daughter who is in Year 2 at

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sharing stories
                                                                            she was younger and her daughter has      Although Jin teaches languages, he            Value for money                             deciding on the value of an event.            home not working, no oil paintings
                                 primary school. Doris is a fulltime
                                                                            just started singing lessons. She will    did a master of fine arts in Korea as          The Duans, long-term Chinese                                                              on the wall, and Dad doing most of
                                 mother and Steve is an accountant.                                                                                                                                             They feel that in New Zealand
                                                                            also be taking piano lessons and ballet   well as his teaching qualification.            migrants from Singapore                                                                   the talking.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                there is more opportunity to enjoy
                                 Most of their entertainment involves       lessons. Doris says her own parents       “You would never do just a fine arts
30                                                                                                                                                                  Weng and his wife Mayling moved to          participating in the arts as a lifestyle.                                               31
                                 shopping or watching a movie, either       could never afford proper music lessons   degree … You need a way to actually                                                                                                    Rick says that if they hear of Chinese
                                                                                                                                                                    New Zealand from Singapore in 1988
                                 at the cinema or at home. Once a           when she was a child. However, she        make some money.”                                                                                                                      performers coming to New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                    when Weng was offered an IT job               “Singapore is more academic and
                                 month, they try to get to a show. They     would discourage her daughter from                                                                                                                                               they’re interested in going along as a
                                                                                                                      Their daughter, Maria, is studying            here and Mayling was able to find a            commercial. Everyone’s chasing the
                                 find out about these shows from The         choosing music or ballet as a career                                                                                                                                             family. They enjoy catching up with
                                                                                                                      visual arts and psychology. At the            job in finance.                                dollars. It’s more important to have an
                                 New Zealand Herald, The Sunday             path. That’s because it is so difficult,                                                                                                                                          people in the Chinese community when
                                                                                                                      moment, she is looking for funding                                                          income first and a lifestyle after that.”
                                 Star Times or the Chinese newspapers       especially in New Zealand, to earn a                                                    They learn about arts events from the                                                    they go to festivals such as the Lantern
                                                                                                                      for an exhibition space with one of
                                 available in Auckland. They also get       decent living and have a secure future                                                  What Now book of events in Auckland,                                                     Festival and the Moon Festival.
                                                                                                                      her fellow students. She is considering                                                   They think that people in
                                 the occasional email from TicketDirect,    as a musician or dancer.                                                                City Scene and AK@Play. The library
                                                                                                                      applying for funding but is also looking                                                  New Zealand are more accepting of            They feel there is a lot on offer in
                                 and Doris sometimes listens to Chinese                                                                                             has other booklets too, and they often
                                                                            Overall, Doris and Steve think that       at getting sponsorship from a private                                                     art as an occupation and that “it’s not      New Zealand but it’s all much more
                                 radio and watches CCTV on SKY TV.                                                                                                  come across events advertised in The
                                                                            Chinese people tend to be fairly          company. She is more hopeful than                                                         so on the fringe”.                           expensive than in Hong Kong. “Hong
                                                                                                                                                                    New Zealand Herald or Central Leader.
                                 When they see an advertisement for         conservative and become more so           her father that it may be possible to                                                                                                  Kong has easy access to a vast variety
                                 a show, they consider the dates ( Can      as they get older. They suggest that      pursue a career in the arts. However,         They tend to work out what’s on and         A non-essential item                         of arts events. We have an underground
                                 we make it then or will we be too          shows need to be more mainstream          she is aware of her father’s experience       what they’ll attend on a month-by-          The Pangs, long-term migrants                railway to everywhere and there are
                                 busy? ), the venue ( How far away is it?   and not so fringe: “Things we’ll expect   and has followed his advice by                month basis. One major barrier to           from Hong Kong                               also big stadiums that seat up to 40,000
                                 How do you get there? Is there easy        to enjoy rather than expect to be         studying a subject with more certain          attending these events is not being         Rick and Penny moved from Hong               people. So it tends to be cheaper and
                                 parking? ), and the cost.                  confused by.”                             career opportunities.                         able to get food easily after 9pm on a      Kong to South Africa in 1991, and then       easier to attend arts events.”
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