BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe

BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
Cooperation in land management for more livable places

                   MAY 2016          LUMAT PROJECT

                  JULY 2019

                                     IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE LAND USE
                                     IN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
                                     OF FUNCTIONAL URBAN AREAS
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
LINKS Foundation (Matteo Tabasso, Cristina Marietta, Giulia Melis)
                                                                                                                INDEX       pp.4     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

      The booklet collects the contributions of the project partners
Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU) | Poland ......................... LEAD PARTNER
Ruda Śląska City Hall | Poland
Saxon State Office for Environment, Agricolture and Geology | Germany..... WORK PACKAGE 2 LEADER                            pp.5     INTRODUCTION
LINKS Foundation | Italy ............................................................... COMMUNICATION LEADER

Metropolitan City of Turin | Italy
Energy Center Lipizzanerheimat LDT | Austria ..................................... WORK PACKAGE 3 LEADER
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (STUBA) | Slovak Republic ...... WORK PACKAGE 1 LEADER
City of Trnava | Slovak Republic
Institute for Sustainable Development of Settlements (IURS) | Czech Republic                                                pp.6     THE LUMAT PROJECT
Moravia-Silesian Investment and Developement, A.S. (MSID) | Czech Republic

Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia (UIRS) | Slovenia
Ministry f the Environment and Spatial Planning | Slovenia
City of Kranj | Slovenia

      Layout and Graphic design                                                                                             pp.14    METHODOLOGY
LINKS Foundation

Edizioni Langhe Roero Monferrato - Casa Editrice                                                                                     FROM CONCEPT
      Photo Credit
                                                                                                                            pp.36    TO ACTION

In the cover and chapter pages, photos from the LUMAT photocontest.
Front Cover:      Lucio Beltrami | Dotted line
Chapter 1:        Matteo Tabasso | Memories                                                                                          PILOT ACTIONS AND
Chapter 2:        Miroslav Beňák | “X” Roof in the train depot                                                              pp.96    INVESTMENTS
Chapter 3:        Miroslav Beňák | Windows in the main hall

Chapter 4:        Marta Fudala | Towards urban green areas
Chapter 5:        Marta Fudala | Focused on citizenz
Chapter 6:        Lucio Beltrami | Peekaboo
                                                                                                                            pp.116   PHOTOCONTEST
ISBN 978-88-941765-5-1

This work is published in the framework of the INTERREG CENTRAL EUROPE project “LUMAT -
Implementation of Sustainable Land Use in Integrated Environmental Management of Functional Urban
Areas” (Project No: CE89 LUMAT)
                                                                                                                            pp.126   CONCLUSIONS

The sole responsibility for the content of the publication                      lies   with   the   authors.
It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union.
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
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             EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                                                                     INTRODUCTION

             The LUMAT project objective is the          more liveable places) starting with       Central European urban regions are          to make them more liveable places.
             implementation of Sustainable Land          the pilots in all regions (successful     challenged by urban sprawl and
             Use and pilot projects in Integrated        brownfield redevelopment, green           suburbanization as well as by the           More details of the presented results and
             Environmental Management in 7               infrastructure, sustainable land use on   reluctance of investors to take on          other project products are available on
             Central European Functional Urban           contaminated land).                       urban brownfield locations. Poorly          the project web:
             Areas.                                                                                integrated and unsystematic land
                                                         The LUMAT project relies on the           use, development policies and
             The LUMAT partnership of cities and         interplay between strategies and          environmental management regulations           Dr. Anna Starzewska-Sikorska - IETU
             regions, environmental agencies and         instruments beyond existing practice,     increase land–related conflicts and                    LUMAT project Coordinator
             research institutions develop integrated    and on a suitably comprehensive           handicap economic development.
             “Functional Areas Integrated                deployment of tools in these areas,
             Environmental Management Strategies         including terms of reference,             The transnational exchange of
             (FAIEMS)” with shared transnational         cooperation, organization and             experiences and cooperation
             territorial and scientific competence.      management by Action Plans,               specifically with regard to land and
                                                         investment and pilot actions.             soil as widely neglected environmental
             FAIEMS include planning strategies with                                               media is strongly needed.
             innovative technology supported by
             citizen participation. Local stakeholders                                             The LUMAT Booklet includes in a
             have initiated pilot projects by using                                                short form the description of the
             new interactive information tools                                                     most important results of the three
             from the Urban Atlas and citizen                                                      years’ work performed by the project
             observatories.                                                                        consortium in the field of integrated
                                                                                                   environmental management of land
             The ecosystem service concept has                                                     resources in functional urban areas.
             supported the assessment and decision-
             making process. The implementation is                                                 The complete and rich contents of the
             based on agreed Action Plans and pilot/                                               LUMAT project obviously cannot be
             demonstration projects for land and                                                   presented in a full framework. Several
             soil including information database and                                               dozens of deliverables and outputs
             tool for the management of urban/peri-                                                have been produced by the consortium
             urban relationships. Action plans include                                             of representatives of 13 scientific,
             financial instruments and institutional                                               consulting institutions but also regional
             solutions, e.g. land management                                                       and local authorities of cities creating
             agencies or permanent inter-municipal                                                 functional urban areas.
             working groups.
                                                                                                   This Booklet is presenting the results
             Tools on FAIEMS methodology and                                                       of the integration of scientific
             participation constitute an integrative                                               experience and management practice
             part of FAIEMS (minimize threats and                                                  in order to provide solutions which are
             environmental compensation to get                                                     transferable to other regions and cities
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe

           1.1   OBJECTIVE AND CONCEPT
           1.3   PARTNERSHIP
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
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        1.1 OBJECTIVE AND CONCEPT                                                                                                                   STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT 1.2

             The basic premises of the LUMAT project     and municipalities, and to achieve           The creation of the common strategy          The common methodology constituted           See
             initiative were concerning the existing     sustainable land use through a proper        and methodology was the first step of        a basis for further considerations           chapter 2
             and lasting negative phenomena in urban     environmental management.                    the project implementation.                  resulting in a concept of Action Plans
             land management appearing in form of:                                                                                                 strengthening the environmental
                                                         The project has indicated that there is      The LUMAT concept of a common                management of land and soil resources
             • Growing land use pressure leading         a need to find ideas for interregional       strategy for integrated environmental        in FUAs. According to the idea of LUMAT,
                to users conflicts, landscape            cooperation, tools and instruments to        management in Functional Urban Areas         the Action Plans have used methods
                fragmentation, biodiversity loss and     resolve the conundrum while respecting       (from here on FUAs) with the focus on        and tools that are offered by the
                soil sealing.                            territorial sovereignty and reflecting the   the component of land and soil created       environmental management field.
                                                         problem of fuzziness of the territorial      a framework for the development of
             • Increasing unbalanced urban               units. An integrated approach is needed      locally based strategies in the respective   These methods included in particular
                developments and declining urban         in all partner regions where multiple        FUAs in the LUMAT project partners’          ecosystem services approach to
                areas with vacant and brownfield         actors can participate and cooperate         countries.                                   decision making, but also others like
                land.                                    in territorial and environmental                                                          compensation measures in relation
                                                         management to develop their territories.     The conceptual approach is based             to management of brownfields and
             • Jurisdiction of the respective                                                         on integrated urban environmental            degraded areas or industrial symbiosis
                municipalities’ management ending        Two assumptions have been stated             management in the FUAs as a tool             with environmental criteria in business
                at its borders which results in an       presenting the idea of the project:          for the optimization of land-use and         co-operation.
                ineffective management related to                                                     soil management and its synergy with
                the fuzzy character of its borders and   • First, the urban land is a valuable        the concept of ecosystem services, as        For the needs of the project, seven
                the fuzzy interrelation of governance       and limited environmental resource        well as management of cooperation of         regions have been selected presenting
                systems.                                    (as it is reflected in the European       the city core and its suburban areas         various types of FUAs which are
                                                            documents).                               including institutional framework. A         representative of other regions in
             In all regions, poorly integrated and                                                    multilevel poly-centric governance           Central Europe. The project results
             unsystematic environmental and spatial      • Second, land management and                was chosen as a core concept for             therefore will be useful and applicable
             policies increase land-related conflict        planning are closely connected            efficient institutional framework in the     in other central European countries not
             undermining social cohesion and                with all development activities:          field of sustainable land use and soil       included in the project.
             competitiveness in the urban context,          economic, social and environmental        management.
             and new concepts of ecosystem services         ones by locating them in space.                                                        The main land use conflicts and threats      See
             are not sufficiently applied.                                                            The LUMAT concept of a common                have been identified and placed at the       chapter 3
                                                         Therefore, we assume that since the          strategy for integrated environmental        core for formulating solutions in form
             In the partner regions, one of the most     land is an environmental resource,           management works with FUAs as the            of Action Plans and pilot actions. These
             challenging topics of environmental         then the land management should              functional territorial units defined on      threats included brownfields, urban
             management of land resources is             be supported with environmental              natural ties of interdependences and         sprawl and soil sealing (partly the result
             represented by the disparity in the         management methods and tools applied         collaboration between the city core          of urban sprawl, but not only).
             territorial governance. The common          in relation to land.                         and peri-urban municipalities, or on         The project answer to these issues was
             objective for LUMAT partners was                                                         collaboration agreements framing, or         developing ideas and concepts of Action
             to strengthen the functionalities,                                                       practical implementation of multilevel       Plans that could support the integrated
             to integrate and support mutual                                                          governance principle in                      land management in FUAs. These
             cooperation between the core city                                                        the decision making.                         concepts were based on the common
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
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             structure developed by the partnership       contribution to metropolitan strategic    and Poland. These two investments            INVESTMENT IN SLOVAKIA                      See
             including:                                   planning and metropolitan general         are pilot actions of the project. The                                                    chapter 4
                                                                                                                                                The investment in Slovakia involves
                                                          spatial planning.                         remaining pilot actions in the other 5      the restoration of a neglected natural
             • Diagnosis of main specific issues/                                                   countries will constitute parts of Action   park for sport and recreation zone in
                threats in the FUA                     Organizational actions were connected        Plans showing how to implement the          location Štrky in Trnava, aiming at
                                                       with public involvement by using tools       proposed actions.                           securing the overall rehabilitation of
             • Technical, financial and                developed in LUMAT and management                                                        a currently abandoned area of Štrky,
                organizational actions                 structures which had to be established                                                   suffering from many burdens, for which
                                                       as units responsible in the future for the                                               it could be considered as a “green
             • Tools supporting the actions            implementation of the Action Plans. In                                                   brownfield”. On the one hand, through
                                                       addition, trainings of environmental and                                                 this restoration an original natural value
             • Pilot actions as examples of the        planning professionals were included,                                                    will be brought back to this bio-centre
                Action Plans implementation.           concerning ecosystem services approach,                                                  of local importance,as achieving a
                                                       FUA identity, land use conflicts                                                         strengthened and increased ecological
             The technical actions concerned:          reduction and use of innovative tools for                                                stability in this area. On the other hand,
                                                       public involvement.                                                                      overall rehabilitation will open up this
             • Concepts of green and blue                                                                                                       area for the broad public of Trnava City
                infrastructure strengthening and       The Action Plans have been presented                                                     and Trnava FUA offering possibilities for
                development                            at local public meetings, with the                                                       sport, leisure and relax activities in the
                                                       participation of various groups of                                                       natural environment.
             • Program of brownfields revitalization   stakeholders and using tools in form of
                                                       application available in mobile phones.
             • Program of integrated site              Establishing management structures                                                        INVESTMENT IN POLAND
                compensation                           is one of the most important visible                                                     The investment in Poland is consisting
                                                       project results.                                                                         in the rehabilitation of the brownfield
             • Program of business development                                                                                                  site located in the middle of the
                on degraded areas as inner city        They should guarantee further                                                            Ruda Śląska city. The place is a post-
                development                            implementation of the Action Plans,                                                      zinc wastes dumping site of 6,5 ha,
                                                       especially in the aspect of applying for                                                 surrounded by dwelling houses areas.
             • Program of re-using post-mining sites   financial means.                                                                         Therefore, at first, to make the place
                                                                                                                                                safe the phytostabilization technology
             • Integrated, sustainable management      Pilot actions have been developed in 7                                                   has been used. The investment will
                of functional city area in the         project countries as parts of the Action                                                 create an available open space of a
                process of spatial planning with an    Plans, showing the practical ways of                                                     natural, “half-wild” character; due to
                emphasis on integrated management      Action Plans implementation.                                                             the progressive greening it will achieve
                of environmental protection and                                                                                                 the character of a sub-regional park.
                integrated land use                    The physically visible results of the                                                    The place will become the walking and
                                                       project are pilot actions in form of                                                     biking route connection of two districts
             • FUAs’ environmental and territorial     two investments financed by the                                                          as a key element of the peri-urban
                issues management model as             project. They are located in Slovakia                                                    infrastructure.
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
12 | CHAPTER #1 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                     POLAND        LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER # | 13

                                                                                                   IETU - INSTITUTE FOR ECOLOGY
                                                                                                   OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS
                                                                                                   RUDA ŚLĄSKA CITY HALL

        1.3 PARTNERSHIP
                                                                                                         CZECH REPUBLIC
                                                                                                        IURS - INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE
             The LUMAT partnership consists of cities                                                   DEVELOPMENT OF SETTLEMENTS
             and regions representing FUAs and           GERMANY
             research and consulting institutions.                                                      REGIONAL DEVELOPEMENT AGENCY LTD
                                                         LFULG - SAXON STATE OFFICE FOR
                                                         ENVIRONMENT, AGRICULTURE, GEOLOGY
             13 partners from 7 countries have
             been working in close cooperation
             exchanging both the knowledge and the
             practical experience in land and soil
             resources management in urban areas.
             A transnational approach has helped the
             project partners to go pass traditional
             national/local concepts and raise
             awareness by developing innovative and
             integrated solutions supporting peri-
                                                                                                        SLOVAK REPUBLIC
             urban development.
                                                                                                        STUBA - SLOVAK UNIVERSITY
             As a consequence, the LUMAT partners                                                       OF TECHNOLOGY IN BRATISLAVA
             have worked on a transnational                                                             CITY OF TRNAVA
             framework in coherence with new
             implementation instruments and pilot
             actions through the transnational sharing                                          AUSTRIA
             of specific topics.                                                               EC - ENERGY CENTER LIPIZZANERHEIMAT LTD

             The qualification and competences of
             the partners are complementary to each
             other, and represent different national
             approaches as well as planning and
             environmental management approaches.                                            SLOVENIA
             Transnational cooperation has created
             synergies between actors with different                                     UIRS - URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE OF THE
                                                                                         REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA
             experience of land use management,
             as influenced by different local/                                           CITY OF KRANJ
             regional and national frameworks and                                        MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND
             government strategies.                                                      SPATIAL PLANNING

             This co-operation has fruited in methods
             and tools developed in environmental
             management related to land and soil                   METROPOLITAN CITY OF TURIN
             which are incorporated to land use                    LINKS FOUNDATION - LEADING
             planning and management in FUAs.                      INNOVATION & KNOWLEDGE FOR SOCIETY
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe

      2.2   TRAININGS
            2.2.1. FUA identity
            2.2.2. Ecosystem services
            2.2.3. Land use conflicts
            2.2.4. Interactive tool for citizens
                   involvement – InViTo
BOOKLET LUMAT PROJECT - MAY 2016 JULY 2019 - Interreg Central Europe
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                The LUMAT concept of integrated environmental management is based on the               • Metropolitan areas, with population        dependent on the urban core. The
                concept of FUAs as the functional territorial units defined on the basis of natural       between 500,000 and 1.5 million           most common–and easiest-way to
                ties, interdependencies and collaboration between the city core and surrounding           Large metropolitan areas,with             understand this interpretation is the
                municipalities. These can be of various type, as formal institutional relations, or       population above 1.5 million.             travel-to-work area, which would
                based on national policies implementation (including the adoption of the OECD                                                       include all communities with more than
                methodology) - top-down approach -, or based on collaboration agreements framing,      The FUA includes cities, towns and           a substantial percentage (e.g.: 20%)
                in addition to horizontal cooperation, or practical implementation of multilevel       villages that are often physically           of resident workers employed in the
                governance principle in the decision making.                                           separated by unbuilt land from the           core city. It is a very formal normative
                                                                                                       built-up city, but are at the same           concept not reflecting the complexity of
                                                                                                       time economically and socially highly        urban/peri-urban interrelations.
                     Functional Urban Area
                The FUA is defined as a spatially         identification of core municipalities.
                continuous settlement system consisting                                                     Guiding principles
                of units separate in administrative       The cores are defined using the              The joint concept of integrated FUAs            processes are the real improvements      Five
                terms. An urban functional area covers    population grid from the global dataset      environmental management builds                 in the FUAs.                             guiding
                a compact urban area (core) with a        Landscan, referred to circa year 2000.       on project cycle creating the core of                                                    principles
                functionally linked urbanized zone.       Poly-centric cores and the hinterlands of    integrated environmental management          4. The basic principle of integrated
                                                          the functional areas were identified on      process framed by 5 guiding principles:         FUAs’ environment management
                Sustainable Land Use in FUAs covers       the basis of commuting data (travel from                                                     is the broad involvement of all
                all activities concerned with the         home–to-work) referred around the 2000       1. The main feature of integrated               stakeholders into the decision
                management of land as a resource          census year.                                    FUAs’ environmental management               making and implementation activities
                both from an environmental and from                                                       is its strategic character. It means         reflecting their different capacities.
                an economic perspective. Integrated       The urban hinterland was identified as          the complexity of the process
                Environmental Management in FUAs          worker catchment area, including all            starting with diagnosis, via visioning,   5. Integrated FUAs’ environment
                aims to improve the environmental         settlements from where at least 15% of          planning, programming and ending             management follows the logic
                performance of FUA, thus contributing     the workers commute to any of the core          with implementing and monitoring.            of gradual development with
                to a better quality of life.              settlement(s). (OECD,2012)                                                                   synergy effects between different
                                                                                                       2. Integrated FUAs’ environment                 interventions coordinated in the
      OECD      The OECD made special efforts to make     The OECD methodology makes it possible          management is the platform for               time and space. In the same time it
 Organisation   the concept of “Functional Urban          to compare FUAs of similar size across          integration of different interests,          creates preconditions for flexible use
for Economic
                Area” more precise, allowing to collect   countries. A classification of FUAs into        aspects, potentials, limits in the           and reacting to internal and external
         and    comparable data across European           four types according to population size is      space/territory of the FUAs across           shocks.
Development     cities. Each FUA is an economic unit      proposed:                                       different hierarchical territorial
                characterised by densely inhabited                                                        levels, sectors of policies,
                “urban cores” and “hinterlands”whose      • Small urban areas, with population            stakeholders.
                labour market is highly integrated with      between 50,000 and 200,000.
                the cores.                                                                             3. Integrated FUAs’ environment
                                                          • Medium-sized urban areas, with                management is action oriented, it
                The OECD developed a calculation             population between 200,000 and               means the outputs from the planning,
                process which started with the               500,000.                                     decision making and executing
18 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                            LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 19

                                                                                                       required quality of the decision making      feedback allows the combination with
                                                 GUIDING PRINCIPLES
                                                                                                       - independently from its character -         flexibility of strategies reflecting directly
                                                                                                       depends on the availability/accessibility    the success assessment in which quality
                                 INTEGRATIVE                          PARTICIPATIVE /                  to proper information, involvement           as perceived by the public plays an
                STRATEGIC       SPATIALLY AND                          MULTI-ACTORS     INCREMENTAL
                                                                          BASED                        of relevant stakeholders and their           important role in addition to objective
                                                                                                       capacities. In this context, the inherent    progress indicators.
                                INTEGRATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROCESS                           part of the common integrated FUAs
                                                                                                       management is the process of building        The basic consolidation phase is the
              TOOLS:                                                                    TOOLS:
                                                                                                       up the capacities of stakeholders for        process of permanent adjustment
                              FEEDBACK - BASIC
              -                CONSOLIDATION
                                                                        APPRAISAL       -              active participation in its execution.       of the strategy to changing external
              -                                                                         -                                                           preconditions as well as reflecting
                                                     SERVICES                                          The project cycle is an iterative process    feedbacks from the progress monitoring
                                                  PERFORMANCE                                          in which permanent monitoring and            of the strategy implementation.
                                                      AS THE                   ENGAGEMENT
                                                 FOR SUSTAINABLE                                            Integration
                                                 QUALITY OF LIFE
              TOOLS:            INDIVIDUAL AND                                          TOOLS:         The quality of life in the FUAs and          achieve complexity and in the same              The core
                                                                          JOINT                                                                                                                     principle of
              -                   COLLECTIVE
                                                                                        -              quality of urban environment as the          time efficiency of measures based
              -                DECISION MAKING                                          -
                                                                                                       precondition for the quality of life of      on the comparison of the outputs/               the LUMAT
                                                                                                                                                                                                    concept for
                                                                                                       FUAs’ citizens are synergic qualities, to    effects/improvements and inputs/
                                                                                                       a huge extent subjectively perceived.        used resources. Integrated FUAs’’               FUAs’
                        Fig.1 The concept for integrative FUA environmental management
                                                                                                       There are substantial and processual         environmental management includes               environment
                                                                                                       dimensions of the integration in             the parallel and serial processual              management
                  Project cycle                                                                        the integrated FUAs’ environmental           integration.
             The core quality followed by the project      and involvement of the relevant             management.
             cycle which creates the backbone              stakeholders for respective issue, being                                                 Parallel processual integration is focused
             of integrated FUAs’ environmental             it a problem or a challenge. Important      The substantial integration is based on      on coordination and harmonisation
             management is the quality of life in the      is to analyse natural and institutional     contextual understanding of particular       of the parallel processes in the FUAs
             FUAs with the special focus on whole          responsibilities, capacities (decision      problems and challenges for the              looking for their independences,
             range of ecosystem services as the            making, implementation) as well as          strategy development, decision making        contradictions, synergies etc. (e.g. the
             precondition for sustainability of the        opportunities for collaboration, and        and implementation as well as the            changes of the quality of public spaces
             quality of life.                              based on this to identify the most proper   integration of different aspects, factors,   in the core areas, the development
                                                           hierarchical level for the development      views, policies (sectorial approaches).      of transport infrastructure and the
             The project cycle includes the                of the strategy, decision making,                                                        processes of urban sprawl).
             appraisal phase with the identification       strategy implementation, actions            This integration has different levels of
             of the problems, their system ties,           in the harmony with the concept of          integration,also understood as levels of     The sense of serial processual integration
             casualties and synergies, the hierarchy,      poly-centric multilevel governance. The     abstraction or level of aggregation.         is the optimisation of interlinks between
             spatial extent and affecting the              development of strategy is understood                                                    the actions in their logic time sequence.
             different stakeholders. The appraisal         as the participatory process involving      The processual dimension of integration      The main time axis is determined by
             phase is followed by the phase of             the stakeholder, following their            is based on integration of different         the flow of activities starting with
             engagement focused on identification          individual engagement and capacity. The     particular processes in order to             the diagnosis with identification of
20 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                             LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 21

                    potentials, problems and challenges          the available resources. The planning
                    via visioning, planning, programming         process identifies the goals or objectives                                      BIODIVERSITY
                    up to the implementation. Serial             to be achieved, formulates strategies
                    processual integration safeguards the        to achieve them, arranges or creates
                    coherence among the prospective              the means required, and implements,
                                                                                                                                              ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
                    activities represented by the complex        directs, and monitors all steps in their
                    of FUAs integrative planning and             proper sequence.
                    executive activities represented by own                                                                                         VALUES
                    development activities (among them           In the core of the concept for integrated
                    implementation activities of plans and       FUAs’ environmental management
                    programs) and their management -             creates optimized integrative land-
                    executive management.                        use management and management                                                   HUMAN
                                                                 of cooperation (including proper                                               WELL-BEING
                    Planning is understood as basic              institutional framework) of the city core
                    management function, involving               and its suburban areas seems to be the
                    formulation of plans to achieve optimum      core instrument to face the threats in
                    balance of needs or demands with             current urban/peri-urban development.                                               GOODS

                         Concept of ecosystem services
  Within LUMAT      As an attempt to express the benefits        cultural landscape.
         Project    from ecosystems for human well-being
  services is the
                    by economic means, the concept of            Ecosystems are rather complex dynamic
conceptual basis    ecosystem services offers a common           functional units consisting of all plants
  for integrated    denominator for the harmonization of         and animals (biodiversity) in an area,            Fig.2 Biodiversity, Ecosystems, Ecosystems services and Human Well-Being
                    different interests in the urban/peri-       together with the non-living, physical
   including the    urban areas and threats based on the         components of the environment (water,
    land and soil   dichotomy between core and periphery         soil and air) with which they interact.      The confrontation of the demand             are fundamental to attaining quality of     The value of
   management       as well as seeming dichotomy between                                                      (represented by the needs) and offer        life of the citizens as main integrative    ecosystem
                    economic and social on one hand and          The cities and FUAs represent the socio-     (represented by the availability of         development goal. There is no single        services
                    environmental development on the             ecosystems as they include ecosystem         services and their ability to satisfy the   way to implement an Ecosystem Services
                    other hand.                                  and man as a social being.                   needs) represents the value of services.    Approach.
                                                                                                              We need to consider not only mitigation
                    In the past, environmental dimension         Ecosystem services are the services          and protection although within a broader    FUAs represent very complex, dynamic
                    in the decision making in spatial            provided by the natural environment          approach, but the fact, that the people     socio-ecological systems of biophysical
                    development management was                   which benefit people addressing their        in their daily lives depend on a range      and social factors defined at several
                    represented by issues as mitigating the      well-being, satisfying their needs           of services that ecosystems provide and     spatial, temporal and organizational
                    impact of development activities or          existential security, social and economic    our role is not only to protect but to      hierarchically linked scales. The
                    establishing areas to protect wildlife and   prosperity.                                  develop them in parallel. These services    ecosystems are significant with different
22 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                                    LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 23

             levels of self-organisational and            For the LUMAT concept of the                harmonisation can be understood the               elements - food, clean air, fuel, timber
             adaptive abilities. The social factors are   common FUAs integrated development          concept of ecosystem services- services           (provisioning ecosystem services) via
             represented by social units consisting of    management is important the                 provided by the natural environment               creating proper framework for their
             citizens, visitors, local economy players,   conceptualized knowledge resulting from     which benefit people. Understanding               existence by influencing climate, floods
             and other subjects of social life in the     the research of the teams around Elinor     of ecosystem services is ‘challenging             etc. (regulating ecosystem services),
             FUA, their mutual interactions as well as    Ostrom, that the management processes       the misconception that we must choose             safeguarding sustainability of the
             interactions with the subjects of society    in such complex systems as cities and       between the natural environment and               processes framing the existence of
             they are embedded in.                        FUAs can be improved only by making         economic growth’ (Natural Environment             humans - water cycling, soil formation               Maslow’s
                                                          them adaptive and flexible, able to deal    White Paper Consultation, Sept. 2010).            (supporting ecosystem services) up to                Pyramid
             The main task of the FUA development         with uncertainty and surprise, and by                                                         human needs at the top of Maslow’s
             management is to safeguard that              building capacity to adapt to change.       The ecosystem services reach from                 pyramid - aesthetic and cognitive inputs,
             they regularly interact in a resilient,                                                  providing the products satisfying                 health, recreation and tourism (cultural
             sustainable manner, especially in the        The object of the integrated FUA            basic needs of humans as biological               ecosystem services).
             context of the presence of critical          development management are the
             resources whose flow and use is              processes in both - social systems and                                                             The values/benefits/function of ecosystem
             regulated in the interaction between         ecosystems and especially their mutual             REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                             services as the basis for their position in
             natural and societal processes.              interaction where the biggest challenge                                                            integrative development management/
                                                                                                                LOCAL                                        integration of 5 components of well-being/
                                                          represents the question of harmonisation                                                           quality of life:
             This concept of the cities and their peri-   of different demands of different
             urban areas as socio-ecological systems                                                                                     INDIRECT            Basic material for a good life
                                                          elements of social systems as well as                      HUMAN                                   (Adequate livelihood, food, shelter, other
                                                                                                                                        DRIVERS OF
             is crucial in the integrated concept         ecosystems in the confrontation with the                  WELL-BEING                               goods)
             of FUAs sustainable development              limitation of the available resources and                                                          Health
             management as it stress the fact that        preferences in the access to them and                                                              (Strength, feeling well, access to clean air
             the delineation between social systems       function of sustainability.                                                                        and water)

             and ecological systems is artificial and                                                                                                        Good social relations
                                                                                                                                      DIRECT DRIVERS         (Social cohesion,mutual respect, ability to
             arbitrary.                                   There is a whole scale of different                        ECOSYSTEM
                                                                                                                                        OF CHANGE            help others)
                                                          conceptual frameworks for addressing
             It also draws heavily on systems ecology     this tasks of harmonisation of social                                                              (Personal safety, access to resources, safety
             and complexity theory incorporating          systems and ecosystems development                                                                 from disasters)
             ideas from theories relating to the          (e.g. circular economy), but the                                                                   Freedom of choice and action
                                                                                                                                                             (Ability to control personal
             study of sustainability, vulnerability,      complexity of the tasks of integrated
             resilience and robustness, which makes       FUA development management is not in
             this theoretical framework much              every time properly covered by them,         Fig.3 Ecosystem services as an object of integrative FUA environment management
             more relevant for the common FUAs            as they mostly use to focus on particular   Based on: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005).Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis (PDF),
                                                                                                      2014. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-59726-040-1
             integrated development management            human activities and are not fitting to
             in the context of challenges resulting       the complexity of FUA functioning and
             from climate change and growing              development processes.                      One of the crucial connected questions            fragmentation on ecosystem services
             uncertainties, and from the growing role                                                 for FUAs’ integrated environment                  which is one of main features especially
             of multi-actors of FUAs development and      As proper interface between social          management is the problem of multi-               in urban and peri-urban areas.
             their individual decisions.                  aspects and ecological aspects of this      dimensional impacts of landscape
24 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                             LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 25

                 At this scale one of the main challenges     implications for ecosystem services (see:      acknowledgement of diversity, as            making the best use of resources)
                 is how to optimise the allocation and        Rodriguez, et al, 2006).                       crucial mean to improve well-being
                 management of different land uses and                                                       of FUA citizens                          • security and safety of individuals
                 their sprawl and how to minimise the                                                                                                    and their living environment
                                                                                                          • accessibility and equity (equal access       (crime and conflict prevention and
                                                                                                             to the participation on decision            disaster preparedness);diffusion
                      Multilevel poly-centric governance                                                     making, to the services, work…)             of information and learning, self-
   Integrated    Territorial governance is mainly             contrast with the nature of FUAs and                                                       learning, knowledge affordability
environment      understood as “the manner in which           processes there, as they are related        • accountability/transparency of               (iterative process of monitoring and
   of the FUA
                 territories of a national state are          to different, only partially overlapping       decision makers across different            target readjustment, networks, etc.)
development      administered and policies implemented        spaces and it is no more possible to           levels of territorial government
     has to be   with particular reference to the             define exactly the borders of functional       involved, in the private sector and      • diffusion of understanding of
                 distribution of roles and responsibilities   space of a city or of a region.                in the civil society organisations          complexity of FUA development
  as a task of
  the system     among the different levels of                                                               should be accountable to the                among decision makers
of territorial   government (supranational, national          The administrative borders lose its            public as well as to institutional
 governance.     and sub-national) and the underlying         importance for spatial organization of         stakeholders (publicizing planning       • rising awareness about necessity
                 processes of negotiation and consensus       citizens’ activities. We can speak about       and programmes, performances), etc.         of strategic thinking and long term
                 building” (COM 2007).                        soft spaces and their fuzzy borders,                                                       perspective thinking
                                                              about poly-centric governance, fuzzy        • sustainability in all dimensions of FUA
                 The FUAs belong to such spatial              and soft governance modes.                     development                              • comprehensive and innovative
                 structures including the territory of                                                                                                   management
                 several municipalities but only seldom       The multilevel poly-centric governance      • efficiency and effectiveness, (in the
                 creating institutionalised territorial       model creates the basis for:                   delivery of public services, promoting   • flexibility of strategies and tools and
                 unit with adequate governmental or                                                          FUA economic development,                   capacity of adjustment using soft
                 self-governmental bodies. Such open          • inclusion and participation,                 production that meet needs, while           tools.
                 systems allow high level of individual          broad participation of public and
                 freedom (e.g. decision-making freedom,          private actors (self-governmental
                 individual mobility), allowing and              bodies, NGO, firms, individuals,              Public participation
                 initiating not only changes in individual       association) directly or through         The implementation of the Action            all relevant subject of FUA development     The public
                 and collective behaviour and attitudes          legitimate intermediate institutions,    plans for FUA is directly depending on      (especially from the point of view of       participation
                 (e.g. new definition of belonging,              strengthening of collaborative           the participation of the whole scale of     environment) continuous consultation        is crucial for
                 territorial responsibility, shift from          decision-making                          stakeholders. The analysis of relevant      in various stages of environmental
                 local to regional and global thinking,                                                   subject for public participation has to     management plan production to be the        management
                 social control), but even the changes of     • subsidiary by decentralising most         use both a multi-criteria and multi-        most appropriate since this approach        in the fuzzy
                 territorial systems themselves.                 of the decisions concerning the          factor approach, which includes, as         also respects to the highest degree the     soft spaces
                                                                 particular issues to the decision-       its main objectives, involvement,           requirements of the Aarhus Convention       as FUAs
                 The definition of “hard” borders and            making level consistent with efficient   mediation and facilitation of information   on Access to Information, Public
                 institutionalisation of the FUA as              and cost-effective delivery of outputs   and participation. The integrated FUA       Participation and Access to Justice,
                 governmental or self-governmental               non-hierarchical modes of guidance,      environmental management plans              and the Convention on Biodiversity (the
                 territorial units would be even in the          such as persuasion and negotiation       frames integrative approach considering     management of land and water and
26 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 27

                                                                                                                                                                 COLLABORATIVE BEHAVIOUR
             living resources as a social choice).       process to an active one. The whole
                                                                                                                                                                 WILLINGNESS                                OPENNESS              VALIDATION                    HUMILITY             MUTUALITY
                                                         process of participation is a process
             Stakeholders should be involved when all    of trust building between the decision                                                                                                                                                                                     EMPOWERMENT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CONTINUOUS EVALUATION FACILITATION

             options are still open and engagement       maker and stakeholders, inherently

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DEALING WITH CONFLICTS MEDIA RELATIONS EFFECTIVE LISTENING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ST       ST

             should continue throughout the              a two-way process. It is crucial to                                                                                                                                                                ENGAGEMENT

             planning process.                           make stakeholders feel listened to and                                                                                                                                                                   ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ST       ST

                                                         appreciated in practice, not only in                                                                                                                                        INTERMEDIATE                         ST

             There are different tools for involvement   theory for the whole duration of the                                                                                                                                                                    DM            ST

                                                                                                                                                                 LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION
                                                                                                                              OPINION TRANSACTION SERVICES
             of different groups of stakeholders,        process. Following Figure describes the                                                                                                                                                      ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                            COLLECTION OF INFO
             nevertheless, the logic remains the         phases of the procedure and its internal                                                                                                              (consultation)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DM             ST
             same, to achieve collective decision        logics and Table 2 provides a sheet of

             making in form of partnership               main phases with brief explanation                                                                                                SPREAD OF INFO
             empowerment.                                of each phase which is to be used by

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 COLLABORATIVE SKILLS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DM             ST
                                                         practitioners as a tool for running the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EFFECTIVE SPEAKING
             The objective of the procedure of           procedure in the projects.

             public participation is to engage the                                                                                                                                              DM               ST


             stakeholders in the processes of the FUA    The executive management with the

                                                                                                                                                                                          LOW                                    LEVEL OF INTERACTION                                              HIGH
             environmental management starting           tool of Action plans focuses on efficient
             with the planning and programming,          implementation of planned interventions                                                                                            COMMUNICATION                            CONSULTATION                       PARTNERSHIP EMPOWERING
                                                                                                                                                                   public displays, newsletters, press                     public meetings, workshop, open             multi-actors, decision making,
             via practical implementation up to          (e.g. investments, regulations,                                                                              releases, news, conference                                  houses, urban walks                       voting, referendum

             the monitoring. This needs to be done       subsidies, etc.) and harmonisation of                                                                                                                     LISTENING                                  ENGAGING
                                                                                                                                                                                                      pools, surveys, community profiles,        negotiations, arbitration, mediation
             in gradual steps as it is continuous        various activities driven by different                                                                                                        briefs, written responses, public

             process with its internal logics. The       stakeholders of FUA development.
             procedure has 5 main steps in which                                                     Fig.4 Phases and quality of the stakeholders involvement (Finka M., Ondrejicka, V. 2017)
             the decision makers are engaging with       The main reference quality related
             the stakeholders with one initial phase     to the executive management is
             of stakeholder mapping which provides       represented by the goals defined by the     and external environment of FUA.                                                                                                       Data collection tools, comparative                                                                                           The core
             the essential early information about       strategy of FUA development aimed on        Important part of the diagnosis is the                                                                                                 methods (e.g. benchmarking) generic                                                                                          issue are the
             the stakeholders of the project. All        achievement improvement of the quality      identification of the drivers of these                                                                                                 visioning techniques and other                                                                                               identification
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of potentials
             the steps need to be performed as one       of life and its sustainability.             changes. The drivers and issues can                                                                                                    prospective methods are employed at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and definition
             is related to another, from a passive                                                   be developed through the use of the                                                                                                    this stage. Procedures such as strategic                                                                                     of problems
                                                                                                     different scanning techniques. The                                                                                                     environmental assessment may also start
                                                                                                     diagnosis should be not limited to the                                                                                                 at this stage in conjunction with the
                  Situation Analysis                                                                 collection of background data concerned                                                                                                plan development process.
             Following the principle to build            management plans is the analytical          with the FUA (GIS data, statistical
             sustainable FUA development on use          phase.                                      data, analytical documents, photos)                                                                                                    The definition of development strategy,
             and capitalisation of local and supra/                                                  but should include in-depth analyses in                                                                                                its goals, structures, instrument but as
             local potentials, important part of the     The diagnosis is an initial step to         order to understand the processes in the                                                                                               well the definition of progress indicators
             proposed algorithm of the development       identify and monitor emerging issues        FUA not only as state of art description                                                                                               can be formulated. These two elements
             of integrated FUA environmental             and signals of change in the internal       but as development trends as well.                                                                                                     form a reciprocal relationship:
28 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                        LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 29

             • problems and potentials will be used       • the core indicators will be used as        • the strategy implementation             for the development of locally based
                as the basis for a sub-set of issues         part of a SWOT analysis in order to          monitoring focused on                  strategies in the respective FUAs and
                integrated in the developed indicator        identify the problems and potentials         investigation and assessment of        executive part of the actions plans in the
                set                                          of the FUA.                                  the implementation process and         project LUMAT partners’ countries.
                                                                                                          feed-back including strategic impact
                                                                                                          assessment and ex-ante evaluation      The conceptual approach to the
                  Formulation of a vision and strategy for the plan                                                                              development of Action Plans is based
             This phase is the most interactive stage     The second part of the planning phase        • permanent development monitoring        on common understanding and common
             of the FUA environmental management          is focused on preparatory work for plan         concentrated on sustainability         strategy for integrated management of
             process in terms of assessment and           implementation. The main instruments            development assessment                 FUAs as a tool for optimization of land-
             devising a plan.                             are the Action Plan, programs and                                                      use and soil management and its synergy
                                                          projects, which are in detail described by   • flexible adjustment of the strategies   with the concept of ecosystem services
             Goals, alternatives how to react to          the programming/operational part of the         in accordance with the monitoring      as well as management of cooperation
             the identified challenges, problems          Action plan. The Action plan will involve       results and dynamic development of     of the city core and its suburban areas
             and potentials of the FUA, expected          a series of projects and sub-projects           framework preconditions and new        including institutional framework.
             outcomes of the plan and the associated      which will include diverse interventions        requirements.
             objectives and targets should be             in the form of regulations, investments,                                               In this context the methodology supports
             developed and assessed from the point        physical developments, socio-economic        The LUMAT methodology of specific         the implementation of the concept of
             of their coherence, achievability, and       and environmental measures.                  integrated FUA environmental              multilevel poly-centric governance as a
             responsibilities. Usually some scenarios     The objectives of the plan should be         management plans creates a framework      leading managerial concept.
             are generated, discussed and assessed.       used as a benchmark against which the
             The linked necessary interventions should    performance of alternatives of actions in
             be tested against policy options and         the Action Plans should be appraised.
             identified consequences.

             After the design of integrative plan,        or flagship projects should be carried
             assessment of alternative options and        out in close collaboration with the
             formulation of executive (programming/       stakeholders. Their involvement and
             operational) part of the Action Plan/        division of responsibilities and work
             plans including the definition of priority   is crucial including the agreement
             action areas based on socio-economic         on organisation of responsibilities
             and environmental goals for FUA              to implement the plan as whole and
             development the prioritisation of pilot      particular projects.

             Monitoring should be inherent part of        environmental management plans. It
             the core strategy of the integrative FUA     includes:
30 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                            LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 31

        2.2 TRAININGS

             The concept of local training for professionals of environmental management and            • FUAs definitions                              FUAs Identity (interactive exercise     Focus of
             land use planning has been prepared and implemented in the training seminars of the                                                        based on FUAs presented in the
             LUMAT partnership and in national training sessions in the partner countries of the        • FUAs typology                                 Project)
             LUMAT project. The aim of the internal training seminars of LUMAT partnership was to
             discuss the knowledge needed to prepare and organise national training sessions in         • FUAs delimitation and criteria for         • Conclusions on further steps in
             FUAs and implement also country-specific national policies and conditions.                    FUAs identity                                building FUAs identity.

             The concept is based on four modules that cover the most important issues for              • Discussion on criteria selection
             professionals of environmental management and land use planning in FUAs:
      Four   1. FUAs – FUA Identity                       3. Interactive tools for citizen
   modules                                                                                                   2.2.2 Ecosystem Services
             2. Ecosystem services                                                                      The incorporation of the ecosystem services in the concept of integrated FUAs
                                                          4. Reduction of land-use conflicts.           development management allows to take the value of the natural environment into
                                                                                                        account in cost benefit analysis and to solve the problem of the imbalance between
             The concept has been prepared by PP7 STUBA in two formats: the lectures and the
                                                                                                        beneficiaries and losers. The training was composed of an introductory lecture and an
             workshop format. The partners could choose which format is suitable to be used in
                                                                                                        interactive session, both led by Prof Maros Finka (STUBA).
             the partner countries for national trainings.

                                                                                                        The introduction focused on:
             All four modules have been elaborated as presentations of the topic in power point as
             .PPT files and support to the trainers of national trainings has been prepared in the      • ecosystem services approaches a            • urban landscape quality and              Introductory
             form of the file Guidelines/Advice to the trainers that have been elaborated in the           framework by which ecosystem                 ecosystem services as a phenomenon
             proposed structure:                                                                           services are integrated into public          of urban life quality
                                                                                                           and private decision making
             • Tasks for self-study of the trainers          should be reached                                                                       • position and structure of ecosystem
                                                                                                        • environmentally oriented land use             services management instruments in
             • Training methodology with                  • Training materials that should be used         planning                                     integrative planning systems.
                explanation what training objectives         for the chosen training format.
                                                                                                        The interactive session discussed:
             In addition to the logistics of training the Comment/advice to the trainers has been
             added to each slide in the ppt file. The training materials have been translated into 6    • Factors of urban landscape quality.        • Choosing the priorities from the         Subjects of
             national languages (CZ, DE, IT, PL, SI, SK) and provided to the participants of national                                                   point of view of different groups of
             trainings on FUAs integrated environmental management.                                     • What is the city of the best quality          stakeholders.
                                                                                                                                                     • What are ecosystem services about?
                                                                                                        • Setting priorities of urban life quality
                  2.2.1 FUAs Identity                                                                      factors.

             The training materials have been prepared by dr. Justyna Gorgoń (IETU). The
             training is composed of introductory lecture and interactive session. The aim was               2.2.3 Land use conflicts
             to define FUAs identity with respect of its characteristics and with reference to the
             methodology (OECD/national). Interactive session was focused on:                           The reduction of conflicts in spatial development begins already at the stage of
32 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                                            LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 33

               elaborating land use plans. Techniques and methods of solving conflicts are based         the processes of policy and decision making, focusing on data sharing and information
               on broadly understood principles of conflict management, but should take into             visualisation as a vehicle for the public involvement in the planning processes.It
               consideration the basic issues important in spatial planning and land use management,     generates maps, where information and localisation are correlated so to provide an
               i.e. public interest and the value of land related to the planned functions.              essential instrument for the knowledge of urban dynamics in the definition of specific
                                                                                                         policies (IBM, 2014; Ringenson, et al., 2018; Google LLC, 2018).
               The aim of the training, prepared by Dr.JustynaGorgoń (IETU), was to explain how
               to reduce land use conflicts in the FUAs with respect to different kind of possible       This platform has a double function. First, it allows geo-data to be mapped and          For more
               conflicts and with reference to the proposed toolbox for conflict resolution. The         filtered in order to monitor the present land uses, pointing out critical issues or      details see
                                                                                                                                                                                                  chapter 4.3
               interactive session focused on the classification of land-use conflicts in the FUAs       outlining opportunities. Second, it allows the production of maps which can be
               according to:                                                                             weighted on the basis of different parameters thus enabling the discussions among
                                                                                                         the involved stakeholders.
    Focus of   • Framework for classification of            • Toolbox proposed
 interactive      land-use conflicts                                                                     The training materials were prepared by Elena Masala and Matteo Tabasso (LINKS
                                                            • Proposal of methods for conflicts          Foundation).
                 • Conditions for existence of                 resolution
                     conflicts                                                                           The scope of the training covers:

                 • Causes of conflicts                                                                   • Functionalities of InViTo                 • Practical session – how to use and         InViTo
                                                                                                                                                        adapt InViTo tool to the different
                 • Parties involved in the land-use                                                      • Opportunities offered by interactive         FUAs.
                     conflict’s process                                                                     visualization tool InViTo

               The results of trainings have been be reflected in the participatory process of
               Strategies and Action Plans in the LUMAT project pilot areas´ development and
               implementation, since the knowledge and skills of stakeholders involved are crucial
               for efficient achievements of strategic goals. There have been altogether 164
               professionals of environmental management and land use planning trained in all
               relevant target groups in the countries of the LUMAT project partnership.

                    2.2.4 Interactive tool for citizens involvement – InViTo
               The methodology shared among LUMAT partners includes the use of spatial Decisions
               Support Tools (sDSS) as instruments for facilitating the decision-making processes
               in a complex environment such as the inter-municipal agglomeration. Italian team
               proposed the use of the Interactive Visualisation Tool (InViTo), a web based
               mapping tool developed by LINKS (Pensa & Masala, 2014; Pensa et al., 2014).

               InViTo is conceived as a toolbox, which provides a visual support to the analysisand
               communication of both georeferred spatial and non-spatial data. It aims at facilitating
34 | CHAPTER #2 | LUMAT PROJECT                                                                                                                          LUMAT PROJECT | CHAPTER #2 | 35

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