Canada's Violation of International Law during the 2014-16 Ebola Outbreak
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Canada’s Violation of International Law during the 2014–16 Ebola Outbreak –– La violation du droit international par le Canada lors de l’épidémie d’Ébola de 2014–16 ali tejpar and steven j. hoffman Abstract Résumé The devastating 2014–16 West African L’épidémie dévastatrice d’Ébola de Ebola outbreak challenged the authority of l’Afrique de l’Ouest en 2014–16 a remis en the World Health Organization (WHO) to doute l’autorité de l’Organisation mondi- enforce the legally binding International ale de la santé (OMS) pour faire respecter Health Regulations (IHR) that govern pan- le Règlement sanitaire international (RSI), demic responses. Under Article 43 of the instrument juridiquement contraignant qui IHR, states parties can only implement régit les réponses aux pandémies. En vertu additional health measures beyond the de l’article 43 du RSI, les États parties ne WHO’s recommendations if public health peuvent mettre en œuvre des mesures en rationales or scientific evidence justify such matière de santé au-delà de celles recom- measures. Yet at least fifty-eight states par- mandées par l’OMS que si des motifs de ties enacted additional health measures, santé publique ou des preuves scientifiques mainly travel restrictions to or from Ebola- justifient de telles mesures supplémen- affected countries. This article explains taires. Or, au moins 58 États parties ont why Canada’s visa restrictions targeting adopté des mesures de santé supplémen- Ebola-affected countries failed to meet the taires, principalement des restrictions de IHR’s requirements and therefore violated voyage vers ou à partir des pays touchés international law. Specifically, Canada’s par l’Ébola. Ce commentaire explique response went against public health author- pourquoi les restrictions de voyages ities’ consensus views, the best available imposées par le Canada à l’endroit des pays scientific evidence on disease transmission, touchés par l’Ébola n’ont pas répondu aux Ali Tejpar, Global Strategy Lab, Canada; JD candidate, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; MA candidate, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Steven J Hoffman, Global Strategy Lab, Canada; Dahdaleh Institute for Global Health Research, Faculty of Health and Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto, Canada; Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact and McMaster Health Forum, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada. 366 Vol. 54 , doi:10.1017/cyl.2017.18 © The Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international 2017. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence Downloaded (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits from https://www.cambridge.org/core. IP address: 184.108.40.206, on 13unrestricted re-use, distribution, Mar 2020 at 16:57:48, and subject to the Cambridge Core terms of reproduction use, available in any medium, provided the https://doi.org/10.1017/cyl.2017.18 at https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms. original work is properly cited.
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