Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers

 
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Inspiring possibilities
 for school leavers

       Construction,
       Engineering
       & Property

                          2016
                          In partnership with
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
IN CONSTRUCTION
THE SKYLINE IS THE LIMIT

Construction lets you play a part in creating iconic
projects and infrastructure of the future. You could
leave a legacy that doesn’t just change the skyline,
it could change the world.
Construction is a career like no other.

goconstruct.org
Industry led, funded by the CITB levy
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Welcome
Build the perfect career
             elcome to the newest edition of TARGETcareers       goconstruct.org acts as a window for the many

W            Construction, Engineering & Property – a guide
             to help students leaving school or college decide
             whether they should go to university or pursue
an apprenticeship or training programme route.
   Go Construct, a new industry-led campaign, is proud to
                                                                 opportunities available in construction – and it’s got lots of
                                                                 career resources for school leavers and teachers, too.
                                                                    Whether you are interested in construction, engineering
                                                                 or property, rest assured that there are a number of ways in
                                                                 which you can start your career. You can follow an
support this publication, and its companion website              academic route or there are many ways to work while you
targetcareers.co.uk, because it showcases the variety of         learn. This publication will help you find out more.
construction, engineering and property careers available.
   If you decide to pursue a construction career, there will     Kind regards,
definitely be a role for you. You can be hands on and train
in a skilled craft; focus on technical designs; oversee the
actual construction; or step into management. You can even
                                                                 Lorraine Gregory
start your own company. Construction indeed is a career          Sector strategy manager – careers, CITB
for everyone, and Go Construct aims to challenge its             (Construction Industry Training Board)
outdated image and inspire people to make construction
their career of choice. The Go Construct website

                                                                 Photograph supplied by The Lowry (@The Lowry)
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Join the
                                                workforce,                          Choosing                       Making
     TAKING YOUR NEXT STEP                       go to uni                          a job role                   applications
                                                 or both?

                                    Contents
                       Image supplied by CITB                                                                                   Image supplied by CITB
                                                  Welcome to your future
                                                  Your choice of careers .............................. 4
                                                  Your choice of career routes .................... 6

                                                  Which route?
                                                  Quiz: which route is best for you? ............9
                                                  Apprenticeships deconstructed ............10
                                                  University deconstructed ...................... 12
                                                  Training programmes deconstructed .... 14

                                                  Which job role?
                                                  How to make the right career choice...... 16
                                                  How the construction industry works.... 18

                                                  The different construction
                                                    job roles explained .............................. 21
                                                  The engineering industries explained.... 26
                                                  Need to know info for all
                                                   would-be engineers .............................. 29
                                                  The different engineering
                                                   job roles explained .............................. 30
                                                  The property industry defined .............. 34
                                                  The different property job roles
                                                   explained .............................................. 35
                                                  Get professionally qualified .................. 38
                                                  What to do once you’ve seen
                                                   a career you like .................................. 40

2|       careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Career stories from students,
apprentices and trainees
My quantity surveying apprenticeship.. 41
My civil engineering apprenticeship...... 42
My structural engineering degree ........ 42
My site management training
 programme .......................................... 43
My property apprenticeship .................. 43
My civil engineering degree .................. 44
My mechanical engineering
 apprenticeship .................................... 44
My site management apprenticeship .... 45
My electrical engineering
 training programme ............................ 45

Job applications and
interviews
Applications start with your skills ........ 46
Get covered with a covering letter ........ 47
How to write a cracking CV...................... 48
Easy tips for applications ...................... 50
Preparing for the perfect interview........ 52
A–Z of employers and a quick guide
 to their opportunities and
 recruitment methods .......................... 54
Index of contributors and employers......72

                                                      careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 3
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Welcome to your future

             YOUR CHOICE
               Construction is...
               Saying ‘I helped build that!’ Designing
               and building the ‘built’ environment
               around us: the tallest skyscrapers, the
               state-of-the-art football stadiums, the
               most beautiful bridges and so on.
               See page 18 for more about construction careers.

               Engineering is...
               Problem solving. Designing, creating
               and fixing many of the items that
               make our lives easier – from
               smartphones and satellites to cars
               and medicines.
               See page 26 for more about engineering careers.

               Property is...
               Increasing the value of land and real
               estate. From houses and offices to
               farmland and wind farms, property
               professionals work to ensure that
               land and property make money.
               See page 34 for more about property careers.

   4|         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Welcome to your future

of careers

         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 5
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Welcome to your future

                 YOUR CHOICE
                                                                     Your
                                                                  options at

                                                                  16
                                                      Finish Key Stage 4

                                Apprenticeship                                     Stay in education
            You can complete an intermediate or advanced                       You can go to a sixth form or further
            apprenticeship. You work four days a week and study for one        education college and study:
            day. All your training is paid for and you get paid too.              A levels.
            Intermediate apprenticeships                                          Vocational qualifications,
                                                                                  eg NVQ in engineering.
               Entry requirements vary – from no GCSEs to five GCSEs.
               The end qualification you receive is equivalent to five
               GCSEs or an NVQ level 2.
               For jobs such as electricians, bricklayers, mechanics and
               plumbers.
               Last one to four years.
                                                                                    This can lead to...
            Advanced apprenticeships
                                                                                  You finding an entry-level job,
              Entry requirements vary – typically five GCSEs A*–D.
                                                                                  eg building surveying technician.
              The end qualification you receive is equivalent to two
                                                                                  University – HNC/HND/BEng/
              A levels or an NVQ level 3.
                                                                                  MEng/BSc qualification.
              For jobs such as bricklayers and maintenance engineers,
              civil engineers, aerospace modellers and instrument
              fitters.
              Last one to four years.

                               This can lead to...
              A job (either with the same employer or a different one).
              Another, higher level apprenticeship or qualification
              (if an employer supports you).

   6|         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Welcome to your future

of career routes
                                                         Your
                                                      options at

                                                      18
                                           Finish Key Stage 5

             Apprenticeship                                   Alternative                              University
The traditional apprenticeship option is the higher          school leaver                       You can study a degree
apprenticeship, in which you’ll work four days a                                                 qualification full or part
week and study for one. However, a few employers              programme                          time.
are now offering degree (or professional)                 Some employers offer                      Entry requirements vary –
apprenticeships. With an apprenticeship, your             alternatives to                           all ask for a number of
training is paid for and you get a salary too.            apprenticeships for A level               UCAS points, some require
Higher apprenticeships                                    students who don’t want to                specific subjects and
                                                          study full time at                        some won’t accept
   Entry requirements vary – usually two
                                                          university. These are                     general studies or critical
   A levels and five GCSEs.
                                                          similar to the new degree                 thinking A levels.
   The end qualification is equivalent to an NVQ
                                                          apprenticeships, but are                  Fees cost up to £9,000 a
   level 4 or a foundation degree/HNC/HND.
                                                          customised to the employer                year. Can be funded by a
   For jobs such as designers, construction
                                                          rather than having to follow              student loan, bursaries
   managers and engineers – but you’ll have less
                                                          apprenticeship                            or through an employer.
   responsibility than if you’d got a degree.
                                                          frameworks. These                         Courses typically last
Degree/professional apprenticeships                       employer training schemes                 three
Recently introduced: only currently available             usually involve you                       or four years + an
through a few employers in certain areas,                 studying for a degree while               optional work experience
including surveying and engineering.                      working for the employer;                 year.
   Complete a degree and a relevant professional          the employer pays all (or
   qualification.                                         most) of your fees.
   Last six years.
                                                                                                 This can lead to...
                                                                                                    A graduate scheme or
                                                                                                    graduate-level job, which
                                                                                                    often includes
           This can lead to...                            This can lead to...                       management
   A job (with your employer or a different one).           A job.                                  responsibility.
   University (for higher apprentices).                                                             Further study.

                                                                                 careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 7
Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 - Inspiring possibilities for school leavers - TARGETcareers
Which route?

       Which route is best for

What would suit you best: university, apprenticeship or training programme?
Our quiz can help you work it out. Tick the statement you most agree with.

     A                     B                      A                       B                      A                     B
                 1                                             2                                             3
  I enjoy the         I am keen to          I enjoy learning       I enjoy learning        I don’t want to        I feel able to
    learning            enter the                 in the           through doing.          work full time            combine
 environment           workplace               classroom.                                  and have to do        full-time work
and am looking       straightaway.                                                          study on top.        with part-time
  forward to                                                                                                          study.
 student life.
                           A                      B                      A                       B
                                        4                                              5
                          I want             I want to earn        I want to be in a        I don’t mind
                      higher earning         some money              position to be        working my
                     potential in the        straightaway               offered              way up to
                     long term, even        and I don’t want         management            management
                         if I have            any student            opportunities             level.
                     student debt in              debt.                virtually
                     the short term.                                straightaway.

         Mostly      As?                                                                             Mostly      Bs?
        You might want                                                                               You might want
          to explore...                                                                                to explore...
      University courses                                                                           Apprenticeships or
      and full-time study.                                                                       training programmes.

          See page 12.                                                                                See pages 10
                                                                                                        and 14.

                                                                                   careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 9
Which route?

                     Apprenticeships
                        deconstructed

                   pprenticeships offer you the

          A        chance to work towards
                   qualifications while earning
                   money in a real job. They are
          a tried and trusted way to start your
          career, but you need to know what you
                                                        needn’t worry if they don’t enjoy their
                                                        degree course – the qualification will
                                                        make them eligible for a number of
          are signing up to.                            different careers. This isn’t necessarily   professional body while on the job.
                                                        the case for apprentices.’                  These tell clients and employers that
          What’s involved?                                                                          you are trained to ‘industry
          Apprenticeships allow you to work in          Change is coming                            standard’. You may start working
          an entry-level job while getting trained      The types of apprenticeship available       towards these on your apprenticeship
          up. This training usually involves            are being reviewed and likely to be         or you may take them afterwards.
          working with experienced colleagues           replaced over the next few years. As of        A graduate may be able to work
          for four days a week and studying at a        October 2015, there are intermediate,       towards a higher qualification than
          further education college or designated       advanced and higher apprenticeships,        an apprentice would, and as such can
          training centre on the fifth day. You         although a few employers run ‘degree’       gain greater responsibility and,
          gain vocational and technical                 apprenticeships (see page 7). If you        usually, higher pay.
          qualifications and improve your               start on a type of apprenticeship you’ll
          functional skills (for example, in maths      finish it; you won’t be swapped part-       After an apprenticeship
          and English). Some employers provide          way through.                                Once you have completed an
          additional training, too. ‘We offer                                                       apprenticeship, most employers keep
          employability courses to help                 Cashing in                                  you on in a job, but some might be
          apprentices acquire the insights to           The minimum wage is £3.30 for               unable to. If that is the case, you have
          develop their careers,’ says Tony             apprentices aged 16–18 or those aged        a recognised qualification and up to
          Ellender, emerging talent manager at          19 or over who are in their first year.     four years of work experience to help
          Balfour Beatty UK. ‘We also enable            After that first year, apprentices aged     you find a job with another employer.
          our apprentices to complete a Duke of         19 or over are due the minimum wage         After your apprenticeship, you could
          Edinburgh’s Award.’                           for their age – either £5.30 or £6.70.1     progress to a higher level of
              Apprenticeships can be found in a         However, many employers pay more            apprenticeship, a school-leaver
          huge number of different areas – from         than the minimum wage: see the A–Z          training programme or a university
          crafts such as stonemasonry to aspects        of employers from page 54.                  course. But you’ll need an employer’s
          of project management. Apprentices                                                        cooperation to do so: they may want
          should be decided on the job they’d           Professional qualifications                 you to perform the job you’ve been
          like. As Tony says, ‘An apprenticeship        Most professionals in construction,         trained in. If you have managerial
          is a long process and trains you in a         engineering and property take a             aspirations, the quickest way to fulfil
          particular role. A university student         ‘professional qualification’ with a         them is to go to university and then

   10 |         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which route?

                                             The pros and cons
                                                  You can earn, learn and work at the same time. You won’t
                                                  have any student debt, but you’ll probably start on a lower
                                                  salary than a graduate with the company.
                                                  Most employers will move you into a job on completion of
                                                  your apprenticeship, but that isn’t guaranteed.
                                                  You can go on to take higher qualifications after your
                                                  apprenticeship, but usually only if an employer will support
                                                  you to do so.
join a graduate scheme or find a                  You might not have as much responsibility as a graduate
training programme that sponsors you              would; a newly arrived graduate could be senior to you.
through a degree.

Apprenticeship applications
You can apply for apprenticeships in
three ways. You can:
• apply directly to an employer
  offering apprenticeships (see the
                                            Choosing the
  A–Z of employers from page 54)
• apply via a further education college
• apply to an apprenticeship training
                                            right apprenticeship
  provider who will then place you          Tony Ellender, Balfour Beatty UK’s emerging talent manager, suggests
  with an employer. Training                asking yourself:
  providers can be private businesses,
  charities or, like the CITB,                Can the employer give me the range of work I need in order to
  professional bodies.                        complete my apprenticeship?
   The application processes usually          Can the employer offer me anything in addition to the
involve filling in a form or sending in a
CV – see pages 46–53 for advice.
                                              apprenticeship? Any extra training or networking?
Deadlines vary: for example, some             Is the employer likely to be in business for the duration of my
open for applications in October and          apprenticeship?
others in January.                            What are the career prospects with the employer after the
                                              apprenticeship?
1   Figures correct as of October 2015.

                                                                      careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 11
Which route?

               University deconstructed

                    oing to university is a             take a ‘placement’ year (where you         perhaps investigate apprenticeships or

          G         popular choice and an
                    established way for
                    academically minded people
          to accelerate their careers. But, with
          tuition fees to consider, you need to
                                                        spend a year working for an
                                                        employer).

                                                        What to expect
                                                        Around 25 per cent of your time will
                                                                                                   training programmes.

                                                                                                   Choosing a course and university
                                                                                                   Consider:
                                                                                                   • the reputation of the university for
          know how to make the most of it.              be spent in lectures and tutorials, but      the subject
                                                        the rest of your time will be spent        • whether the course is accredited by
          The qualifications explained                  doing independent study: check out           relevant professional bodies
          Universities offer undergraduate and          unistats.direct.gov.uk for the ratios of   • whether tutors/lecturers are involved
          postgraduate qualifications that can be       specific courses. You’ll be assessed         in cutting-edge research or have
          studied full time, part time or online.       through exams, presentations,                worked in industry
          Most undergraduate degrees are                extended essays and/or research            • the range of modules and projects
          bachelor degrees, usually taken after         projects. You’ll also be encouraged to     • the relationships the department and
          A levels. On graduating, construction         apply for work experience with               careers service have with employers
          and property students typically               employers during the holidays and/or a     • facilities, including laboratories,
          become bachelors of science (BSc).            placement year.                              computer-aided design programs,
          Engineering students can become                  Construction, engineering and             access to journals and case study
          either bachelors of engineering (BEng)        property courses are more practical          materials
          or masters in engineering (MEng) –            than other degrees, but they are still     • other general factors, such as the
          this is technically an undergraduate          theory based. Engineering students, for      social life on offer, whether it’s a
          qualification, but is equivalent to a         example, learn a lot of maths. If you        campus or city university and your
          postgraduate masters degree.                  prefer a more practical approach,            gut feeling!
          Postgraduate qualifications are
          typically taken after bachelor
          qualifications.
              There are shorter undergraduate
          courses that offer recognised, but
                                                              The pros and cons
          lesser, qualifications: higher national
          certificates (HNCs), higher national                      The median salary of a graduate is £10,500 a year more than
          diplomas (HNDs) and foundation                            a non-graduate.1
          degrees. They are offered by further
                                                                    It can be expensive and you may end up with student debt,
          education colleges as well as
          universities. You can progress to a                       but it can be paid for via sponsorship or bursaries.
          bachelor course from these courses;                       A job isn’t guaranteed after university, but you’ll have a
          sometimes students take them if they
                                                                    dedicated careers team to help you find one.
          have insufficient UCAS points for a
          bachelor course.                                          Joining a graduate scheme can be a quicker way into
                                                                    management than an apprenticeship.
          The courses on offer
          There are many undergraduate                              It may enable you to study for a higher level professional
          subjects available – browse courses at                    qualification while on the job, leading to higher status and
          www.ucas.com. You can study either                        salaries. This isn’t always the case for apprentices.
          one subject in depth (single honours)
          or study two (joint or combined                           A degree is a passport into many careers, not just the subject
          honours). The vast majority of courses                    you are studying – great if you change your career plans.
          in construction, engineering and
          property include the opportunity to

   12 |         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which route?

Don’t just rely on university
prospectuses and websites to find these
things out: go along to open days and
ask course leaders and students.

Funding university
If you are a UK national, you will pay
a maximum of £9,000 a year for             Bursaries and scholarships
tuition fees. You’ll also need to factor   There are a number of bursaries and
in living expenses. You can get a loan     scholarships available – which you
to cover the costs of tuition and living   don’t need to pay back – but you’ll
(maintenance) costs – the student          need to search for them. Look at the                   Qualification      Typical length
finance calculator on www.gov.uk tells     websites of individual universities and                                   (full time)
you how much you could get. You pay        professional institutions (see page 38
back your loan in instalments after        for institutions’ websites).                           HNC                One year
graduating and only when you earn
£21,000 or more.2 But there are other      After your degree                                      HND                Two years
ways to fund your studies. Check out       Unless you’ve been sponsored by an                     Foundation         Two years
the following sources.                     employer, university does not                          degree
                                           guarantee you a job. You’ll need to
Employer sponsorship                       apply for graduate-level jobs (graduate                BSc, BEng          Three years
Many employers will pay for your           schemes). If you graduate in July and                                     + optional
studies in return for you working for      want to start work in October, you                                        one-year
them during holidays and after             should apply in the first term of your
graduating. Some employers will offer      final year.
                                                                                                                     placement
this before you start university; many                                                            MEng               Four years
more will offer this to second-years       1   According to the Department for Business                              + optional
who have completed a work placement            Innovation & Skills reported in ‘Graduate
                                               Labour Market Statistics April–June Q2                                one-year
with them. See the A–Z of employers
starting from page 54 to see who               2015’.                                                                placement
                                           2   As of October 2015.
offers sponsorship.

                                                                                      careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 13
Which route?

                  Training programmes
                      deconstructed

                   ome employers devise their           usually open to those with A levels (or    • What have past trainees gone on to

          S        own training programmes for
                   school leavers that aren’t
                   bound by the requirements of
          an apprenticeship. They usually
          involve studying for a degree-level
                                                        equivalent). But different employers
                                                        have different entry requirements.

                                                        Apply directly
                                                        To apply for a training programme,
                                                                                                     do?
                                                                                                   • Which professional qualification will
                                                                                                     I be able to take after the scheme?
                                                                                                   • What is included in the programme?
                                                                                                     Are all my expenses paid for?
          qualification while working for a             you usually contact the company            • What exactly will I need to achieve
          company. You’ll normally do a few             directly rather than go through an           in return?
          weeks at university followed by a few         agency. Applications typically open in     • Will I need to relocate?
          weeks on the job. The employer gives          the autumn and they tend to involve a
          you a salary and pays for the                 number of stages. For example:
          university fees. In return, you’ll fit in     • An application form, which might
          your university coursework around                include questions asking when you
          your job and need to achieve a good              used certain skills and might ask you
          result. Employers aim to keep you on
          afterwards, but this isn’t always
                                                           to upload a CV
                                                        • Online tests (eg numeracy)
                                                                                                      The pros and cons
          guaranteed.                                   • A telephone interview
                                                                                                            You earn money and get a
                                                        • An assessment centre including
          Keep an eye out                                  group tasks                                      degree with no student debt.
          The content and length of the training        • A final interview.                                You study the degree your
          programmes on offer vary, so research             You can get advice on succeeding at
                                                                                                            employer wants you to – you
          what’s out there. The employer                all of these stages from page 46
          overviews starting from page 54               onwards and on targetcareers.co.uk.
                                                                                                            don’t choose.
          outline some of the opportunities                                                                 Balancing the demands of a job
          available. The training programmes            Make the right choice
                                                                                                            with university work can be
          are called different things by different      When comparing opportunities,
          employers. For example, Laing                 find out:
                                                                                                            hard – and can have a negative
          O’Rourke offers a ‘cadet’ scheme,             • What job or jobs will the degree                  effect on your social life.
          while National Grid runs training                qualify me for?
          programmes. The programmes are                • What happens after the scheme?

   14 |         careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
BUILD YOUR CAREER AT WATES
Find out more and apply at wates.co.uk/earlycareers

                                Above all, it’s about people
Which job role?

             How to make the right
           The variety of job roles on offer will leave you feeling like
           a kid in a sweet shop – you can take your pick.

                   here are a huge number of jobs            You’ve probably already developed        on time for the match and for training

           T       open to you in construction,
                   engineering and property. Over
                   the next few pages, we provide
           an overview of each industry and
           outline the main roles within them.
                                                          some of the required skills through
                                                          school or college work, extracurricular
                                                          activities or part-time jobs. If you need
                                                          to develop your skills further, use the
                                                          rest of your time at school or college
                                                                                                      (time management), been a teamplayer
                                                                                                      (teamwork) and talked through game
                                                                                                      plans with your team (communication).
                                                                                                      You can create your list by drawing a
                                                                                                      mind map on a huge piece of paper or
           These are basic introductions to               to do so: get involved with schemes         you can use an app. Then decide which
           inspire you to find out more. But how          such as the Duke of Edinburgh’s             of the likes and skills on the list are the
           do you work out which career would             Awards or Young Enterprise, offer to        most important to you.
           suit you best? Look at both the skills         mentor younger students or take up a
           you have and what you enjoy doing.             new interest outside of school.

           Identify your skills                           Work out what you enjoy
           There are some ‘general’ skills you’ll         Think about what skills and activities
           need whatever construction,                    you’ve enjoyed at school and
           engineering or property job you go
           into. For example, you’ll need to be
                                                          elsewhere – and what you didn’t enjoy.
                                                          Did you prefer science to English? If
                                                                                                           Be aware of
           able to work in a team; communicate
           with colleagues and probably clients
                                                          you have a part-time job in a
                                                          supermarket, do you like talking to
                                                                                                           professional
           too; and manage your time – that is,
           meet deadlines and be punctual. Some
                                                          customers? Would you prefer to be
                                                          cooped up inside on a winter’s day or
                                                                                                           qualifications
           jobs require specific skills and               would you want to venture out?                   Many of the professions
               qualities. For example, architects         Considering your likes and dislikes              featured over the next few
                      need to be able to draw and         will help you find a job that you love.          pages involve taking an
                            scaffolders can’t be
                                  afraid of heights.      Make a match                                     additional on-the-job
                                                          Make a list of your school/college               qualification. This qualification
                                                          subjects and extracurricular activities.         is awarded by the institution
                                                          Write down the things you liked about            that represents your chosen
                                                          them, and the different skills you               profession and tells the world
                                                            needed to take part in them. For               that you are qualified to a high
                                                                example, if you played rugby,              standard. You can start
                                                                     you may have enjoyed being
                                                                         out of doors and
                                                                                                           working towards it on a school
                                                                              getting fit – and            leaver training programme or
                                                                                   you will have           graduate scheme. See page 38
                                                                                        turned up          for more information.

    16 |          careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which job role?

career choice
If you like                                          If you like                                      If you want to be
designing...                                         being in charge...                               out and about all
Consider:                                            All jobs can lead to management,                 day...
Architecture ..........................page 21       but if you want to start off as a
Engineering (design roles)                           manager, consider:                               Consider:
 ......................................pages 29–33   Civil/structural/geotechnical                    Building surveying ..............page 21
Landscape architecture ......page 22                 engineering (on site) ..........page 22          Civil/structural/geotechnical
                                                     Property surveying ..............page 35         engineering (on site) ..........page 22
If you like getting                                  Site management ................page 23          Engineering (depending on the
                                                                                                      industry and employer)
                                                                                                        ......................................pages 29–33
the best deal...                                     If you want to
                                                                                                      Planning ................................page 35
                                                                                                      Property surveying ..............page 35
Consider:
Manufacturing engineering ..page 32
                                                     work with                                        Quantity surveying (on site)
Property surveying ..............page 35             your hands...                                     ................................................page 23
                                                                                                      Site management ................page 23
Quantity surveying ..............page 23
                                                     Consider:
                                                     Construction crafts and
                                                     skilled trades ........................page 24   If you want a
If you like
                                                     Motor vehicle
interpreting                                         technician work....................page 30       ‘green’ career...
                                                                                                      Roles where you’ll have a particular
rules...                                                                                              focus on minimising our
Consider:                                                                                             environmental impact include:
Architectural technology ....page 21                                                                  All construction jobs....pages 21–25
Building surveying ..............page 21                                                              Automotive engineering......page 30
Manufacturing (process)                                                                               Chemical engineering ..........page 31
engineering ..........................page 32                                                         Environmental engineering page 32
Planning ................................page 35                                                      Manufacturing engineering page 32
Property surveying ..............page 35                                                              Planning ................................page 35

                                                                                                 careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 17
Which job role?

               How the construction
           Different organisations work together to build a project. Here’s how...

           1   It starts with the client
                                                                 2    The client then hires consultants
           ...who decides something should be
           built. They might be a property                      ...who will advise them on matters       • civil, structural, mechanical and
           development company, a local                         relating to the design, cost and any        electrical engineering employers.
           authority, a central government                      regulations. The client could employ     Consultants, then, look after the design
           department, a private business                       several consultancies or one             phase of the project – they design the
           or an individual.                                    consultancy to advise on everything.     structure and work out how much that
              The client decides what they want                 Either way, one consultant               design will cost to build. Once this has
           to build, the timeframe in which it                  organisation will often oversee the      been established, they decide which
           should be built and how much it                      project on behalf of the client.         construction contractor should do the
           should cost.                                            Consultant organisations include:     construction work. Contractors have to
                                                                • architecture practices                 ‘bid’ for the work – put a case for why
                                                                • cost consultancy (quantity             they are the best company to carry
           1 The traditional process
                                                                   surveying) employers                  out the work and state their price.
           The diagram above shows the typical
           process of how a construction project
           gets built, but some larger firms offer
           a design-and-build service where they                2 Working for a consultancy
           take on the typical work of a consultant             If you work at a consultancy, your      • You work office hours (typically
           and a contractor. Large projects can                 work will be on the design phase.         8.30 am – 6.00 pm) but may have
           take years to get from the initial idea              Civil engineers make sure that the        to work longer hours close to a
           to being fully completed.                            technical details on plans will work      deadline.
                                                                and quantity surveyors price up how     • You usually work on a number of
                                                                much the design would cost.               projects at the same time.
                                                                • You work in an office...              • As you work on a project in its
                                                                • ...sometimes you get to visit sites     early stages, it may be years
                                                                   and occasionally you could be          before you see the finished project
                                                                   ‘seconded’ (sent) to work on a         in operation.
                                                                   site, but this is an office job.

    18 |          careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which job role?

industry works

 3 Contractors carry out                  ...but may get subcontractors to help
the construction work...                  If there is work involved in the project         • the reinforced concrete works
Once the contractor has won the           that needs specialist skills or                  • structural steelwork
work, construction begins on site.        knowledge, the contractor might offer the        • work on the foundations
They ensure the project is built to       work to specialist organisations that            • plumbing and electrical work.
the agreed quality, budget and            have more expertise in specific areas.           Subcontractors tend to be smaller and
timeframe. They take instructions         Typical tasks that might be given to             local employers. They work in similar
about the design from the design          subcontractors include:                          conditions to contractors.
consultancy and run any design-
related problems past them.

                                          What are construction projects?                 Know your markets
 3 Working for a contractor               A project could be a ‘new build’,               Larger construction companies
Job roles with contractors include site   a renovation or a refurbishment.                specialise in particular ‘markets’ or
managers, civil engineers, quantity       It can cover anything in the built              sectors – for example, they might offer
surveyors, and trades or craft people.    environment around us, for example:             civil and structural engineering services
• You work on site (or from a             • houses, office blocks, warehouses,            for healthcare projects. Some work in a
  temporary office on site) in all           factories and hospitals                      range of sectors while other companies
  weathers.                               • train stations and airports                   provide expertise in just one or two
• Depending on the project, you           • roads, railways, bridges and tunnels          areas. Many construction professionals
  might need to work shifts or            • piers, dams and coastal defences              specialise in a particular type of project
  overnight.                              • nuclear power plants and other                over time.
• Working hours are longer out on            generators of energy.
  site (typically 7.30 am – 6.00 pm)
  and you may need to work longer         Relocation, relocation, relocation...                    More advice and information about
  hours if things get behind schedule.    or commute                                               construction at targetcareers.co.uk
• You typically work on one project       Don’t be surprised if you have to
  at a time.                              relocate for the job or face a long
• You get to see things being built       commute. This is more likely if you
  before your very eyes.                  work for a contractor, as you’ll be
                                          expected to go to where the projects
                                          are. If you work for a national
                                          employer, the project can be anywhere
                                          across the country but smaller
                                          employers are more likely to work in a
                                          particular region. Consultants are also
                                          more likely to stay in their local area,
                                          but may need to travel to visit sites.
                                             If you work for an international
                                          employer, you might get to work
                                          abroad – although you may need to
                                          get a few years’ experience under your
                                          belt first. If this is the case, the
                                          company usually pays for your
                                          accommodation.

                                                                                  careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 19
Inspiring possibilities
                                                           for school leavers

Work or uni?
TARGETcareers is designed to help school leavers make choices and
help them discover what they really want to do.

School leavers can:
• search through over 33,000               • research career routes with
  university courses                         the UK’s best advice
• find school leaver schemes, higher       • test themselves with our School
  apprenticeships & more                     Leavers’ Challenge

               targetcareers.co.uk
Architects and                                                    Building
architectural technologists                                       surveyors
Every building starts with the                                    A perfect job for those who want to
design. Enter the architect.                                      work in property and construction.
       rchitects design buildings that are safe, attractive and          uilding surveyors provide technical advice

A      as environmentally friendly as possible. They stay
       involved throughout the construction process,
adapting their plans if the budget, environmental factors or
the client’s wishes change. They are assisted by architectural
                                                                  B      relating to construction and property. They typically:

                                                                  • conduct building surveys (inspect properties on behalf of
                                                                    would-be buyers). They report on the building’s
technologists and technicians.                                      condition, for example if there is damp, and what any
   Architectural technologists ensure that the technical            repairs would cost.
aspects of a design work and comply with regulations.             • record dilapidations (changes) to a building’s condition
They work in a similar role to civil engineers in that way.         since its last inspection. They then need to arrange repairs
Architectural technologists may also be hired to oversee a          with the owner’s agreement.
project from start to finish. Technicians help prepare            • oversee, design and decide what needs to be done on
drawings, compile technical information such as surveys,            simpler construction projects that don’t require an
and help put together proposals and contracts.                      architect – often small extensions or an office
   Most architects, technologists and technicians work in           refurbishment.
architectural practices; many experienced architects and          • advise owners on ‘party walls’ (walls, floors or ceilings
technologists set up their own. There are a few vacancies           shared between two properties). They help owners alter
with large construction employers and in the public sector.         or repair these and decide which owner pays for what.
                                                                     Building surveyors usually work for property firms,
Do you need a degree?                                             housing developers or specialist surveying firms. They split
To become an architect, you need a degree approved by             their time between an office and their clients’ properties.
the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA): it takes
seven years, including two years of work placements. A
levels in art/graphic design, maths and physics are useful,
but not always required. Many universities want a
                                                                    “You’ll need to think
combination of arts and sciences.
   Most architectural technologists study a three-year
                                                                    both technically and
degree approved by the Chartered Institute of Architectural
Technologists. Technicians typically study an HND/HNC               practically.”
before applying for a job; there are a few apprenticeships.
With further study, they can become technologists.
                                                                  What qualifications do you need?
Money, money, money                                               Employers usually want you to have an undergraduate or
According to architectural recruitment agency Adrem’s             postgraduate degree that has been approved by the Royal
‘Architectural Salary Guide 2015’, average salaries are:          Institution of Chartered Surveyors or the Chartered
• Junior technician: £23,000                                      Institute of Building. Some courses ask for a physics A level
• Senior technician: £37,000                                      (or equivalent). There are a few apprenticeships available.
• Trainee architects on a first work placement: £20,000           Alternatively, you could complete an HND and apply for a
• Trainee architects on a second work placement: £25,000          building surveying technician job.
• Senior architect: £48,000
• Director of an architectural practice: £85,000
                                                                   A good choice if...
A good choice if...                                                   You want to get out and about, but return to a dry,
   You are good at freehand drawing.                                  warm office.
   You are creative.                                                  You get bored doing the same thing all the time.
   You can get your head around maths.                                You like to take charge.
   You can get to grips with detailed information                     You are interested in the law and how it can be
   on building regulations.                                           applied practically.

                                                                                careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 21
Civil, structural                                                      Landscape
  and geotechnical engineers                                             architects
  Creating the tallest buildings                                         Combining a flair for design and
  and the longest bridges.                                               concern for the environment.
        ivil and structural engineers design, build and                        andscape architects aim to improve the quality of the

  C     maintain the constructed world around us: bridges,
        tunnels, roads, railways, dams, pipelines, buildings,
  power plants, offshore wind facilities and so on. They
  ensure the technical detail in architects’ plans will work in
                                                                         L     environment by designing and managing the open
                                                                               spaces around us. They combine artistic skills with
                                                                         knowledge of human activity and the natural environment
                                                                         to design public areas in towns, cities and the countryside.
  practice. They often specialise in a type of project, such as          They use computer-aided design packages to model and
  highways. Structural engineers have particular responsibility          experiment with designs; visit, survey and analyse sites that
  for ensuring that the structure (inner-framework) of the               could be developed; draw up plans for how the space will
  project holds up, even in bad weather.                                 be developed in the longer term; help to protect and
                                                                         conserve the environment; deal with clients; and work along
  Consultants v. contractors                                             other construction professionals.
  If you work for a construction or engineering consultant –                Landscape architects tend to work for specialist landscape
  who designs and plans projects – you will be working on                architectural practices, environmental consultancies,
  the technical aspects of designs, using computer-aided                 transport planners and large engineering consultancies. There
  design packages. If you work for a construction or                     are also a few vacancies in the public sector.
  engineering contractor – who builds the project – you’ll
  make sure that the design is implemented properly. If you              Do you need a degree?
  work for a public sector organisation or utilities supplier,           To become a landscape architect, you need to study a degree
  you’ll help to investigate the need for public services, such          approved by the Landscape Institute. This is usually a four-
  as roads, and maintain them. See page 29 for more                      year landscape architecture undergraduate degree, but you
  information on engineering entry routes.                               can study a one- or two-year postgraduate degree instead if
                                                                         your undergraduate degree is in a subject such as art and
  Building foundations                                                   design, geography, the environmental sciences, engineering,
  If structural engineering takes your fancy, consider                   biology or horticulture. Useful subjects to study at A level
  geotechnical engineering too. Geotechnical engineers are               (or equivalent) include art, geography, biology and
  responsible for structures’ foundations, assessing data                environmental science. You will need good maths and
  from the field, finding ways to ensure foundations or                  physics GCSEs (or equivalent).
  slopes are stable, designing foundations, and overseeing
  work on a construction site.
                                                                          “Mixing artistic skill
                                                                          with knowledge of
                                                                          human activity.”
                                                                         Money, money, money
                                                                         According to the Landscape Institute’s 2014 salary survey:
                                                                         • Most graduates start out on a salary of £20,000–£24,999.
  A good choice if...                                                    • Most landscape architects who have gained chartered
                                                                           status (you usually become chartered three years after
        You can draw basic sketches – you don’t have                       graduating) earn £30,000–£39,999, although a few earn
        to be an artist.                                                   over £100,000.
        You like knowing the technical details of how things
        work (for jobs with consultancies).                              A good choice if...
        You’d like to work out on site instead of in an office             You are creative.
        (for jobs with contractors).                                       You are good at art and biology.
        You want to be able to say ‘I helped build that!’                  You like the outdoors.
                                                                           You want to help protect the environment.

       Please see pages 42 and 44 for the career stories of civil
       and structural engineering apprentices and university students.

22 |           careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Quantity                                                       Site
surveyors                                                      managers
Being the money men and women                                  Being in charge of making things
of the construction industry.                                  happen on a construction site.

Q       uantity surveyors (QSs) can also be known as cost
        consultants, commercial managers, cost managers
        or cost engineers. But whatever you’re called, your
role is to help a construction project to make a profit.
                                                               C      onstruction site managers ensure things get done on
                                                                      a construction site. They make sure that the
                                                                      building work is finished on time, in budget and to
                                                               a high standard. They organise schedules of work,
You’ll keep a close eye on how much everything costs (the      manage workers and deal with issues such as health and
materials, the time taken and the workers’ salaries) and       safety, logistics and the effects of the building work on
make payments.                                                 members of the public. On larger and more complicated
   If you work for a construction or QS consultancy –          projects, an experienced site manager will have a number
which looks after the ‘design’ stage of the project – you’ll   of assistant managers, each looking after one part of the
be based in an office. You’ll spend most of your time          project (or package), such as the foundations.
working out how much different designs cost. If you work
for a contractor – which builds the project – you’ll be
based in an office on a construction site. You might help
to choose which materials to buy, be out on site checking
completed work, track the materials used or pay
subcontractors for their work.

Do you need a degree?
Employers will want you to gain an undergraduate or
postgraduate degree that has been approved by the Royal
Institution of Chartered Surveyors or the Chartered
Institute of Building. But some will hire you onto an
apprenticeship or trainee scheme with GCSEs and/or             Working hours
A levels (or equivalents). They’ll then pay for you to study   Site managers typically work for construction contractors
an HND or bachelor qualification while working for them.       and are based on site. As with any job role on site, you
                                                               may have to work night and weekend shifts, and hours
Routes in                                                      can be long: a 40-hour week is normal and you will
• Enter with GCSEs or equivalent?                              probably have to work overtime as deadlines approach.
  A few apprenticeships/training programmes
• Enter with A levels or equivalents?                          Routes in
  Some apprentices/training programmes                         You can start out as an assistant manager if you have
• Enter with a degree in quantity surveying or similar?        studied a construction or project management degree
  Many graduate programmes                                     approved by the Chartered Institute of Building, or
• Enter with a degree in another subject? A few                another closely related subject such as civil engineering.
  employers will hire you and sponsor you through              A very few employers might hire you with a different
  postgraduate study.                                          degree and sponsor you through a postgraduate course.
                                                                  The quickest way to get into management via an
                                                               apprenticeship route is to complete a higher apprenticeship,
 “Helping a project                                            for which you’ll either need A levels (or equivalent), an
                                                               advanced apprenticeship in something like construction

 make a profit.”                                               supervision or experience in the industry.

A good choice if...                                            A good choice if...
                                                                  You like to take charge.
   You’re good at maths.                                          You can make decisions quickly.
   You’re good at figuring out the best buy or deal.              You like solving problems.
   You like keeping track of systems and pay attention            You are organised.
   to detail.                                                     You don’t want to work in an office – and you don’t
   You like people.                                               mind being out in all weathers.

See page 41 to read the career story of                        See pages 43 and 45 to read the career stories
a quantity surveying apprentice.                               of a site management apprentice and trainee.

                                                                               careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 23
Which job role?

                  The crafts and trades
           For those who prefer working with their hands to book learning.

                f you choose a career in one of the          Carpentry and joinery                       Demolition

           I    traditional construction crafts or
                skilled trades, you can go straight
                from sitting your GCSEs to
           working on site. You can complete an
           intermediate or advanced
                                                             Carpenters and joiners work together
                                                             to prepare and install the wooden parts
                                                             of buildings, from floorboards and
                                                             roof trusses to windows and doors.
                                                             Typically, a joiner uses drawings to
                                                                                                         You’ll usually start off as a demolition
                                                                                                         operative and there’ll be lots of power
                                                                                                         tools to use and crane-based work to
                                                                                                         do. As such, it’s essential you have a
                                                                                                         head for heights and an awareness of
           apprenticeship. Alternatively, you can            prepare the materials and a carpenter       health and safety. You’ll spend your
           take a vocational qualification at                installs them and does any structural       days blowing up or pulling down
           college and then find an entry-level              work – but the two roles overlap and        disused or unattractive buildings, as
           job. You could find work with large               sometimes one person will do both.          well as preparing sites for new
           construction employers, smaller                   Joinery can be split into two areas: site   projects. If you wish, you can
           specialist employers or within the                (floors, doors and roofs) and bench         specialise in a particular method of
           public sector. Many experienced trades            (counters, kitchens and staircases).        demolition, such as explosives.
           and crafts people work for themselves.            Carpenters and joiners must be able to
           Below we outline some of the main                 cope with dusty conditions.
           crafts or trades open to you.

           Brickwork
                                                                 A good choice if...
           Brickwork is                                               You are physically fit.
           probably the                                                                                  Electrical work
                                                                      You wouldn’t mind
           most well known and popular                                                                   Electricians (sometimes known as
           construction craft. It includes
                                                                      interacting with customers if      electrical technicians) install and repair
           bricklaying as well as stonemasonry,                       required.                          the electrical systems around us: for
           and you can choose to specialise in one                    You are practical and like         example, in all sorts of buildings and
           or both of these areas. As a bricklayer,                   working with your hands.           on our streets. You might find yourself
           you’ll work as part of a ‘brickwork                        You don’t want to work in an       specialising in installation or
           gang’ to trim and shape bricks, lay                        office – and don’t mind being      maintenance – or in a particular area
           bricks, apply mortar and check the                                                            such as highways maintenance and
                                                                      out in all weathers.
           courses are straight. There could be                                                          street lighting or solar panels. You may
           several gangs on site, depending on the
                                                                      Keeping up to date with            work in a team or on your own. You’ll
           size of the project.                                       building and health and            need to be a logical thinker and
               Stonemasonry is a traditional yet                      safety regulations wouldn’t        problem solver. A head for heights and
           increasingly uncommon skill, but it’s                      bother you.                        being happy working in all weathers
           essential to our heritage and great if                                                        will probably be useful, too. Be aware
           you like history. Stonemasons – who                                                           that you may need to take extra on-
           create and restore stonework on                                                               the-job qualifications to ensure you are
           buildings and other structures – tend                                                         able to carry out tasks such as PAT
           to look after older buildings.                                                                testing (portable appliance testing).

    24 |          careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which job role?

Painting and decorating                   Scaffolding and steeplejacking              Wall and floor covering
You will paint and decorate in a range    As a scaffolder, you will literally put     There are four main careers within
of environments, from redecorating        up and take down scaffolding using a        this craft: plastering, dry lining,
the homes of the rich and famous to       series of metal tubes (standards),          tiling and floor fitting/laying.
applying finishing paint touches to       horizontal poles (ledgers) and wooden       Accuracy and the ability to work
structures such as bridges. You could     working platforms (battens). You’ll         from drawings that someone else
choose to specialise in a particular      need a head for heights, good               has done are core skills. You could
technique such as restoration. Be         hand–eye coordination and to be             be doing anything from pebble
prepared to wear a protective mask        resilient to extreme weather.               dashing (as a plasterer) or applying
or climb a ladder in order to carry out       Steeplejacks use a variety of systems   grout (as a tiler) to improving
a job.                                    – scaffolding, harnesses, belay rope        acoustics (as a dry liner) or re-
                                          fall-arrest systems, bosun’s chairs and     hanging doors (as a carpet fitter).
                                          abseil equipment – to carry out general
                                          maintenance work and repairs at great
                                          heights. As a steeplejack, you will
                                          work across the main areas of
                                          construction, doing tasks such as
                                          repairing masonry and fitting aircraft
                                          warning lights on tall structures.

Plumbing                                       Becoming a card carrier
Plumbers do more than you might
think. They do fix sanitation systems          Many construction employers want their site workers to gain a
and leaky pipes, work on heating and           Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) card, which
air-conditioning systems, fit bathrooms        proves that you are qualified to do your job properly. You’ll need to
and install dishwashers and such like.         demonstrate that you have obtained the appropriate
But they might also work on a                  qualification for your job and pass an appropriate Construction
construction site, planning where pipes        Industry Training Board Health, Safety and Environment test.
need to go. Plumbers can sometimes
work unsociable hours if asked to deal
with an emergency.

                                                                               careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 25
Which job role?

             The engineering industries
                  explained
           Engineers specialise in different industries. Find out more about
           them and consider which interests you the most.

           Aerospace                                                     Automotive
           WHAT IT IS: flying things... helicopters, fighter jets,       WHAT IT IS: cars and other motor vehicles. The UK has
           unmanned vehicles, commercial planes, satellites, space       seven Formula 1 manufacturers, seven mainstream and
           stations, rockets etc.                                        major premium/sports car manufacturers, nine bus and
                                                                         coach manufacturers, and 100+ other companies involved
           FACTORS AFFECTING THE                                         in putting vehicles together.**
           INDUSTRY: world events and
           conflicts, environmental                                      FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: the increasing
           concerns, searches for new                                    reliance on electronics and software, the need to reduce
           fuels.                                                                                              carbon emissions.

           ENGINEERS TYPICALLY                                                                                   ENGINEERS
           NEEDED: aerospace/                                                                                    TYPICALLY NEEDED:
           aeronautical, automotive,                                                                          aerospace, automotive,
           electrical, electronics,                                                                           chemical, electrical,
           manufacturing, mechanical,                                                                         electronics,
           software.*                                                                                         environmental,
                                                                                                              manufacturing,
                                                                                                                    mechanical,
                          Chemical                                                                    Defence       software.*
                          engineers                                                                   engineering’s
                          are very                                                                    at the cutting
                          important to                                                                edge.
                          the economy.

           Chemicals                                                                                  Defence
           WHAT IT IS: the backbone of industry... oil companies,                                     WHAT IT IS: equipment,
           manufacturers, pharmaceuticals and water treatment                                         support and services for the
           companies and more – those who use and produce                                            armed forces and national
           chemicals that create products, and make factories and                                   security, whether that is the latest
           other industrial sites work.                                  weaponry or military vehicles. Engineers often work at the
                                                                         cutting edge of technology.
           FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: the price of oil,
           world events and conflicts, environmental concerns.           FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: the needs of
                                                                         military personnel, military strategy, costs, the need to
           ENGINEERS TYPICALLY NEEDED: chemical,                         deliver products/projects quickly.
           civil/structural, electrical, environmental, manufacturing,
           mechanical.*                                                  ENGINEERS TYPICALLY NEEDED: aerospace, automotive,
                                                                         chemical, civil/structural, electrical, electronics,
                                                                         environmental, manufacturing, mechanical, software.*

    26 |          careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016
Which job role?

Electronics                                                     Energy and power
WHAT IT IS: smartphones, medical scanners, TVs, game            WHAT IT IS: finding energy sources and generating power…
consoles, washing machines, radios, unmanned vehicles…          oil, gas, tidal, wind, solar, nuclear etc. The industry is
the creation of anything that                                   divided into generating, transmitting/distributing, metering
includes electronic systems.                                    and sales. Oil and gas generation is divided into ‘upstream’
It crosses over with other                                      (exploring and producing) and ‘downstream’ (refining ready
engineering industries.                                         for use).

FACTORS AFFECTING THE                                           FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: accessing dwindling
INDUSTRY: the emphasis on                                       supplies and harnessing newer sources, environmental
safety, trends in technology                                    concerns, world events and conflicts.
(eg ‘Google Glass’), the
changing behaviour/                                                                                      ENGINEERS
expectations of consumers.                                                                               TYPICALLY NEEDED:
                                                                                                      aerospace, automotive,
ENGINEERS TYPICALLY                                                                                   chemical,
NEEDED: aerospace,                                                                                    civil/structural,
automotive, chemical,                                                                                 electrical, electronics,
electrical, electronics,                                                                     environmental, manufacturing,
manufacturing,                                                                               mechanical, software.*
mechanical, software.*
                                                                                               Marine
                                                                                               engineers
           Producing                                                                           face extra
           goods that                                                                          challenges.
           fly off the
           shelves.

                                                                                             Marine
Fast moving consumer goods
                                                                                             WHAT IT IS: ships and other sea-
(FMCG)                                                                                       faring vessels or equipment – eg
                                                                                             equipment aimed at off-shore
WHAT IT IS: the manufacturing of goods that fly off the                                      and sub-sea exploration.
production line only to fly off shop shelves just as quickly.
These tend to be everyday products: food, cleaning              FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: designing for a wet,
products, cosmetics etc. Thousands of goods can be              windy, salty and unstable environment, demands for global
produced every minute.                                          shipping and energy, the need to improve efficiency.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY: the need to                     ENGINEERS TYPICALLY NEEDED: chemical,
minimise cost and wastage, needing to keep production           civil/structural, electrical, electronics, environmental,
moving, environmental concerns.                                 manufacturing, mechanical, software.*

ENGINEERS TYPICALLY NEEDED: chemical, civil/structural,
electrical, electronics, manufacturing, mechanical.*

                                                                                  careers Construction, Engineering & Property 2016 | 27
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