Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health

 
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Construction OSH Management
          Guidelines
              Amree Bin Ghazi
       Construction Safety Division
Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Pilot Project On OSHCIM

                          2
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
What is the contributing factors to
accident/incident?

                                      3
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Slope Failure , Tanjung Bungah , 2017

                         • Failure to identify risk
                         • Failed to recognize the
                           significance of earlier
                           incident

                                                      4
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Falsework failure, Penang, 2013

                         • Installation of falsework
                           component
                         • Falsework system
                           unstable(curved, skewed)
                         • Unclear method
                           statement
                         • Lack of information on
                           falsework design
                         • Failed to recognize
                           complexity of the work

                                                   5
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Falsework failure, JB, 2013

                          • Installation of falsework is
                            not according to design
                          • Lack of competence
                            people during installation,
                            inspection
                          • Insufficient SOP during
                            concreting – no person to
                            inspect while concreting,
                            inspection must be done
                            before concreting

                                                       6
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Roof structure collapse, Terengganu 2013

• Incomplete method              • Failure to recognize the
  statement –                      significance of previous
  MS2318:2012                      report
• Incompetent contractor         • Failure to recognize the
• Failure to identify risk due     complexity of work
  to change of process

                                                              7
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Viaduct toppled during installation, Selangor,
2014

                          • Lack of supervision
                          • Failure to identify risk due
                            to change of process
                          • Lack of inspection and
                            testing
                          • Effective communication
                            failure
                          • Lack of sub-contractor
                            management
                          • Unsafe SOP

                                                       8
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
Fatal accident cases from the
DOSH’s website
(http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/fatal-accident-case)

          If you analyse the cases, you will
                     realise that:

              Accidents are commonly repeating

              Lower level of control measures are commonly
              cited

              Ensuring safety needs common sense
Construction OSH Management Guidelines - Amree Bin Ghazi Construction Safety Division Department of Occupational Safety and Health
HSE Research Report 2003

                           10
5 key elements to construction safety

Managing the risks by applying the risk management
approach and the general principles of prevention;
Appointing the right people and organisations at the right
time;
Making sure everyone has the information, instruction,
training and supervision they need to carry out their jobs in
a way that secures safety and health;
Duty holders cooperating and communicating with each
other and coordinating their work; and
Consulting workers and engaging with them to promote
and develop effective measures to secure safety, health and
welfare
12
Fundamental to future
construction legislation

Catalyst for improving industry’s
poor OSH performance

Signify policy shift – self-regulated,
cooperation, performance-based
approach, duty holders

                                         13
Occupational Fatalities 1999-2017

1200
       1004
              958
1000
                    858 822 846
                                                                 755
 800                               716 696 754 730 746 689 726
                                                                                       668 688 650
                                                                       582 617   573
 600

 400
                                                                                              187
       146 159                                                  140 160
 200                89 88 95 81 81 64 76 113    88 109 73 84 89
                                             47
   0

                                    Construction      All Industries
                Source: DOSH, SOCSO, DoL, CIDB
                                                                                               14
Occupational Fatality Rate 2011-2017

14                                                                 12.78   12.9

12                                                    10.94
     9.62
10

 8                                         7.26
                               6.75
                     6.27
 6
     6.17
 4                                                     4.84        4.84
                     4.64      4.62                                        4.49
                                           4.21
 2

 0
     2011           2012      2013         2014        2015        2016    2017
            Source: DOSH    Construction          All Industries

                                                                                  15
Characteristics of the industry

 transient                                                                                 foreign
                   multifacet               complex                  dynamic
 work sites                                                                                workers

                                stage and               multiple
                                                                                 labour              complex
          fragmented             process              contractors/
                                                                               intensive             product
                                dependent              employers

                    work and
movement of                            movement of                                         varying
                   people are                                    contractual
people and                             people and               arrangement                working
                   constantly
   plant                                  plant                                            culture
                    changing

                                                                                                           16
Biggest challenges to OSH in construction

   Changing the working culture of
   stakeholders

   Primary responsibility lies with
   business who creates risk

   DOSH should influence &
   encourage - punitive actions only
   to deter

                                            17
Construction OSH Management Guidelines -
Significance

   Managing OSH at planning and
   design stage is more effective

   Provide practical guidance to the
   client, designer and contractor

   OSH is shared responsibilities &
   team work to design hazards out

                                           18
Ability to influence safety1
                   Encourage all parties to take responsibility,
                   by better planning, design & management

                   Those who can influence OSH during
                   project lifecycle are made responsible

                   OSH should be treated as an essential, but
                   normal part of the project

                                                                               19
1 R. Szymberski, “Construction Project Safety Planning” TAPPI Journal, 1997.
Construction OSH Management Guidelines -
      Significance

             Across US, 42% of construction fatalities were
             related to design issues between the years 1990
             and 20031

             A 1991 study done in Europe found that 60% of
             fatalities were the result of decisions made
             before the site work even began2

             63% of all fatalities and injuries could be attributed
             to design decisions of lack of planning3

1 Behm, M., Linking construction fatalities to the design for construction concept (2005)
2 European Foundation for the Imrpovement of Living and Working Conditions (1991)
3 NSW WorkCover, CHAIR Safety in Design Tool, 2001                                          20
Ability to influence safety1
                 Conception                    Detailed Design                  Procurement   Construction   Start Up

 High
                                          Maximum
                                          return on
                                           efforts                                                      Maximum
                                                                                                        resources
                                Ability to Influence                                                   deployment
                                      on safety

                                                                               Costs
                                                                                               Resources
 Low                                                                                           Deployed

                                                                     Project Schedule                               21
1 R. Szymberski, “Construction Project Safety Planning” TAPPI Journal, 1997.
Construction OSH Management Guidelines -
Overview

                                           22
Construction OSH Management Guidelines -
Fundamental

            the right information

                for the right people

                 at the right time

                                           23
Appointing the right people and organisations at
the right time

        1.          Individual competency
• Those appointed must have the skills, knowledge, training and
  experience to carry out the work they will be employed

        2.          Organisational capability
• Appointed organisation must have the policies and systems in place to
  set acceptable safety and health standards which comply with the law,
  & resources and people to ensure the standards are delivered

        3.          Right time
• Appointing consultant or contractor at the right time, so that they have
  enough time to plan and manage for safety and health

                                                                             24
Appointing the right people and organisations at
the right time
   .
   • In a proposed mix development, a client required five
     high-rise buildings to be designed and connected at the
     mid and top floors via curved sky bridges.

   .

   • The client initially appointed a building designer for the
     design, but subsequently realised that the building
     designer did not have the experience and knowledge to
     design the curved sky bridges.
   .

   • The client then appointed a bridge designer to design
     the curved sky bridges while the building designer
     designed the building.

                                                                  25
Appointing the right people and organisations at
the right time

A client awarded a contract to a principal
contractor for the demolition of an old shopping
complex.

     While it was unknown during the tender stage, it
     was later discovered that the building that was to
     be demolished had a pre-stressed floors.

          With this new information, the principal contractor
          would need more time to engage and work with
          contractors who are pre-stressed specialists to
          help demolish this building.

               Hence, the client should provide the principal
               contractor with additional time and resources to
               resolve this situation.

                                                                  26
Appointing the right people and organisations at
the right time

                              Ensure persons who are
                              appointed are competent

                               Not accept in appointment
                               unless they are competent
               All person
                should:
                             Not instruct a worker to carry
                             out/ manage design/ work
                             unless he is competent

                                                      27
Managing the risk by applying the risk
management approach & general principles of
prevention
                          Avoidance of risks
         Eliminations of hazards or substitution for something
                            less hazardous                        Hazard
                                                                 Prevention
         Reducing or limiting the duration of exposure to the     through
                                hazard                             Design
                        Isolation/ segregation
                         Engineering controls
                        Safe systems of work
                       Training and information

                                 PPE
                               Welfare
                     Monitoring and supervision

                                                                        28
Managing the risk by applying the risk
management approach & general principles
of prevention
1. Avoid risks
2. Evaluate risks which cannot be avoided
3. Combat the risks at source
4. Adapt the work to the individual
5. Adapt to technical progress
6. Replace dangerous by non-dangerous or less
   dangerous
7. Develop a coherent overall prevention policy
8. Give collective protective measures priority over
   individual protective measures
9. Give appropriate instructions to employees
                                                       29
Managing the risk by applying the risk
 management approach & general principles of
 prevention

Avoid risk where possible;

    evaluate those risks that cannot be
    avoided; and

        put in place proportionate measures
        that control them at source.

                                               30
How designer can contribute to safety?
        Parapet vs. roof anchor1

        •        The study compared the cost and risk of installing parapet
                 system or roof anchor system to prevent falls from roof edge
                 hazard.
        •        The parapet system was found to be an expensive, but safer
                 alternative compared with the roof anchor system.
        •        The roof anchor system is the least expensive option, but the
                 fall hazard is not eliminated when using a personal fall arrest
                 system. A fall restraint system should be used to prevent the
                 fall, but not feasible for all roofs.
        •        The roof anchor system creates more risk during installation of
                 temporary guardrails, and reduces productivity by 15%
        •        Both the anchor and parapet options do not affect the quality
                 of the product.
        •        Study allows owners and designers to make an informed
                 decision while choosing design solutions

                                                                                                      31
1 Rajendran & Gambatese (2013), Risk and financial impacts of prevention through designs solutions.
Making sure everyone has the information,
instruction, training and supervision

 Information     Instruction     Training      Supervision

  Required level will depend on the risks involved in the
    project, complexity and scale of the project and the
 Information        Instruction     Training    Supervision
   level of skills, knowledge, training and experience of
                          the workforce

                                                              32
Making sure everyone has the information,
instruction, training and supervision

   PRE-                                 CONSTRUCTION                       SAFETY AND
   CONSTRUCTION                         PHASE PLAN                         HEALTH FILE
   INFORMATION
                                        • Des c r iption of the            • A brief des c ription of
   • Des c ription of the                 pr oj ec t;                        the work c arried out;
     proj ec t;                         • Saf ety and health               • His toric s ite data;
   • Client’s                             m anagem ent of the              • Any hazards that
     c ons iderat io ns and               wor k ;                            have not been
     m anagem ent                       • Identif ic at i on of              elim inated ;
     requirem ents ;                      s ignif ic ant s ite ris k s .   • Inves tiga t io n reports
   • Environm ent a l                                                        & rec ords ;
     res tric tions and                                                    • Statem ent of des ign
     ex is ting on - s ite r is k s ;                                        philos op h y, k ey
   • Signif ic a nt des ign                                                  s truc tural princ ipl es ;
     and c ons truc tio n                                                    and etc .
     hazards ; and etc .

                                                                                                           33
Making sure everyone has the information,
instruction, training and supervision

 Information       Instruction          Training        Supervision

 Workers are provided with information and instruction that include:
 a. suitable site induction;
 Information         Instruction
 b. emergency procedures; and
                                        Training           Supervision
 c. information on hazards, risks and control measures put in place.

                                                                         34
Making sure everyone has the information,
instruction, training and supervision

 Information         Instruction        Training           Supervision

 Establishing training needs to workers:
 a. assess the existing safety and health skills, knowledge, training
     and experience;
 Information
 b. compare these Instruction               Training
                      attributes with the range               Supervision
                                                of skills, knowledge,
     training and experience they will need for the job; and
 c. identify any shortfall between (a) and (b). The difference between
     the two will be the ‘necessary training’.

 As a general rule, if the person being assessed demonstrates the
 required qualities, no further training should be needed.
                                                                            35
Making sure everyone has the information,
instruction, training and supervision

 Information        Instruction         Training       Supervision

 Appropriate supervision must be provided.
 a. Closer supervision if they are inexperienced/ starting new work
 b. Assess level of safety awareness, education, physical agility,
 Information          Instruction
     literacy and attitude
                                         Training          Supervision

 Let them know how to get supervisory help, even when supervisor is
 not present.
 BOWECS Reg. requires SSS and CSS, for several work activities
 designated person must be appointed to provide supervision
                                                                         36
Everyone cooperating and communicating with
each other and coordinating their work

    Cooperating

    • to ensure safety and health
    • to ensure everyone complies with the law

    Communicating

    • to make sure everyone understands the risks and the
      measures to control those risk
    • between main coontractors of different sites

    Coordinating

    • among sub-contractors who start at different stages
    • flow of information and instruction
                                                            37
Everyone cooperating and communicating with
each other and coordinating their work
Review meeting by clients

                            with designers and contractors, who may affect design,
                            construction and maintenance at various key stages of
                            the project

                            during which indentified foreseeable design risk, if not
                            eliminated, is reduced, and residual risks are recorded
                            and communicated

                            is typically conducted during pre-construction phase, but
                            can be done during construction phase

                            looks at design risks which begins on the drawing board,
                            and considers how a building or structure can be
                            constructed, maintained, cleaned and demolished safely
                                                                                       38
Everyone cooperating and communicating with
each other and coordinating their work

During the review, one of the items discussed was
the installation of glossy ceramic floor tiles

     which would get wet and slippery during washing
     or when water got spilled onto them, in the
     kitchen, cold rooms and toilet areas

          Installation of the tiles in these areas would
          possibly lead to cleaners or kitchen staff slipping
          or falling

               With this consideration, the team agreed that
               floor finishes at these areas should be of non-slip
               material to reduce the risk of slips and falls

                                                                     39
Consulting workers and engaging with them to
promote and develop effective measures

                    It is required under the law!
 Consultation and
 engagement

                    Helping spot workplace risks and
                    knowing what to do about them
                    Making sure safety and health
                    controls are appropriate
                    Increasing level of commitment to
                    working in a safe and healthy way

                                                        40
MILESTONE FOR OSHCIM 2017 - 2020
     Launched by HR                  Promotional                     Embedded into
         Minister                       works                            CITP
      (28 Feb 2017)               (since Mar 2017)                    (Jun 2017)

                                  Development of                    Embedded into
     Implementation of
                                      Training                     Construction OSH
      Training Modules
                                  Modules for Duty                  Strategic Plan
            (2019)
                                   Holders (2018)                    (Nov 2017)
                              •     Training modules for client, designer, contractors
                              •     Case study
                              •     Industry/professional involvement

       Enactment of
                                   Enforcement of
          OSHCIM
                                    OSHCIM and
      regulations and
                                  ICOP (post 2020)
        ICOP (2020)

 •     OSHCIM becomes mandatory                                                          41
Good practices
43
44
Thank You
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