DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA

 
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Degree Thesis
Programme in Innovation Engineering, 180 credits

TechnillionJobs

- A digital platform for unemployed graduates

Degree Project in Innovation
Engineering with Scientific Methods,
22.5
Halmstad 2021-08-13
Ziad Amer Al-Taie
                                                 HALMSTAD
                                                UNIVERSITY
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Degree Project in Innovation Engineering with Scientific Methods, 22.5 ECTS
Spring 2020/2021

                       TechnillionJobs
                       - A digital platform for unemployed graduates

Author: Ziad Amer Al-Taie
Supervisor: Leif Nordin
School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Abstract
TechnillionJobs is a solution consists of a digital web application, mobile App and a start-up.
The solution is intended for helping unemployed Iraqi graduates & students at the final stages
of their university studies network with employers locally and internationally. TechnillionJobs
can give a bigger opportunity to easier find jobs/build a professional career, and therefore can
be a contributing solution in reducing unemployment among graduates in Iraq.
The purpose of the project is mainly to investigate and identify the reasons behind
unemployment amongst Iraqi graduates as well as present a solution to reduce this problem
and its negative effects. Also, to explore potential target groups, their needs and requirements
for the product. The primary target groups were categorized as unemployed Iraqi graduates
who can provide their knowledge and skills online, innovative companies who put a huge
emphasis on their R&D department and educational companies that provide online courses &
lesson plans. Primarily, the project group wanted to develop a concept that would respond to
the problem statement by “only” launching a web application which in later development
phases expanded to even a mobile App and start-up to provide real time services and offer
On-demand Contracts (Explained in The Final Product section of this report) as well.
In order to do a solid research in the problem area and come up with possible solutions and
perform analysis, different scientific frameworks, methodologies and project tools such as
Design Thinking, Agile methodology, Gantt-chart, Surveys and mini-risk calculation were
used to make sure that the project execution follows a scientific structure. An overall timeline
from the start of the project to the end is presented as well.
The group has carried out this project in an iterative way where the user has always been in
focus during a long dynamic development process. The opportunities for further development
are many and, in the future, the product will be a more complete tool for connecting graduates
with employers. Future business plans and goals are clarified in the Discussion section of this
report.
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Sammanfattning
TechnillionJobs är en lösning som består av en digital webbapplikation, mobil App och ett
start-up. Lösningen hjälper arbetslösa irakiska akademiker och studenter i slutskedet av sina
universitets-/högskolestudier knyta kontakter med arbetsgivare lokalt och internationellt.
Detta kan ge en större möjlighet till att enklare hitta jobb/ bygga en yrkeskarriär, och kan
därför vara en bidragande lösning för att minska arbetslösheten bland akademiker i Irak.

Syftet med projektet är främst att undersöka och identifiera orsakerna bakom arbetslöshet
bland irakiska akademiker samt att presentera en lösning för att minska detta problem och
dess negativa effekter. Också, att utforska potentiella målgrupper, deras behov och krav på
produkten. De primära målgrupperna kategoriserades som arbetslösa irakiska akademiker som
kan förse med sina kunskaper och färdigheter online, innovativa företag som lägger stor vikt
på sina FoU-avdelningar och utbildningsföretag som tillhandahåller onlinekurser och
lektionsplaner. Projektgruppen ville främst utveckla ett koncept som skulle svara på
problemformuleringen genom att "endast" bygga en webbapplikation som i senare
utvecklingsfaser utvidgades till även en mobil App och ett start-up för att tillhandahålla
tjänster i realtid och erbjuda On-demand kontrakt (förklaras under rubriken The Final Product
i denna rapport).

För att göra en gedigen forskning inom problemområdet och komma på möjliga lösningar och
utföra analyser, användes olika vetenskapliga metoder och projektverktyg som Design
Thinking, Agil produktutveckling, Gantt-schema, enkäter och mini-risk-beräkning för att se
till att projekt genomförandet följer en vetenskaplig struktur. En övergripande tidslinje från
projektets början till slutet presenteras också.

Gruppen har genomfört detta projekt på ett iterativt sätt där användaren alltid har varit i fokus
under en lång dynamisk utvecklingsprocess. Möjligheterna för vidareutveckling är många och
i framtiden tänkas produkten att bli ett mer komplett verktyg för att länka akademiker med
arbetsgivare. Framtida affärsplaner och mål klargörs i Discussion avsnittet i denna rapport.
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Foreword
This report is a part of a Degree Project in Innovation Engineering with Scientific Methods at
Halmstad University. The degree project is based on own idea and was carried out by Ziad
Amer Al-Taie during autumn semester 2020 through the whole spring semester 2021.

A big thank you to all the companies & organizations that have helped during the project. A
thank you also goes to my supervisor Leif Nordin and to my friends and people who have
supported me during the development process.

The project has been very educational where I gained a great knowledge about unemployment
and its negative effects on societies as well as Web Application Technology & Mobile Apps.
Also, gained a good understanding of how to put the user/ customer in focus in order to create
a product that is as user-friendly as possible.

I would also like to extend special thanks to all who were involved and provided helpful
information and guidance throughout the project. The following are some names that I would
like to call a little extra attention to:

Supervisor: Leif Nordin
Academy of Information Technology, Uni. of Al-Rafeedain, Iraq: Dr. Fouad Ibraheem
Users during test-phase: Ali Hussein (Computer Sci. Engineer),
                         Forat Najeeb (MSc. in Telecommunications)

     Ziad Amer Al-Taie

   2021-05-30, Halmstad
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Table of Contents
1      Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1
    1.1 Background ....................................................................................................................... 1
    1.2 Problem statement ............................................................................................................ 2
    1.3 Purpose ............................................................................................................................. 2
    1.4 Goal .................................................................................................................................. 2
    1.5 Limitations ........................................................................................................................ 2
2 Methods and project model ..................................................................................................... 3
    2.1 Framework ........................................................................................................................ 3
       2.1.1 Design Thinking......................................................................................................... 3
       2.1.2 The new product development process (NPD) .......................................................... 4
       2.1.3 Agile methodology..................................................................................................... 4
       2.1.4 Dynamic Product Development ................................................................................. 5
    2.2 Project tools ...................................................................................................................... 6
       2.2.1 Brainstorming ............................................................................................................ 6
       2.2.2 Mind mapping ............................................................................................................ 6
       2.2.3 Surveys ....................................................................................................................... 6
       2.2.4 Interviews ................................................................................................................... 6
       2.2.5 SWOT ........................................................................................................................ 6
       2.2.6 Business Model Canvas ............................................................................................. 7
       2.2.7 Risk analysis .............................................................................................................. 7
       2.2.8 Source criticism ......................................................................................................... 7
       2.2.9 Visual planning & Gantt chart ................................................................................... 7
       2.2.10 Kanban board ........................................................................................................... 8
       2.2.11 The project focus group ........................................................................................... 8
3      Theory and frame of reference ............................................................................................ 9
    3.1 What is unemployment? ................................................................................................... 9
       3.1.1         Effects and importance ......................................................................................... 9
       3.1.2         Solutions available ............................................................................................... 9
4      Presentation of solution..................................................................................................... 11
    4.1       Concept development ................................................................................................ 11
       4.1.1         Concept expansion/ Solution development ........................................................ 12
       4.1.2         Functional requirements ..................................................................................... 13
       4.1.3         Other requirements ............................................................................................. 13
5      Production process ............................................................................................................ 15
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
5.1       Design and functions ................................................................................................. 15
    5.2       Functional development ............................................................................................ 15
    5.3       Application ................................................................................................................ 15
    5.4       Animated video.......................................................................................................... 15
    5.5       Market analysis .......................................................................................................... 16
    5.6       Competitor analysis ................................................................................................... 16
    5.7       Stakeholder analysis .................................................................................................. 16
    .............................................................................................................................................. 16
       5.7.1         Core stakeholders ............................................................................................... 16
       5.7.2         Primary stakeholders .......................................................................................... 16
       5.7.3         Secondary stakeholders ...................................................................................... 17
    5.8       Customer segmentation and analysis ......................................................................... 18
6      Development process ........................................................................................................ 19
    6.1       Brainstorming ............................................................................................................ 19
    6.2       Target groups ............................................................................................................. 19
    6.3       Surveys ...................................................................................................................... 19
    6.4       Interviews .................................................................................................................. 20
    6.5       Planning ..................................................................................................................... 20
    6.6       Business plan ............................................................................................................. 20
    6.7       Management team...................................................................................................... 20
    6.8       Economic calculation ................................................................................................ 20
    6.9       Marketing plan ........................................................................................................... 22
    6.10 Marketing strategy ..................................................................................................... 22
    6.11 Profitability ................................................................................................................ 23
7      Risks & Opportunities....................................................................................................... 24
    7.1       Risk management plan............................................................................................... 24
    7.2       SWOT analysis .......................................................................................................... 25
8      Results ............................................................................................................................... 27
    8.1       Failed tasks in the project .......................................................................................... 27
    8.2       The final product ....................................................................................................... 27
    8.3       COVID-19 ................................................................................................................. 31
9      Conclusions ....................................................................................................................... 33
    9.1       Effects of Unemployment .......................................................................................... 33
    9.2       Main reasons behind unemployment ......................................................................... 33
    9.3       Benefits for companies & employees ........................................................................ 33
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
10     Discussion ..................................................................................................................... 34
 10.1 The project ................................................................................................................. 34
 10.2 Distance work and working from home .................................................................... 34
 10.3 Further development .................................................................................................. 35
 10.4 Sustainable development ........................................................................................... 35
 10.5 Design and user experience ....................................................................................... 36
 10.6 Ethics and morals....................................................................................................... 36
 10.7 Equal conditions ........................................................................................................ 36
 10.8 GDPR......................................................................................................................... 36
 11.8 To whom taxes should be paid? ................................................................................... 38
 11.9 European Union tax regulations ................................................................................... 39
11     References ..................................................................................................................... 41
12     Appendices .................................................................................................................... 44
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
1 Introduction
In this modern and globalized world where everything is evolving faster and faster, a central
role in engineering work in society is to simplify things and find more efficient solutions that
make things easier at both individual and organizational level. Unemployment is not a new
problem, but it is talked about in a more intensive way these days due to the expanded
contemporary media. It is an eternal problem that is not subject to a final solution but to some
solutions to alleviate its severity. Because of the continuous technological development in the
world with the increase in the population, the abandonment of “manual labor” in favour of
“the machine” has made it an urgent matter that requires to keep pace with the global
development. There is no country in the world that is absolutely free of unemployment, but
the disparity is relative among them, which means a difference in the degrees of the challenge
and the response to it, which calls for a difference in the views, evaluation, planning and
implementation. Political economy did not overlook the problem of unemployment, but rather
exposed it in detail through scientific criticism and analysis based on logical and practical
rules and foundations that grew as a result of the accumulation of knowledge and practical
experiences.

The state of unemployment in general is a natural issue that occurs in the lives of most people
where there are common types such as cyclical unemployment that usually occurs during
periodic economic crises and structural unemployment which usually occurs through the
disappearance of businesses and the creation of other professions or the restructuring of
institutions and companies. Iraq, as a country that is classified within the third world category,
does not differ from others. It is not possible to give accurate figures for the number of jobless
people in Iraq due to the weakness of the statistical apparatus and the fragility of government
control with the overwhelming majority not cooperating (for various reasons) in conducting a
statistical census of such data that can help the state in alleviating the problem. The country
needs a general census that helps simplifying unemployment complexities and gives an
opportunity to elaborate precise solutions (Alsimawi, 2014). The public sector in Iraq cannot
create a large number of jobs, especially in light of the presence of a dilapidated infrastructure
with a clear weakness in management and coordination.

1.1 Background
It is agreed upon that the phenomenon of unemployment is considered one of the biggest
challenges in any society, and it is a socio-economic problem that it is difficult for any society
to be free of – regardless of its level of advancement. The seriousness of unemployment lies
in its impact and the crises it causes within the economic, social and political aspects (Abood,
2020). Iraq suffers from “chronic” unemployment that was inherited from the accumulations
of the past and worsened under successive governments after 2003, and according to the
statistics of the Iraqi Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, unemployment rates in Iraq
amounted to 4 million unemployed in 2019 where graduates make up 22.6%. Almost 50
thousand new graduates are added annually to the already accumulated work forces searching
for job opportunities to achieve the simplest requirements of life, and what the government
offers in terms of job vacancies do not exceed 5,000 a year (Hussien, 2019).

                                                1
DEGREE THESIS - TECHNILLIONJOBS DEGREE PROJECT IN INNOVATION ENGINEERING WITH SCIENTIFIC METHODS, 22.5 - DIVA
Figure 1: Facts & Stats about Unemployment in Iraq in 2019.

1.2 Problem statement
Unemployment amongst Iraqi graduates is one of the biggest challenges the Iraqi government
faces because the job opportunities provided by the public sector cannot absorb all these
university graduates; the private sector cannot either absorb these large numbers of human
forces due to the type of jobs and the level of development/advancement in Iraq as well as
fragile planning and management. Now, the question is how to link these young human
forces with employers in Iraq and other countries to exploit their knowledge and at the same
time help them improve their lives economically? These human forces should have their
chance to express themselves and use the knowledge and the experience they gained through
years of hard studies; also, enthusiastic & innovative employers should have easier (and
possibly cheaper) accessibility to suitable and flexible manpower to help them in projects or
at least unload secondary tasks; and finally, how to involve educational companies that
provide course plans and training programmes relevant to the job seekers to be adequately
competent and therefore mutual benefit for both parties?

1.3 Purpose
This project attempts to shed lights on the unemployment problem among Iraqi graduates and
explain its main causes; also, to suggest a solution to help limiting this problem.

1.4 Goal
To launch a digital web application that helps Iraqi graduates and students at the final stages
of their University studies make new contacts with local and international companies which in
its turn gives them an opportunity to easier find jobs and therefore can be a contributing factor
in reducing unemployment among graduates in Iraq.

1.5 Limitations
There will be some limitations in this project due to lack of knowledge, time and other
factors; these limitations, amongst other things, are: Cybersecurity, GDPR, labor laws, work
environment regulations and tax laws in Iraq and other involved countries. However, in the
Discussion section of this report there will be an overall review of some of these aspects to
show their potential effects on the project.

                                                          2
2 Methods and project model
This project started with a brainstorming phase with the supervisor Leif Nordin where the
group presented him the idea of the web application after a failed attempt to realize another
idea they had before. After the idea was approved to be carried out, the group started with the
project and concept planning by following a combination of two scientific frameworks often
used in product development processes.

2.1 Framework
Businesses use innovative product development frameworks to stay ahead of the market's
rapid changes. Product development frameworks are a set of steps that include
conceptualization, design, development, and marketing of particular products or services.
There are many different models or frameworks that are used in developing new products
successfully and efficiently. In this project, the group used a combination of two frameworks,
Design Thinking and The New Product Development Process (NPD) to get an inspiration
and have some type of reference point and a clear structure when it comes to what steps to
think about in the development process. In most situations, using such frameworks can assist
in maintaining control of planning, capital, and costs (Productboard, n.d.).

2.1.1 Design Thinking
Design thinking is an approach with associated methods and tools that can be used to work
user-oriented through the innovation process. Design thinking is based on the users and
involves them early in the process to gain knowledge about what needs and behaviors they
have. Design thinking consists of five different steps or parts (astrakan, n.d.):

    1. Empathize - Examine the problem area and create empathy with customers and users
    2. Define - use the information you have received to define the need as a problem
       statement.
    3. Ideate - evaluate ideas and decide which ones are best suited to continue the
       development process.
    4. Prototype, experiment and develop something that can be demonstrated and decided
       on
    5. Test - test and if necessary, go through the other steps again (iterate)

Figure 2 – Design thinking process (Arka, n.d.).

                                                   3
2.1.2 The new product development process (NPD)
NPD is a method used in bringing a product or service from idea to market. The method
outlines the usual phases that new products go through, starting with ideation and design
generation and concluding with the product's market launch. At times, some phases overlap or
differ according to the nature of the market. This is where the current product development
process (NDP) is applicable. This method is used to assist in converting novel and untested
concepts into viable products and marketing them while also weeding out unfeasible concepts
(Stanislav, 2020).

There are seven stages in the NPD process:
1. Idea generation - brainstorming and coming up with fresh and interesting concepts.
Considering coming up with innovative product and service concepts.
2. Idea screening - weeding out any ideas that aren't worth pursuing. Examine a new product
or service concept.
3. Concept development and testing - considering factors such as technological viability,
product design, and market potential. Investigate emerging product and service concepts.
4. Strategic analysis - ensuring that your ideas are compatible with your company's strategic
goals, as well as assessing demand, prices, and profit margins.
5. Prototype creation and testing - developing a prototype or pilot service.
6. Market research - improving a product or service in response to input from customers,
manufacturers, and supporting organizations. This helps figuring out the best time and method
for testing your new product or service.
7. Pricing and marketing plans for the product or service, as well as commercialisation and
product launch. For a new product or service, a comprehensive launch plan will help
ensuring a smooth introduction to the market.

Figure 3: Stages of the new product development process (Stanislav, 2020).

2.1.3 Agile methodology
The agile approach has been used in this project. In Agile methodology, the work is
conducted incrementally and iteratively. With each sprint, the group reviews the status of the
work done in the sprint as well as a demonstration of the functionality. The purpose is for all
stakeholders to get the best possible understanding of the current situation. During the project,
the group looks at each "sprint" to analyze if there are smarter ways to go, otherwise they
move on to the next sprint (Projektmallar, n.d.). The goal with each sprint is not to reach a
finished product, but to put the consumer into consideration; the goal is thus that each sprint
should generate a reference point where all parties are satisfied with the result in the specific
phase. In order not to perform the work based on a detailed planning and a fixed goal, the
group instead has a vision that governs the work process to achieve a desired result. The
vision easier helps changing the direction of the project when needed as opposed to having a
fixed plan and/or goal at the start of the project.

                                                            4
The Agile methodology has been chosen for the reason that the project group had identified
and presented a problem statement without having a comprehensive solution, therefore, a
measurable goal was missing. So, the group had no predetermined work plan, but only a
vision with desirable results.

Figure 4: Agile scrum Framework at a Glance (Firas, n.d.).

2.1.4 Dynamic Product Development
The DPD methodology has also been used in this project. DPD is more like a system
characterized by flexible adaptation to changing circumstances. A project model that is often
vision- and knowledge-driven. It works well if it is to be planned in rough outline; this gives
the opportunity to jump between different steps in the process to reach the goals faster and
more efficient (Holmdahl, n.d.). This method has worked well as the project group has had
many activities that had not been dependant on one another. When information is gathered
from experts and informants, product design is optimized parallelly to keep time frames and a
steady pace through the work. With clear goals, it also became easy to organize the project’s
activities and then synchronize the steps accordingly to ensure that no steps are missed or
performed incorrectly along the timeline.

Figure 5: DPD - the strategy is characterized by flexible adaptation to changing circumstances (Ottosson, 2016).

                                                             5
2.2 Project tools
The project group uses established methods with the intention of creating a productive
structure. Initially, the tools are used to find a need, plan, gather data and analyze the market.
During the development of the prototype, these scientific methods and tools are used to
analyze, compare, evaluate and identify the intended product value proposition.
2.2.1 Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a way to find new solutions and development opportunities by daring
to try different angles. Brainstorming involves a group of people, preferably with different
experiences that sit down and looks at a problem and gives suggestions for a solution
(TechEngineering, 2021).

2.2.2 Mind mapping
                                                       A mind mapping as it is called, is a tool
                                                       used to understand a problem domain
                                                       and to easily get a better idea of how
                                                       different parts are interconnected. To
                                                       make a map, you only need one blank
                                                       piece of paper and one pencil,
                                                       alternatively a mind mapping software
                                                       such a Miro (Mindtools, n.d.).

Figure 6: Mind mapping software Miro.

2.2.3 Surveys
Surveys are a data collection tool primarily used in gathering quantitative data that is created
for the purpose of providing the project a clearer guideline and validate decisions
(QuestionPro, n.d.).

2.2.4 Interviews
Interviews are primarily a qualitative data collection method that can be done through
personal contact, telephone or via video conferencing. The purpose is to gather deeper
information and to obtain more specific and detailed information.

2.2.5 SWOT
SWOT analysis identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of, amongst
other things, a development project. The tool can be used for both planning and evaluation of
a project (Mindtools, n.d.).

                                                 6
2.2.6 Business Model Canvas
Business Model Canvas is a powerful tool used for developing business models. Based on
their template, it is the following factors that are analyzed and answered:
    1. Key partners
    2. Key activities
    3. Key resources
    4. Value proposition
    5. Customer relations
    6. Channels
    7. Customer segment
    8. Cost structures
    9. Revenue streams
The Business Model Canvas allows you to imagine your business model by breaking it down
into different parts and linking them. With the help of this model, you get a deeper
understanding of the customer's needs and how the product solves this specific problem
(Ebinum, 2016).

2.2.7 Risk analysis
To identify the risks that might exist in a project, a risk analysis can be used. The analysis is
used to be prepared for the risks that might occur and how they should be managed. Usually,
one uses a points-system in the risk analysis where one scores how high the probability of
which a risk arises and how large the consequence might be. The scoring table generates a
risk value that helps making decisions to mitigate the consequence (Rouse, 2020).
2.2.8 Source criticism
Source criticism is a tool used to ensure that the sources used are credible and “correct” to get
as accurate and reliable results as possible (Gotquestions, n.d.). The group is careful about
which sources to be used. When it comes to the acquisition of information from the internet,
the group is careful about which websites are used and who is the publisher. Each source is
judged by the group on whether it is considered credible or not.
2.2.9 Visual planning & Gantt chart
The group has chosen to use GANTT-chart (see figure 7 ) which is a way for synchronizing
and planning time with activities. A Milestone diagram is also used by the group and shown
below (see figure 8) where milestones are linked with time.

Figure 7: Gantt-Chart showing duration and interdependency between different activities.

                                                            7
Milestones                                          30/05/21
                                                                                       26/05/2021
                                                                              01/04/2021
         27/06/2021                                              21/01/2021
         08/05/2021                                     16/12/2020
         19/03/2021                        01/10/2020
         28/01/2021           20/09/2020
         09/12/2020
         20/10/2020
         31/08/2020

Figure 8: Milestones of the project.

2.2.10 Kanban board
Kanban-board is based on a clear visual planning where the board works as a great to-do list
(See Figure 32). It is divided into different columns with five different categories (stories, to
do, in progress, testing and done) where one can easily follow up the work and get a clear
picture of what is to be done, what is in progress and what has been done. The model belongs
to agile project management and clearly shows which parts are in progress.

2.2.11 The project focus group
The focus group has a great interest in helping the project group. Their interest is based on the
fact that they themselves have the problem (unemployed) and want to see change. The focus
group acts as the project's competence panel and belongs to the core stakeholders of the
project.

                                                           8
3 Theory and frame of reference
3.1 What is unemployment?
The definition of unemployment helps us understand this phenomenon and its negative
impact. Unemployment with its simplest definition means: the individual has the ability,
knowledge and desire to work where there is no job opportunity (J. Brock, 2021).

3.1.1 Effects and importance
The importance of understanding and limiting unemployment lies in its negative impact on all
life aspects – mainly social, economic and political. Its impact is not limited to workers alone,
but rather includes many groups of people through their association with the production
process in addition to the great waste of human energies that will disrupt, and what may
happen in terms of moral and educational crises. Therefore, many countries are keen to
address this phenomenon with all the means they possess, and often this is done according to
their political orientations in developing appropriate plans for that. Some of the main causes
of this phenomenon are (Abood, 2020):

   a) The lack of development plans that take into account the economic and social reality
      and the requirements of development where available human energies are can
      contribute.
   b) The poor demographic distribution in establishing economic projects between
      regions and depriving many of these densely populated areas of work.
   c) Emphasis on support for large and giant projects by the state as it is the main
      factor in the development of the country's economic growth, and weak financial and
      material support for small projects with a large use of work.
   d) The absence of guarantees and laws that protect workers from loss and
      unemployment.

Addressing unemployment in Iraq
It is possible to address the increase in unemployment with legal and administrative
procedures. Addressing the sharp contradiction between the high levels of unemployment in
Iraq and the large influx of foreign workers can be done, for example, in the following way
(Abood, 2020):
     a) Limiting the flow of imported products that flooded the market in huge quantities and
         at cheap prices which caused the suspension of many factories in Iraq.
     b) Activating the law preventing children from working in all state facilities under the
         age of 18 and giving opportunities to adult workers.
     c) Promoting balance in workers’ preference for service work over productive work.

3.1.2 Solutions available
Addressing the unemployment problem is not an easy task in an oil-rich country with
resources and economic potential, but on the condition that there is a national will, integrity,
efficiency and sincerity, and these have unfortunately been missing in the successive Iraqi
governments. However, recent pressures may push the current government to search for new
solutions to address the unemployment problem in its various dimensions. Among these
solutions (Tuaamah, 2019):

                                                9
a) Forcing foreign companies to seek the assistance of Iraqi cadres after conducting the
      necessary training and qualification to place them in government projects.
   b) Expediting partnership projects between public and private sector institutions.
   c) Stopping the uncontrolled import of foreign workers.
   d) The government focus on infrastructure projects for their role in accelerating
      construction and reconstruction on one hand, and because they are generating
      numerous employment opportunities on the other hand.
   e) Providing loans to help establish medium and small enterprises and help them in
      financing projects and the thereon employ people.

Difference between a website and web application
What is a website. Regular websites usually consist of simple HTML-based architecture and
serve only as a platform for displaying information rather than interacting and making
transactions with the user (Strephonsays, n.d.).

What is a web application. A web application is a computer program that can be accessed
via a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The application may be embedded in the web
page, or the web page itself may be an application. Facebook, Gmail, YouTube, eBay, Twitter
and Amazon are web applications. Typically, these web applications use a username and
password to verify the user identity and allow the user to interact and communicate with the
servers through the available applications on the website (Strephonsays, n.d.).

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4 Presentation of solution
A web application that is in the form of an “incubator” to help connect employers with
graduates/students. The applicant looks for job vacancies by browsing the web application
pages through the desired function listed on the homepage alongside with the other main
functions/services of the web application. Vacancies can be found in Sweden, Iraq and other
possible countries. These vacancies are published by employers either directly via the web
application, the web is programmed and has an algorithm that collects links to vacancies to
then gather in one place – the web.

The other service is the Career and Study Development which provides relevant advice,
guidelines and/or recommendations to help the user chose a specific domain to develop
himself in and choose a career; this is done based on collected and trained data in the database
through AI (Artificial Intelligence) methods and techniques as well as by collaborating with
educational companies who provide online courses and workshops. For further and more
accurate career and/or study advice, a form with questions can be sent to be answered via
human interaction instead; even a live online meeting with an adviser based on appointment
booking would be possible. The third service is The Online Job Market where the user can
participate to understand the actual market needs and the possible job opportunities; this is
done by creating an algorithm that collects links of online job markets around the world and
gather them in one place on the web application. The fourth service is to publish job
applications by job seekers where you as a job seeker can have your profile with details, CV,
cover letter, share pictures, etc. to be available for employers.

 4.1 Concept development
Creating the concept despite its challenges has meant that the group needed iteratively
benchmark already tested theories and methods. How the product should be designed, what
the product basically should be to fill the ultimate purpose, and to answer the question why
use our product and not just an existing one? were questions to be answered during the
process of creating the concept. By testing already working theories in the hope of combining
and developing functional product to a new improved one was the goal. Other companies and
entrepreneurs have already created similar working concepts, so it is important that the final
product to be an improvement of what exists today. Other web applications display job
vacancies and has no specific market segment, nor combined functions between career &
study advice and/or development courses for instance. The project group believes that
combining these services is optimal and creates as flawless product as possible where these
disadvantages are eliminated. The project has required a very extensive basic work to find
facts about all the areas included. To dig out as many relevant facts as possible, professors at
universities, company CEOs, HR managers and students have been contacted throughout the
data collection phase, and additional facts have been sought on the internet to get as broad
perspective as possible.

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4.1.1 Concept expansion/ Solution development
This part of the project is about developing a concept of what the project should be about. To
begin with, help was sought from supervisors at Halmstad University. The group developed
different ideas on how the concept should be formed functionally and thus where the
technology would come from. Generally, for all types of concept development, it is important
to set up a list of requirements (see functional requirements & other requirements sections,
p.13). After brainstorming and evaluation, the group concluded that the optimal alternative
was to use the concept of Web Application to serve as an incubator where five main services
are combined and gathered in one place. In addition, a mobile App as they are smoother
medium and faster most of the time. The group through continuous analysis and studies also
saw the importance of starting a start-up as a third part of the solution/concept to provide
services online in real time, administrate On-demand contracts (see Definition of On-demand
contracts, p.37) and organize online workshops as well. So, the solution has been expanded
from only a web application to a Start-up, mobile App and a Web Application.

The group combines typical features used by most web applications with new exclusive
service ideas to make the application as unique as possible. To get a better view of what needs
to be changed or improved, the group has selected few people to test the application; for
example, to use the application on their own and then give feedback on if they didn’t
understand something or on some difficulties that might arise. The mentioned digital
platforms in this project will be open mainly for graduates and students at the final year of
their studies. The platform will be characterized by simplicity and ease of use, and there will
be no special or complicated instructions before starting to use it. The platform will also aim
to provide details and capabilities of young and skilled job seekers to employers, and
therefore will make it easier to link employers with these enthusiastic job seekers. These
services can also be provided online in real-time through the start-up employees.

The platforms main services are the following:
   1. To show vacancies in Sweden, Iraq and other possible countries.
   2. Enable job seekers & employers to publish their profile.
   3. To show Online courses and workshops to bridge knowledge gaps.
   4. Career & Study advice; even in real time through the start-up employees and
      collaborating educational companies.
   5. Showing Online job market published in Iraq and other countries.
   6. On-Demand contracts that graduates can sign with employers through the platform.

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Figure 10 : A Web Application that connects unemployed Iraqi graduates with employers.

4.1.2 Functional requirements
    a) Performance requirements: Creating a customer engagement page that retrieves data
       from systems X and Y must not take more than 5 seconds. With 1,000 simultaneous
       users, the page load time for the start page must not take longer than 1 second.
    b) Availability requirements, such as: the system must have an uptime of 99.5 percent.
    c) Accessibility requirements give us knowledge of how business-critical the system is.
       For internal systems that are only used during normal working hours, the requirements
       may not be so high, but for social media and digital platforms (such as web
       applications) it is critical that the systems work around the clock.
    d) Usability requirements, such as user-friendliness requirements. Sometimes this
       includes requirements for accessibility, for example, the system must be able to be
       used by visually impaired people who use screen readers.
    e) Security requirements can be, for example, all communication over networks must
       be encrypted or that the system complies with the PCI standard (Payment Card
       Industry) for card payments. If sensitive data is to be stored (password, address, etc.),
       there should be a requirement that has to be handled in a secure manner.

4.1.3 Other requirements
    a) Clarity. To guide the visitor and make sure to provide all the information the visitor
       may need to be able to navigate through the web application.
    b) Simplicity. Work with menus and tabs so that the visitor can sort all the information
       himself and choose what he wants to see at the moment, and to make sure that each
       tab gives the visitor something important.
    c) Tonality. Let the “personality” of the company appear on the website. You do not
       have to shout out what you stand for, but through small methods you can give the
       visitor a sense of how you are as a company and above all, how you are to work with.

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d) Responsive design. You do not know from which direction your visitors will click; is
   it via Internet Explorer, a mobile phone, tablet, etc…? Your web application should
   therefore be compatible with all browsers.
e) SEO customization. If someone googles for the exact services you offer, it is an
   advantage that you have SEO-adapted the content you have on the website so that you
   end up high in Google's search results. If your website is also a place where visitors
   stay a little longer, you can ride on Google's algorithm in the search results.
f) Drive traffic. Even if you have developed the most amazing website the world has
   ever seen, there is no point in that if you have no visitors. Therefore, you should with
   help of studied methods succeed in driving traffic to your website.
g) To have a multilingual Web Application also helps increase the chances to involve
   more users.

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5 Production process
Web design production can be a challenge because of all the various variables to be
considered. Every website output follows a standard web workflow or pipeline. It's important
to understand that there are no two ventures could be identical. For instance, your portfolio
site would not require exactly as many detailed steps as a large-scale site redesign undertaken
by an agency. Each project's web development pipeline includes some variation of these
measures. Often times one begins with Discovery, Plan phase followed by the Design phase,
and finally by the site's growth. If these steps are completed, you'll launch, and then you'll
reach post-Launch which is occasionally referred to as Maintenance or simply Beyond.

 5.1 Design and functions
In connection with workshops together with professors and other resources throughout the
project, it was discussed what design, features, services and functions sought by the user or
customer. They also discussed what feeling and value the product would radiate both through
color and design. The values that emerged were reliability, care and high-tech.
As a prototype, the design was simple – mostly mockups – due to communication obstacles
occurred because of COVID-19, so it was mainly focused on how to shape the functions
during the limited time that was remaining. The prototype of the future on the other hand
should have clearer features with focus on being technically functional. Design sketches &
mockups produced by the project group in connection with performed tests are found under
appendix 1 Test-Phase Mockups.

 5.2    Functional development
All features developed by the project team were demonstrated to the supervisor to get
feedback. Subsequently, various decisions and guidelines for the project have been made such
as how the product should be, how to meet different requirements from the user and how the
product should communicate with the user. To realize ideas and test different features that the
end product may have, the project team with the help of a clickable prototypes and mockups
was able to test and get a first user experience. Also, the functions, services and the project
idea as a whole were developed through iterations and after every sprint and feedback.

 5.3 Application
Sketches, simple prototypes and mockups for how the application should look and work were
performed. Due to the time aspect and lack of finances to develop a costly application, the
development has not come longer than a demo clickable-prototype. The hope is to possess the
financial means in the future to realize the idea as it affects the overall impression as well as
the user experience of the product.

 5.4 Animated video
Using the software tool vivo, a short animated instructional video of few seconds to be
inserted in the front page. It demonstrates what the web application does and how to use it.
This instructional video should correspond to a traditional one manual with simple animated
movements and step by step instructions displayed visually together with clarifying text.

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5.5 Market analysis
Market analysis is an analysis to examine the need that exists or create a need for its
existing market. The group conducted a market analysis to see if there was a gap in
today's market that the project could fill. The group examined the market primarily through
benchmarking but also with competitor analysis and stakeholder analysis. This gave the
project group a clearer picture of what exists today and facilitated for companies the group to
find their own track. The group found competitors such as LinkedIn, Dubbizle.com,
Blocket.se, tanqeep.com, bayt.com and the Iraqi Manasaha.

 5.6 Competitor analysis
The competitor analysis is performed to see what the market looks like and which products
and are there. The group did a competitor analysis to see if there is anything similar to our
idea. After performing a benchmarking to see which competitors the market consists of, the
group chose to write the pros and cons for each competitor. This was used as a basis for
clarifying the uniqueness of the group's product. There are many products today in the market
but with different focus and larger and more diverse target groups. Most products are very
expensive and some are only for professional teams. Dubbizle.com, for example, is good
product but it is too expensive to use in the same way as the group's concept – mostly for
employers, and the procedures are more complicated. LinkedIn has the services that is most
similar to the group's idea, but due to the more diverse target groups and multi-purpose
services LinkedIn offers, they are less accurate in meeting the exact needs of unemployed
Iraqi graduates & students – they don’t offer “On-demand” contracts for work- assignments;
the group's concept thus becomes comprehensive in this specific problem and therefore
unique.

 5.7 Stakeholder analysis
Stakeholder analysis is performed to identify different actors who may influence the project at
different levels. It is a good way to get an overview of how the different stakeholders affect
the project and identify the roles of each one of them. The group divided the stakeholders into
core, primary and secondary.

                                          5.7.1 Core stakeholders
                                          Individuals with decision-making and/or leading
                                          roles within the project: project group, focus group.

                                          5.7.2 Primary stakeholders
                                          Individuals and groups that are greatly affected by
                                          the project and therefore want to influence the
                                          project: users such as employers, students,
                                          graduates and educational business companies.

        Figure 11: Stakeholder Mapping.

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5.7.3 Secondary stakeholders
Individuals and groups with a relatively low interest in the project, and which will probably
not actively affect the project. University of Baghdad, professors at the university, employed
graduates, competitors, project supervisor, Halmstad University.

The focus group. Their opinions are well taken care of in this project. Their opinions and
demand steer the direction of the project. They have had a good communication with the
project group. The focus group were mainly: Iraqi IT/ Computer engineering and other
disciplines’ alumni students who are in the final stages of their studies that can provide their
knowledge online through digital platforms, newly graduates as well as innovative companies
that put great emphasis on their R&D&I departments.

The user has a great influence on the project, their wishes are used as one of the cornerstones
for the project. The user belongs to our core stakeholders and therefore has a great deal of
influence in crucial functions within the web application. In order for the project to succeed, it
is required that the services which are created has a great demand from the user. During the
project, the product's functions are validated according to the user's requests; these are
conducted through interviews and surveys. Our users come from different backgrounds and
they are therefore also held satisfied by being given the opportunity to influence and show
interest.

Competitors and other high-tech companies are stakeholders because our product/ services
will be compared to our competitors' which means that they will indirectly
influence the project. In the event of sale, the concept can be sold to a competitor which
would make them core stakeholders at a later stage. Competitors currently possess low
interest and relatively low impact which requires minimal action at this stage of the project.

Halmstad University and the project supervisor. The supervisor of the project is Leif
Nordin, together with the project group, meetings and updates take place where solutions and
guidelines for promoting the project are discussed. University of Halmstad assists with the
opportunity to carry out the project and has no major interest or power to influence the
content of the project, on the other hand, Leif has a greater opportunity to influence the
content, therefore, he is kept updated through meetings from time to time throughout the
project development process.

Professors at University of Baghdad and other Universities belong to the group of
secondary stakeholders as they have little influence on the project. Our contact with the Iraqi
Universities (especially University of Baghdad & Al-Rafeedain) is our main source of
information when it comes to expertise in various products and expertise in the educational
field and job market. We are in constant contact with professor Fouad Al-Azawi (PhD. in
Telecommunications & IS) for help in the development process to validate that the project
activities are going in the right direction.

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5.8 Customer segmentation and analysis
A customer segmentation was performed to identify how large market shares the project
group could target as well as to see if it would be profitable. A customer segmentation is
about setting up a group and segment it down to specific target group.

Identifying the customer
Founders can be tempted to use various consumer segments for value (or revenue) capture.
They squander their time and money with targeting different target groups, allowing them to
neglect the business's central focus. By knowing who is on your website, you can find out
which target group your website reaches. Does that target audience match the target audience
you want to reach? If not, statistics can give you a clue to help you adjust the right part of
your digital marketing.

Target group
You cannot know if it is “David” on the other side of the street who is inside the website and
snooping, but you can for example find out:
   1. Age
   2. Sex
   3. Interests
   4. Geography (location and language)
   5. Technology (Browser, Computer / Mobile)

It is important to differentiate between customers and users
There are many different types of business models, and depending on which business model
to be used, there are different types of considerations for both customers and users –
especially when it comes to interaction and communication. A customer can be defined as the
person or organization that pays for a product or service, and a user as the person or
organization that will actually use a product or service (Ahlén, 2020). Sometimes the user
pays the customer, for example if a product is sold to someone through a partner. We could
then also call the user an end customer. One of the most important reasons to understand both
customers and users is that it places different types of demands on how a company's offer is
communicated (Ahlén, 2020). Potential customers for the final product are local and
international employers while users are employed graduates and/or students.

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