Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta

 
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
Dennis Schatz
Andrew Fraknoi
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
Dennis Schatz
                                  Andrew Fraknoi

                                      Arlington, Virginia

    Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
Claire Reinburg, Director                               Art and Design
Wendy Rubin, Managing Editor                            Will Thomas Jr., Director
Amanda O’Brien, Associate Editor                        Joe Butera, Senior Graphic Designer, cover and
Rachel Ledbetter, Associate Editor                         interior design
Donna Yudkin, Book Acquisitions Coordinator
                                                        Printing and Production
                                                        Catherine Lorrain, Director

National Science Teachers Association
David L. Evans, Executive Director
David Beacom, Publisher

1840 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201
www.nsta.org/store
For customer service inquiries, please call 800-277-5300.

Copyright © 2016 by the National Science Teachers Association.
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
19 18 17 16   4 3 2 1

NSTA is committed to publishing material that promotes the best in inquiry-based science education.
However, conditions of actual use may vary, and the safety procedures and practices described in this book
are intended to serve only as a guide. Additional precautionary measures may be required. NSTA and the
authors do not warrant or represent that the procedures and practices in this book meet any safety code
or standard of federal, state, or local regulations. NSTA and the authors disclaim any liability for personal
injury or damage to property arising out of or relating to the use of this book, including any of the recom-
mendations, instructions, or materials contained therein.

Permissions
Book purchasers may photocopy, print, or e-mail up to five copies of an NSTA book chapter for personal
use only; this does not include display or promotional use. Elementary, middle, and high school teachers
may reproduce forms, sample documents, and single NSTA book chapters needed for classroom or non-
commercial, professional-development use only. E-book buyers may download files to multiple personal
devices but are prohibited from posting the files to third-party servers or websites, or from passing files to
non-buyers. For additional permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this NSTA Press
book, please contact the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) (www.copyright.com; 978-750-8400). Please
access www.nsta.org/permissions for further information about NSTA’s rights and permissions policies.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Schatz, Dennis, author.
  Solar science : exploring sunspots, seasons, eclipses, and more / Dennis Schatz, Andrew Fraknoi.
     pages cm
  Summary: "Solar Science offers more than three dozen hands-on, inquiry-based activities on many
fascinating aspects of solar astronomy. The activities cover the Sun's motions, the space weather it causes,
the measures of time and seasons in our daily lives, and much more."-- Provided by publisher.
  Includes index.
  ISBN 978-1-941316-07-8 (print) -- ISBN 978-1-941316-47-4 (e-book) 1. Astronomy--Experiments--Juvenile
literature. 2. Sun--Observations--Juvenile literature. 3. Sun--Experiments--Juvenile literature. 4. Sun--
Juvenile literature. I. Fraknoi, Andrew, author. II. Title.
  QB46.S2592 2015
  523.7078--dc23
                                     2015031629

e-LCCN: 2015035458

       Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
   TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
Dedication
                                                                      To Alan J. Friedman,
                                                                      good friend, colleague,
                                                                      and mentor, who inspired
                                                                      everyone he met to remember
                                                                      that science is a way of
                                                                      thinking, not a list of facts.

    Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
CONTENTS
About the Authors						x
Introduction							xiii

CHAPTER 1 									                                                                                          1
Understanding and Tracking the Daily Motion of the Sun
Learning Goals of the Chapter					2
Overview of Student Experiences					2
Recommended Teaching Time for Each Experience			                               4
Connecting With Standards			 			4
Content Background							7

        ENGAGE

        1.1. Cast Away: What Do We Think We Know?                                                      13

        1.2. Your Personal Pocket Sun Clock                                                            16

        EXPLORE

        1.3. Shadow and Sun Tracking                                                                   23

        EXPLAIN

        1.4. Modeling the Sun–Earth Relationship                                                       32

        1.5. Noontime Around the World                                                                 36

        ELABORATE

        1.6. Pocket Sun Compass                                                                        43

        1.7. High Noon                                                                                 47

        EVALUATE

        1.8. Write a Picture Book for Kids                                                             51

        1.9. Where Is It Night When We Have Noon?                                                      53

        1.10. What Do We Think We Know? Revisited                                                      57

Video                Math                      Literacy                  Cross-Curricular         Resources
Connections          Connections               Connections               Connections              for Teachers
59                   59                        60                        60                       63
         Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
     TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
CHAPTER 2                                                                                                     67
Understanding and Tracking the Annual Motion of the Sun and the Seasons
Learning Goals of the Chapter					68
Overview of Student Experiences					68
Recommended Teaching Time for Each Experience			                                70
Connecting With Standards			 			70
Content Background							72

         ENGAGE

         2.1. What Do We Think We Know?                                                                  79

         2.2. How Can This Be True?                                                                      81

         EXPLORE

         2.3. Sun Tracking Throughout the Year                                                           84

         2.4. High Noon Throughout the Year                                                              90

         EXPLAIN

         2.5. Reasons for the Seasons Symposium                                                          93

         ELABORATE

         2.6. Length of Day Around the World                                                          116

         2.7. Seasons on Other Planets                                                                125

         2.8. I Can’t Make It Come Out Even: Fitting Days and Years Into a
                                                                                                      132
             Workable Calendar

         EVALUATE

         2.9. Write a Picture Book for Kids                                                           139

         2.10. E-mail Response to “How Can This Be True?”                                             141

         2.11. Reasons for the Seasons Revisited                                                      143

         2.12. What Do We Think We Know? Revisited                                                    146

Video                 Math                      Literacy                 Cross-Curricular          Resources
Connections           Connections               Connections              Connections               for Teachers
148                   148                       149                      149                       151
          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
CHAPTER 3 									                                                                                           155
Solar Activity and Space Weather
Learning Goals of the Chapter					156
Overview of Student Experiences					156
Recommended Teaching Time for Each Experience			                                158
Connecting With Standards			 			158
Content Background							161

         ENGAGE

         3.1. What Do We Think We Know?                                                               173

         3.2. Be a Solar Astronomer                                                                   175

         EXPLORE

         3.3. Safe Solar Viewing: Project and Record Your Own Images of the Sun                       178

         3.4. Discover the Sunspot Cycle                                                              182

         EXPLAIN

         3.5. How Fast Does the Sun Rotate?                                                           196

         3.6. Space Weather: Storms From the Sun                                                     206

         3.7. What Else Cycles Like the Sun?                                                          218

         ELABORATE

         3.8. The Multicolored Sun: An Introduction to Electromagnetic Radiation                      232

         3.9. Student Detectives and the Ultraviolet Sun                                              243

         3.10. Additional Ways of Observing the Sun Safely                                           250

         EVALUATE

         3.11. Space Weather Report                                                                   257

         3.12. Predict the Next Sunspot Maximum and Minimum                                          259

         Follow-Up (Extension) Activities for This Chapter                                            263

Video                 Math                      Literacy                  Cross-Curricular         Resources
Connections           Connections               Connections               Connections              for Teachers
264                   264                       266                       266                      268

          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
CHAPTER 4 									                                                                                           271
The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More
Learning Goals of the Chapter					272
Overview of Student Experiences					272
Recommended Teaching Time for Each Experience			                                274
Connecting With Standards			 			274
Content Background							276

         ENGAGE

         4.1. Predicting What the Moon Will Look Like                                                288

         4.2. What Do We Think We Know?                                                               292

         EXPLORE

         4.3. Observing the Moon                                                                     294

         EXPLAIN

         4.4. Modeling the Moon                                                                      304

         4.5. Modeling Eclipses                                                                        311

         ELABORATE

         4.6. How Often Do Eclipses Occur?                                                            313

         4.7. Why Do People Spend $10,000 to See a Total Solar Eclipse?                               316

         4.8. Does the Moon Rotate?                                                                   318

         4.9. What Do Eclipses Look Like From a Space Colony on the Moon?                             321

         EVALUATE

         4.10. Lunar Phases Revisited                                                                 324

         4.11. What Causes Lunar Phases and Eclipses?                                                 327

Video                 Math                      Literacy                  Cross-Curricular         Resources
Connections           Connections               Connections               Connections              for Teachers
331                   331                       332                       332                      334

Image Credits							337
Index 								341

          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Dennis Schatz Andrew Fraknoi - Nsta
About the Authors
    Dennis Schatz is the author of                                            years he served as a program direc-
    numerous resources for educators                                          tor for science education at the
    and museum professionals, includ-                                         National Science Foundation. At
    ing Astro Adventures: An Upper                                            the Pacific Science Center, he codi-
    Elementary Curriculum (Pacific Sci-                                       rected Washington State LASER
    ence Center 2002) and Astro Adven-                                        (Leadership and Assistance for Sci-
    tures II (Pacific Science Center 2003).                                   ence Education Reform), a program
    He is also the author of 23 science                                       to implement a quality K–12 science
    books for children that have all                                          program in all 295 school districts
    together sold almost 2 million copies                                     in Washington State. He was also
    worldwide and have been translated into 23 lan-             principal investigator for Portal to the Public,
    guages. These include Astronomy Activity Book               an initiative to develop programs—both on-site
    (Simon and Schuster 1991) and Stars and Planets             and off—that engage scientists in working with
    (SmartLab Toys 2004).                                       diverse audiences to enhance the public’s under-
       Dennis was a member of the five-person design            standing of current science research.
    team that developed the Earth and space sciences               He has received numerous honors, including
    disciplinary core ideas for the National Research           several from the National Science Teachers Asso-
    Council that are found in A Framework for K–12              ciation (NSTA): the 2009 Faraday Science Com-
    Science Education, which was used to develop                municator Award, the 2005 Distinguished Service
    the Next Generation Science Standards.                      to Science Education Award, the 1996 Distin-
       For many years, Dennis was the senior vice               guished Informal Science Education Award, and
    president for strategic programs at the Pacific             the 1980 Ohaus Honorary Award for Innovations
    Science Center in Seattle, Washington. For four             in Science Teaching.

                               More information about Dennis Schatz is available at
                                                www.dennisschatz.org.

x                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

               Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
           TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Andrew Fraknoi is the author of                                          the online journal and magazine
Disney’s Wonderful World of Space                                        published by the American Astro-
(an astronomy book for grades 5–7)                                       nomical Society. The International
and is the lead author of several                                        Astronomical Union has named
successful introductory astronomy                                        Asteroid 4859 Asteroid Fraknoi
textbooks for nonscience majors                                          to recognize his contributions to
(such as Voyages Through the Uni-                                        astronomy education and out-
verse, 3rd ed., published in 2004 by                                     reach (but he wants us to mention
Brooks-Cole/Cengage). In the 1980s,                                      that it’s a very boring asteroid and
he also edited two books of science                                      no threat to the Earth!).
and science fiction for Bantam. He is editor and               Andrew is the winner of the 2012 Faraday
coauthor of The Universe at Your Fingertips 2.0,            Science Communicator Award from NSTA, as
a collection of astronomy activities and teaching           well as the 2007 Andrew Gemant Award from
resources published by the Astronomical Society             the American Institute of Physics. Also in 2007,
of the Pacific that is in use in formal and informal        he was selected as the California Professor of
educational institutions around the world.                  the Year by the Carnegie Foundation for the
   He is the chair of the astronomy department              Advancement of Teaching. His other awards
at Foothill College, Los Altos Hills, California,           include the Annenberg Foundation Award for
and appears regularly on local and national                 astronomy education from the American Astro-
radio explaining astronomical developments in               nomical Society and the Klumpke-Roberts
everyday language. Fraknoi was the cofounder                Award for public outreach in astronomy from
and coeditor of Astronomy Education Review,                 the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

                                     For more about Andrew Fraknoi, see
                                      www.foothill.edu/ast/fraknoi.php.

                     EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                            xi
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Introduction

T
        he Sun is not only the easiest astronomi-            FIGURE I.2
        cal object in the sky to observe, but it has         Total solar eclipse showing the Sun’s
        a greater influence on our lives than any            corona, which becomes visible during
other cosmic object. The fundamental elements                totality
of how we mark time—the day and year—are
based on the Earth’s relationship with the Sun.
The cycle of our seasons (from winter to sum-
mer and back to winter again) has to do with
the tilt of the Earth toward or away from the
Sun as a year passes.
   The charged particles streaming from the Sun’s
surface (the solar wind) cause the spectacular
auroras that people travel thousands of miles and
brave the cold of northern nights to see (Figure I.1).
When these particles overload our planet’s storage
capacity, they can disrupt our radio transmissions
and interrupt electrical power distribution. As
our civilization gets more and more intercon-
nected on Earth and in space, the chances of seri-
ous problems from a storm on the Sun increase.
   The unique relationship between sizes and dis-
tances in the Earth–Moon–Sun system also cause               that understanding than through the kinds of
spectacular eclipses of the Sun and the Moon.                eye-opening (indeed, mind-opening) experiences
Total solar eclipses that reveal the eerie glow of           in this volume.
the Sun’s outer atmosphere (the corona) are so                  This book is specifically designed for instruc-
beautiful and rare that people travel from all over          tors of grades 5–8 who teach about the Sun and
the world to witness them (Figure I.2).                      Moon and their cycles as well as eclipses, but
   Both the new and the older science standards              some of the materials could easily be adapted
suggest that students need to have a good funda-             for higher grades or (informal) settings outside
mental understanding of the Sun’s effect on their            of school. Throughout, we provide classroom-
daily lives. There’s no better way of providing              based activities, background information, and

FIGURE I.1

(Left) Aurora (northern lights) above Bear Lake in Alaska

                      EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                             xiii
            Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
        TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
FIGURE I.3
      experience with the science prac-
      tices and crosscutting concepts A digital rendering of the Solar Dynamics Observatory
      identified in the Next Genera- satellite
      tion Science Standards (NGSS).
      The core of the book is a series of
      student-centered learning experi-
      ences that put the students in the
      position of being scientists: ask-
      ing questions; exploring phenom-
      ena; and drawing, discussing, and
      refining conclusions.
         Educators who use the expe-
      riences and suggested teaching
      strategies in this book will involve
      students in the three-dimensional
      learning process recommended by
      the NGSS, effectively integrating
      the teaching of the disciplinary core ideas, sci-
      ence practices, and crosscutting concepts related
                                                                  How This Book Is Organized
      to the Sun and the Moon and their motion in the     The book contains four chapters, each of which
      sky. Sections strategically located throughout      deals with disciplinary core ideas in the NGSS:
      the chapters identify especially good places to
      emphasize the three-dimensional learning that        1. Understanding and Tracking the Daily
      students are experiencing.                               Motion of the Sun: What does the Sun
         In addition, we provide a variety of resources        do in the sky each day, and how does that
      that connect the content to best practices in math-      relate to our notions of time and direction?
      ematics and literacy, including the use of age-
                                                           2. Understanding and Tracking the Annual
      appropriate web pages and real-time data from
                                                               Motion of the Sun and the Seasons: How
      observatories and satellites, such as the Solar
                                                               does the Sun’s motion and position in the
      Dynamics Observatory (Figure I.3).
                                                               sky vary throughout the year, and how
         Although the first edition of this book is timed
                                                               does that relate to our ideas of a calendar
      to allow teachers to prepare for the Great Ameri-
                                                               and the seasons?
      can Eclipse of 2017, which will be visible through-
      out the United States, the book is not tied to that  3. Solar Activity and Space Weather: What
      event and will be useful for teaching about the          phenomena do we observe on the surface
      Sun and its effects on our culture and our under-        and in the atmosphere of the Sun, and how
      standing of nature in any year.                          do these influence what we observe and
                                                               how we live our lives on Earth?

xiv                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                 Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
             TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Introduction

 4.   The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth                                of the core disciplinary ideas, scientific
      Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More:                           practices, and crosscutting concepts.
      How do the relationships among the Earth,
                                                                      Elaborate experiences provide oppor-
      the Moon, and the Sun produce solar and
                                                                      tunities for students to apply their new
      lunar eclipses?
                                                                      level of understanding to related ques-
                                                                      tions or topics.
    Each chapter identifies the specific perfor-
mance expectations, disciplinary core ideas, sci-                     Evaluate experiences allow students
ence practices, and crosscutting concepts in the                      (and teachers) to gauge how well they
NGSS that are addressed in the activities. Also                       understand the concepts covered in
listed are connections that the experiences make                      the chapter.
with the math and literacy standards in the Com-
mon Core State Standards (CCSS).                                Each learning experience in the book provides
    Learning experiences in each chapter move stu-          all you need to organize, prepare, and implement
dents from initially engaging with the disciplinary         it, offering the following information:
core ideas, science practices, and crosscutting
concepts to having a deeper understanding of                  1.   Overall concept: A general description of
each of them. These experiences follow the suc-                    the experience.
cessful 5E Instructional Model developed by
                                                              2.   Objectives: What students will learn or
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS; see
                                                                   produce by completing the experience.
the more detailed explanation of the 5E Model,
p. xviii), dividing the experiences into the follow-          3.   Materials: Everything you need to have
ing five categories:                                               before you begin.

         Engage experiences hook the students                 4.   Advance preparation: Important steps that
         into wanting to learn more about the                      need to be completed before you are ready
         topic and reveal their preconceptions                     to have the students do the experience.
         about the subject.
                                                              5.   Procedure: Step-by-step directions for your
         Explore experiences allow students to                     students and you, plus answers to the
         build from their preconceptions by mak-                   questions we suggest asking. Also included
         ing observations (e.g., by viewing the                    are alternative approaches to deal with
         Sun through special glasses [Figure I.4,                  different classroom structures (e.g., a self-
         p. xvi]), and using the scientific practices              contained classroom vs. multiple sections
         to generate questions and consider new                    throughout the day).
         ideas based on their observations.
                                                               Finally, each chapter ends with suggestions for
         Explain experiences allow the teacher,
                                                            activities to connect to math and literacy concepts
         via continued student discussion and
                                                            and other resources that allow for further explo-
         activities, to help students develop a
                                                            ration of the concepts by students and teachers.
         deeper and improved understanding

                     EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                                xv
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
FIGURE I.4
          We do not expect that every teacher will
      use every experience in each chapter. The goal Students learn about safe viewing of the Sun.
      is to provide you with a wealth of activities so
      that you can choose the ones that best fit your
      students’ developmental level, your class
      structure, and your time limitations. At a min-
      imum, we think it is important you include
      at least one each of the engage, explore, and
      explain experiences.
          As students will learn using these experi-
      ences, what they discover about the Sun’s
      motion across the sky, the phases of the Moon,
      and other astronomical phenomena will be dif-
      ferent for people at different locations on the
      Earth. Given that this is a publication primarily
      for use in the Northern Hemisphere, some of the
      experiences will need modification to be effective     occasional reflection regarding students’ initial
      at latitudes outside mid-Northern Hemisphere           understanding of a concept and how their think-
      locations (i.e., outside the continental United States ing changes after analyzing the collected data and
      and southern Canada).                                  discussion with other students and the teacher, it
                                                             always comes back to making sense of observa-
                                                             tions and data (see Figure I.5 for an example of
      Use of an Astronomy Lab                                Galileo Galilei’s use of a notebook).
      Notebook                                                  There are numerous reasons why having stu-
                                                             dents keep astronomy lab notebooks is valuable:
      If you already use notebooks or journals in your
      class, you can skip this explanation of their value,
                                                               • Students have a single place to document
      although it is important to understand the differ-
                                                                   what they have done over an extended
      ence between notebooks and journals in general
                                                                   period of time and across a number of
      and why we refer specifically to using astronomy
                                                                   science experiences. This makes it easy
      lab notebooks.
                                                                   to recover details that students may have
          Journals are typically dominated by personal
                                                                   forgotten.
      reflections on what the student is currently think-
      ing and how the student is reacting to what is           • Students can reflect on how their
      happening in his or her daily life—somewhat akin             understanding of a concept has changed
      to a memoir. Science notebooks hold more struc-              from the beginning of a unit of study to
      tured, objective descriptions of science experi-             the end. This type of reflection—especially
      ments and observations being made by students,               written reflection—is key to deeper
      plus conclusions reached based on the data col-              learning (an idea well confirmed by
      lected. While a science notebook also allows for             research on how people learn).

xvi                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                 Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
             TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Introduction

FIGURE I.5
                                                             •    The process of keeping a contemporaneous
Drawings of the Moon from Galileo’s                               lab notebook mirrors what scientists do in
astronomy lab notebook                                            their daily lives to document and reflect on
                                                                  their area of research.

                                                              Although there is no one way to use notebooks,
                                                           here are a few criteria that we think are important
                                                           for creating an astronomy lab notebook:

                                                             1.   Whatever you use as your notebook
                                                                  (e.g., commercial spiral notebook or
                                                                  composition book; student-created
                                                                  notebooks from 8 ½ × 11 paper), it is
                                                                  important to let the student personalize
                                                                  the notebook including his or her name
                                                                  on the cover along with artwork of an
                                                                  astronomical nature. This can consist
                                                                  of drawings made by the student or
                                                                  astronomical images printed from the
                                                                  internet or cut out of magazines.

                                                             2.   Several pages at the beginning should be
                                                                  reserved for a table of contents, which is
                                                                  completed as students add material to the
                                                                  notebook.

                                                             3.   The pages should be numbered so material
                                                                  can be easily referenced in conversations
                                                                  with the teacher and other students.
 •   Teachers can see—and assess, if
     necessary—what students have done                       4.   Each experience in our book suggests the
     step by step and how well the students                       minimum material that should be included
     understand the concepts being studied.                       in the notebooks to document what
                                                                  students are doing. Sometimes this calls for
 •   It creates an entry point for discussion
                                                                  writing directly in the notebook, and other
     between student and teacher or among
                                                                  times it involves attaching observations or
     students, which can lead to deeper
                                                                  a worksheet into the notebook. You may
     understanding of the concept being studied.
                                                                  wish to have students add more detail than
 •   Keeping the journal enhances students’                       we suggest regarding the procedures they
     writing skills, which support all areas of                   follow or to reflect more on predictions
     study by them.                                               and conclusions.

                    EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                                xvii
          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
If you are new to the use of science notebooks,           If not, here are the key attributes to keep in mind
        here are some of our favorite resources related to           during each step of the 5E Model:
        their use:
                                                                     Engage
         •   Science Notebooks in Middle School (from
                                                                       •   What it is time to do: Hook the
             the Full Option Science System program at
                                                                           students’ interest and curiosity to learn
             the Lawrence Hall of Science):
                                                                           more, determine the students’ current
             http://goo.gl/glnddU
                                                                           understanding and preconceptions,
         •   Science Notebooks (Washington State                           and raise questions the students want
             LASER [the website was formerly kept by                       answered.
             the North Cascades and Olympic Science
                                                                       •   What it is not time to do: Provide
             Partnership]): www.wastatelaser.org/
                                                                           definitions, conclusions, or the right
             Science-Notebooks/home
                                                                           answer; lecture to students; or explain
         •   Fulwiler, B. R. 2007. Writing in science:                     concepts.
             How to scaffold instruction to support
             learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.                    Explore
             www.heinemann.com/products/E01070.
                                                                       •   What it is time to do: Provide
             aspx. (Read a free sample chapter at www.
                                                                           opportunities to conduct and record
             heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources/
                                                                           observations, have students work together
             e01070/chapter2.pdf.)
                                                                           in research teams to compare results and
                                                                           discuss their data, have students suggest
        Use of the 5E Instructional                                        conclusions based on the data, ask probing
                                                                           questions of students that encourage them
        Model                                                              to reflect on their thinking and redirect
        The use of a learning cycle method to teaching sci-                their investigations if needed, make sure
        ence goes back to at least the 1960s and is based on a             that everyone (including the teacher)
        constructivist learning approach that emerged from                 is a good listener, and help all students
        what research tells us about how people learn (e.g.,               be actively engaged in collecting and
        Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 1999). There are a                   discussing data.
        number of learning cycles used by different cur-
                                                                       •   What it is not time to do: Allow students
        ricula, but we have settled on the 5E Instructional
                                                                           to stop considering other conclusions
        Model developed by the BSCS because it is one of
                                                                           once a single solution is offered, give
        the most studied and widely used approaches (see
                                                                           students answers or provide detailed
        http://bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model for
                                                                           explanations of how to work through a
        more background).
                                                                           problem, tell students they are wrong, or
           If you already use a learning cycle in your
                                                                           give information or facts that solve the
        classroom, you can skip the rest of this section.
                                                                           problem immediately.

xviii                                                                              NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                    Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
                TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Introduction

Explain                                                       Teachers across the country have found the
                                                           5Es a useful and effective way to proceed through
•   What it is time to do: Encourage students
                                                           their science lessons. At first, individuals not
    to explain concepts and definitions in
                                                           used to the rhythm or pace of the 5Es might get
    their own words, based on justification
                                                           impatient with them, but research shows that
    using data; explain concepts relying on
                                                           allowing students to learn through their own
    experiments or observations; and build
                                                           investigations makes for far deeper and longer-
    from students’ previous experiences and
                                                           lasting learning than just lecturing to them or
    preconceptions.
                                                           showing a video.
•   What it is not time to do: Accept or
    propose explanations without justification or
    discourage or stifle students’ explanations.
                                                           Use of Think-Pair-Share
                                                           The think-pair-share learning strategy is also
Elaborate                                                  encouraged throughout the book and is closely
                                                           aligned with the 5Es. Like the 5Es, the think-
•   What it is time to do: Expect students to
                                                           pair-share sequence is based on many years of
    apply the concepts, skills, and vocabulary
                                                           research regarding how people learn. It provides
    they have learned to new situations; make
                                                           a mechanism for individual students to person-
    additional observations and collect data;
                                                           ally reflect (think) on a question or topic, typically
    and use previous learning to ask questions,
                                                           in writing, before having a discussion with a part-
    design new experiments or observations,
                                                           ner or small group of students (pair). The shar-
    and propose appropriate solutions.
                                                           ing allows students to further reflect on their own
•   What it is not time to do: Provide                     and others’ thinking about a subject, often lead-
    students with detailed solutions to                    ing to refined and improved understanding. Dif-
    new problems, provide answers before                   ferent groups may initially come up with differ-
    thorough discussion, or ignore previous                ent ideas or solutions about the problem at hand.
    data and evidence related to the concept.              When all the groups have a chance to discuss
                                                           their thinking in front of the entire class (share), a
Evaluate                                                   wider range of ideas come to the fore. Guided by
                                                           a skillful (and not too intrusive) teacher, the class
•   What it is time to do: Have students
                                                           can list, discuss, and evaluate the various ideas
    demonstrate and assess their own learning
                                                           the groups have come up with and deepen every-
    regarding the concepts while the teacher
                                                           one’s understanding.
    assesses student progress.

•   What it is not time to do: Introduce new
    concepts or subjects or test for isolated
                                                           Personalizing the Use of This
    vocabulary and facts.                                  Book for Your Class
                                                           Although this book and its student handouts
                                                           can be used effectively on its own, it may also

                    EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                                 xix
          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
be supplemented by a textbook, by student                   May you have many such experiences with your
     research in a library or on the internet, and by            students as you use this book.
     audiovisual materials that help reinforce or
                                                                                —Dennis Schatz and Andrew Fraknoi
     develop concepts that are hard to visualize.
     We have listed some of our favorite outside
     resources throughout the book.                              Special Note of
        We understand that different classes and
     groups have different schedules. Some teachers
                                                                 Acknowledgment
     reading this book will have a class for most of             Student activities, like the experiences in this
     each day and can apportion their time in such a             book, are often put forward by a number of
     way that experiments can be carried out through-            authors independently. One version is often influ-
     out the day. Other teachers will have each class            enced by other adaptations that educators try and
     for only one period and—if experiments need to              then report on in write-ups, conference sessions,
     be continued at another time on the same day—               and web pages.
     may need to pool the work of several classes to                We gratefully acknowledge inspiration for sec-
     obtain the data needed to continue. We have tried           tions of a number of these experiences from the
     to take into account both kinds of classes in the           talented staff of the following institutions: the
     instructions, but we also appreciate that no one            Stanford Solar Center; the NASA Science Missions
     knows a class better than its teacher, and thus you         Directorate Heliophysics Forum; the Explorato-
     may want to modify our suggestions to fit your              rium science museum in San Francisco; the Uni-
     particular circumstances.                                   versity of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Lab
        We also know (from our past experience lead-             Center for Science Education; Hands On Optics;
     ing professional development workshops for                  the Astronomical Society of the Pacific; the Pacific
     teachers) that the readers of this book will likely         Science Center; David Huestis at Skyscrapers,
     find ways to improve, expand, and personalize               Inc.; NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center; the
     the experiences we suggest for their students.              Chabot Space and Science Center; the National
     If you come up with great new ways of treat-                Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
     ing the subjects we cover or simply find a clever           NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared
     modification of our suggestions, we would love              Astronomy (SOFIA), and others. We are particu-
     to hear from you. You can reach us by e-mail at             larly grateful to Deborah Scherrer of the Stanford
     dschatz@pacsci.org (Dennis) and fraknoi@fhda.               Solar Center for many useful suggestions.
     edu (Andrew).                                                  Finally, many thanks go to Paul Allan, coau-
        Both of us were trained as astronomers and               thor of Astro-Adventures II (Pacific Science Cen-
     have spent our professional careers explaining              ter 2003), who developed and refined many of the
     the wonders of the sky and the greater universe             activities that are the basis of a number of experi-
     to students, teachers, museum educators, and                ences in this book.
     museum visitors. Nothing gives us greater plea-
     sure than when someone looks up and says, “Oh,
     I get it! For the first time, I get how that works.”

xx                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
            TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
Introduction

A Website for This Book
A special set of web pages to go with this book              •   News and resources about upcoming
has been established at the National Science                     eclipses and other topics related to the book
Teachers Association (NSTA) website. You can
                                                             •   New ideas and reader suggestions for the
find it at www.nsta.org/solarscience.
                                                                 experiences in the book
   The page includes the following:

                                                           REFERENCE
 •   PDF versions of student forms, material
                                                           Bransford, J. D., A. L. Brown, and R. R. Cocking, eds.
     templates, and handouts for the book
                                                              1999. How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and
 •   An updated list of links from the book (so               school. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

     that you don’t have to retype URLs)

Flares on the Sun

                    EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                                  xxi
          Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
      TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4
           The Sun, the Moon,
         and the Earth Together
                         PHASES, ECLIPSES, AND MORE

         C
                    hapters 1 and 2 focused on impor-         FIGURE 4.1
                    tant cycles of time produced by the
                                                              An image of the Moon taken with the
                    rotation of the Earth on its axis and
                                                              NASA Galileo spacecraft
          the revolution of Earth in its orbit around
          the Sun. These determine how we measure             Note the lighter rays coming from the Tycho
          two key periods of our lives: the day and           crater at the bottom of the Moon’s disk.
          the year. This chapter adds a third cycle of
          importance in astronomy (and human cul-
          ture): the revolution of the Moon around
          the Earth. The Moon’s cyclical motion is not
          only connected to our notion of a month,
          but it also produces the changing phases of
          the Moon and explains why we have solar
          and lunar eclipses.

              EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                            271
    Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4

      Learning Goals of the Chapter                                Overview of Student
                                                                   Experiences
      After doing these activities, students will
                                                                   Teacher note: For maximum effectiveness, the
      understand the following:
                                                                   first three experiences in this chapter should
       1.   As the Moon orbits the Earth, its position             be done significantly in advance of when you
            relative to the Sun changes and produces               do the experiences that follow. This will allow
            the different lunar phases we see.                     students to have 10 to 30 days to observe
                                                                   the Moon on their own before doing the later
       2.   The lunar phases have a predictable
                                                                   experiences in this chapter. This might mean
            pattern over about a month’s time, going
                                                                   interrupting another science unit with the first
            from new Moon to waxing crescent, to first
                                                                   three activities, but we assure you that the
            quarter, to waxing gibbous, to full Moon, to
                                                                   effectiveness of keeping a Moon observation
            waning gibbous, to third quarter, to waning
                                                                   journal far outweighs the short-term challenge
            crescent, and back to new Moon.
                                                                   of starting this chapter before finishing another
       3.   Solar eclipses can only occur when the                 science topic.
            Moon is in its new moon phase.
                                                                      Alternatively, you can begin your unit with
       4.   Lunar eclipses can only occur when the                 the first three experiences and then move to
            Moon is in its full Moon phase.                        other chapters of this book, allowing for a 10-
                                                                   to 30-day gap between the time you do the
       5.   Because the orbit of the Moon is tilted
                                                                   first three experiences in this chapter and when
            with respect to the orbit of the Earth, lunar
                                                                   you do the rest.
            and solar eclipses do not occur each month
            as one might expect but instead occur in
                                                                   Engage Experiences
            pairs of solar and lunar eclipses around
            every six months.                                      This chapter starts with what appears to be a simple
                                                                   challenge for the students: putting a series of lunar
       6.   While people on half of the Earth can
                                                                   photographs in order by the shape of the Moon as it
            see a total lunar eclipse, only people in a
                                                                   would appear if they observed it over a number of
            narrow path on the Earth can see a total
                                                                   weeks. Because the students want to know if their
            solar eclipse.
                                                                   answers are correct, this experience “hooks” them
       7.   Because the Moon takes the same amount                 into observing the Moon, which ultimately leads to
            of time to rotate as it takes to revolve               a deeper understanding of lunar phases, the connec-
            around the Earth, we on Earth only see one             tion of the lunar phase cycle to our concept of the
            side of the Moon.                                      month, and the cause of solar and lunar eclipses.

                                                                     •   4.1. Predicting What the Moon Will Look
                                                                         Like: Students examine six photographs

272                                                                              NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                  Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
              TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More

     of the Moon and predict the order of the                      front of the room is the Sun. Each student
     different phases.                                             receives a model Moon (a small Styrofoam
                                                                   ball attached to a pencil) that they use to
 •   4.2. What Do We Think We Know?
                                                                   explore the sequence of lunar phases they
     Students discuss and record their thoughts
                                                                   see as the Moon orbits the Earth.
     regarding the following questions: (1) What
     are the different phases of the Moon, and                 •   4.5. Modeling Eclipses: After students
     how do the phases change throughout                           understand where the Moon has to be in
     the month and year? (2) What causes the                       its orbit to see each phase, the modeling
     different phases? (3) What are solar and                      process continues as they explore where
     lunar eclipses, and what causes them?                         the Moon has to be to produce solar and
                                                                   lunar eclipses.
Explore Experience
                                                             Elaborate Experiences
Students make their own observations of the Moon,
which they will need for the explain experiences,            Students engage in additional experiences that
including the time they see the Moon, the phases             reinforce and build a deeper understanding of
they see, the position of the Moon in the sky, and key       the core ideas and science practices regarding the
features on the lunar surface (e.g., craters, maria).        Moon’s motions and phases and the timing of
                                                             and explanation for eclipses.
 •   4.3. Observing the Moon: Students begin
     making basic observations of the Moon                     •   4.6. How Often Do Eclipses Occur? The
     when it is out during the school day,                         teacher uses hula hoops to model the Moon’s
     followed by observations in the evening                       orbit around the Earth and the Earth’s orbit
     sky from their homes. They use the                            around the Sun to help students understand
     data collected over a number of days to                       why there are typically two solar eclipses
     conclude how the Moon’s phases and its                        and two lunar eclipses each year.
     position in the sky change over time.
                                                               •   4.7. Why Do People Spend $10,000 to
                                                                   See a Total Solar Eclipse? Students use
Explain Experiences
                                                                   the Earth–Moon–Sun model to discover
Building from their lunar observations, students                   that the shadow of the Moon only covers
create a model with their heads (the Earth), a                     a small portion of the Earth (the student’s
bare lightbulb (the Sun), and a Styrofoam ball                     head), leading to the realization that people
(the Moon) to understand what causes the lunar                     who want to see a solar eclipse often need
phases and solar and lunar eclipses.                               to travel to elsewhere in the world to do
                                                                   so. Students then play with the model to
 •   4.4. Modeling the Moon: This activity                         discover that this is not true for a lunar
     builds on the modeling activities from                        eclipse: The entire half of the Earth facing
     Chapters 1 and 2 in which the students’                       toward the Moon will see a lunar eclipse.
     heads are the Earth and a lightbulb in the

                      EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                              273
            Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
        TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4

       •   4.8. Does the Moon Rotate? Many people                       would see the shape of the Moon if they
           believe that the Moon does not rotate                        observed it over a month’s time.
           because we always see the same side of
                                                                    •   4.11. What Causes Lunar Phases and
           the Moon facing the Earth. Students use
                                                                        Eclipses? Students are asked to label a
           a model in which students’ heads are the
                                                                        diagram that shows the Earth, Sun, and
           Moon and Earth to determine whether or
                                                                        Moon to indicate where the Moon is in its
           not the Moon rotates.
                                                                        orbit to produce each phase and to note
       •   4.9. What Do Eclipses Look Like From a                       where the Moon must be in its orbit to
           Space Colony on the Moon? Students use                       produce solar and lunar eclipses.
           their Earth–Moon–Sun model to predict
           what they would see during a solar eclipse
           if they were astronauts at a Moon base.
                                                                  Recommended Teaching Time
           They then use internet resources to see                for Each Experience
           simulations of this as well as observations
                                                                  Table 4.1 shows the amount of time needed for
           made from the International Space Station
                                                                  each experience.
           that show what astronauts there see during
           solar and lunar eclipses.
                                                                  Connecting With Standards
      Evaluate Experiences
                                                                  Table 4.2 (pp. 276–277) shows the standards cov-
      These experiences allow both students and teach-            ered by the experiences in this chapter. Chapter 2
      ers to assess how well the students understand              dealt with any phenomena associated with sea-
      the key ideas presented in the chapter.                     sons and the seasonal changes related to the appar-
                                                                  ent motion of the Sun in the sky, so this chapter
       •   4.10. Lunar Phases Revisited: Students are             emphasizes the cyclic patterns of lunar phases
           given a new set of six photographs of the              and eclipses. Additionally, this table does not give
           Moon and are asked to repeat the process               Common Core State Standards, but gives general
           of predicting the order in which they                  connections to the language arts and mathematics
                                                                  standards.

274                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                 Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
             TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More

TABLE 4.1

Recommended teaching time for each experience

 Experience                                                                         Time

 Engage experiences

 4.1. Predicting What the Moon Will Look Like              45 minutes

 4.2. What Do We Think We Know?                            45 minutes

 Explore experiences

 4.3. Observing the Moon                                   45 minutes for introduction of experience,
                                                           followed by 10 minutes each day for follow-
                                                           up observations; requires students to make
                                                           observations outside of class time and a number
                                                           of days with clear weather; summing up of what
                                                           students learn takes another 45 minutes

 Explain experiences

 4.4. Modeling the Moon                                    Two 35-minute periods

 4.5. Modeling Eclipses                                    45 minutes

 Elaborate experiences

 4.6. How Often Do Eclipses Occur?                         45 minutes

 4.7. Why Do People Spend $10,000 to See a Total           45 minutes
 Solar Eclipse?

 4.8. Does the Moon Rotate?                                45 minutes

 4.9. What Do Eclipses Look Like from a Space              45 minutes
 Colony on the Moon?

 Evaluate experiences

 4.10. Lunar Phases Revisited                              45 minutes

 4.11. What Causes Lunar Phases and Eclipses?              30 minutes

                     EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                           275
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4

      TABLE 4.2

      Chapter 4 Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State
      Standards connections

       Performance                    • MS-ESS1-1: Develop and use a model of the Earth–Sun–Moon system
       expectations                      to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and
                                         moon, and seasons.

       Disciplinary core ideas        • MS-ESS1.A: (The Universe and Its Stars) Patterns of the apparent
                                         motion of the Sun, the Moon, and stars in the sky can be observed,
                                         described, predicted, and explained with models.

       Science and engineering        • Develop and use a model to describe phenomena (e.g., model of the
       practices                         Earth–Moon–Sun system).

                                      • Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in
                                         findings (e.g., daily observations of the lunar phases are compared with
                                         observations of others and to the student’s own prediction).

                                      • Engage in argument from evidence (e.g., discussion of which order of
                                         the lunar phases is the most appropriate).

       Crosscutting concepts          • Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships (e.g.,
                                         observations of the Moon’s phases and modeling of the Earth–Moon–
                                         Sun relationship reveals what causes the lunar phases).

                                      • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in
                                         consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement
                                         and observation (e.g., the pattern of lunar phases is revealed though
                                         observations of the Moon).

                                      • Systems and system models (e.g. use of Earth–Moon–Sun model to
                                         understand the cause of lunar phases and eclipses).

      Content Background                                           on a regular cycle. The differing amounts of light
                                                                   and dark on the face of the Moon are called its
      The Phases of the Moon
                                                                   phases, and they repeat every 29.5 days with
      Earth’s natural satellite (which we call the Moon            clockwork regularity.
      with a capital M, to distinguish it from the moons              Since the Moon is a world made of cold rock,
      of other planets) is the only object we can see in the       it produces no light of its own. Moonshine, as
      sky with just our eyes that changes its appearance           the ancient Greeks figured out, is really reflected

276                                                                              NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                  Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
              TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More

Table 4.2 (continued)

 Connections to the            • Writing: Students write arguments that support claims with logical
 Common Core State                reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and
 Standards                        demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. The reasons and
                                  evidence are logically organized, including the use of visual displays as
                                  appropriate.

                               • Speaking and listening: Students engage effectively in a range of
                                  collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led)
                                  with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their
                                  own clearly. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing
                                  ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive
                                  details (including visual displays as appropriate) to support main ideas
                                  or themes.

                               • Reading: Students quote accurately from a text when explaining what
                                  the text says and when drawing inferences from the text. Students
                                  determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words
                                  and phrases in a text relevant to the student’s grade level.

                               • Mathematics: Students recognize and use proportional reasoning to
                                  solve real-world and mathematical problems. Students summarize
                                  numerical data sets in relation to their context, including reporting
                                  the number of observations and describing the nature of the attribute
                                  under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of
                                  measurement.

sunshine. Therefore, to understand the cycle of the         is this sequence of phases that this chapter helps
Moon’s phases, we must look at the relationship—            students to understand (Figure 4.2, p. 278).
in the course of a month—between the Earth, the
Moon, and the Sun.
                                                            The Surface Features of the Moon
   For example, when the Sun is shining on the
side of the Moon facing the Earth, we on Earth              In a very general way, the surface of the Moon
see the Moon lit up with sunshine—what we call              can be divided into two types of terrain, the dark
a full Moon. On the other hand, when the Sun is             round maria and the lighter highlands (Figure 4.3,
shining only on the side of the Moon facing away            p. 279). The word maria is Latin for “seas,” a
from the Earth, we see no reflected sunlight from           designation that dates from centuries ago when
the Moon—what we call new Moon. Between                     early Moon observers thought that the shadowy,
those two phases, we see some part of the side of           round regions were quiet, dark oceans. Today
the Moon facing us lit up and some part dark. It            we know the maria (pronounced “mar-ee-ah”)

                      EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                            277
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4

      FIGURE 4.2

      A diagram of the Moon phases showing the full Moon and new Moon

                                         First quarter

                                                Waxing

             Waxing                                      Waxing
             gibbous                                     crescent

           Full                                                New                                        Sun

                                            Earth

             Waning                                      Waning
             gibbous                                     crescent
                           Wa
                              n   in g

                                         Third quarter

                  The outer circle of Moon diagrams shows what is visible in the sky from Earth. The inner
                  circle of Moon diagrams shows what would be visible from space, looking down from
                  above the Earth­–Moon system.

      are where overlapping round impact craters                        The Moon is full of craters—depressions made
      were flooded with darker lava from beneath the                 when chunks of rock or ice hit the Moon and
      Moon’s surface. Maria is the plural of mare (pro-              explode with the energy of impact. Such explo-
      nounced “mah-ray”).                                            sions carve out a round hole in the surface of the
         The highlands get their name from the fact that             Moon roughly 10 to 20 times the size of the object
      they are at a somewhat higher altitude than the                that exploded. Younger craters tend to be brighter,
      maria. It is the contrast of the dark maria with the           as their impact exposes material that has not yet
      lighter highlands that has inspired many genera-               been covered by the darker Moon dust that blan-
      tions of Moon watchers to imagine that they can                kets so much of our natural satellite. You can see
      see familiar shapes on the side of the Moon facing             some large, young craters in Figure 4.3, including
      us, including a man in the Moon, a lady’s face,                Tycho and Copernicus (also see the "Lunar Map"
      two children, and animals (Figure 4.4).                        on p. 300). On good photographs of the Moon, you

278                                                                              NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                  Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
              TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth Together: Phases, Eclipses, and More

FIGURE 4.3                                                  FIGURE 4.4

A photo of the Moon with major features                     People imagine they can see various
labeled (see p. 300 for a larger version)                   faces and animals, such as a rabbit, in
                                                            the shapes on the Moon.

                                                            FIGURE 4.5
can see that the shapes of the dark maria all consist
of combinations of big craters that were made long          Rays from a crater on the Moon
ago when giant chunks of rock were still common
in the inner solar system.
   Depending on the size and nature of the explo-
sion that forms a crater, good-sized chunks of
exploded rock can be thrown sideways away
from the site of the explosion. When these pieces
fall, approaching the surface and scraping along
it before coming to a rest, they leave lighter
streaks along their paths. Called rays, some of
these features on the Moon can extend dozens or
even hundreds of miles from the original crater,
but they all point back to the original explosion
                                                            On this image of the Moon taken by the
that produced them. Rays from the crater Tycho
                                                            Clementine spacecraft, the bright crater Tycho
are easily seen on photos of the Moon that show
                                                            has rays coming out of it in many directions.
good detail (Figure 4.5).

                      EXPLORING SUNSPOTS, SEASONS, ECLIPSES, AND MORE                                          279
           Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
       TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
4

      FIGURE 4.6

      An illustration of the Moon’s orbit relative to the Earth and Sun

            Full Moon 1

             Moon’s location
             after an orbit of
             360º
             27.3 Days
                         Full Moon 2
                         29.5 Days

      It takes two extra days for the Moon to go from full Moon to full Moon compared with the time it takes to
      complete one full orbit (360°) of the Earth because the Earth is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, the Moon has
      to revolve more than 360° to get back in line with the Earth and Sun, which is required to see a full Moon.

      The Month and the Motions That                              phases of the Moon take about 29.5 days to repeat
      Define It                                                   (Figure 4.6). It is this cycle of repeating phases that
                                                                  has given its length to the unit of time we call the
      The Moon takes 27.3 days to orbit (revolve around)          month, a term that is based on the word Moon.
      the Earth—that is, to return to the same place rela-           The cycle of the Moon’s phases over 29.5
      tive to the stars. However, the Earth–Moon sys-             (roughly 30) days has been one of the fundamen-
      tem is also revolving around the Sun during that            tal elements of timekeeping in human history.
      time, which means that the relative position of the         Since the Moon is easy to see and remember, it is
      three bodies is slowly changing. This is why the            simple to keep track of the cycle. Many cultures

280                                                                             NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

                 Copyright © 2016 NSTA. All rights reserved. For more information, go to www.nsta.org/permissions.
             TO PURCHASE THIS BOOK, please visit www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9781941316078
You can also read