KINDERGARTENCURRICULUM LEARNING IN THE OUTDOORS The learning environment extends to the outdoors. A growing body of research suggests that connecting to the natural world contributes to children’s mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual health and well-being (Louv, 2005). Children’s natural curiosity and sense of wonder can be fostered by providing them with many opportu- nities to learn outdoors. The learning that takes place in classroom experiences can be explored in the “extend- ed classroom” that nature provides. Similarly, the natural environment can be reflected in the indoor learning environment.

Outdoor spaces offer valuable learning opportunities, and natural settings can inspire the kind of thinking, learning, leadership, and innovation that may be inhibited in children in the classroom but that, once revealed, can be incorporated back into the classroom environment. In the Kindergarten program, learning in the outdoors is included as part of the instructional day, and the edu- cators play an active role, engaging with children in an inquiry stance as they play, explore, and learn together outside the classroom.

(The Kindergarten Program, pg. 34) THE ROLE OF LEARNING IN THE OUTDOORS IN PROBLEM SOLVING AND INNOVATING Outdoor play also supports children’s problem-solving skills and nurtures their creativity, as well as providing rich opportunities for their developing imagination, inventiveness and resourcefulness. (Council for Learning outside the Classroom, 2009, p. 1) A rich integrated curriculum, the kind that needs the reality of the outdoors, serves children well. When we serve children well, we predicate a better future.

(Rivkin, 1995, p. 81)


PROBLEM SOLVING AND INNOVATING As children progress through the Kindergarten program, they: 1. communicate with others in a variety of ways, for a vari- ety of purposes, and in a variety of contexts 4. demonstrate an ability to use problem-solving skills in a variety of contexts, including social contexts 6. demonstrate an awareness of their own health and well-being 9. demonstrate literacy behaviours that enable beginning readers to make sense of a variety of texts 13. use the processes and skills of an inquiry stance (i.e., questioning, planning, predicting, observing, and commu- nicating) 14. demonstrate an awareness of the natural and built en- vironment through hands-on investigations, observations, questions, and representations of their findings 20. apply the mathematical processes to support the development of mathematical thinking, to demonstrate understanding, and to communicate thinking and learning in mathematics, while engaged in play-based learning and in other contexts 23. use problem-solving strategies, on their own and with others, when experimenting with the skills, materials, processes, and techniques used in drama, dance, music, and visual arts DEMONSTRATING LITERACY & MATHEMATICS BEHAVIOURS As children progress through the Kindergarten program, they: 1. communicate with others in a variety of ways, for a variety of purposes, and in a variety of contexts 9. demonstrate literacy behaviours that enable beginning readers to make sense of a variety of texts 11. demonstrate an understanding and critical awareness of a variety of written materials that are read by and with their educators 12. demonstrate an understanding and critical awareness of media texts 14. demonstrate an awareness of the natural and built en- vironment through hands-on investigations, observations, questions, and representations of their findings 20. apply the mathematical processes to support the development of mathematical thinking, to demonstrate understanding, and to communicate thinking and learning in mathematics, while engaged in play-based learning and in other contexts 21. express their responses to a variety of forms of drama, dance, music, and visual arts from various cultures and communities BELONGING AND CONTRIBUTING As children progress through the Kindergarten program, they: 1. communicate with others in a variety of ways, for a variety of purposes, and in a variety of contexts 3. identify and use social skills in play and other contexts 4. demonstrate an ability to use problem-solving skills in a variety of contexts, including social contexts 5. demonstrate an understanding of the diversity among individuals and families and within schools and the wider com- munity 25. demonstrate a sense of identity and a positive self-image 26. develop an appreciation of the multiple perspectives encountered within groups, and of ways in which they them- selves can contribute to groups and to group well-being 28. demonstrate an awareness of their surroundings 29. demonstrate an understanding of the natural world and the need to care for and respect the environment 31. demonstrate knowledge and skills gained through exposure to and engagement in drama, dance, music, and visual arts


SELF-REGULATION & WELL-BEING As children progress through the Kindergarten program, they: 1. communicate with others in a variety of ways, for a variety of purposes, and in a variety of contexts 2. demonstrate independence, self-regulation, and a willingness to take responsibility in learning and other endeavours 3. identify and use social skills in play and other contexts 4. demonstrate an ability to use problem-solving skills in a variety of contexts, including social contexts 6. demonstrate an awareness of their own health and well-being 7. participate actively and regularly in a variety of activities that require the application of movement concepts 8. develop movement skills and concepts as they use their growing bodies to move in a variety of ways and in a variety of contexts


LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS FOR CITIZENSHIP AND ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP As children’s sense of belonging and contributing develops, they begin to experience their role in relation to both community and place. Throughout their learning in Kindergarten and beyond, children are given opportunities to learn about what it means to be a responsible, active citizen in the community of the classroom and the diverse communities to which they belong within and outside the school. It is important for children to understand that they belong to many communities and that, ultimately, they are all citizens of the global community. Hand in hand with their experience of positive, caring, and respectful relationships, children develop an aware- ness of their connection to the world around them. When children have opportunities to make and maintain connections to others and to the world in which they live, they also develop a sense of place, which has a pro- found influence on their developing sense of identity.

Developing a sense of place and an awareness of our role and responsibility in caring for the planet and under- standing our impact on the places where we live, work, and play are consistent with the following fundamental principles of Indigenous education: 1. Learning ultimately supports the well-being of the self, the family, the community, the land, the spirits, and the ancestors. 2. Learning is holistic, reflexive, reflective, experiential, and relational (focused on connectedness, on reciprocal relationships, and a sense of place).

3. Learning involves recognizing the consequences of one’s actions. (First Nations Education Steering Committee, n.d.). Educators who bring Indigenous peoples’ environmental traditions into the classroom as contemporary ways of connecting with place, rather than as something from the past, enable children to develop relationships with the natural world that can enhance their sense of belonging and contributing. (The Kindergarten Program, pg. 49) ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Ontario’s education system will prepare students with the knowledge, skills, perspectives, and practices they need to be environmentally responsible citizens. Students will understand our fundamental connections to each other and to the world around us through our relationship to food, water, energy, air, and land, and our interaction with all living things. The education system will provide opportunities within the classroom and the community for students to engage in actions that deepen this understanding.

(Ontario Ministry of Education, Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow, 2009, p. 6) (The Kindergarten Program, pg. 103) Children’s relationships influence their well-being, development, and learning. Trusting, loving, two-way rela- tionships with adults and other children in their families and in the community are essential to early learning and to the sharing of knowledge from one generation to the next. Consistent, secure, responsive, and respect- ful relationships with caring adults are vital to children’s well-being. (British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2008, p. 15) (The Kindergarten Program, pc. 110) The principles of ELECT, as well as findings from recent research, highlight the importance of strong, respect- ful, and reciprocal relationships with families. Creating an environment that welcomes families into the space, inviting their perspectives and providing opportunities for families to participate in meaningful ways (that they are most comfortable with) on an ongoing basis, supports their sense of belonging. (The Kindergarten Program, pg. 112) (The Kindergarten Program, pg. 34)


MATHEMATICSCURRICULUM CROSS-CURRICULAR AND INTEGRATED LEARNING The development of skills and knowledge in mathematics is often enhanced by learning in other subject areas. Teachers should ensure that all students have ample opportunities to explore a subject from multiple perspec- tives by emphasizing cross-curricular learning and integrated learning. ACTIVITY #1 - THE BEEKEEPER Working bees (female bees) collect pollen and nectar for the hive. Pollen is used in the hive as a protein source during brood-rearing. The bees make honey from the nectar they collect from flowering trees and plants. Hon- ey is a pure food that will last forever.

Beekeepers use hives called supers that have frames for the bees to build combs for honey and for brood chambers. The Beekeeper places the hives where the bees can find flowering trees and plants. Hives should face south and be protected from the west winds. Bees need fresh water daily. Place water close to the hive. In the spring give your bee’s food in the form of Sugar Syrup (l kg of sugar to 500 ml of water) as available nec- tar is still scarce. Hives need to be visited weekly. During the summer the Beekeeper must visit the hives weekly and watch for swarming and over-crowding. Su- pers need to be removed when the cells have been capped over and extracting of the honey soon thereafter. New supers need to be added. The main harvesting of the honey is done from late summer to autumn. Pollen and Beeswax are also products that are produced by the honey bees and can be sold. Fall is the season when your queen bee’s egg laying is dramatically reduced, the drones begin disappearing and your hive population decreases.

Beekeepers take honey from the supers but leave the brood chambers in place. Honey stored in this part of the hive will see the colony through the winter. Bees will also need more Sugar Syrup in their feeders for the winter. Wrap your hives and narrow the opening so that a very small opening exists, but still allows for good ventilation. For resources and more information check out:


Equipment You Will Need to Become a Beekeeper Hive with supers and frames $200.00 Pollen Trap $15.00 Nucleus Colony – 4 frames of bees Stainless Steel with eggs, workers, and a laying queen $175.00 Smoker $30.00 Metal Hive Tool for Opening Hives $8.00 Bee Brush $7.00 Knife or Scraper to remove caps $5.00 Leather Gloves $20.00 Zippered Fencing Veil $20.00 Extractor $200.00 50 kg Honey Tank Stainless Steel $150.00 Strainer $35.00 Plastic Containers 1kg (each) .65 Glass Jar 1kg (each) .75 Winter Hive Wraps $17.50 Wax Melting Pot $125.00 Uncapping Tank $125.00 Extra Frames (each) $1.50 Sales Creamed Honey 1 kg $11.00 Liquid Honey l kg $11.00 Bee Pollen ½ kg $21.00 Beeswax Bar ½ kg $11.00 Suggested Questions Grade 1 Fold paper in four sections. Use both sides giving room to answer 8 questions. Draw 5 working bees and 1 queen bee. Draw 3 drone (male) bees.

Draw 1 beehive with 3 super boxes. Draw 4 honeycombs. Draw 5 plastic containers for creamed honey. Draw 7 glass jars of liquid honey. Draw 2 glass jars of Bee Pollen. Draw 8 bars of Beeswax. Grades 4 - 8 How much would it cost to become a Beekeeper? Grade 2 Show the previous work using numbers and pictures. Grade 3 Show the previous work using pictures, numbers and words to explain your answer. Total the cost of sale items. If you had 1 bee hive would you make a profit the first year? Explain with numbers and words. How many bee hives would you need to have the first year to pay for your start-up equipment? Explain with numbers and words.

How many bee hives would you need to have the first year to make a $500.00 profit for all your hard work? Explain with numbers and words. What would your profit or loss be the second year if you just kept one bee hive? Explain with numbers and words. If, you paid yourself $20.00 per hour for 2 eight hour days per week from April to the end of October, would you make a profit the third year with one bee hive? Explain with numbers and words.


ACTIVITY #2 - THE EGG FARMER Hens lay eggs when they are about 19 weeks old. After one year of laying eggs they are sold to processors for use as soup. A hen is born with many tiny yolks in her body. One at a time these yolks grow to full size and produce an egg. A hen can produce an egg every 24 hours. Hens need 16 hours of sunlight to produce an egg therefore in winter light must be added to the coop. Coop A coop contains nesting boxes, a place for roosting, and an attached fenced run. Cost $200.00 Food for Laying Hens First 6 weeks eat “Starter Feed” 25k bag $16.50 6 – 18 weeks eat “Grower Feed” 25k bag $14.28 18 weeks eat “Layer Feed” 25k bag $14.81 Hens need “Grit” small stones needed in their gizzard to grind food and make shells hard. Clean water One laying hen eats l00 grams (or half a cup) of feed per day. It cost 8 cents to feed one laying hen per day. Cost of Chicks and Hens For more resources: Day old laying hen $3.10 each 20 week old laying hen $9.85 each Cartons Egg Cartons .35 each Sale of Eggs 1 dozen large eggs $3.75 Suggested Questions Grade 1 Fold paper in four sections. Use both sides giving room to answer 8 questions. Draw how many eggs one hen will lay in 2 days.

Draw how many eggs one hen will lay in 5 days. Draw how many eggs one hen will lay in 7 days. Draw how many eggs one hen will lay in 12 days. It takes 12 eggs to make one carton of eggs. You had 12 hens. Draw how many cartons you get in 1 day. Draw how many cartons you get in 3 days. Draw how many cartons you get in 5 days. Draw how many cartons you get in 7 days. Grade 2 Use numbers and pictures to describe the previous work.


Grade 3 Change the number of hens and have students make up cartons of eggs and then sell each dozen for $3.75. Use pictures, numbers and words to explain your answer. Grades 4 - 6 How much would it cost to buy one dozen day-old chicks? How much would it cost to buy one dozen, 20 week old laying hens? How much does it cost to feed one laying hen for one week? How much does it cost to feed one dozen laying hens for one week? How many eggs will you get from one dozen laying hens in one week? If you have to pay for the feed and the egg cartons, how much would it cost you to keep the 12 hens for one week?

If you sell eggs for $3.75 a dozen, how much money will you receive? If you subtract your cost for the week, how much profit did you make on selling the eggs? How long will it take you to pay for the cost of the coop and the cost of the 12 laying hens? Grades 7 - 8 As the farmer is it better to buy 12 day old chicks? Why or why not? How much would it cost to keep the 12 chicks for the 20 weeks until they are ready to lay eggs? Which will give you the better profit, 12 day old chicks or 12-20 week old laying hens? Explain. How many eggs would each hen lay before it will be sent to market?

As the egg farmer pick your flock of hens and come up with a profit or loss statement for one year. ACTIVITY #3 - THE PIG FARMER Here are a few terms you need to know to get around a pig barn. Boar: adult male pig kept for breeding purposes Farrow: to give birth Feeder pig: piglet after it’s weaned from the sow Litter: group of piglets born at one time from the same sow Market Hog: pig raised for meat production, weighs up to 110 kg Piglet: newborn pig, weighs 1 – 2 kilograms Suckling Pig: piglet still getting milk from the sow Runt: smallest piglet in the litter Sow: adult female pig A pig farmer needs a warm place to house the pigs and a place to act as a nursery after the piglets are born. Sows can be bred by natural mating with boars or by artificial insemination. After breeding the boar must be separated from the sow into another pen. A sow’s gestation (pregnancy) lasts for approximately 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days. A piglet must have drops or a shot of iron within the first three days. The sow can have 8 – 12 piglets in a litter. A sow gives birth about twice a year. The area where the piglets sleep can be kept warm with a heat lamp. Sows nurse their piglets for two to four weeks, until the piglets (Suckling Pigs) are weaned from milk and can eat solid food. Sows usually rear 5 – 6 litters before they are removed from the herd. Once the piglets are weaned from the sow they are moved to other pens with piglets of the same size. They are now fed a mixture of corn, barley, soybeans mixed with vitamins and minerals plus lots of clean water. This pig feed can be bought as pallets or grown and mixed on the farm. These feeder pigs stay in the nursery until they weigh 25 kg, about 6 weeks.


Then the pigs are 25kg they are moved to the grower-finisher section and fed a mixture of feed 80% carbohydrates, (ground corn), 18% protein,(soy), a daily portion of fat and plant vitamins and two handfuls of vegetable mass like lettuce and beets and plenty of clean water with their meal. They stay in this area until they weigh 110 kg and become ready for market, when they are about 16 weeks old. A bag of Protein Pallets lasts one nursery pig 1 week. A bag of Pig Feed lasts 1 growing pig 1 week. Veg- etable can be leftovers from restaurants or grown on the farm.

Now to start your Pig Farm you will need: One Sow (thoroughbred) $200.00 One Boar (thoroughbred) $300.00 Pig Pen $100.00 each Metal Enclosure and fence $100.00 Automatic Water Trough $20.00 Feeding Trough $30.00 Heat Lamp and Tooth Nipper $15.00 Straw and Wood Chips for bedding $4.00 every two weeks Bag of Protein Pallets 20kg $8.00 Bag of Pig Feed 20kg $16.00 Suggested Questions Market Prices for the sale of pigs are: Whole Pig weigh 110kg $550.00 Suckling Pig $100.00 Plus killing and prep fee $60.00 Grade 2 Draw pictures and put dollar amounts beside each picture to show what you need to start a pig farm with one sow and one boar and feed the sow and the boar for 2 weeks.

Grade 3 Use pictures numbers and words to show what you need to start a pig farm with 2 sows and 1 boar and to feed the sows and boar for 2 weeks. Give a total amount to start the farm. Grade 4 – 6 How much money would you need to start a small pig farm with 3 sows and 1 boar? Cost of sow Feeding Trough Cost of Boar Heat Lamp and Tooth Nipper Cost of pig pens Straw and Wood Chips Cost of Metal enclosure and fence Bags of Protein Pallets 3 Automatic Water Trough Bags of Pig Feed You will sell the new pigs when they reach 110 kg in 4 months. Each sow will have two litters per year of 10 piglets. What is your profit or loss at the end of the first year? Second year? Remember in the second year you do not have to buy equipment. Grades 7 – 8 Start the same Pig Farm with 5 sows and 1 boar? You will sell half of each litter as Sucking Pigs and keep the other piglets to 110 kg. What is your profit or loss at the end of the first year? Second year?

For more resources :

ACTIVITY #4 - THE MAPLE SYRUP FARMER The Farmer needs a supply of Maple Sugar Trees that are at least 30 cm in diameter. Sap runs when the daytime temperature is above 0 degrees Celsius and the night time temperature is below 0 degrees Celsius. Sap starts to flow in March and runs for 4 – 6 weeks with 10 – 20 days of heavy flow. It ends when the nights are warm and the trees start to bud. Spiles need to be tapped into the tree around the end of February. A 1 cm hole drilled upwards, for the spile should be 60 cm to 120 cm above the ground, with a depth of 3.75 cm.

If the tree is 30 to 45 cm in diameter it will take 1 tap. If the tree is 48 to 63 cm in diameter it will take 2 taps. If the tree is above 65 cm in diameter it will take 3 taps. Collect the sap each day in a large plastic garbage can, on a very strong sled with an ATV or other means of pulling the sled. Sap bucket becomes very heavy so you may need to make several trips. You need 45 Litres of sap to produce 1 Litre of maple syrup. Each tap will yield 1 Litre of syrup per season. After the sap is gathered each day it is boiled to 104 degrees Celsius in pots or pans using wood from the bush. As the water evaporates the sap is changed into syrup. A hydrometer measures the density of syrup liquid to the density of water. When it gets to the proper Brix Scale (min. 66% in Ontario) the syrup is filtered to remove impurities and put into containers. All equipment should be cleaned using 1 part bleach to 99 parts water. Tri- ple rinse with clean water to avoid flavouring your syrup.

Bucket Method Bucket Plastic $6.00 each Covers $3.00 each Spiles $1.50 each Large Pot $50.00 Drill Bit 1 cm $16.00 Filter $16.00 Thermometer $30.00 Hydrometer $20.00 Large Garbage Can $30.00 Glass Bottle 1L $1.40 each Sales 1 L Maple Syrup $25.00 Suggested Questions Tubing Method Tubing 150 metres $64.00 Spile and Tee .70 each Drill Bit 1 cm $16.00 2 Garbage Cans $60.00 Evaporating Pan $1765.00 Sugar Pan $296.00 Thermometer $30.00 Hydrometer $20.00 Filter $16.00 Glass Bottle 1L $1.40 each Grade 1 Fold paper in four sections. Use both sides giving room to answer 8 questions. Draw 5 maple trees when they are ready to produce sap. (no leaves) Draw 7 spiles.

Draw 4 buckets for sap. Draw 1 long plastic hose. Draw 8 jugs of maple syrup. Draw 2 drills. Draw 3 filter bags. Draw 6 logs for the fire. Grade 2 Show the previous work using numbers and pictures. Grade 3 Show the previous work using pictures, numbers and words to explain your answer. Total the cost of any equipment and the sale of any syrup

ACTIVITY #4 - THE STRAWBERRY FARMER You will need 1 acre or 0.4 ha of sandy loam soil, a small tractor, a planter, a sprayer and a mower. Irrigation Systems and other Supplies A “Drip Tape Irrigation System” that is put in the ground before planting to provide fertilizer and water to the plants. An “Above Ground Irrigation System” to be used in case of frost on the blossoms. Herbicide to spray for weeds and Straw to cover plants in the winter. Cost $1500.00 Plant Strawberry plants in May of 2017. You will need 13,000 plants. Strawberries plants should be spaced 30 cm to 45 cm apart. Rows should be 1 meter apart. Cost of plants $2500.00 Labour Cost for Planting Five people working for two, ten hour days at $15.00 per hour. Harvest Strawberries in June of 2019.

Your land will yield 1100 flats of strawberries. A Container which includes the flat plus 6 boxes costs $3.00 per flat. Berries are picked every other day for 10 days. Labour Cost for Harvesting Six people working five, ten hour days at $15.00 per hour. Marketing Wholesale – Delivering to Stores Labour for Sales - One person works five, eight hour days at $15.00 per hour. Sales - $16.00 per flat Retail – Side of the Road Labour for Sales - Two people working five, eight hour days at 15.00 per hour. Sales - $24.00 per flat The Strawberry Plants will produce berries for three years. Suggested Questions Grade 1 Fold paper into four sections. Use both sides giving room to answer 8 questions. Draw a basket with 2 strawberries in it.

Draw a basket with 9 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 7 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 6 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 5 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 4 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 8 strawberries in it. Draw a basket with 3 strawberries in it.

Grade Two Using pictures and numbers add 2 berries to each basket on the first page and 5 berries to each basket on the second page. Grade Three Change the number of berries to baskets of berries and sell the baskets for $5.00 each. How much money will you get? Use pictures, numbers and words to explain your answer. Grade 4 – 8 What is your initial cost in the year first planted year? What are your labour costs for planting? How much will the containers cost for harvesting? What are your labour costs for harvesting? How much did it cost you to produce the strawberries? What are you labour costs for sell Wholesale? Retail? If you sell your strawberries Wholesale how much money will you receive? How much profit will you make if you sell the strawberries wholesale? If you sell you strawberries Retail how much money will you receive? How much profit will you make if you sell the strawberries retail? Is it better to sell your strawberries Wholesale or Retail? Why? Your Strawberry plants will produce fruit for three years. What is your total cost of expenses for the four years including the planted year?

How much profit will you make at the end of the four years?

SOCIAL STUDIES & HISTORY CURRICULUM “Social Studies instruction engages students in thinking about ideas, concepts, people, places, events and facts.” Mike Yell This curriculum is an inquiry process using Critical Thinking Skills. It develops students’ understanding of who they are, where they come from, where they belong, and how they contribute to the society in which they live. Goals of Social Studies Developing a sense of who I am, and who we are Goals of History ~Developing a sense of time~ Goals of Geography ~Developing a sense of place~ Where have I come from? What makes me belong? Where are we now? How can I contribute to society? Who are we? Who came before us? How have we changed?

What is where, why there, and why care? “Community Partners Community partners are an important resource for a school’s social studies, history, and geography program. Various partners can provide valuable support and enrichment for student learning. These partners may include conservation authorities; provincial and national parks; service providers such as fire departments and social service agencies; non-governmental organizations; museums and historical societies; First Nation, Métis, and Inuit friendship centres; veterans groups; cultural centres and other community orga- nizations; and businesses”. (Social Studies document, pg. 17) This curriculum is an inquiry process using Critical Thinking Skills. It develops students’ understanding of who they are, where they come from, where they belong, and how they contribute to the society in which they live.

GRADE 1 • Describe some of the ways in which people’s roles, relationships, and responsibilities relate to who they are and what their situation is, and how and why changes in circumstances might affect people’s roles, relation- ships, and responsibilities as well as their sense of self • Describe some aspects of the interrelationship between people and the natural and built features of their community, with a focus on how the features of and services in the community meet people’s needs • Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate some aspects of the interrelationship between people and different natural and built features of their local community, with a focus on significant short- and long- term effects of this interrelationship • Describe significant aspects of their community, with reference to different areas, services, and natural and built features, demonstrating an understanding of some basic ways of describing location and measuring dis- tance GRADE 2 • Describe some similarities and differences in the ways in which people in two or more communities in dif- ferent parts of the world meet their needs and have adapted to the location, climate, and physical features of their regions.

• Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate aspects of the interrelationship between the natural en- vironment, including the climate, of selected communities and the ways in which people in those communities live. GRADE 3 • Compare ways of life among some specific groups in Canada around the beginning of the nineteenth century, and describe some of the changes between that era and the present day. • Identify some of the communities in Canada around the beginning of the nineteenth century, and describe their relationships to the land and to each other.

• Demonstrate an understanding of some key aspects of the interrelationship between the natural environ- ment, land use, employment opportunities, and the development of municipal regions in Ontario. • Describe major landform regions and types of land use in Ontario and some of the ways in which land use in various Ontario municipalities addresses human needs and wants, including the need for jobs. GRADE 4 • Compare key aspects of life in a few early societies (3000 BCE–1500 CE), each from a different region and era and representing a different culture, and describe some key similarities and differences between these early societies and present-day Canadian society.

• Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate ways of life and relationships with the environment in two or more early societies (3000 BCE–1500 CE), with an emphasis on aspects of the interrelationship between the environment and life in those societies. • Assess some key ways in which industrial development and the natural environment affect each other in two or more political and/or physical regions of Canada. • Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate some issues and challenges associated with balancing human needs/wants and activities with environmental stewardship in one or more of the political and/or phys- ical regions of Canada.

GRADE 5 • Analyse some key short- and long-term consequences of interactions among and between First Nations and European explorers and settlers in New France prior to 1713. • Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate aspects of interactions among and between First Nations and Europeans in Canada prior to 1713 from the perspectives of the various groups involved. GRADE 6 • Assess contributions to Canadian identity made by various groups and by various features of Canadian com- munities and regions.

• Use the social studies inquiry process to investigate different perspectives on the historical and/or contempo- rary experiences of two or more distinct communities in Canada. • Demonstrate an understanding of significant experiences of, and major changes and aspects of life in, vari- ous historical and contemporary communities in Canada. GRADE 7 • Analyse aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713 and 1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present-day Canada.

HEALTHCURRICULUM HEALTH SUGGESTIONS - CANADIAN FOOD GUIDE GRADES 1 - 6 Visit these areas at the International Plowing Match and Rural Expo. Vegetable Display Grain Display Animal Food Products Fruit Display ARTCURRICULUM ART PROJECT SUGGESTIONS • Create a poster to advertise the 2018 International Plowing Match and Rural Expo (IPM 2018) Chatham Kent • Create a memorabilia poster or cartoon to commemorate IPM 2018. • Collect recycled materials and create a machine that you saw at IPM 2018. • Collect items and create a diorama telling about your day at the IPM 2018. • Have students create a square for a paper quilt of their day at the IPM 2018. • Create a still life composition of vegetables, fruits, and/or grains. • Create a cartoon sketch of your walk through IPM 2018. • Create a picture of the most interesting animal you saw at IPM 2018. • Create a drawing of something new that you learned about at IPM 2018. • Create a picture of what you liked best at IPM 2018. • Create advertisements to sell the products farmers produce on their farms (e.g., honey, maple syrup, eggs, meat, wool, fruits, vegetables, etc.) • Create a mural about your day at IPM 2018.

LANGUAGECURRICULUM CROSS-CURRICULAR AND INTEGRATED LEARNING Students need well-developed language skills to succeed in all subject areas. The development of skills and knowledge in language is often enhanced by learning in other subject areas. Teachers should ensure that all students have ample opportunities to explore a subject from multiple perspectives by emphasizing cross-cur- ricular learning and integrated learning. Their studies in the different subject areas help students develop their language skills, providing them with authentic purposes for reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and representing. LITERACY IN SOCIAL STUDIES, HISTORY, AND GEOGRAPHY.

Literacy is defined as the ability to use language and images in rich and varied forms to read, write, listen, view, represent, and think critically about ideas. It involves the capacity to access, manage, and evaluate infor- mation; to think imaginatively and analytically; and to communicate thoughts and ideas effectively. Literacy includes critical thinking and reasoning to solve problems and make decisions related to issues of fairness, equity, and social justice. Literacy connects individuals and communities and is an essential tool for personal growth and active participation in a cohesive, democratic society.

(Reach Every Student: Energizing Ontario Education, 2008, p. 6) Literacy instruction must be embedded across the curriculum. All teachers of all subjects … are teachers of literacy. (Think Literacy Success, Grades 7–12: The Report of the Expert Panel on Students at Risk in Ontario, 2003, p. 10) (The Ontario Curriculum 2013, Social Studies Grades 1 to 6 History and Geography Grades 7 and 8, pg. 48)

LANGUAGECURRICULUM THE SHEEP FARMER ACTIVITY Sheep are hardy animals. This means that it can survive in tough climates, like the cold or dry climates and feed on different types of grass. Sheep move around in large groups called flocks. They graze on fresh grass. In the olden days, a shepherd and his dog will watch over the flock. However, in modern times, some farms are so big that they have to go on horsebacks and motorcycles to herd them. The female sheep is called a ewe. The young are called lambs and the male is called the ram. Primary Writing Activity • KWL Chart completed before attending the Plowing Match and followed up based on information obtained from your excursion Junior Writing Activity • Research Project about sheep • Possible areas to explore: • Anatomy/Appearance: What does your animal look like? How big is it? What shape is its body? What does an average one weigh?

• Diet: What does a sheep eat and how does it get its food? Is it an herbivore (plant eater), carnivore (meat eater), omnivore (eating meat and plants), or something else? • Habitat and Range: What type of biome does a sheep prefer (does it live in the desert, swamp, tundra, deep sea, coral reef, tropical rainforest, pond, or other habitat)? Where in the world does it live? List the conti- nent(s), country/countries, and/or smaller areas that it lives in. • Life Cycle/Reproduction: Give information on a sheep’s life cycle and reproduction. • Behavior: Describe interesting features of a sheep’s behavior. • Defense/Offense: How does it defend itself (and/or attack other animals)? • Enemies: What animals eat or otherwise kill sheep? • Species Survival Status: Is a sheep a species that is in danger of extinction? If so, why? Has it lost habitat, lost a food source, or has it been overhunted?

• Something Special: Is there anything special about a sheep? 4H ACTIVITY 4-H came to Canada in 1913 where it found its first home in Roland, Manitoba. “Learn To Do By Doing” is the learning approach that 4-H clubs are focused on. Today 4-H Ontario has an expansive reach and can be found in communities all across the province; including rural, urban, and suburban areas. The 4-H program is still well rooted in a strong agriculture history but recognizes that everyone can benefit from the holistic and socially conscious approach 4-H takes to learning. Agriculture, food and the environment will always be an important part of the 4-H program, but Clubs that cover non-agriculture topics are also important to today’s youth. Youth in 4-H have the freedom and ability to tackle the issues that matter to them most; this makes the 4-H program unique and ever changing.

Primary Letter Writing Activity • Write a letter to a local 4-H club inviting them to come to your school to share what they are doing in their club and what 4-H is all about. Junior Letter Writing Activity • Research the history of 4-H with your class. • Write a letter to a local 4-H organization outlining your research of the history of 4-H and invite them to come and speak to your class to answer questions about the role of 4-H in your community.

SCIENCECURRICULUM GRADE 1 • Living things grow, take in food to create energy, make waste, and reproduce. • Plants and animals, including people, are living things. • Living things have basic needs (air, water, food, and shelter) that are met from the environment. • Different kinds of living things behave in different ways. • All living things are important and should be treated with care and respect. GRADE 2 • Animals have distinct characteristics. • There are similarities and differences among different kinds of animals. • Humans need to protect animals and the places where they live. GRADE 3 • Plants have distinct characteristics. • There are similarities and differences among various types of plants. • Plants are the primary source of food for humans. • Humans need to protect plants and their habitats. • Plants are important to the planet.

GRADE 4 • Soil is made up of living and non-living things. • The composition, characteristics, and condition of soil determine its capacity to sustain life. • Soil is an essential source of life and nutrients for many living things. • Living things, including humans, interact with soils and can cause positive or negative changes. GRADE 5 • Energy sources are either renewable or non-renewable. • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be transformed. • Choices about using energy and resources have both immediate and long-term impacts. • Conservation is one way of reducing the impacts of using energy and resources. (Visit Hydro One- Electricity Discover Centre) GRADE 6 • Because all living things are connected, maintaining diversity is critical to the health of the planet. • Humans make choices that can have an impact on biodiversity.

• Electrical energy can be transformed into other forms of energy. • Other forms of energy can be transformed into electrical energy. • Electrical energy plays a significant role in society, and its production has an impact on the environment. • Society must find ways to minimize the impact of energy production on the environment. (Visit Hydro One- Electricity Discover Centre) GRADE 7 • Ecosystems are made up of biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) elements, which depend on each other to survive.

• Ecosystems are in a constant state of change. The changes may be caused by nature or by human intervention. • Human activities have the potential to alter the environment. Humans must be aware of these impacts and try to control them. GRADE 8 • Water is crucial to life on Earth. • Water systems influence climate and weather patterns. • Water is an important resource that needs to be managed sustainably.

WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS The International Plowing Match and Rural Expo (IPM) offers educational experiences for students at every level and in a vast array of subject areas. Primarily it can be used to address the environmental education requirements established by the Ontario Ministry of Education. This vision for environmental education in Ontario is enunciated in Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our Future: “Ontario’s education system will prepare students with the knowledge, skills, perspectives, and practices they need to be environmentally responsible citizens. Students will understand our fundamental connections to each other and to the world around us through our relationship to food, water, energy, air, and land, and our interaction with all living things. The education system will provide opportunities within the classroom and the community for students to engage in actions that deepen this understanding.” Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our Future, p. 4 In Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow, 2009, the policy framework for environmental education in Ontario schools is clearly articulated: S T R AT E G Y 1 . 1 S T R AT E G Y 2 . 2 Increase student knowledge and develop Provide leadership support to enhance student skills and perspectives that foster engagement and community involvement. environmental stewardship Schools will Schools will: provide opportunities for students to acquire • work with parents, the school council, knowledge and skills related to community groups, and other education environmental education in all subject areas, stakeholders to promote environmental and encourage them to apply their awareness and foster appropriate knowledge and skills to environmental issues environmentally responsible practices; (e.g., loss of biodiversity, climate change, • enrich and complement students’ classroom waste reduction, energy conservation) learning by organizing out-of-classroom through action-based projects; p. 12 experiences and activities p.17 S T R AT E G Y 1 . 2 WHY BOOK A VISIT?

Model and teach environmental education A classroom visit to the IPM will provide through an integrated approach that opportunities for learning that are directly related to promotes collaboration in the development many secondary overall and specific expectations. of resources and activities. Schools will This field trip can add an exciting and authentic develop learning opportunities that will help dimension to any instructional approach. It also can students understand the underlying causes, be use as the framework for the cumulating task for the multiple dimensions, and the dynamic assessment. In particular it relates to the nature of environmental issues; p.14 environmental education expectations addressed in each curriculum area. The following is neither a complete nor an exhaustive list of the possible links between an IPM visit and subject expectations at the secondary level.


WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS THE ARTS “There are many opportunities to integrate environmental education into the teaching of the arts. Nature often provides an inspirational starting point for creativity in both representational and more abstract art forms. Indeed, a sense of connection to the immediate environment and the natural world is frequently reflected in the arts – from Paleolithic cave paintings of animals and traditional dances and performances that evoke aspects of nature to landscape painting and Impressionist music. To facilitate these connections, arts teachers are encouraged to take students out of the classroom and into the world beyond the school to help students observe, explore, and investigate nature, and to design activities that allow students to integrate natural materials into their creative works.” The Ont. Curriculum Gd. 9 & 10, The Arts 2010 p.35 DRAMA Grade 9 Open (ADA10) • identify ways in which dramatic exploration promotes an appreciation of diverse cultures and traditions • identify and describe skills, attitudes, and strategies they used in collaborative drama activities (e.g., brainstorming, active listening, and cooperative problem-solving skills; strategies for sharing responsibility through collaborative team roles) MEDIA ARTS Grade 10 Open (ASM20) • identify and describe ways in which media art works can influence community or societal values (e.g., the impact on their school community of a media art work on combating climate change) MUSIC Grade 9 Open (AMU20) • identify opportunities for and explain the benefits of ongoing involvement in musical activities and the arts community (e.g., research local cultural organizations, describe how they support music and other arts in the community, and explain the benefits of this support; list performance opportunities in their community, Grade 11, University/College Preparation, (AMU3M) • analyse ways in which traditional, commercial, and art music are a response to and reflection of the community or culture in which they were created • teacher prompts: “What are some of the songs associated with the environmental movement?” VISUAL ARTS Grade 9 Open (AVI10) • use exploration/experimentation, reflection, and revision when producing a variety of art works in each of the following areas: drawing, sculpture, painting, and printmaking (e.g. explore a variety of materials and/or techniques; reflect on the input of their peers; refine their art work on the basis of useful feedback) WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS

BUSINESS STUDIES “In all courses, consideration should be given to including student conferences, visits from a range of guest speakers with diverse backgrounds and experiences, and trips to local businesses. Students develop a better understanding of various aspects of the study of business when they can see and experience actual examples of what they are studying. Such experiences also give them a better appreciation of the unique features of the business communities that affect their daily lives.” The Ont. Curriculum Gd. 9 & 10 Business Studies 2006 p.20 BUSINESS STUDIES ECONOMICS Grade 9 Open Business (BBI10) The Individual and the Economy, Grade 11, • identify the four Ps (product, price, place, and University/College Preparation (CIE3M) promotion) and the two Cs (competition and • explain how the scarcity of economic resources consumer) of marketing and apply the concepts by requires individuals and societies to make economic developing a strategy to market a good, service, or choices event • explain, using specific examples, the economic problem of scarcity and the choices and trade-offs that Grade 11 Entrepreneurship (BD13C) individuals and societies must make • determine what land, buildings, capital, equipment, and services are required to operate the event Geomatics: Geotechnologies in Action, Grade • identify and describe the applicable insurance and 12, University/College Preparation (CGO4M) regulatory requirements that must be met (e.g., • analyse how geotechnologies are used in studying liability insurance, principal’s approval, permits, physical and human systems government registrations) • utilize geotechnologies in analyses of physical systems • determine the human resource needs (e.g., employees, (e.g., resource mapping, climate modelling, forest partners) mapping) • utilize geotechnologies in analyses of human systems (e.g., market analysis, route planning, precision farming, land use planning) SOCIAL STUDIES AND HUMANITIES FAMILY Food and Nutrition, Grade 9 or 10, Open STUDIES Food and Nutrition Sciences, Grade 12, (HFN1O/HFN2O) University/College Preparation (HFA4M) • categorize the reasons why people eat the foods they • identify the ways in which physical factors influence eat (e.g., cultural, emotional, environmental, food choices (e.g., geographical location, regional nutritional, religious, social) growing seasons, availability of food markets, home • identify consumer responsibility in the investigation of storage capacity) current food issues • plan menus for, select, and prepare foods, taking into consideration economic, geographical, and seasonal Managing Personal and Family Resources, Grade 11, factors that affect the availability of ingredients College Preparation (HIR3C) • identify the economic, political, and environmental • analyse how families are affected by global disparities factors that affect food production and supply in wealth and resources throughout the world • identify resources that influence the wealth or • identify the factors that are critical to achieving and poverty of communities and nations (e.g., natural maintaining food security and eliminating hunger resources, agricultural yield, education) • describe policies necessary to protect the health and • explain the impact that the availability of these safety of food producers (e.g., against the risk of resources has on family life contaminants), and to protect land and water quality, and biodiversity WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS

CANADIAN AND WORLD STUDIES “There are many opportunities to integrate environmental education into the teaching of Canadian and world studies. In all subjects of this program, students can be encouraged to explore a range of environmental issues. In the Grade 9 geography courses, students may investigate environmental issues relating to topics such as Canadian resource man- agement, population growth and urban sprawl, and the impact of human activity on the natural environment. Stu- dents also analyse the environmental sustainability of current behaviours and practices, explore ways in which envi- ronmental stewardship can be improved, and make connections between local, national, and global environmental issues, practices, and processes. In the Grade 10 history courses, students are able to explore various Canadian politi- cal policies and social movements related to the environment. In Civics and Citizenship, students learn that the re- sponsibilities of citizenship include the protection and stewardship of the global commons, such as air and water, on a local, national, and global scale. This course also provides opportunities for students to explore various environmental issues of civic importance.” The Ont. Curriculum Gd. 9 &10, 2013 p.46 HISTORY Grade 11, University/College Preparation (CGF3M) Canada: History, Identity, and Culture, Grade 12, • explain how the earth provides both a habitat for life University Preparation (CHI4U) and a resource for society • assess changes in Canada’s rural-agricultural and urban- • evaluate the impact of natural systems on people and industrial communities their activities • evaluate the changing economic and cultural • evaluate the impact of human life on the environment contributions of Canadian agricultural and resource- • explain the importance of stewardship and based communities (e.g., fishing villages, mining and sustainability as guiding principles for human use of the mill towns, Prairie breadbasket, oil sands) physical environment Travel and Tourism: A Regional Geographic GEOGRAPHY Perspective, Grade 11, Open (CGG3O) Geography of Canada, Grade 9, Academic (CGC1D) • analyse the social, environmental, cultural, economic, • demonstrate an understanding of the regional diversity and political effects of tourism-related development on of Canada’s natural and human systems -analyse local a community or region and regional factors that affect Canada’s natural and • evaluate the impact on travel and tourism of the plans, human systems – policies, and initiatives of governments, businesses, and • conduct an inquiry, using a variety of appropriate tools, other organizations into a current Canadian geographic issue (e.g., loss of farm land) Canadian and World Issues: A Geographic Analysis, Grade 12, University Preparation (CGW4U) Physical Geography: Patterns, Processes, and • analyse the impact of selected global trends on people Interactions, Grade 11, University/College and environments at the local, national, and global level Preparation (CGF3M) Understanding and Managing Change • analyse the sources and nature of energy flows through • analyse trends and predict changes in the human use of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the earth and its resources biosphere • evaluate the cultural, economic, and environmental • explain the physical processes that create landforms, impact of changing technology climate, soils, and vegetation WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS

SCIENCE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Science, Grade 9, Academic (SNC1D) Environmental Science, Grade 11, University/ • assess the impact of human activities on the College Preparation (SVN3M) sustainability of terrestrial and/or aquatic ecosystems, • analyse social and economic issues related to an and evaluate the effectiveness of courses of action environmental challenge, and how societal needs intended to remedy or mitigate negative impacts influence scientific endeavours related to the • assess, on the basis of research, the impact of a factor environment related to human activity (e.g., urban sprawl, • analyse, on the basis of research, social and economic introduction of invasive species, overhunting/ issues related to a particular environmental challenge overfishing) that threatens the sustainability of a (e.g., overfishing, deforestation, acid rain, melting of the terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem polar ice cap) and to efforts to address it • plan and conduct an investigation, involving both inquiry and research, into how a human activity affects Environmental Science, Grade 11, Workplace soil composition or soil fertility (e.g., changes to soil Preparation (SVN3E) composition resulting from the use of different • demonstrate an understanding of some of the ways in compostable materials, organic or inorganic fertilizers, which human activities affect the environment and how or pesticides), and, extrapolating from the data and the impact of those activities is measured and information gathered, explain the impact of this activity monitored on the sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems • explain common methods of sampling soil, water, and • demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic nature of air for analysis (e.g., soil core sampling, depth ecosystems, particularly in terms of ecological balance integrated sampling, stack sampling systems) and of and the impact of human activity on the sustainability of monitoring soil, water, and air quality over time terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems • compare and contrast biotic and abiotic characteristics COMPUTER SCIENCE of sustainable and unsustainable terrestrial and aquatic Grade 12, University Preparation (ICS4U) ecosystems Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability • assess strategies and initiatives that promote Science, Grade 9, Applied (SNC1P) environmental stewardship with respect to the use of • identify some factors related to human activity that computers and related technologies have an impact on ecosystems (e.g., the use of • outline strategies to reduce the impact of computers fertilizers and pesticides; altered shorelines; organic and and related technologies on the environment (e.g., conventional farming; urban sprawl), and explain how reduce, reuse, and recycle; turn computers and these factors affect the equilibrium and survival of monitors off at end of day; participate in printer populations in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems cartridge recycling) and on human health • investigate and report on governmental and community Biology, Grade 11, University Preparation (SBI3U) initiatives that encourage environmental stewardship • evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of and promote programs and practices that support plants to the growth and development of Canadian sustainability (e.g., local community recycling centres, society (e.g., as a source of food, pharmaceuticals, private companies that refurbish computers, printer Aboriginal medicines, building materials, flood and cartridge recycling programs) erosion control; as a resource for recreation and ecotourism) Biology, Grade 11, College Preparation (SBI3C) • assess the positive and negative impact of human activities on the natural balance of plants (e.g., crop rotation, the use of fertilizers and herbicides, the introduction of new species) WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS

Hospitality and Tourism, Grade 10, Open (TFJ2O) • explain the economic and social impact of the tourism industry (e.g., developing tourist facilities creates jobs; tourism can cause road congestion, pollution, and/or degradation of the environment; tourists bring money into the community) TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION Exploring Technologies, Grade 9, Open (TIJ1O) • demonstrate an awareness of the effects of various technologies on the environment • describe how various technologies (e.g., integrated pest management, water purification, mass transit, agricultural technologies, resource extraction) affect the environment, and identify important environmental considerations associated with different areas of technology (e.g., how to deal with ozone-depleting chemicals or hazardous wastes; how to increase opportunities for recycling, conservation, use of sustainable methods or materials) • identify technological solutions that have been designed in response to environmental concerns (e.g., catalytic converter, wind turbines, solar-powered signs, biofuels, nontoxic and hypoallergenic products, recyclable and reusable packaging) GREEN INDUSTRIES Green Industries, Grade 10, Open (THJ2O) • demonstrate an understanding of plant and/or animal biology and species classification as they relate to the green industries • describe the key distinguishing characteristics of different plant and/or animal groups (e.g., shrubs, trees, annuals, flowers, animal breeds) • identify the basic components of common plants and/or animals and describe their functions (e.g., leaves, flowers, bark, internal organs) • describe important physiological processes in plants and/or animals (e.g., germination, photosynthesis, reproduction, digestion) Green Industries, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (THJ3M) • distinguish between different plant and/or animal groups and identify them by key characteristics and desirable features (e.g., annuals and perennials; native and non-native plants; major types, species, and varieties of trees, shrubs, flowering plants, and crops; animal breeds) • identify geographical regions on the basis of classification criteria relevant to the green industries (e.g., forest type, hardiness, soil type) Green Industries, Grade 12, University/College Preparation, (THJ4M) • assess the economic importance of linkages between the green industries and related industries and technologies (e.g., agriculture: food processing industry, farm implement industry; horticulture: shipping industry, event-related businesses [funeral homes, wedding planners]; landscaping: recreational industries, small-engine industry; forestry: heavy equipment industry, paper-consuming industries such as newspapers) WHAT THE PLOWING MATCH OFFERS

1ère-8eannéeCurriculum (Sciences, Études sociales, Mathématiques et Langues) SCIENCES – DE GRANDES IDÉES 1ÈRE ANNÉE • Les objets vivants grossissent,absorbent delanourriturepour créerdel’énergie, produisentdesdéchetsetsereproduisent. • Les plantes et animaux, de même que les personnes sont des objets vivants. • Lesobjets vivantsontdesbesoinsde base (air,eau,nourritureetabri)quipeuventêtre comblés par l’environnement. • Différentes sortes d’élémentsvivants se comportent de différentes façons.

• Tous les éléments vivants sont importants et devraient êtretraités avec soin et respect. 2EANNÉE • Lesanimaux ont différents caractéristiques. • Il existe des similarités et des différences parmi les différentes sortes d’animaux. • Les humains doivent protéger les animaux et lesendroitsoùilsvivent. 3EANNÉE • Lesplantes ontdifférentes caractéristiques. • Il existe des similitudes et des différences parmilesespècesvariéesdeplantes. • Lesplantes sontlapremièreressource alimentairepourleshumains.

• Les humains doivent protéger les plantes et leurs habitats. • Les plantes sont importantes pour la planète. 4EANNÉE • Lesolestcomposédechosesvivanteset non-vivantes. • Lacomposition,les caractéristiquesetles conditions du sol déterminent ses capacités à soutenir la vie. • Lesolestunesourceessentielledevieetde nourriturepourdenombreuxobjetsvivants. • Les objets vivants, incluant les humains interagissent avec les sols et peuvent ainsi produire des changements positifs ou négatifs.

6EANNÉE • Puisque tous les objets vivants sont reliés entreeux,maintenirladiversitéestun élémentcritiqueaubien-êtredelaplanète. • Leshumainspeuventfairedeschoixquiont unimpactsurlabiodiversité. 7EANNÉE • Lesécosystèmessontcomposésd’éléments biotiques (vivants) et abiotiques (non vivants),quidépendentunsurl’autrepour leur survie. • Lesécosystèmessontdansunconstantétat de changement. Les changements peuvent êtrecausésparlanatureoul’interventionde l’humain.

• L’activitéhumainealepotentieldemodifier l’environnement. Les humains doivent être conscients decesimpactsettenter deles contrôler. ÉTUDESSOCIALES –DEGRANDESIDÉES 1ÈRE ANNÉE • Touslesgensméritentlerespectetcesans tenircomptedeleurrôles,relationset responsabilités. • Nos actions peuvent avoir un impact sur les caractères naturelsou construits d’une communauté,alorsilestimportantpour nous d’agir de façon responsable. • Une communauté est composée de différents endroits dont chacune a des caractéristiques et des dispositions qui lui sontspécifiques.

2EANNÉE • Comprendre la diversité qui existe dans les famillesetàl’intérieurdescommunautés nous amène à apprécier différentes perspectives. • Lestraditionsquel’oncélèbreaujourd’huise sontdéveloppéessurplusieursgénérations. • LeCanadaestcomposédedifférentes communautésquiontdestraditionset célébrations diversifiées. • Le climat et les particularités physiques d’unerégionontunimpactsurlaviedes gens de cette région donnée. • Différentespersonnessesontadaptéesà des climats similaires et des particularités physiques de façons similaires. 3EANNÉE • Les différentes communautés du début 19esiècleinfluencentnotremodedevie d’aujourd’hui.

• L’activitéhumaineaunimpactsur l’environnementmaisl’environnementa aussi un impact sur les activités humaines. 4EANNÉE • En étudiant le passé nous pouvons mieux comprendre le présent. • L’activitéhumaineetl’environnementontun impactunsurl’autre. • L’activitéhumainedevraitéquilibrerla gestion de l’environnement en rapport avec les besoins et les désirs des humains. 8EANNÉE Nous devons développer des communautés auto-suffisantes qui fonctionnent avec une considérationpourleslimitesdenotre environnement physique.

Laqualitédevieetledéveloppement économiqueautourdumondesont influencés par différents facteurs

MATHÉMATIQUES APPRENTISSAGEINTÉGRÉET TRANSDISCIPLINAIRE` Le développement des habiletés et connaissances en mathématiques sont souvent influencés par l’apprentissage de d’autres domaines d’études. Lesenseignants doivent s’assurerqueles étudiants ont de nombreuses opportunités d’explorerlessujets àpartirdedifférentes perspectives en mettant l’accent sur l’apprentissage transdisciplinaire et intégrée commesuit: Dans l’approche d’apprentissage transdisciplinaire,les étudiants se font offrir des opportunités d’apprendre et d’utiliser des contenusouhabiletésdedeuxsujetsouplus.

Les étudiants peuvent utiliser les concepts et habiletés des mathématiques dans leurs sciences ou leurs leçons d’études sociales. De façon similaire, les étudiants peuvent utiliser ce qu’ils ont appris en sciences pour illustrer ou développer la compréhension mathématiques. Àtitred’exemple,en6eannée,lesconcepts associésaupointd’appuid’unlevierpeuvent être utilisés pour développer une meilleure compréhension de l’impact qu’aura un changementdedonnéessurunemoyenne. Dans l’apprentissage intégré, les étudiants ont beaucoup d’opportunités de travailler vers l’atteinte d’attentes de deux sujets ou plus à l’intérieur d’une unité de travail,d’une leçon ou d’une activité. En créant des liens entre les attentes de différents sujets, les enseignants peuvent ainsi créer toute une multitude d’opportunités de renforcer et démontrer les connaissances et habiletés dansunéventaildesituations.Aussil’attente surleprocessusmathématiquesquicibleles connexionsencouragelesétudiantsàétablir desconnexions entrelesmathématiques et d’autres sujets.

ACTIVITÉSMATHÉMATIQUES L’APICULTEUR Les abeilles ouvrières (abeilles femelles) ramassentlepollenetlenectarpourlaruche. Le pollen est utilisé dans la ruche comme source de protéines pendant l’élevage des couvées. Les abeilles fabriquent le miel à partir du nectar qu’elles ont amassé des arbresà fleursetdesplantes. Lemielestune nourriture pure qui peut durer toujours. Les apiculteurs utilisent les ruches appelées hausses qui ont des cadres afin que les abeilles puissent bâtir des rayons et des chambres àcouvain. L’apiculteur place les ruches dans des endroits où les abeilles pourronttrouver des arbresà fleurset des plantes. LesruchesdoiventfairefaceauSud et être protégées des vents de l’Ouest.Les abeillesnécessitentdel’eaufraîcheà tousles jours.Ilfautdoncplacerdel’eaufraîchetout près des ruches.

Auprintempsondoitdonnerdelanourriture aux abeilles parce que le nectar est très peu disponible pour elles. Cette nourriture sera donnéesouslaformed’unsiropsucré(1 kgde sucrepour500ml d’eau).Lesruchesdoivent être visitées à chaque semaine! Pendant l’été l’apiculteur doit visiter ses ruches à chaque semaine pour surveiller l’essaimage etlasurpopulation.Leshaussesdoiventêtre enlevées lorsque les bouchons de cellules ont étéretirésafind’extrairelemielpeuaprès.De nouvelles hausses devront être ajoutées. Lacueillettedumielsefaitprincipalementà lafindel’étéetcejusqu’àl’automne.Lepollen et la cire d’abeilles sont aussi des produits fabriquésparlesabeilles etilspeuvent aussi être vendus.

L’automne est la saison où la reine des abeilles réduit considérablement sa ponte d’œufs. Les faux-bourdons (abeilles mâles) disparaissent et la population de la ruche baisse. Les apiculteurs prennent le miel des hausses mais laissent la chambre à couvain enplace.Lemielentreposédanscettepartie delarucheverraàassurerlaviedelacolonie pendant l’hiver. Les abeilles auront aussi besoin de plus de sirop de sucre dans leurs mangeoires pour l’hiver. La ruche doit être enveloppée et l’entrée doit être diminuée afin que l’ouverture soit très étroite mais adéquate pourunebonneaération.

Pour plus d’information visitez : Équipement nécessaire pour devenir un apiculteur • Rucheavechaussesetcadres200.00$ • Piègeàpollen15.00$ • Noyau dela colonie- 4 cadres d’abeilles (acier inox et œufs),abeilles ouvrièreset une reinereproductrice175.00$ • Enfumoir 30.00$ •Outildemétalpourouvrirlaruche8.00$ • Brosse à abeille 7.00$ • Couteau ou grattoir pour enlever les bouchons sur les cellules 5.00$ • Gants de cuir 20.00$ • Voilemoustiquairemunied’unefermetureéclair 20.00$ • Extracteur 200.00$ • Réservoiràmield’acierinox,50kg150.00$ •Passoire35.00$ • Contenants de plastique 1kg .65$ • Contenants de verre 1kg (chacun) .75$ • Enveloppements hivernal pour la ruch 17.50$ • Chaudronpourfairefondrelacire125.00$ • Réservoirpourenleverlesbouchonssur les cellules 125.00$ • Cadressupplémentaires(chacun)1.50$ • Ventes • Mielcrémeux 1kg 11.00$ • Mielliquide 1kg 11.00$ • Pollend’abeilles½kg21.00$ • Barredecired’abeilles½kg11.00$ QUESTIONS SUGGÉRÉES 1ère année Plier le papier en 4 sections. Dessiner 5 abeilles ouvrières et 1 reine des abeilles.

Dessiner3 abeilles mâles oufaux-bourdons. Dessinerunerucheavec3hausses. Dessiner 5 contenants de plastique pour le miel crémeux. Dessiner7 contenants de verreavec du miel liquide. Dessiner2contenantsdeverreavecdela cire d’abeille. Dessiner8 barresde cired’abeilles 2e année Démontrerletravailfaitci-hautenutilisant des nombres et des illustrations. 3e année Démontrerletravailfaitci-hautenutilisant des nombres et des mots pour expliquer vos réponses.Faitesletotaldesitemsvendus. 4e-8eannées Combien cela pourrait-il vous coûter de devenir un apiculteur?

Endébutantavecuneruche,est-cequevous pouvez faire un profit la première année? Veuillez expliquer votre réponse en mots et en nombres. Combienderuchesvousseraient-il nécessairela première année pour faire 500.00$deprofitpourtoutvotretravail? Veuillez expliquer votre réponse en mots et en nombres. Vous n’ajoutez pas de ruches pour la prochaine année,alors quel sera votre profit ou votre perte après la 2e année d’opération? Veuillez expliquer votre réponse et mots et en nombres.

Ensupposantquevousrecevez20.00$par heureetcepour2joursdehuitheurespar semaine pour votre commerce de avril à la fin octobre,ferez-vous un profit la 3e année avecuneseuleruche?Veuillezexpliquer votre réponse en mots et en nombres.

LES ACTIVITÉS DE L’AVICULTEUR Les poules pondent des œufs lorsqu’elles ont près de 19 semaines d’âge. Ces poules pondent des œufs pour un an et sont ensuite venduespourfairedelasoupe.Unepoulevientaumondeavecbeaucoupdepetitsjaunesd’œ ufsdansleurcorps.Unàlafois,undeces jaunesd’œufsgrossitjusqu’àmaturitéetproduitunœuf. Unepoulepeutproduireunœufàtoutesles24heures.Lespoulesontbesoin d’ensoleillement pendant 16 heures pour pouvoir pondre, alors en hiver elles nécessitent un éclairage artificiel pour continuer à pondre. LE POULAILLER • Lepoulailler contient des cages à poules,une place pour se percher et une cour clôturée.

NOURRITUREPOURPOULESPONDEUSES • 0-6 semaines,distribuez de la«Nourriture de démarrage»25 kg pour 16.50$ • 6-18 semaines distribuez leur de la «Nourriture pour la croissance»25 kg pour 14.28$ •18semainesetplusmangentdela«Nourriturepourlaponte» •Lespoulesontbesoindegravierdansleurgésierpourmoudrela nourritureetfairedebellescoquillesdurespourleurs œufs. • Une poule pondeuse mange 100 grammes (½ tasse) de nourriture par jour.

• Ilcoûte8sousparjourpournourrirunepoulepondeuse. LECOÛTDESPOULESETPOUSSINS Unepoulepondeused’unjour 3.10$ Une poule pondeuse de 20 semaines 9.85$ CARTONS Coûtducartond’œufs .35$ VENTE DES ŒUFS Une douzaine d’œufs 3.75$ Ressourcesgratuites: EXEMPLES DE QUESTIONS 1ère année Plier le papier en 4 sections Utiliser les deux côtés donnant ainsi place à répondre à 8 questions. Dessinelenombred’œufsqu’unepoulepondraen2jours.

Dessinelenombred’œufsqu’une poule pondraen 5 jours. Dessinelenombred’œufsqu’une poule pondraen 7 jours. Dessinelenombred’œufsqu’unepoulepondraen12jours. Ilfaut12œufspourrempliruncartond’œufsettuas12poules. Dessine combien de cartons tu auras complété en 1 jour. Dessine combien de cartons tu auras complété en 3 jours. Dessine combien de cartons tu auras complété en 5 jours. Dessine combien de cartons tu auras complété en 7 jours. 2e année Utilisez des nombres et des illustrations. 3e année Modifiez le nombre de poules and demandez aux élèves de faire des cartons d’œufs complets et de les vendre à 3.75$ pour la douzaine. Utilisez des illustrations, des nombres et des mots pour expliquer votre réponse.

4e-8eannées Combien serait le coût pour l’achat de poulet une douzaine de poulet d’un jour? Combien serait le coût d’une douzaine de poules pondeuses de 20 semaines? Combien coûtera-t-il pour nourrir une poule pondeuse pendant unesemaine? Combien me coûtera-t-il pour nourrir 12 poules pondeuses pendant une semaine? Combien d’œufsrécolteras-tuen1semaineavec12poules pondeuses? Si tu dois payer pour la nourriture et les cartons d’œufs, combien cela te coûtera-t-il de garder les 12 poules pour une semaine?Si tu vendsles œufsà 3.75$,combiend’argentferas-tu? Iltefautmaintenantsoustrairelescoûtsdelanourritureetdes cartons du montant total de tes ventes pour connaître ton profit. Quel est-il?

Combiendetempscelateprendra-t-ilpourpayerlepoulailleretle coût de 12 poules pondeuses? 7 e et 8e années Étant le fermier est-il préférable d’acheter des poussins de 12 jours? Ouiounon,expliquetonraisonnement. Combien te coûterait-il d’acheter 12 poussins et de les amener à maturité, soitjusqu’à ce qu’elles puissent pondre des œufs?Lequel deceschoixtedonneralemeilleurprofit,12poussinsd’unjourou 12poules pondeuses de 20semaines?

Combien d’œufs chaque poule aurait-elle pondu avant d’être vendueaumarché? Prétend que tu es un aviculteur (éleveur de poules pondeuses) et choisistespoulesoupoulets.Calculeensuitetesdépensespour une année.Complètetescalculsafin de pouvoir démontrer tes profits ou pertes de revenue pour une année complète.

ACTIVITÉ- FERMIERÉLEVEURDEPORCS VOCABULAIRESURLESUJETDUPORC Voiciquelques termes quevous aurezbesoin deconnaîtresivous désirezvous familiariser avec une grange où il y a élevage de porcs. Verrat:cochonmâleadulteutilisépourlareproduction Mettrebas:donnernaissance Porc d’engraissement : un cochonnet qui a cessé de boire après sa mère Portée : groupe de cochonnets qui sont nés de la même mère au même moment Porcpourlemarché:cochond’élevagepourlaventedelaviande au marché,peut peser jusqu’à 110 kg Cochonnet:cochonnouveau-né,poidsde1-2kg Cochon de lait: cochonnet quiboit encoresursa mère Avorton:pluspetitcochondelaportée Truie: la femelle porc,adulte Unéleveurdeporcsabesoind’unendroitchaudpourabriter les cochons et d’un endroit de naissance (pouponnières) où les cochonnetsnaîtront.

Les truies (femelle adulte du porc) peuvent être inséminées par méthode naturelle avec un verrat (porc mâle, adulte) ou par insémination artificielle. Après l’accouplement, la truie doit être séparée du verrat pour tout le reste de la période de gestation. Laduréedelapériodedegestationestapproximativementde3 mois,3 semaines et 3 jours. Lecochonnetdoitrecevoirdesgouttesdeferouunepiqûredefer dansles3jourssuivantsanaissance.

La truie peut avoir 8-12 cochonnets dans une seule portée. Une truie peut donner naissance deux fois par année. L’endroit où les cochonnets dorment dans la pouponnière peut demeurerau chaudgrâceà deslumièreschauffantes. Latruie peut allaiter ses cochonnetspour 2-4 semaines,jusqu’àce que les petits (cochons de lait) soient sevrés de leur mère et puissent mangerdelanourrituresolide. Lestruiesproduisentenviron5-6portéesavantd’êtreretiréesdu troupeau.

Unefois sevré,lesporceletssontchangés d’endroitsetsont placés avec d’autres porcelets du même groupe d’âge. L’éleveur les nourrit alors d’un mélange de blé d’inde, d’orge, defèvesdesoya,devitamines,deminérauxavecbeaucoupd’eau fraîche et propre. Cettenourriturepourlesporcspeutêtreachetéàlapaletteouêtre cultivé et mélangé sur la ferme. Ces petits cochons d’élevage demeurent à la pouponnière jusqu’à cequ’ilsaientatteintlepoidsde25kg,soit6semainesplustard.

Lorsquelesporcspèsent25kg,ilssontdéménagésdanslasection pourlesengraisseretcompléter leur croissance. Ils sont alors nourrit d’un mélange de nourriture à 80% hydrate de carbone (blé d’inde moulu), de protéines à 18% (soya), d’une portiondegrasetdevitaminesproduitdeplantesetdeuxpoignées de légumes tels que des laitues et betteraves,tout ça avec beaucoup d’eau propre pour accompagner leur nourriture.

Ils demeurent dans cet endroit jusqu’à ce qu’ils aient atteint le poidsde110kg. Ilssontalorsprêtspourlemarchéetilssontâgésde16semaines! Unsacdeprotéinessousformedepalettesestcequ’ilfautpourune semainedenourritureàunporceletàlapouponnière. Unsacdenourriturepourengraisseruncochon dureunesemaine. Les légumes peuvent êtredes déchets de table de restaurantsou cultivé sur la ferme. Prixdumarchépourlaventedeporcssont: Porcentier110kg 550.00$ Cochonaulait 100.00$ Abattageetpréparationdelaviande 60.00$ Pourdébuterunefermed’élevagevousaurezbesoinde: Lampe chauffante et coupe-dents 15.00$ Pailleetcopeauxdebois pourlit 4.00$ (aux2semaines) Sacdepalettesdeprotéines20kg 8.00$ Sacdenourritureàcochons20kg 16.00$ Une truie (femelle) pur-sang 200.00$ Un verrat(mâle) 300.00$ Unenclosàcochons 100.00$ Clôture de métal et barrière 100.00$ Abreuvoir à eau automatique 20.00$ Auge pour nourriture 30.00$

2e année Faites un dessin et mettez des montants de dollars prèsde chaque illustration pour démontrer ce dont vous avez besoin pour démarrer une ferme d’élevage de cochons avec un verrat et une truie que vousnourrissezpour2semaines. 3e année Utilisez des illustrations, des nombres et des mots pour démontrer ce dont vousavezbesoin pourdémarreruneferme d’élevageavec 2truies,unverrat,avecdelanourriturepourlestroisanimauxpour 2semaines. Donnezunmontantpourledémarragedecetteferme d’élevage.

4e-8eannées Combien d’argent auriez-vous besoin pour commencer une petite ferme d’élevage de 3 truies et d’un verrat? Coûtdel’augepourlatruie? Coût du coupe-dents et de la lampe chauffante pour le verrat? Coûtde l’enclosà cochons et de la paille et copeauxde bois? Coûtd’unenclosdemétaletclôtureet3sacsdeprotéinesen palettes? Abreuvoir à eau automatique et sac de nourriture de porc? Vous allez vendre les nouveaux cochons lorsqu’ils auront atteint lepoidsde110kgen4mois.Chaquetruieaura2portéesde10 porceletsparannée.Quelestvotreprofitouperteàlafindela premièreannée?Deuxièmeannée?Souvenez-vousquevousn’avez pas besoin d’acheter de nouvel équipement la seconde année. 6e-8eannées Vous débuter une ferme d’élevage de porcs avec 5 truies et un verrat. Vous allezvendrela moitié de chaque portée de cochons delaitetgarderlesautresporceletsjusqu’àcequ’ilsatteignent lepoidsde110kg.Quelseravotreprofitouperteàlafindela première année et ensuite deuxième année?

FERMED’ACÉRICULTURE - SIROPD’ÉRABLE Lefermierabesoind’érablesmaturesd’undiamètrede30cm. Lasèvecoulequandlatempératureestau-dessusde0degré Celsius etlatempératuredelanuitbaisseenbasde0degréCelsius. Lasèvecommenceàcoulerenmarsetcecisepoursuitpour4-6 semaines,tout en ayant 10-20 jours où ça coule abondamment. La cueillette de l’eau s’interrompt quand les nuits sont chaudes et que lesarbrescommencentàbourgeonner.

Lesarbresdoiventêtreentaillésàlafinfévrier.Le troudoitêtred’un centimètre, percé à 3.75 cm de profondeur et avec une inclinaison verslehautpouryinsérerlechalumeau.Cetroudoitêtrede60-120 cmdusol. Sil’arbreade30-45cmdediamètreçaprendraunchalumeau. Sil’arbreade48-63cm,ilpourraprendre2chalumeaux. Sil’arbrea 65cmetplusdediamètreilpourraprendre3 chalumeaux. Faitesla cueillette de la sève à chaque jour dans un groscontenant deplastique,surunelugetrèssolideavecuntout-terrainouautre moyen de tirer la luge efficacement.

Lachaudièred’eaud’érabledevientbienlourdealorsilsepeutque vousayez àfaireplusieursvoyages pourrecueillirl’eau. Vous nécessitez 45 litres de sève pour faire un litre de sirop. Chaque chalumeau peut te rapporter 1 litre de sirop par saison. Après que la sève soit ramassée chaque jour,elle est bouillie à 104 degrés Celsiusdans des pots et chaudrons tout en chauffant le feu avec des rondins de la forêt environnante.

Àmesurequelasèves’évapore,lasèvesechangeensirop. Unhydromètresertàmesurerladensitédusiropliquide comparativement à la densité de l’eau. Lorsquelesiropatteintlachaleur66%àl’échelleBrix(enOntario),le siropestalors filtrépourenleverlesimpuretésetilestvidédans des contenants. L’équipement est alors lavé en utilisant 1 partie de blanchissant pour 99 parties d’eau. Rinceraprèsabondammentàl’eau(3fois)pourqu’iln’yaitpas d’arrière-goût.

Méthodede lachaudière • Chaudière de plastique . . 6.00$ • couvercle . . 3.00$ • Chalumeaux . . 1.50$ • Gros chaudron . 50.00$ •Foretpourperceuse 1cm . . 16.00$ • Filtre . . 16.00$ • Thermomètre . . 30.00$ •Hydromètre . . 20.00$ • Grosse poubelle . . 30.00$ •Bouteilledeverre1litre . . 1.40$ Méthodedecueilletteavectubes • Tube de 150 mètres . . 64.00$ • Foretpourperceuse 1cm . . 16.00$ •Grossepoubelle . . 60.00$ • Filtre . . 16.00$ •Thermomètre . . 30.00$ •Hydromètre . . 20.00$ • Bassin d’évaporation . 1765.00$ • Casserolepourlesucre . . 296.00$ • Bouteille 1 litre . . 1.40$ • ChalumeauetTdejonction . 70$ Ventes 1litredesiropd’érable . . 25.00$

QUESTIONS SUGGÉRÉES 1ère année Plier le papier en 4 sections. Utiliser les deux côtés laissantsuffisamment de places pour 8 questions. Dessine5érableslorsqu’ellessontprêtesàproduiredela sève(sans feuilles). Dessine7chalumeaux. Dessine7seaux. Dessine une longueur de tube de plastique. Dessine8contenantsdesiropd’érable. Dessine 2 perceuses. Dessine3sacsàfiltrer Dessine 6 bûches pour le feu. 2e année Démontreletravailci-hautmentionnéenutilisantdesnombreset des illustrations.

3e année Démontrez le travail ci-haut mentionné en utilisant les illustrations, lesnombresetlesmotspourexpliquervotreréponse.Letotaldes coûtsdel’équipementdechaqueméthodeetlaventedesirop. LANGAGE APPRENTISSAGE TRANSDISCIPLINAIRE ET INTÉGRÉ Les étudiants ont besoin d’habiletés de langage bien développées pour réussir dans les différents sujets. Le développement d’habiletés et la connaissance du langage sont souvent renforcés en apprenant à partir de d’autres sujets.

Lesenseignants doivent s’assurerque les étudiants ont de nombreuses opportunités d’explorer un sujet à partir de plusieurs perspectives tout en accentuant l’apprentissage transdisciplinaire et intégrételqu’expliquéplusbas. Dans l’apprentissagetransdisciplinaire,les étudiants ont des opportunitésquileursontfourniespourapprendreetutiliserles contenus ou habiletés connexesdans deux sujets et plus.Àtitre d’exemple,les enseignants peuvent utiliser les lectures d’études sociales à l’intérieur de leurs leçons sur les langues tout en incluant des instructions sur comment lire du matériel non-fictif dans leurs leçons d’études sociales.

En mathématiques les étudiants apprennent à identifier l’informationpertinentedansunproblèmedemotsafindeclarifierce qui est demandé En sciences ettechnologie,ils regroupent du vocabulairespécifique àunsujet,interprètentdesdiagrammesetdesgraphiquesetfontla lecture des instructions qui ont rapport aux enquêtes et procédures. Touslessujets nécessitentqueles élèvescommuniquentcequ’ils ont appris à l’écrit et à l’oral. Leursétudes dansdifférentssujetset domaines aidentlesélèves à développer leurs habiletés de langage, en leur créant des raisons

L’ÉLEVAGE DE MOUTONS Les moutons sont des animaux robustes.Ceci signifie qu’ils peuvent survivredansdedursclimatstelsquelefroid,lechaudetsenourrirde différentessortesd’herbes. Les moutons circulent en groupes appelés troupeau.Ils mangent de l’herbe fraîche.Autrefois,dans l’ancien temps, un berger et son chien veillaient sur le troupeau. Par contre aujourd’hui certains troupeaux sonttellementgrosqu’ilfautunepersonneenmotocycletteoudes cavaliersàchevalpourlesrassembler.

La femelle porte le nom de brebis.Lesjeunes sont appelés agneaux etlemâle,lebélier. ACTIVITÉ D’ÉCRITURE DU PRIMAIRE TableauSVA(cequ’onsait,cequ’onveutsavoiretcequel’ona appris) complété avant de visiter le Concours de labours et ajouter de l’information supplémentaire suite à la visite. ACTIVITÉD’ÉCRITUREPOURLENIVEAUMOYEN Faireunprojetderecherchesurlesmoutons Endroitspossiblesàexplorer Anatomie/apparence : Quelle est l’apparence de votre animal? Combien gros est l’animal? Quelleestlaformedesoncorps?Combienpèseunmoutonde grosseur moyenne?

Diète:Dequoilemoutonsenourrit-il?Commentva-t-ilsenourrir? Est-il herbivore (mange des plantes), carnivore (mange de la chair) ou omnivore(mange des plantes et de la viande) ou quelque chose autre? Habitat et territoire :Quel type de«biome»le mouton préfère-t-il? «Biome»signifieunegrandecommunautédeplantesetanimauxqui occupent une région distincte. Les « biomes » terrestres sont définis parleurclimatetlavégétation dominante, prairie,désert,marécage, toundra forêt tropicale,récif de corail,étang,dans les forêts de conifères ou de feuilles caduques. Où dans le monde peuvent-ils vivre? Faites la liste des continents, pays et endroits plus petits où ils peuvent vivre. Cycledelavie/Reproduction:Donnerdel’informationsurlecyclede laviedesmoutonsetsurleurreproduction.

Comportement : Décrire d’intéressantes caractéristiques sur le comportement des moutons. Défense et offense : Comment se défendent-ils et attaquent-ils d’autresanimaux? Ennemis:Quelssontlesanimauxquipeuventtuerles moutonspour lesmanger? Le statut de la survie des espèces : Est-ce que les moutons sont menacés par l’extinction? Si oui, pourquoi? Ont-ils perdus leur habitat, leurs possibilités de nourriture ou sont-ils trop chassés? Quelquechosedespécial:Ya-t-ilquelquechosedespécialàpropos desmoutons?

ACTIVITÉ 4-H Laformationdugroupe4-HadébutéauCanadaen1913àRolandau Manitoba. « L’apprentissage par la pratique » est l’approche préconisé parleclub4-H.Aujourd’huileclub4-Hdel’Ontarios’estbienrépandu et peut être retrouvé dans de nombreuses communautés de la province et ce, incluant les régions rurales, urbaines et les zones suburbaines. Leprogramme4-H,ahistoriquementdesolidesracinesenagriculture maisreconnaîtlesbienfaitsd’uneapprocheholistiqueetsocialement consciente pour l’apprentissage.

L’agriculture, la nourriture et l’environnement seront toujours des éléments importants du programme 4-H, par contreles clubs qui couvrent des sujets qui ne sont pas reliés à l’agriculture sont aussi importants pour la jeunesse d’aujourd’hui.Les jeunes qui participent auclub4-Hontlalibertéetleshabiletéspouradresserdessujetsqu’ils considèrent importants; ceci fait en sorte que le programme 4-H est unique et en constante évolution.

ACTIVITÉD’ÉCRITUREAUNIVEAUPRIMAIRE–LETTRE Écrireunelettreàun club 4-Hlocalpourles inviteràvenir àtonécole afin de partager ce qu’ils font dans leur club et ce que le club 4-H représente. ACTIVITÉD’ÉCRITUREAUNIVEAUMOYEN–LETTRE Faitesunerecherchesurl’historique duclub 4-Havectaclasse. Écrire une lettre à un club 4H local en soulignant les points les plus importants de votrerecherche sur l’historique des clubs 4-H. Invitez ces gens à venir à votre école pour parler à votre classe et répondre à vos questionssurlerôleduclub4-Hdansvotrecommunauté.

DNA Extraction Needed: Ziplock bag (per pair) test tube (or similar sized container) (1 per person) 1 strawberry (per pair) Ice cold isopropyl rubbing alcohol (90% or better—pharmacy) 2 teaspoons DNA extraction buffer Wooden stick (eg. Bamboo skewer) Coffee filters (1 per pair) Black cardboard Funnels (1 per pair) Set of teaspoons DNA Extraction Buffer: Makes 500 ml (enough for 50 extractions) 450 ml water 50 ml Dawn dish washing detergent 1 teaspoon salt Setup: 1. In pairs, remove the sepals (green leaves) from strawberry. 2. Put strawberry in ziplock bag and crush it with your fist (1-2 minutes). Don’t poke a hole in the bag! 3. Add 2 teaspoons of DNA extraction buffer to the bag, remove all the air and zip it back up, and squeeze it with your hands for 1 minute. Crushing the strawberries breaks open many of the strawberry cells, where the DNA is. The soap in the extraction buffer breaks down the cell membranes and releases the DNA. The salt makes the DNA molecules stick together, and separate from the proteins that are also released from the cells.

4. Have each pair place a funnel in one of their test tubes. Place the coffee filter in the top of the funnel. Pour the strawberry-soap-salt mixture into the coffee filter. Filter the mixture into the tube. The filter will keep the cell debris and unmashed pieces of fruit. The DNA will pass through the filter and into the test tube. 5. Pour half of the mixture into the partner’s test tube so both people have a mixture. 6. Carefully and slowly, with the tube on a slight angle pour ice-cold isopropanol into the tube (roughly double the amount of DNA solution in the tube). The isopropanol will form a layer on top of the 7. Keep the tube still, at eye level. Do not shake it! Watch what happens. DNA is not soluble in alcohol, so it precipitates out. What you see are long, rope-like DNA molecules in the alcohol 8. Scoop out the DNA with the cocktail stick.

9. Spread the DNA out on a dark card and leave it to dry to create a DNA print. Once dry you should see a stringy, spider-web structure. Questions to ask: 1. What has DNA? (Answer ALL living things). 2. Do we eat DNA? (Answer—yes b/c everything we eat was living once). What is DNA? Stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is the blueprint for the construction of cells DNA molecules are shaped like a double helix or a twisted ladder Why strawberries? Strawberries are soft & easy to crush. Most interestingly, they have 8 copies of each chromosome—so there is A LOT of DNA in each cell! Did you know?

There are about 2 m of DNA in each of your cells?