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` Nov. 19, 1946..            C. wEsSEL                     - 2,411,176
                    METHOD OF MAKING METAL .CASTINGS
                     Original Filed Dec. 16, 1940      6 Sheets-Sheet l

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                        `METHOD OF MAKING METAL CASTINGS
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                                                                                      2,411,176
                 METHOD 0F MAKING METAL CASTINGS

                  Original Filed Dec. 16, 1940                                   6 Sheets-Sheet 3 y

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Nov. 19, 1946.                  c. wEssl-:L
                                                                  2.411,176
                       METHOD 0F MAKING METAL CASTINGS
                        original Filed~ nec. 1s, 1940        6 Sheets-Sheet 4

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                         METHoD oF MAKING METAL cAsTINGs
                          Original Filed Dec. 16, 1940

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                METHOD OF MAKING METAL CASTINGS

                 Original Filed Dec. 16, 1940 _   6 Sheets~5heet 6
Patented Nov. 19, 1946

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                                                      2,411,176
                                   mamon or               o inlener.. cas'rnvos.
                                 Cari Wessei, Uhicago,     ., assignor to Carl Wessel
                                  ` and Lew W. Gleminson, (Chicago, lll., trustees
                                 4Eontilnuaticn ci' application Serial No'. 370,344,
                                   Eiecemher lid, lädt). fll‘his application Septem
                                   her 23, i942, Seriali No. 459,893             `      ‘
                                              t cams. (ci. za-acti
                            il                                                              2
   1‘The present invention relates to methods oi y
  making metal castings.                                     ltherein is subjected to continuous pressure ofthe
                                                             head of metal in the ladle.                    .
    This application is a continuation of my prior
, application, Serial No. 370,344, ñled December 16,       .as the ladlehas a large body of molten metal
   i940, U. S. Patent No. 2,309,608, issued January g in    ity and- the mold has a relatively small amount
                                                         of metal in it and the mold is connected to the
  26, i943.                    ,          .       `

     Vlì’hile the present‘method of making castings      ladle at the discharge opening thereof, the out
  may be used lfor making all kinds of castings it       ermost part of the mold tends to cool ñrst and
  has been illustrated in connection with a mold         this   is also true of the casting in the mold.
  for making sludge or blanks which are to be           Very soon after the mold is fì11ed,‘or immediately
  drawn into metal containers.                      lo thereafter, cooling begins and there is a gradient
     The method according to the present invention      of temperature, the temperature decreasing from
  may be briefly characterized as follows:      '      -the   iilling opening of the mold to its outermost
     According to my method, any type of clean          parts. The casting cools from its outermost parts
  scrap or any other metal in ingot form that has       down toward the iilling opening, and as it‘cools
  heretofore been used for drawing may be used      l5  and   shrinks additional metal is supplied from the
  as raw material. The raw metal is ñrst melted         head of metal in the ladle until the shrinkage is
 in a furnace and poured from the furnace in a          all taken up and the metal casting in the mold
                                                        has congealed.                                  ‘
 heavy stream into a tilting ladle _so that it will
 contact a minimum amount of air.                          At   this time the supply of metal   to the mold
    Flame may be applied to the top of the liquid 20 is cut off at a relatively large sprue and the ladle
 metal in the ladle for the purpose of excluding       may -be tilted back, since the discharge opening
 the oxygen and maintaining »the metal and mold        is now closed, and the metal cannot run back
 at a predetermined temperature. As a general          out of the mold. 'I'he metal does, however, run
                                                       back from the closure at the discharge opening
 rule, `no special iluxes are needed, provided»,the 25 of
 metal was clean.            x               .
                                                           the mold.
    The ladle constructed according to the present        The4   next step comprises the cutting off of the
 invention is lined with a suitable refractory and     sprue or gate immediately adjacent the surface of
                                                       the casting, which produces a ilnished casting
 preferably so mounted that it may -be tilted, and < Without
. the mold is preferably secured directly to the la                any sprue that must be cut oiï after the
                                                         30 castings are removed from the mold.
 dle at a discharge aperture which is located above
 the free surface of the molten metal. '                      The mold may then be opened and the castings
   The mold may then alsov be preheated by the              removed, and Iby means of the opening of the
 application of ñame to an opening in the top               closure at the discharge opening of the ladle, :any
                                                            remaining molten metal in the large sprue is per
 of the closed ladle, the flame striking the sur 35         mitted to run back into the ladle. 'I'he conduits
 face of the metal and being deilected upward into
 the mold through the discharge opening of the `            in the mold leading to the actual cavities of the
 ladle. The discharge opening of the ladle into       mold are _then cleaned of their excess metal or
                                                      sprue,‘and the mold may again lbe closed after
 the mold is, of course, open at this time, and       removal of the castings for a recasting opera
 the ladle or mold is `preferably provided with` 4,0r tion.
 some means for opening‘and closing this dis            Slugs made according to this method are of
 charge opening.            -
                                                          , Vsuch uniform homogeneous crystalline structure
*_ The next step is the mung of the iadie »umn              that they do not need to be preheated before they
  the free surface of the molten metal passes ‘
                                                       are drawn into tubes or boxes. Such tubes or
  through the discharge opening into the mold, and 45 boxes   may be drawn from slugs made according
  the mold is preferably so arranged that the metal
` wells up into the mold from a filling opening 1o     to this method Without preheating` and Without‘
                                                     ` the diiiiculties which have .been encountered in
cated at the bottom of the mold, driving out the          the drawing of tubes from blank slugs punched
small amount of air which may be in the mold,             out of sheet metal. 'I'he -boxes made bythis
through the cracks between the mold parts.             50 method are practically perfect and the amount
  -The amount of molten metal in the ladle and             of rejections reduced to a small fraction of the
the amountl of tilt of the ladle is such that the «        percentage of rejections according to the meth
mold is not only filled, but there is a head of'metal Y ods of the prior art. »
in the ladleat a higher yelevation than the metal         The slugs made according to this method have
in the mold, and when the mold is full the metal 55 a smooth, bright surface, which may be im
,same planes as Figs. 8 and 9, showing the same
     mediately subjected to polish without any ma                 apparatus, with the parts in the position which
     chining or grinding, and as there are practically            they assume in the manipulation of the parts of
     no imperfections in the slugs, there are none to              the mold to cut off the sprue at the side ofl the
     be drawn out into imperfections in the tubes.                casting;                                     '
        It should' also be understood that the present                Figs. 12 and 13 are two views similar to Figs. 8
     method of casting is not confined to the making               and 9, showing the Darts after one side of the
     of slugs for tubes, but may be used for making                mold has been withdrawn and the mold opened
     castings of all kinds.                                        for access to the castings;
        Another object of the invention is the pro                 y. Figs. 14 and'l5 are two views similar to Figs.
     vision. of an improved method of making blanks                8 and 9, showing the parts of the mold after the
     fory drawing operations, by means of which the                open mold has beenemptied of its castings and
     blanks may be made of homogeneous crystal                     'of the sprue or excess metal remaining in the
     line structure without the imperfections that are
     found in the sheet metal slugs of the prior art,              conduits leading to the cavities;
                                                                      Fig. 16 is a diagrammatic view in perspective,
      and without the conditions of strain and tension             with the parts broken away to show the structure
      that are produced in the sheet metal slugs by                of the mold cavities and members which form
      the operations to which they have beenl sub                  .the conduit leading to the oavities,'and which
         jected.     ’       -           `

           Another object is the provision of' an improved           are adapted -to cut oiî the sprue;                    '
    I apparatus for casting by means of -whicn cast          20 L Fig. 1'7 is a view iti-perspective of one of the
                                                                     cast metal slugs or castings made according to
         ings having larger grain, softer metal. and more
         homogeneous characteristics may be made.                    the present method; ,
                                                                      v Fig. 18 is a view in'perspective of a drawn
           Another object of the invention is the pro                tubular box made from the slug l1 according to
         vision of an improved method of' casting by
         means of which the defects of> theprior art                 the present method;                                       _
                                                                       Fig. 19 is a fragmentary sectional view, taken
         methods, such as for example~ blow holes, inclu             on the plane of the line Isf-I9 of Fig. 4, looking
         sions, faults, cracks, and other defects are prac
                                                                     in the direction of the arrows.       .       '                 -
         tically eliminated._        `                                 Referring to Figs. 1'7 and 18, the slug shown
            Another object of the invention is the pro-I             in Fig. 17 is merely exemplary of one of the forms
         vision of an improved casting apparatus, which      ao      of small castings that may- be made according
         is adaptable to use in small plants and which is
         adapted to produce characteristics of a high de             to the present invention.
         gree ofl uniformity of crystalline structure and              It comprises a piece of metal, the shape in
                                                                     plan being the same as the plan shape of the
         uniform smooth outer surface adapted to be ' '
         polished.                                           35,     box or tubular member of Fig. 18. Thus it has
          . Other objects and advantages of the invention            four plane sides 2li, and the upper and -lower
          will be apparent from the following description            plane sides 2| and the corners are preferably
          and the accompanying drawings, in which similar            rounded at 22. À'I‘he opposite sides of the slug
          characters of reference indicate similar parts             _are parallel to each other and perfectly smooth
          throughoutythe several views.                         40   and plane.         .                              `

            Referring to the six sheets of drawings which               One of the characteristics of the castings made
          accompany this speciñcation,                                according to the present method is that the sides>
            Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a casting           >oi? the castings are so smooth that they may be
          apparatus constructed according to the inven                polished without any intervening` machining or
'    ‘    tion;
                                                                45    smoothing operations.   ‘     _                          « '

          « Fig. 2 is a fragmentary side elevational'view             v It should be understood, however, that this
          of xthe side which may be seen fromjthe left of             slug is merely exemplary of the many different
                                                              forms of castings that may be made, as I have
          Fig. .1;       .       ,            '
            Fig. 3 is .a top plan view of the casting ap      made table knives, spoons, forks, and many other
          paratus;                                         50 small articles according to the same method.
            Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view on a . f     I desire it to be understood also that aluminum
          larger scale, taken on the plane of the line 4_4    is merely lone of the metals which may beI
          of Fig. 2;               _      '         .
                                                                 utilized according to the present method.. and
             Fig. 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view,    that the invention is not limited in its use to
          taken on the plane of the line 5--5 of Fig. 4, 55 non-ferrous metals, but may be employed .for
          lookingin the direction of the arrows;          i      practically all ferrous and non-ferrous alloys and
             Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view      metals.
          taken on the .plane of the line 6--6 .of Fig. 4,           Referring to Fig. 1B, this is the container which
          looking in the 'direction of the arrows ;               is  formed from the blank of Fig. 17, and it is
             Fig. 7 is ' a diagrammatic vertical> sectional` 60 provided with a bottom 23, and the four plane
          view, taken on the plane of the line 1-1 of Fig. 3,     sides 24, the opposite sides again being parallel
          showing the complete apparatus as it appears            to each other, and the corners being rounded at
          after’the castings have just been completed:-           22. The box of Fig. 18 is formed according to
             Figs. 8 and 9 comprise` two -fragmentary sec         the usual methods of drawing such members
          tional views showing the condition of the cast          from metal blanks, except thatin the present>
          ing in the mold after the mold has been ñlled by        speciñc instance it is found that by means of
           tilting and after the mold and ladle have been         my cast metal slugs it is 'not necessar to anneal
           held in tilted position long enough for the metal - the metal or preheat it, as it was in making the
           to congeal and shrink in the mold, and to partially     tubular containers from the sheet metal blanks
           congeal in the conduit leading from the ladle.      70 of the priorvart. >      v              '       _ .

             Fig. 8 is a horizontal section taken on the same            I desire it to be understood also that the tuj
           plane as Fig. 4;                  '                         bular container'of Fig. 18 is merely exemplary~
             Fig. 9 is a vertical section taken -on the same _         of one form of receptacle or container ‘or’ drawnv i
           plane as F18. 6;                             .              metal member that may be made accordingto `
              Figs. 10 and 11 are two views taken on the 75 the present method..A The presentl methods may be ,j ' '
.             5                      l
                                                          anniv@
    utilized fol-‘making all kinds oi’ containers, such
   as kitchen utensils orother articles which may       is of substantial thickness, being substantially
   be made -by drawing processes.                       equivalent in insulation to the iirebrick layer 46.
     Referring to Figs. 1 to 3 and 7, all indicates the It is carried by any additional metal cover member
   casting apparatus in its entirety. This apparatus 6 53 of substantially disc'shape, which in turn is
   may have its parts further designated ascom          supported by a rectangular metal frame mem
                                                        ber 54, which may have a. vertical ilange 55 and
   prising the ladle 3i and the mold apparatus 32. ' horizontal
   The ladle 3i is preferably supported for pivotal                 ilange 56.
   movement upon a pair of bearing brackets 3,3,          The   rectangular  frame 54 may project beyond
   which may be identical in shape.           '                the cylindrical shell 53 at the four corners of the
     Each oi' these bearing brackets has the foot              rectangular frame member 54 and may be pro
   nanges 3c and the upwardly extending columns           vided with apertures in the horizontal flange 56
   35 suitably reinforced by reinforcing flanges 36,      foi-.receiving the elongated bolts 51, which ex
   and at its upper end the bearing bracket hasl a        tend to the` lower end of the metal shell 44 and
   horizontally extending socket 3l for receiving the 15 there pass through the radially projecting ears _58.
   be i i im: mâmbel‘ 33.                                   The bolts 51 clamp the upper frame 54 to the
      The 4bearing member 38 may be provided with        shell 44 and secure the cover members 52 and 53
   vertically extending trunnions 39 at the top and      in place. The cover member 52 is preferably pro
   bottoni.l and located in bearing apertures 40 so      vided with a. pair of tapered apertures or con
   that the bearing 38 is mounted for pivotal move       duits 58 and 68. The aperture ‘59 is merely for
   ment on a vertical airis, and is self-aligning with   application of heat by means of the name 6I from
   respect to the same bearing on the other‘             a gas burner 62, having an adjusting member 63
   bracket lili.                       >                 for determining the amount of air which is 'fed
                                                         into the noz‘zle e2 with the gas. _      _ _
     The ladle 3l is preferably pivotally supported
  on the brackets 3b by means of a centrally located 25   The gas burner t2 maybe secured by means of
  metal bearing band di, which has a laterally pro-     a bolt b4 to one of the vertical iianges 55 oi the
  jecting trunnion ¿l2 at each end, as shown in Figs.         rectangular frame 5i.        Conduit 59 tapers up
  l and 2. The trunnions d2 are rotatably mounted             wardly andv is arranged at one side of the con
  in the bearings 3b, which are aligned with suitable         tainer dd so thatthe flame bl may be directed in
  bearing metal at d3.                            `           wardly toward the surface b5 of the molten metal
    The band di embraces the sheet metal housing              iid-and be deñected upwardly into the conduit
  dit of the ladle, to which it may be secured by             bil, which is the discharge conduit leading to the
                                                              mold apparatus 82.      '
  rivets, welding, or any convenient method. The
  trunnions ¿i2 are preferably located substantially            Conduit 3b is preferably also provided with a
                                                              refractory lining   b1, similar to' the refractory lin-`
   midway between, the ends of the ladle, or slightly 35
   upward of the middle oi' the container so that               ing ¿i8 previously described. This conduit also
   when the ladle is empty and the mold apparatus              tapers upwardly to the discharge opening leading
   32 is attached, it is still held in upright position.        into the mold apparatus 32.
   When it is iilled with metal, the ladle tends to                The cover 52 is secured to the metallic cover
   maintain its upright position by virtue of its own 40 plate 53 by means. of suitable bolts which are
   weight and the weight of the metal in the ladle.            embedded in the ñrebrick cover 52 at some'     _ dis- ‘
  but it may be easily tilted because the apparatus            tance from the lower surface of the cover 52. The
  is in a condition approximating 'a balance.                  ñrebrick insulation of which cover 52 is made ex
     The ladle 3i consists of a member which has an            tends upwardly into an aperture 10 in the metal
  outer sheet metal shell, such as the jacket 44,              cover plate 53, and the refractory lining »61 ex
  carried by trunnions d2. Inside the metal jacket             tends upward into an aperture 'H in a guide plate
  44 there may be a layer of suitable insulation,              12 so that the conduit 60 is adequately insulated
                                                               against the transmission of heat.       '
  such as rock wool d5 or other temperature re
  sistant heat insulating material.                               The metal cover plate 53 preferably supports
     The ladle 3i has its next inner layer 46 made 50 the metallic guide plate 12, which is provided with
  of iirebrick or other suitable heat retaining and           the aperture 1I, registering with the discharge
  temperature resistant heat insulating material,             aperture 60.0f the ladle. The guide plate 12 (Fig.
  and the ñrebrick may be suitably spaced from the            6) comprises a flat metal member, which may
  metal shell 44 by spacer blocks 41 at the bottom ' , be of substantially rectangular shape, as shown in
  and sides ofthe shell.                                      Figs. 8 to 15, and provided with an upwardly pro-`
                                                          55 jecting border 13 surrounding three sides of the ,
    The spacer blocks 41 would also be made of the          ,hat surface or bed 14 of this guide plate. The
 same material as the iirebrick and would trans
 mit a minimum amount of heat through the rock               inner‘walls _15, 16 of this border (Fig. 14) act as
 wool 45 to the shell 44.                     ' .    -       guides for certain other parts, further to be de
    'I'he ladle has its innermost lining 48 made of 60 scribed, and the border 12 may be provided with
 suitable refractory material which is adapted to            apertures for receiving the screw bolts 11, which
 withstand the high temperatures to which this               pass through this guide plate and are threaded
                                                             into the metallic cover plate 53.
 lining is subjected by the molten metal and by the
 application of heat with llame. asillustrated in                The' mold apparatus 32 preferably includes an
Fig. '1.                                          '    '     upwardly extending frame, indicated in its en
                                                         65 tirety by the numeral 80. 'I'he frame 80 consists
    The shape of the container chamber 49 is pref
erably round when viewed in plan and tapering                of a pair of upwardly extending angles 8|, 82 at
from'the bottom toward the top, and the lower                the side of the machine in Fig. 1, and another
comers at 50 are preferably rounded so as to                 pair of similar bars 83, 84 at the opposite side.
facilitate cleaning ofthe chamber 49.               ` ` 70      These bars are bolted to the rectangular frame
   At its upper end the nrebrick lining 46 is pro            54   at their lower ends, and they are joined to
vided with a. cylindrical recess 5I for receiving           gether by auxiliary frame members 85, 86 at each
a removable cover 52, which may also be made of             side of the machine and by elongated frame mem
iìrebrick material.                          _              bers 81, 88 extending across the top of the frame
                                                            (Fig. 3).
. The cover 52 lits in the cover aperture 5| and 75
                                                              This provides a top frame which comprises the
2,411,176
  »                         7                                    the form of an insulating covering ||4, which isy
members 85, 88, 81, 88, supported by the columns    protected by a metal shell ||6 extending up the
8| to 84. The top frame may support a guide         side of these mold members under the top and
plate 90 (Fig. 2) similar in constructionto the     over the bottom thereof to a predetermined point.
guide plate 12 previously described, but oppositely   The bolts which secure -the brackets ||0 to
located.                 Í                          ||3 to the mold members pass through the shell
  'I'hls guide'plate also has a depending wall or   and insulation and may be threaded into the
border _9| which serves to guide the adjacent       mold members. These brackets ||0 to ||3 are
parts for sliding movement, but is open on one      preferably formed with an offset. as at ||8, for the
side, that is, the right side (Fig. 6). The mold 10 purpose of the size of the mold apparatus to the
may be indicated in its entirety bythe numeral      size of the guide plates and giving the mold ad
96.                                                    .          ditional support.                ‘
      Referring to Fig. 16, the main parts of the mold              The mold members 99, |00 may also be sub
comprise the oppositely disposed mold members                     stantially similar in construction, with a few ~
98 and 91, each of which is provide‘d with a plu-k                slight differences. Mold member 99 may com- ’
rality of cavities 98 and the two oppositely dis                  prise a bar of iron or steel or other suitable metal,
posed >members 99 and |00, which form the con
                                   cut oif the                    which is provided with the rectangular horizon
 duit to these cavities, and serve to                             tally extending ribs |01 at regularly spaced points
 sprue.                            -               Ñ              on each of its opposite sides and- projecting from-
    In addition to this, the mold has a pair of         the plane parallel surfaces |20, « | 2 | .        .
  doors, best illustrated at |0|, |02 (Fig. 8) and 20      The sides of the mold members 98, 91 also have
  other associated parts for controlling these mem      plane surfaces at |22 and |23 for' engaging the
  bers.                                                 surfaces |20 and |2|, respectively. At its inner
    The mold members 98, 91 may be similar'in           side the member 99 is provided with a longitu
  structure except that they are right hand and         dinally extending substantially hemicylindrical
  left hand members, as disposed in the drawings.  25
                                                        groove |25.             '                           y
    As a matter of fact, if the member 91 is               This groove has such a diameter that it leaves
  «turned end for end, it will be seen to be sub        a, plane surface or rib formation |28, |21 at each
  stantially similar to member 96. Each of these      ‘ side of the groove on the inner face. Rib forma--l
. members and all of the main parts of the mold         tions |26, |21 are formed with the Plane Surfaces
  ’may be constructed of suitable metal of sum 30 |29 at their inner ends, registering with what may
 ciently high melting point in relation to the metal              'be called a. filling slot |29 leading t'o the filling
 to be used for the castings, so that it will with                 aperture |08 of the mold cavities 98.              ' '
 stand the heat without damage. For example,             The mold member |00 is similar in shape to
 the present molds may be made of iron or steel,       the member 99, previously described, but is op
                                                    35
 when used for aluminum slugs, and the interior. - positely disposed, and it is also adapted to fit
 finish of the mold is, therefore, very smooth, for    against the adjacent sides of the molds, as it has
 the purpose of producing a casting of finished        ribs |01 for sliding in the grooves |08. It also'
 characteristics.                      ,         .     has the mold filling grooves> |29, a part of which
   `Each of the members 96, 91 comprises a vbar of 40 may be seen at Fig. 16. The mold members 99
  metal, having a plane face` |03, >which is formed                and. |00 may meet at a, point between the front
  with a multiplicity of the cavities 98 comple                    and back of the mold cavities.
  mentary in shape to the slug, which is shown in                    The guide plates 12 and 90 are adapted to slid
  Fig. 1'1. One of the larger planel faces of this ,               ably support an additional pair of mold plates
  slug is arranged in the plane of the surface |03                 |30, I3I, one located at the top and one. at the
      of the mold so that it will be formed by means of            bottom of the mold assembly. The mold plates
      the plane surface |04 on the door |0| or |02.              » |30, |3| may be substantially similar in structure,
        The mold member 98 is provided with a ñlling               except the mold plate' |3| has a tapered filling
      aperture |05 at one side of the cavity 98, and the aperture |32, which registers with the refractory
      filling aperture preferably communicates with a 50 lined conduit 80 at the top of the ladle, while the
      transverse slot |08, which is rectangular in cross mold plate |30 is imperforate, being located at
      section and just as wide as the filling aperture              the top of the mold. Each of these plates is of
      |05 from top to bottom.                  .           Y        sufßcient width to nt in between the side walls
       - The slots or grooves |08 are adapted to receive            |35, |38, |31, |38 on the upwardly and down
   the regularly vspaced transverse ribs |01, which 55 wardly projecting borders of the guide plates 12
   are locatedv on the mold members 99» and |00.
   These ribs |01 are also rectangular in cross sec       and 90.
                                                             The platesl |30, |3| »may also be formed
   tion and have an accurate smooth i‘lt in the           with the depending border |40.,and the upwardly-
    grooves |08. They are of such length,on the           projecting border |4| for the purpose of provid
    member 99, for example, that they leave a `small      ing a guide for other mold parts. These border
    aperture at |08, which is actually the ñlling aper    members |40, |4| also extend around three sides
    ture of the moldcavity.                     _         of the plates like those of plates 12'and 90, but
       In other words, the ribs |01 partially close'the    the plates are oppositely disposed, having what
    aperture |05, previously mentioned. The molds          would be called _their open side extending in the
    96 and 99 are viixedly secured to the framework
    in vertical position, parallel to each other, and 88 opposite direction from the open sidevof the plates -
    spaced from each other sufiiciently so that the        90 and 12.v
                                                             The thickness of the plates |30, |3|, seen in
    members 99, |00 can slide between the molds 98,        Fig. 5, is such that there is a clearance between
  ` 91, with the ribs |01 in     the grooves |06.
                                                           these plates and the mold members 98, 91 at |42
       Thusv the mold members 98, '91 are secured at „70‘» (Fig. 5). The space between the side walls |43
     the bottom by means of brackets ||0, ||| to the     y and |44 (Fig. 5) of the plates |30 and |3| is such
     guide plate 12. At the top these mold members         that the rectangular ends‘of the members 99, |00
     are similarly secured to the guide plate 90 by , may be iixedly secured or slidably mounted bc
     means _of brackets || 2, | |3.     ‘                  tween these side walls |43, |44. Thus the mold
       These metal mold members are preferably
       provided with heat insulation, which may take '75 member |00 (Fig. 6) may be iixedly secured to
2,411,176
    the plate |3| and plate |30 at the bottom and top                                    10                    "
    of the mold assembly by means of the screw bolts            is tilted the free surface 65 of the metal 66 in the
                                                                ladle would well up into the mold.
    |45 which pass through the plate and are thread- _
    ed into the mold member.                                       when the casting operation is to be begun", the '
                                                                parts are in the position of Figs. 7 and 8.‘ 'I'he
      Thus the mold 'member moves with the plates               ladle cavity 49 is ñlled with a charge of clean
    |30 and |3| at all times,` and for the purpose of           metal, which has been kept from‘exposure to the
 ‘ actuating these members the member |00 is pro
                                                                     air as much asV possible. The tilting of the ladle
        vided with a thrust plate |46, which is secured
        to it by screw bolts |41, and which has a socket             3| caused the metal 66 to well'up into theA conduit
        |48. An actuating screw |49 has its end in the 10 bers       60 and into theconduit |25 formed by the mem
        socket |48 and is provided with a groove |50 of                    99, |00 between'the molds 96 and 91. From
        circular cross section, which registers with a
                                                                     the conduit . |25, it passes laterally through the
      similar groove |5|.                  '                -
                                                                     apertures |29, |08 into each of the cavities`98,
                                                                    the cavities filling by the gradual rising of the _
          A circular wire |52 (Fig. 4) bent to annular
      shape, and located in the'grooves |50, |5|, may 15 out        free surface of the metal in these 'lcavities'with
      hold these parts together, but permitrotary mo                      any splashing or exposure to air other than
                                                                    that which is in the cavities.                    _
      tion Ibetween the screw |49 and thrust plate |46.                The moldV cover plates or doors |0|, |02 fit
       - Wire |52 may be forced in through a tangential
      aperture. Screw |49 (Fig. 4) extends through                  quite closely against the molds 96 and 91, but the
      an internally threaded member |53 constructed 20 there        air may still escape through the cracks, although
                                                                            is substantially no nn formed on the cast
      like a follower, but fixedly secured to the ver- .
      tically extending bars 63 and 84 by screw-bolts               ings,  due  tothe close iit of the parts of the mold.
      | 54. Handle |55 permits the screw shaft to be                'I'he ladle is'then tilted .back to the vertical po
     rotated and causes the mold member |00 to move
                                                                    sition shown in Fig. 7, and due to the cooling of
     back and forthas desired, in Fig. 6. In this mo 25 looks      the metal the‘metal in the mold and conduits
                                                                           as it is shown in Fig. 7.       ’ `
     tion it carries with it the plates |30, |3|, which                The   manipulation   of the  mold  is then as fol
     are guided by the plates 90 and 12. i            l
                                                                   lows: Referring to‘Figs. 8 and 9, it will be ob
         'I'he mold member 99 is slidably mounted be               served that the parts are shown here in the posi
     tween the walls |43, |44 of the plates- |30, |3|,             tion of Fig. 7. The cavities are all nlled and par
     its movement being limited by the mold member 30 tially congealed, 'and a small amount of metal is ,
     |00 and by the abutment at |60.           l
                                                                   congealed in the conduitl |25, but the molten
         This mold member may be provided with a pair              metal at the center runs back into the ladle.
     of rearwardly projecting lugs' | 6| for engaging                 The next step is the turning of the stop `cam
    the cams |62 carried by cam shafts |63, which '                shaft |63 by means of lever |66 from the position`
    are rotatably mounted in the bearings |64, |65, 35 of Fig. 8 to that of Fig. 10, establishing               a1 diner
    and adapted to be actuated by lever | 66 (Fig. 10).
    The cams |62 are adapted to provide a variable - f ent stop position for the member 99'. The screw
                                                                  shaft handle |55 may then be rotated in a clock
    abutment for limiting the movement of the mold                wise direction to cause the member :|00 (Fig. 10)
    member 99 toward the right in Fig. 6. i '
                                                                  to move toward' the right ,from the position of
         The-mold doors |0|, |02_ are best illustrated in         Fig. 8. Member |00 is secured to theI guide plates
 ' Figs. 8 to 15 and Fig. 4. The main bodies of each
    of these doors comprise -a bar of the same metal ‘
                                                                   |30 and |3|, which move with it, andthe member
                                                                  99 also moves toward the right by the pressure
1 as the rest of the mold and of substantially rec                of the member |00 against it. The turning of the l
    tangular cross section. These bars of metal ñt) . screw‘is continued until members 99 and |00 are
    against the plane surfaces |03 of the molds 96, 91 45
                                                                  stopped by the engagement of the lugs |6| with
    and close the cavities 96- on that side. The doors           v-the cams |62, as shown in Fig. 10. This motion
    |0|, |02 are provided with upwardly and down                  has caused the member |00 to shear olif the sprue
    wardly extending trunnlons |10, the trunnlons                 at a point immediately adjacent the side of the
   being rotatably mounted in bearings carried by                 casting, by means of the cutting edge of the ribs
                                                                                                                      e

   the guide plates 90 and 12.
                                                              50 |01 in the grooves |06. In this action the con
        'I'he oppositely facing edges of these doors ‘~|0|,       duit |25 in the mold members 99 and |00 has
    |02 are also provided with the slots |1| (Fig."12)            also been placed slightly off registry with the
   of rectangular cross section for permitting the                conduit 60 in the ladle, as seen in Fig. 11.,
   sliding of the ribs |01 on the mold members 99,                   The next step is the withdrawal of the mem
   |00 (Fig. 16).        '
                                                              55 ber |00 by means of the screw shaft | 49 and han
        The metal bodies of the doors |00, |0| are               dle |55, bringing the parts in thel position of Figs.
   preferably provided with a layer of insulation at             10 and 11 to that of Figs. 12, and 13. 'I‘his move
   |12, covered by a metal shell |13 secured to the              ment of the mold member .|00 ‘draws with itthe
   doors |0|, |02 by screw bolts, and the shell |13 is           lower plate | 3| and cuts `off the vertically ex
   curved around the trunnlons |10 so as to permit 60 tending sprue at the aperture |32 (Fig. 13).
   suitable clearance between the doors and the
   mold members 96, 91, so the doors may open'to                     In addition, the member |00 is wholly with
  the position shown in Fig. 12 from that of Fig. 8              drawn from between the doors |0‘|, |02, so there
  for removal of the castings.               `   „               willbe no longer any .binding‘between the adia
      The operation of the mold is illustrated in Figs. 65 cent sides> of thegdoors, and the _- member |00,
  'l to 15. The mold is secured in Fig. '1 in ver                and the doors may then be pivotally opened from
  tical position on the top‘of the ladle 3|. 'I‘his              the position of Fig. 10 to that `of Fig. 12.
  is satisfactory in the present case because the                    The castings may then be removed from the
filling conduits are so large that the metal ad- ^ cavities, and the hollow sprue |15 (Fig. 12) may
vances in a solid stream without any splashing.     be removed ,from the groove I|25 in the member
                                                 70 99, where it stands, and the parts are ‘then in the
  In other embodiments of the invention, where Y
large castings are made, the mold would be tilted        position as shown in Figs. 14 and 15,~when the
toward the left, for example, in Fig. `'1, at an angle ' cam |62 may be turned back to the position oi'
to the top of the ladle, such as, for example,           Fig. 8 and lthe mold closed again to the position
thirty or forty-live degrees, so that as the .ladle 76 of Fig. 8, to beused again.       l      -\ -
                                                           My method lof making castings is-as-follows:
2,411,176
                                                                    ,      .       ,   '   l‘12'    '   >   ,

y ` The ladle 3l and the mold are preheated byv               removed from the mold. This is done while the
                                                 - , parts are in the position of Figs. 12 and _13.
    means of the' gas burner 62 »until they have       Thereafter the castings are taken out imme
  y, reached approximately the temperature at which _         diately, the Iparts being again placed inthe posi#
   the molten'metal is to be kept. The ladle is then         . tion of Figs. 14 and 15 within a very short time
   filled with a charge of metal, which is made by            after the ladle and mold have been tilted back
   melting down clean scrap or other metal'in'ingot
                                                              to vertical‘position‘.                                    '
   form. This may be any metal which has so far                 At this time the castings are still very hot. and -
   been used for drawing and extruding. and the>              such shrlnkage'as takes place during the congela
   melting may bev done ina furnace where the                  tion of any part of the casting is taken -up by the
   vmetal may be cleaned and skinned offv so that it         ‘ supply of additional metal from the head of metal
   will be clean in the ladle.      1                          which is impressed upon the mold cavities. By
     It is poured in the ladle in such manner as to            removing the castings from the mold immediately
   reduce the contact between the air and metal to             after they> have congealed, any additional shrink
   a minimum, such as the pouring in a large
                                                               age may take place without inducing any undesir
   stream.'                             ,
      Thereafter, the preheating of the mold may be            able strains because the casting is not held by
   completed by the application of the gas flame ,I            any mold, nor, is there any contract-ion or strain
   through the aperture 59 into engagement with~               brought upon the casting by shrinkage of the
   the metal which deñects it up into the mold.      _         sprue.
                                                               Castings made according to the present inven
       With the `parts of the _mold in the positions 20.tion have a smooth surface, which may be imme
    which they assume in Figs. 7 and 8,-the mold is        diatelyv subjected to a polish, and therefore many
    tilted toward the right on its trunnions 42, and
    the free surface 65 of the metal gradually pro         articles which 'may be made by casting can be
    gresses up the conduit 60 and conduit [25 in a         manufactured    with 'a minimum amount ofy labor.
   solid stream in such manner that the molds are 2.5 a remarkably smooth finish without necessity for
                                                           Knives. forks, spoons, 'and other tableware' show
    filled without _any splashing or any contact with       any machining or other smoothing operations ex
    air other than that which happens to be in'the             cept polishing.              `   '               -   -       '
    ladle or in the mold cavities.-           , .' ï         ' The slugs which are ~made according to the pres
       The amount of` oxygen in this air is reduced to4
    a minimum on account of the application ofthe 30 ent method have smooth surfaces without defects. y
                                                           -There are practically no inclusions or faults or
    flame, which carries products of combustion~ up         cracks, and consequently'the slugs are perfectly
     into thevconduit |25 and tends to drive out _the       adapted to the drawing of the tubular boxes which
    all'.                 ‘                  -   ‘

        When the mold has been filled, the ladle may        are shown in Fig. 8.                            "
    be immediately tiltedv back, and it is found, as a  35      The grainof the metal is large and the metal a'
    matter of practice, that this tilting operation             is easily worked, and it is> not-'necessary to pre
    -may be accomplished quite quickly with hardly              heat the metal for drawing Purposes; but it may
    any hesitation, as the mold fills immediately, and          be drawn cold into containers or members of all
    the metal begins to congeal in the mold, begin             ' different sizes and shapes.                                    ~
    ning at a point farthest from the filling openings, v 40      As distinguished from the tubular members
    and maintaining a gradient of heat', the temper             which were made out of blanks that -came from
                                                              sheet metal, the drawing may be accomplished
    ature increasing from the remotest part of the            with my blanks without laboring of the machin
    mold to the flllin'g opening.                    . l
         This is also true down to the metal in the ladle,    ery, as the metal is much more )easily worked.
      which has the highest temperature of any metal 45 Furthermore,         the large percentage of defective
                                                              boxes, which result from the methods of the prior
      in the assembly because the metal in the ladle is       art, is not present according to my method, as
      the source of the heat for the metal in themold;        practically all of the tubular members are per- f
      and the mold, being more remote from the ñame,          fect. There is a large saving in the cost be
      is necessarily cooler than the metal in the ladle,
    - particularly after the mold has been filled.         50 cause clean scrap or ingot metal is much cheaper
         While the mold is being filled and the metal is      than the sheet metal of which the blanks were
      congealing, the metal shrinks in the mold cavi          made according to the prior art.
                                                                 In the castings made according to the pres
      ties, but the shrinkage is taken up by the pres          ent invention approximately fifty per cent vof
      sure of metal caused by the head of metal in the          the sprue runs back ‘into the ladle so that this .
       ladle,r which is above all of the cavities, when the 55 effects a large saving'in the remelting of metal
       mold is fully tilted.        -                     ‘
       ` Thus the free surface 6_5 of the metal may com
                                                              j due to the fact that the sprue is hollow and thin.
    l -pletely cover the discharge opening 60 inside the           One of the most important features of the
       ladle chamber 49 when full tilting is ` reached.         inventiony is the location of the mold at a pre
       When the ladle is tilted back to vertical position,      determined angle so that the metal wells up in the
     ' as shown in Fig. '1, congelatlon has taken place         mold without splashing or spurting. The action
                                                              , ls merely a uniform raising of the level from the
        in the mold' cavities, shrinkage has been taken
        up, and congelation has partially taken place in        lower part of the mold.
        the conduit |25, so that something likea >tube is          Another` important feature of the invention is
        formed, the metal running back out of the hol           the  provision of a filling opening for the mold,
                                                                which is commensurate with the size of the mold
     ‘low tube into the ladle 3l.-                               cavity.
        .The next step is the cutting off Aof the sprue of         Insome embodiments of the invention, such as
      each slug or casting immediately adjacent the              the casting of metal plates, the opening of the
      side surfaces of the casting. This is accomplished
    Q by means ofthe mechanism of the molds by mov             o, mold may extend across the full cross-sectional
      ing the parts from the position ofk Figs.                   area of one end of the mold. This is to be care
                                                                , fully distinguished from methods in which there
      to that of'FigsJlO and 1l.                                 isa small opening in which the metal would spurt
     „ î,flx‘heznext step is the Vcompletecutting off of the4 - ` up into the mold instead of welling up gradually
      'larger'tubular sprue and the opening of the molds 76 according to the present method.
       so that the castings and Àdetached sprue may "ne
2,411,176      i
                       '   13
                                                                     l                14               „      .
     In other embodiments of the invention the ñll           the mold cavity, and promptly removing the cast
   ing opening of the mold does not necessarily              ing from‘its mold after congelation to permit
   cover the whole cross-sectional area, but it is a         furtherl shrinkage of the casting `without restraint
   relatively large opening for filling the mold and         of the mold or sprue.                                '
   always located at the lowermost corner or p0r               3. The method of casting, comprising main-_
   tion of the mold.                  -       ~
                                                             taining a supply of molten metal in a closed ladle
     According to my method, no part of the melted    having a mold with its filling opening applied
  metal is separated from the compact stream of       directly to said ladle, maintaining a neutral at
  melted metal Welling up into the mold. ‘ Any liquid mosphere in‘said container by projecting a flame
  metal which has separated from this compact 10 into said container to engage the ñlling opening
  stream surrounds itself immediately with oxygen .« of said mold, filling said mold with molten metal
  and will not fuse again in the mold to make a       from said container by causing the molten metal
  homogeneous structure.        The arrangement       to ñow upward from the ñlling opening located
  should be such as to provide an uninterrupted
                                                       at the bottom of the mold and maintaining a
  stream of metal of large cross-sectional area 15 gradient of‘heat in said mold and casting dimin-`
  passing uniformly into the mold.                     ishing from the filling opening of said mold to
     While I have illustrated a preferred embodi
                                                       ward the remote parts of said mold whereby the
  ment of my invention, many modifications may be      casting congeals from the remote parts of said
  made without departing from the spirit of the        mold  toward said filling opening while- metal is
  invention, and I do not wish to he limited to the 20 being supplied under pressure to take up the
  precise details of construction set forthybut de     shrinkage of metal in the mold, and separating the
  sire to avail myself of al1 changes within the scope mold and the casting promptly after congela
  of the appended claims.
    Having thus described my invention, what I         tion in order to permit the free contraction of
  claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
                                                            the casting in the subsequent cooling thereof.
                                                       25     4. The method of making castings which com
  ent of the United States is:                              prises maintaining a supply of molten metal in a,
    1. The method of casting which comprises
  maintaining a supply of clean molten metal in             substantially closed and heat-insulated container
  a substantially closed container having a mold            having a mold attached directly to said. container,
                                                        maintaining a neutral atmosphere in. said con
 I' provided with `a ñlling opening applied directly 30 tainer by projecting a ñame in said container to
 to a discharge opening of said containen'main              engage the free surface of the metal and to be
 taining a neutral atmosphere in said container             deñected backward into the mold, and tilting
 by projecting a flame in said container in suchv
 manner _as to heat sai-d iilling opening, causing          said container and mold until the metal wells up
 said molten metal to ñow upward from the illling           ward into the mold from a filling opening located
                                                            at the bottom of the mold to form a casting.
 opening .located at the bottom of the mold in a
 substantially solid stream into a mold cavity With           5. The method of making castings which com
 out splashing, maintaining a heat gradient from            prises maintaining a, supply of molten metal at
                                                             predetermined temperature in a substantially
 the extreme portion of said mold cavity to the
 supply of metal whereby the casting congeals at 40         closed and heat insulated container having a mold
 its remotest part ñrst and at its ñlling opening           attached directly to said container and communi
                                                            eating with said container through a filling open
 last, and supplying additional metal to the mold           ing, projecting a flame into said container to en
 cavity while shrinkage and congelation takes place         gage the free surface of the metal and to be de
 by means of a head of metal impressed upon the             ilected backward into the illling openingßof the
  mold cavity, the -mold being made of another 45 mold to maintain a neutral atmosphere and effect
  metal of higher melting point, whereby the cast        a heating of the filling opening of the mold, tilt
  ings may be polished without intermediate              ing said container and mold until the metal wells
  smoothing operations, and cutting off the sprue        upward in a solid stream without splashing or
  of the casting immediately adjacent the side of
  the casting promptly after congelation of the 50 separation from the ñlling opening located at the
  metal in the mold cavity.                              bottom of the mold into the mold to fill` the mold,
    2. The method of 1casting which comprises            and thereafter impressing a gravity head of metal
                                                         in the ladle on the metal in the mold while the
  maintaining a supply ofclean-molten metal in a        metal in the mold cools and solidiñes from all
  substantially closed container having a mold pro      sides inward toward the center of the casting
  vided with a ñlling opening applied directly to a 55 and toward the -ñlling opening to provide addi
  discharge opening of said container, maintaining      tional metal to take up shrinkage during the con
  a neutral atmosphere in said container by pro         gelation of the casting.
 jecting a flame in sai-d container in such manner         6. The method of making castings which com
 as to heat said filling opening, causing said molten i prises maintaining a supply .of molten. metal at
 metal to flow upward from the filling opening 60 predetermined temperature in a substantially
 located at the bottom of the mold in a substan         closed and heat insulated container having a mold
 tially solid stream into a mold cavity without         attached directly to said container and com
 splashing, maintaining a heat gradient from the        municating with said container through a illling
 extreme portion of said mold cavity to the supply      opening, projecting a ñame into said container to
 of metal whereby the casting congeals at its re 65
 motestpart ilrst and at its ñlling opening last,       engage the free surface of the metal and to be
                                                        deñected backward into the filling opening of the
 and supplying additional metal to the mold cav         mold to maintain a neutral atmosphere and ef
~ity while shrinkage and congelation takes place        fect a heating of the ñlling opening of vthe mold,
by means of a head of metal impressed upon the ,        tilting> said container and mold until the metal „
mold cavity, the mold being made of> another            wells upward in a solid stream without splashing
metal of higher melting point, whereby the cast         or separation from the filling opening located at
ings may be polished without intermediate               .the bottom of the mold into the mold to ñll the
smoothing operations, cutting otî the sprue of the      mold, and thereafter impressing a gravity head
casting immediately adjacent the side of the cast       of metal in the ladle o_n the metal in the mold
ing promptly after congelation of the metal in          while the metal in the mold cools and solidi?es
2,411,176 ’
                       15                 l                    .            ,   16                `

                                                       tilting said container and mold until the metal
from all sides inward toward the center of the         wells upward in a solid stream without splashing
casting and toward the filling opening to `pro         or separation from the filling opening located at the
vide additional metal to take up shrinkage during
the congelation of the castinß, and cutting oil the    bottom of the mold intothe mold to illl the mold,
sprue of the casting immediately adjacent the          and thereafter impressing'a gravity head of metal
face of the casting while the casting is in the         in the iadle on the metal in the mold while the
mold, after the casting has congealed to the point    - «metal in the mold cools and solitliiïles4 from all
o! cutting.                                      .
                                                       sides inward toward the center of the casting and
  7. The method oi’ making castings which com          toward the filling opening to provide additional
prises maintaining a supply of molten metal at 10 metal to take up shrinkage during the congela
predetermined temperature in a ` substantially         tion of the casting, and cutting of! the sprue of
closed and heat insulated container having a mold      the casting immediately adjacent the face of the
attached directly to said container and communi        casting while the casting is in the mold, after the
cating with said container through a filling open-v ,
                                                       .casting has congealed to the point of cutting, and
ing. projecting a' dame into said container,- to en 15 promptly   removing the casting from the mold to
gage -the free surface `oi the ~ metal and to be       permit the casting to cool Aand shrink without
 detected backward into» the illling opening of the    consti-aint of the mold after removal oi’ the sprue.
 mold to maintain ‘a neutral atmosphere and ef                                         CARL weisser..
-tect a heating of the filling opening of the mold,
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