HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA

 
HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN
            2018-2019
   Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA

                   April 2018
HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ABBREVIATION/ACRONYM                                   DESCRIPTION
AFASA                  African Farmers’ Association of South Africa
AFSTA                  African Horticulture Trade Association
AGOA                   African Growth and Opportunity Act
AgriSETA               Agricultural Sector Education and Training Authority
APAP                   Agricultural Policy Action Plan
ARC                    Agriculture Research Council
ATI                    Agricultural Training Institute
ATR                    Annual Training Report
BMI                    Business Monitor International
CoS                    Centres of Specialization
DAFF                   Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
DHET                   Department of Higher Education and Training
DRDLR                  Department of Rural Development and Land Reform
DTI                    Department of Trade and Industry
FETMIS                 Further Education and Training Management Information System
GDP                    Gross Domestic Product
GMO                    Genetically Modified Organisms
HEMIS                  Higher Education Management Information System
HTFVs                  Hard-to-fill vacancies
HSRC                   Human Sciences Research Council
ICAC                   International Cotton Advisory Committee
IDGP                   Integrated Growth and Development Plan
IDP                    Integrated Development Plan
IPAP                   Industrial Policy Action Plan
IRR                    Institute of Race Relations
ISF                    International Horticulture Forum
HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
KZN        KwaZulu-Natal
LED        Local Economic Development
MAFISA     Micro Agricultural Financial Institution of South Africa
NAFU       National African Farmers Union
NAMC       National Agricultural Marketing Council
NDP        National Development Plan
NGP        New Growth Path
NEETS      Not in Employment, Education or Training
NPO        Non-Profit Organization
NQF        National Qualifications Framework
NSDS III   National Skills Development Strategy III
NSFAS      National Student Financial Aid Scheme
NWGA       National Wool Growers Association
OSTA       Official Horticulture Testing Laboratory
QLFS       Quarterly Labour Force Survey
QCTO       Quality Council for Trades and Occupations
RPL        Recognition of Prior Learning
SACAU      Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions
SADC       Southern African Development Community
SAIVCET    South African Institute for Vocational and Continuing Education and
           Training
SAQA       South African Qualifications Authority
SARS       South African Revenue Service
SASA       South African Horticulture Association
SDA        Skills Development Act
SIP        Strategic Integrated Project
SIC        Standard Industrial Classification
SSP        Sector Skills Plan
SIZA       Sustainability Initiative of South Africa
StatsSA    Statistics South Africa
TBC        To be confirmed
TVET       Technical Vocational Education and Training

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HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
WSP   Workplace Skills Plan
WTO   World Trade Organization

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HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................. i
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................................................... iv
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ...................................................................................................................... vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ vii
CHAPTER 1: SECTOR PROFILE........................................................................................................................ 1
              INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 1
   1.2        SCOPE OF COVERAGE .................................................................................................................... 1
   1.3        KEY ROLE PLAYERS ........................................................................................................................ 4
   1.4        ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE .......................................................................................................... 5
   1.5        EMPLOYER PROFILE ...................................................................................................................... 7
   1.6        LABOUR MARKET PROFILE ............................................................................................................ 8
   1.7        CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 13
CHAPTER 2: KEY SKILLS ISSUES .................................................................................................................... 14
              INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 14
   2.2        CHANGE DRIVERS ........................................................................................................................ 14
   2.3        ALIGNMENT WITH NATIONAL STRATEGIES AND PLANS ............................................................. 17
   2.4        IMPLICATIONS FOR SKILLS PLANNING ........................................................................................ 18
   2.5        CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 3: OCCUPATIONAL SHORTAGES AND SKILLS GAPS ..................................................................... 19
              INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 19
   3.2        OCCUPATONAL SHORTAGES AND SKILLS GAPS .......................................................................... 19
   3.3        EXTENT AND NATURE OF SUPPLY ............................................................................................... 25
   3.4        PIVOTAL LIST ............................................................................................................................... 28
   3.5        CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 30
CHAPTER 4: SECTOR PARTNERSHIPS........................................................................................................... 31
              INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 31
   4.2        EXISTING PARTNERSHIPS ............................................................................................................ 31
   4.3        EMERGING PARTNERSHIPS ......................................................................................................... 34
   4.4        CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 5: SKILLS PRIORITY ACTIONS ....................................................................................................... 35

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HORTICULTURE SUB-SECTOR SKILLS PLAN - 2018-2019 Prepared on behalf of the Sector by AgriSETA
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 35
   5.2        KEY FINDINGS .............................................................................................................................. 35
   5.3        CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDED ACTIONS ........................................................................... 36
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................ 44

                                                                                                                                                          v
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
FIGURES

FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTITIES BY SUBSECTOR ....................................................... 3
FIGURE 2: SKILLS DEVELOPMENT LEVIES ...................................................................................................... 3
FIGURE 3: GROSS FARMING SECTOR INCOME .............................................................................................. 6
FIGURE 4: PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HORTICULTURE EMPLOYERS REGISTERED WITH AGRISETA…….8
FIGURE 5: PROVINCIAL BREAKDOWN – HORTICULTURE EMPLOYEES ........................................................ 10
FIGURE 6: GENDER BREAKDOWN ............................................................................................................... 11
FIGURE 7: EMPLOYEES BY RACE .................................................................................................................. 11
FIGURE 8: EMPLOYMENT BREAKDOWN WITHIN THE HORTICULTURE SUBSECTOR .................................. 12
FIGURE 9: UNIVERSITIES THROUGHPUT FOR AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS GRADUATING IN 2013-2014 .... 26
FIGURE 10: NUMBER OF POST-SCHOOL GRADUATES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR .................................... 27

TABLES

TABLE 1: RESEARCH PROCESS AND METHODS .......................................................................................... viii
TABLE 2: ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE HORTICULTURE SUBSECTOR BY SIC CODE .............................................. 2
TABLE 3: KEY AGRICULTURAL ROLE-PLAYERS ............................................................................................... 4
TABLE 4: GROSS INCOME FROM MAJOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTS.......................................................... 6
TABLE 5: DISTRIBUTION ON EMPLOYEES BY PROVINVE IN AGRICULTURE, 2016/2017 ............................... 8
TABLE 6: CHANGE DRIVERS ......................................................................................................................... 15
TABLE 7: SMALL EMERGING FARMERS AND CO-OPERATIVES HTFV .......................................................... 20
TABLE 8: COMMERCIAL FARMERS HTFVS ................................................................................................... 20
TABLE 9: TOP HTFVS (STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT) ................................................................................ 21
Table 10: TOP EMERGING SUBSECTOR SKILLS AND FUTURE OCCUPATIONAL SHORTAGES ...................... 23
TABLE 11: SCARCE SKILLS AND SKILLS GAPS LIST ........................................................................................ 24
TABLE 12: EMPLOYEES TRAINED BY OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY AND GENDER ........................................ 27
TABLE 13: THE AGRISETA 2018/19 PIVOTAL LIST ....................................................................................... 28
TABLE 14: AGRISETA PARTNERSHIPS .......................................................................................................... 31
TABLE 15: SKILLS PRIORITIES ....................................................................................................................... 37

                                                                                                                                                   vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In 2016/17, there was a total of 5263 Horticulture subsector entities registered with the South African
Revenue Services (SARS), contributing 25% of total entities in the agricultural sector. Of these 5263
entities the figure below illustrates that 44% of them contribute to the skills development levy. A total of
R142 million SDL was generated from the Horticulture subsector, accounting for 32% of total agricultural
revenue from SDL.

According to the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP 2), fruits and vegetables are significant commodities
in the agro-processing sector; both are high-value crops and have large labour multipliers. The main fruits
produces in South Africa include grapes. Oranges, lemons, apples, avocados and mangoes. While major
vegetable markets include potatoes, tomatoes, onions and cabbages (National Agricultural Marketing
Council, 2012).

The gross farming income from all agricultural products increased by 12.7% in 2016, this was a result of
the increase in gross income from Horticulture products, which increased by 20.9%, from R65 374 million
in 2015 to R79 043 million in 2016. The graph below outlines the gross value contribution of agricultural
production from 2012 to 2016. Overall, Horticulture products contributed 30% to gross value of
agricultural production in 2016 (DAFF, 2016).

Overall the Horticulture subsector contributes significantly to the agricultural sector in South Africa.
Horticulture is produced throughout the country, with the main regions including the Western Cape,
KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo. Of the total registered entities with AgriSETA, 25% are from the Horticulture
subsector. And 44% of these entities contribute to the Skills Development levy.
An analysis of data from the subsector shows that the majority of people employed in the subsector are
in Elementary occupations.

External stakeholder engagements identified changing Technology and Mechanization of the subsector;
Land Reform; Youth bulge and Skills Development; and Climate Change and Drought as the key change
drivers currently affecting the subsector.

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TABLE 1: RESEARCH PROCESS AND METHODS
  RESEARCH         OBJECTIVES        RESEARCH       NATURE OF      SAMPLE SIZE        DATA         TIMEFRAME OF       RESEARCH
   TOPICS         OF THE STUDY       METHODS        THE STUDY                      COLLECTION        THE STUDY        OUTPUTS
                                                                                      TOOLS
Labour            Provide an        Qualitative    Analysis of     350            Desktop          September –     Chapter 1:
Market Profile    overview of       and            most recent     registered     research         November 2017   Sector Profile
and Economic      the subsector     quantitative   information     Horticulture   (secondary)
Contribution      and economic      method         on the sector   industry
                  contribution                                     stakeholders   2016/17
                                                                                  WSP/ATR
                                                                                  data
                                                                                  (primary)

                                                                                  2016/17
                                                                                  Huge file data
                                                                                  (primary)
Occupational      Establish         Qualitative    Non-            350            Key informant    September –     Chapter 2: Key
shortages &       occupational      method         probability     registered     interviews       November 2017   Skills Issues
emerging          shortages &                      sampling        Horticulture   (primary)
skills needs      emerging skills                  method was      industry                                        Chapter 4:
                  needs of the                     employed to     stakeholders   Desktop data                     Sector
                  Horticulture                     identify                       analysis                         Partnerships
                  subsector                        stakeholders                   (secondary)
                                                   from whom                                                       Chapter 5: Skills
                                                   specific                       2016/17                          Priority Actions
                                                   information                    WSP/ATR Data
                                                   was required                   (primary
Skills issues &   Identify the      Quantitative   Gathering       5% were        The              September –     Chapter 2: Key
demands           key               method         empirical       cooperative    quantitative     November 2017   Skills Issues
                  occupational                     evidence        farmers, 11%   survey
                  shortages,                       using primary   were small     gathered data                    Chapter 3:
                  demands &                        data sources,   and emerging   on the                           Occupational
                  supply with                      as well as      farmers and    unskilled,                       Shortages and
                  regard to                        undertaking     84% were       skilled and                      Skills Gaps
                  unskilled,                       theoretical,    commercial     generic
                  skilled,                         desktop         farmers        occupational
                  generic                          research                       shortages &
                  Horticulture                     using           350            skills gaps
                  subsector                        secondary       registered
                  occupations                      data sources    Horticulture   2016/17
                  and emerging                                     industry       WSP/ATR Data
                  skills needs in                                  stakeholders   (primary)
                  the
                  agricultural                                                    Key informant
                  sector                                                          interviews
                                                                                  (primary)

                                                                                  Desktop data
                                                                                  analysis
                                                                                  (secondary)

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1. DOCUMENT REVIEW

A document review was conducted to establish the economic performance and trends of the
Horticulture subsector, geographic concentration and employers. Government policy and strategy
documents, as well as the key statistical and industry publications were reviewed and these are
included in the bibliography. A thematic analysis was conducted to synthesize the key economic,
policy and training issues affecting the Horticulture subsector, and to identify key skills issues.
    2. SCARCE AND PIVOTAL LIST FORMULATION

The scarce skills, skills gaps and pivotal skills lists were arrived at through both secondary data analysis
and the numbers made available in previous Sector Skills Plans, large and small workplace skills plans
(WSPs), large and small annual training reports, (ATRs), and primary data analysis obtained at the
two-day AgriSETA stakeholder conference (30-31 August 2017), interviews and data collection.

    3. SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS
In summary, the economic outlook of the sectors dependent on Horticulture supply is stable and for some
produce there is a marginal growing trend (ARC, September 2017). Overall the Horticulture subsector
contributes significantly to the agricultural sector in South Africa. Horticulture is produced throughout the
country, with the main regions including the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo. Of the total
registered entities with AgriSETA, 25% are from the Horticulture subsector. And 44% of these entities
contribute to the Skills Development levy.
An analysis of data from the subsector shows that the majority of people employed in the subsector are
in Elementary occupations.

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CHAPTER 1: SECTOR PROFILE

         INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the agricultural sector, paying particular attention to the
Horticulture subsector in South Africa. The first section of this chapter looks at the scope of the Horticulture
subsector’s coverage. Followed by the second section, which outlines AgriSETA stakeholders and key role-
players in the sector. The third section looks at the economic performance of the overall agricultural sector,
zooming into the contribution of the Horticulture industry to the South African economy. The fourth section
explores the employer profile, based on the AgriSETA WSP/ATR data submitted for 2016/17. Finally, the last
section provides a labour market profile where the number and demographics of people employed in the
sector is explored. Essentially, chapter one of this document is intended to set the scene for the skills issues
delved into in the subsequent chapters.

    1.2 SCOPE OF COVERAGE
The scope of AgriSETA covers the agricultural sector, from input services to the farm, activities on the farm
and first level processing activities from the farm. The Horticulture subsector is classified into nine (9)
agricultural and economic focuses, namely, the growing of vegetables, horticulture specialties and nursery
products; Ornamental Horticulture; growing of fruit, nuts, beverage and spice crops; growing of coffee and
tea including coconuts, cocoa, nuts, olives, dates etc.; growing of trees as second crop farmers; fruit packed
in cartons, fruit juice concentrate drummed and fruit juice in container ready for consumption; fruit exporters
and importers; processing and marketing of coconuts, cocoa, nuts, olives, dates, etc.; and service to nut

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farmers and companies. The table below outlines the various agricultural and economic focus areas in the
Horticulture subsector, including the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and descriptions.

TABLE 2: ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE HORTICULTURE SUBSECTOR BY SIC CODE

     SUBSECTOR              SIC CODE                                SIC DESCRIPTION
                              11120      Growing of Vegetables, Horticultural specialties and nursery products
                                         Growing of Vegetables, Horticultural specialties (Including
                             11121       Ornamental                                                  Horticulture)
                                         and nursery products.
                             11130       Growing of fruit, nuts, beverage, and spice crops.
                                         Growing of coffee and tea including coconuts, cocoa, nuts, olives,
                             11301
                                         dates, etc.
     HORTICULTURE            12109       Growing of trees as second crop by farmers
                                         Fruit packed in cartons, fruit juice concentrate drummed and fruit
                             30132       juice                            in                             container
                                         ready for consumption
                             30133       Fruit exporters and importers
                                         Processing and marketing of coffee and tea including coconuts, cocoa, nuts,
                             30493
                                         olives, dates, etc.
                             62112       Service to nut farmers and companies
                                                                                                 Source: AgriSETA, 2016

Overall, the agricultural sector comprises of 11 subsector committees, which represent their industry interest
to AgriSETA. These include: 1) Red meat; 2) Horticulture; 3) Grains and Cereals; 4) Fibre; 5) Aquaculture; 6)
Poultry; 7) Milling, Pet food, and Animal feed; 8) Pest control; 9) Seed; 10) Sugar; and 11) Tobacco. The
Horticulture subsector constitutes 24% of the overall distribution of entities represented by AgriSETA. The
graph below outlines the relative size of membership number by subsectors, as captured in the AgriSETA
member database of 2016.

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FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTITIES BY SUBSECTOR

                                                                                      Red meat (45%)

                                                                                      Horticulture (24%)

                                                                                      Grains and Cereals
                                                                                      (10%)
                                                                                      Fibre (9%)

                                                                                      Aquaculture (5%)

                                                                                      Poultry (2%)

                                                                                      Milling, Petfood, Animal
                                                                                      Feed (2%)
                                                                                      Pest control (1%)

                                                                                      Seed (1%)

                                                                        Source: AgriSETA member database, 2016

              1.2.1 Revenue from Skills Development Levies
In 2016/17, there was a total of 5263 Horticulture subsector entities registered with the South African
Revenue Services (SARS), contributing 25% of total entities in the agricultural sector. Of these 5263 entities
the figure below illustrates that 44% of them contribute to the skills development levy. A total of R142 million
SDL was generated from the Horticulture subsector, accounting for 32% of total agricultural revenue from
SDL.

FIGURE 2: SKILLS DEVELOPMENT LEVIES

                3500

                3000

                2500
    NUMBER

                2000

                1500

                1000

                 500

                    0
                                   Levy-paying                                 Non-levy paying
             Number                   2296                                          2967
             Percentage               44%                                           56%

                                                                      Source: AgriSETA members’ database, 2016

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1.3 KEY ROLE PLAYERS
There are a number of public and private key role-players in the agricultural sector which contribute towards
its functioning, including: national government departments, sector representatives and industry bodies. For
the sake of brevity, the table below groups these role-players according to their strategic contribution to the
sector. Please note that while as comprehensive as possible, this list is not exhaustive.

TABLE 3: KEY AGRICULTURAL ROLE-PLAYERS

                              Department or                   Relevance to agricultural skills
 Strategic contribution
                              organisation                    development
                                                              Quality of education of entrants to labour
                              Department of Basic             market,
                              Education                       career awareness programmes to expose
                                                              agriculture as a possible career choice
                                                              Responsible for TVETs, HETs, agricultural
 Skills Development and       Department of Higher            colleges and skills development. Sets the
 Research                     Education and Training          national skills development agenda through
                                                              regulation of SETAs.
                                                              Provision of updated statistics on agricultural
                              Statistics SA
                                                              sector economics & labour force.
                                                              Scientific research on agricultural production
                              Agricultural Research Council
                                                              issues.
                              Department of Trade and
                                                              Industrial strategy, international trade
                              Industry & Provincial
                                                              agreements, agricultural sector strategy and
                              Departments of Economic
                                                              policy implementation desk.
                              Development
                                                              Sector regulatory framework, strategy and
 Strategy and
                                                              leadership, provision of extension services,
 Policy                       Department of Agriculture
                                                              Broad Economic Empowerment funding of
                              Forestry and Fisheries
                                                              development interventions including provision
                                                              of bursaries for scarce skills.
                                                              Financial planning, incentives, accountability
                              National Treasury & SARS
                                                              of Land Bank, skills levies.
                                                              Labour legislation,    wage    determinations,
                              Department of Labour
                                                              employment equity
                              Department of Economic
                                                              Sector economic strategies
                              Development
                                                              Identification of inter-departmental overlaps
 Planning                     National Planning Commission
                                                              and gaps
                                                              Policy and guidelines on environment
                              Department of Environmental
                                                              protection and natural resource management,
                              Affairs
                                                              partner in environmental education
                              Department of Transport         Planning for transport needs in rural areas
                              Department of Rural
                                                              Partnering with AgriSETA in mobilising funds
                              Development and Land
                                                              for capacity building of claimants.
 Rural Development and        Reform
 Land Reform                  Department of Cooperative       Linking agricultural and rural development to
                              Governance and Traditional      IDPs and LED, infrastructure and services to
                              Affairs & Municipalities        agricultural enterprises
                                                                                                                4
Department or                   Relevance to agricultural skills
 Strategic contribution
                               organisation                    development
                               Department of Water Affairs     Water Boards manage local irrigation schemes
                               Department of Energy            Strategy to supply electricity to rural areas
 Services                                                      Collaboration with agricultural community to
                               South African Police Service    address issues of farm security, including
                                                               attacks, stock and property theft
                               Land and Agricultural
                                                               Financial services to commercial farming
                               Development Bank of South
                                                               sector, agribusiness, and emerging farmers.
                               Africa
 Credit and assistance
                               Micro-Agricultural Financial
                                                               Production                                 loans
                               Institutions of South Africa
                                                               to smallholder operators
                               (MAFISA)
                                                               Agricultural Union serving some 32 000 large
                               Agri South Africa (AgriSA)
                                                               and small commercial farmers.
                               National African Farmers’       Represents black farmers to           level the
                               Union of South Africa (NAFU)    field in all agricultural matters.
 Union and Sector
                               The African Farmers’            Represents commercial African farmers to
 representatives
                               Association of South Africa     bring black commercial farmers into
                               (AFASA)                         mainstream agribusiness.
                               Transvaal Agricultural Union    A             national           agricultural
                               South Africa (TAU SA)           union serving commercial farmers
                                                               Fosters    a        favorable        agribusiness
                               Agricultural Business Chamber
                                                               environment

 Agribusiness                                                  Conglomerate      organization     providing
                                                               commodity strategic support and services to
                               Grain SA
                                                               South African grain producers to support
                                                               sustainability.
                                              Source: 2015 GCIS Handbook, Agriculture and AgriSETA SSP 2011-2016

    1.4 ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE
1.4.1 Overview
Overall, Agriculture contributes 2.4% to South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 4.4% of total
employment (IRR, 2016). Notwithstanding the relatively small share of the total GDP, primary agriculture is
an important sector in the South African economy; the value of primary agricultural production in South
Africa was R263 billion in 2016, while its contribution to the GDP was estimated at 72.2 billion in 2015 (DAFF,
2016). In addition, the sector plays an important role in job creation, especially in the more rural parts of the
country.

According to the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP 2), fruits and vegetables are significant commodities in
the agro-processing sector; both are high-value crops and have large labour multipliers. The main fruits
produced in South Africa include grapes, oranges, lemons, apples, avocados and mangoes. While major
vegetable markets include potatoes, tomatoes, onions and cabbages (National Agricultural Marketing
Council, 2012).

The gross farming income from all agricultural products increased by 12.7% in 2016, this was a result of the
increase in gross income from Horticulture products, which increased by 20.9%, from R65 374 million in 2015
                                                                                                                   5
to R79 043 million in 2016. The graph below outlines the gross value contribution of agricultural production
from 2012 to 2016. Overall, Horticulture products contributed 30% to gross value of agricultural production
in 2016 (DAFF, 2016).

FIGURE 3: GROSS FARMING SECTOR INCOME

                                             Source: Economic Review of the South African Agriculture, DAFF, 2016

The table below illustrates the gross income from major Horticulture products in 2015 and 2016. As
mentioned above, the gross income from Horticulture products increased by 20.9% in 2016. The data
outlined below shows that income from vegetables increased by 33.5% from R18 527 million in 2015 to R24
726 million in 2016; deciduous fruit increased by 21.6% from R17 400 million to R21 159 million; citrus fruit
increased by 19.8% from R14 815 million to R17 749 million in 2016; and subtropical fruit increased by 13.3%
from R3 915 million to R4 434 million in 2016.

TABLE 4: GROSS INCOME FROM MAJOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTS

                                                               2015                        2016
     HORTICULTURE
                                                                          R million
     Vegetables (including potatoes)                          18 527                       24 726
     Deciduous and other fruit                                17 400                       21 159
     Citrus Fruit                                             14 815                       17 749
     Viticulture                                               4 793                       4 563
     Subtropical fruit                                         3 915                       4 434
     TOTAL                                                    65 374                       79 043
                                                                       Source: Crops and Markets, DAFF, 2016

With regards to Horticulture exports, in particular the fruit industry (owing to limitations in export data on
vegetables industry), export produce generated R43.6 billion in 2016. The United Kingdom and Northern
Europe remain the largest consumers of fruit produce, with the EU region accounting for 35% of South

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Africa’s total deciduous fruit exports, while the markets in the Middle East and Asia are increasingly becoming
important contributors in more recent years (Bekker, 2017).

1.4.2 Economic Outlook of the Sub-sector
Overall the agribusiness sector in South Africa is vitally important to national wellbeing, employing about
30% of the working population in the country. The weak Rand, weather volatility and falling farm incomes
are predicted to exert downward pressure on the market. However, in the longer term it is predicted that
revenue in the sector will be boosted by growth of about 40% from food consumption due to the growth of
the middle class and disposable income. Business Monitor International (BMI) estimates that annual food
consumption revenue will reach over R609 billion in 2018.

According to the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), South Africa possesses a competitive advantage in a
number of fruit and beverage subsectors. Products from subsectors such as wines, indigenous Rooibos and
Honeybush tea, and certain fruits are highly sought after in export markets.

Additionally, while traditional fruit crops such as citrus, grapes and deciduous fruit account for the majority
of value and volume of fruit exports, it is reported that new categories in the subsector are growing fast.
Exports of subtropical fruit and tree nuts are increasing at a rapid rate, as middle-income consumers in
developed markets are demanding more variety. An analysis of the fruit and vegetable market also revealed
that over a five-year period up to 2019, the highest expected growth for the fruit and vegetable market will
take place in Asia Pacific, with 6.4% year-on-year growth, followed by Europe with 4.4% and the US with 2.2%
(Farmers Weekly, 2016).

    1.2 EMPLOYER PROFILE
The AgriSETA members’ data base includes some 21 429 employers, 5 263 (25%) of which are from the
Horticulture subsector. The data shows that the majority of registered Horticulture entities (79%) are small
(1-49 employees), followed by 13% medium (50-149 employees) and 8% large entities (more than 149
employees).

The provincial distribution of Horticulture employers registered with AgriSETA is reflected in the pie chart
below, with provincial distribution by employer size in figure 4.

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FIGURE 4: PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HORTICULTURE EMPLOYERS REGISTERED WITH AGRISETA

                                                Eastern Cape
                                                     8%      Free State
                                                                2%

                                                                                                   Eastern Cape
                                                                       Gauteng
                                                                        10%                        Free State
                                                                                                   Gauteng
                                                                                                   KwaZulu-Natal
                                                                          KwaZulu-Natal
                                                                                                   Limpopo
            Western Cape                                                      8%
                50%                                                                                Mpumalanga
                                                                        Limpopo                    North West
                                                                           4%
                                                                                                   Northern Cape
                                                                   Mpumalanga                      Western Cape
                                                                      10%
                                                          North West
                                         Northern Cape        1%
                                              7%

                                                                    Source: AgriSETA members’ database, 2016

The figure above shows that the majority of Horticulture employers registered with AgriSETA are in the
Western Cape (50%), followed by Gauteng (10%), and Mpumalanga (10%). The provinces with the least
number of registered employers in the Horticulture subsector include: North West (1%) and Free State
(2%). It is important to note that the AgriSETA database does not represent all farming enterprises in the
country, and thus must be treated with a fair degree of caution when applying it to a national context. For
instance, Limpopo is a known farming province, but is underrepresented in AgriSETA numbers.
Nevertheless, there is significant number of stakeholders expressing an interest in skills development in
the agricultural sector.

    1.3 LABOUR MARKET PROFILE
1.6.1 Provincial Distribution of Employees
The South African Agricultural sector is one of the biggest employers in the country. In the first quarter of
2017, STATSSA reported that a total of 875 000 people were employed in the sector, with the Western
Cape (25%) accounting for the majority of employees in the sector, followed by Limpopo and Kwazulu-
Natal, respectively accounting for 16% of employees.

TABLE 5: DISTRIBUTION ON EMPLOYEES BY PROVINVE IN AGRICULTURE, 2016/2017

          PROVINCE                           2015/2016                                    2016/2017
 Western Cape                             228 000                 26%                 215 000                     25%
 Eastern Cape                               95 000                11%                     87 000                  10%
                                                                                                                   8
Northern Cape                            40 000                  5%                 47 000                 5%
 Free State                               72 000                  8%                 70 000                 8%
 KwaZulu-Natal                           131 000                 15%                141 000                16%
 North West                               54 000                  6%                 50 000                 6%
 Gauteng                                  37 000                  4%                 36 000                 4%
 Mpumalanga                               95 000                 11%                 89 000                10%
 Limpopo                                 118 000                 14%                140 000                16%
 TOTAL                                   870 000                100%                875 000              100%
                                                                                                st
                           Source: Statistics South Africa, 2017. Quarterly Labour Force Survey. 1 Quarter 2017

With regards to Horticulture farming, the subsector products are produced throughout the country,
however the three main regions include the Western Cape, Kwa-Zulu Natal and Limpopo. This is largely
related to the characteristics of the regions which includes climate and type of products (Visser, 2012).
These findings are consistent with the data received from the AgriSETA WSP (2016) depicted below.

The figure below outlines the Horticulture employment distribution by provincial breakdown. Similar to
the table above, data from the AgriSETA WSP submissions (2016) shows that the province with the highest
proportion of both permanent and seasonal/temporary employees in the Horticulture subsector is
concentrated in the Western Cape, which accounts for approximately 51% of employees in the subsector.
This is followed by employees in Limpopo (14%) and Gauteng (9.7%). The provinces with least number of
employees reported includes the North West and Free State which both account for 2% of permanent and
temporary/seasonal employees in the subsector.

                                                                                                             9
FIGURE 5: PROVINCIAL BREAKDOWN – HORTICULTURE EMPLOYEES

           4 500

           4 000

           3 500

           3 000

           2 500
NUMBER

           2 000

           1 500

           1 000

             500

                0
                                                            Kwa-Zulu                                       Northern   Western
                      Eastern Cape   Free State   Gauteng              Limpopo   Mpumalanga   North West
                                                             Natal                                          Cape       Cape
         Percentage      8.4%          1.0%        9.7%      4.2%       14.4%       7.2%        1.3%        3.0%       50.7%
         Number           668           79         769        332       1145        571          104         236       4020

                                                                                 Source: AgriSETA WSP Submissions, 2016

     1.6.2 Gender
     The graph below gives a breakdown of the Horticulture subsector by gender as reported in the WSP
     submissions (2016). It is pleasing to note that contrary to the national agricultural statistics, the data
     shows that there seems to be a relatively equal split between the genders, with males accounting for 53%
     of overall employment in the subsector, while females make up the other 47%.

                                                                                                                      10
FIGURE 6: GENDER BREAKDOWN

                    Female                                                       Male
                     47%                                       Male
                                                               53%               Female

                                                                Source: AgriSETA WSP Submissions, 2016

1.6.3 Race
The WSP (2016) shows that the majority of employees in the subsector are African (71%), followed by
Coloured employees (25%), and White employees (4%). Indian/Asian employees only represent less than
1% of people employed in the subsector.
FIGURE 7: EMPLOYEES BY RACE

                                            White
                             Indian/Asian    4%
                                  0%

               Coloured                                                        African
                 25%
                                                                               Coloured
                                                                               Indian/Asian
                                                                               White

                                                             African
                                                              71%

                                                                Source: AgriSETA WSP Submissions, 2016

                                                                                                   11
1.6.4 Age
    The majority of people employed in the Horticulture subsector by employers submitting WSP are
    considered youth (less than 35 years old) which accounts for 49% of employees. This is followed by
    employees between 35 and 55 (46%), whilst 5% are above the age of 55. Thus, 95% of people employed
    in the subsector in 2016 are below the age of 55.

    1.6.5 Occupational Categories
    The last section of chapter one looks at the existing skills levels in Horticulture enterprises as reported in
    the WSPs submitted for 2016. Skills vary from highly skilled managerial and professional occupations to
    relatively low level skilled elementary occupations. The figure below illustrates that the vast majority of
    people employed in the subsector occupy Elementary positions (64%), followed by Managers, who
    account for 10% of employees in the subsector. The lowest number of employees occupy Clerical Support
    Worker positions (1%), and Technicians and Professionals each make up 4% employees in the respective
    occupational categories in the subsector.

    FIGURE 8: EMPLOYMENT BREAKDOWN WITHIN THE HORTICULTURE SUBSECTOR

                     Elementary Occupations

                Plant and Machine Operators

Skilled Agricultural and related Trade workers

                   Service and Sales Workers

                    Clerical Support Workers

     Technicians and Associate Professionals

                                Professionals

                                   Managers

                                                 0           20 000           40 000          60 000          80 000       100 000          120 000
                                                                                                       Skilled
                                                 Technicians and                                                       Plant and
                                                                 Clerical Support    Service and  Agricultural and                   Elementary
                   Managers      Professionals      Associate                                                          Machine
                                                                     Workers        Sales Workers related Trade                      Occupations
                                                  Professionals                                                        Operators
                                                                                                      workers
   NUMBER            16232           6312             6048             2443             8188           10501            10555          105641
   PERCENTAGE         10%             4%               4%              1%                5%              6%               6%            64%

                                                                                           Source: AgriSETA WSP Submissions, 2016

                                                                                                                                       12
1.4 CONCLUSION
Having a firm sense of the Horticulture subsector contribution to the economy in terms of production and
employment, we can now more readily identify key skills issues that speak to this economic reality. The
subsequent chapters identify key skills issues as framed by government legislation, policies and
frameworks; and further identifies key macro socio-economic and environmental factors that function as
key change drivers in addressing skills development in the agricultural sector.

                                                                                                     13
CHAPTER 2: KEY SKILLS ISSUES

         INTRODUCTION
Having outlined the Horticulture subsector profile in chapter one, this chapter is concerned with two specific
areas that shape the key skills issues in the subsector. Firstly. The alignment of sector skills planning to national
strategies, and plans will be analyzed to provide a snapshot of the key policy and planning documents that
shape skills planning in the Horticulture subsector. Secondly, the bulk of this chapter will be concerned with
identifying factors that are driving change in the sector, which are influencing the skills needs for particular
occupations or rendering them irrelevant in an ever changing world.

    2.2 CHANGE DRIVERS
This section of the report identifies the key themes and issues driving change and influencing skills demand
and supply in the Horticulture subsector. These change drivers were identified though thematic synthesis and
triangulated through internal and external stakeholder engagement, desktop research and relevant policy
documents.

                                                                                                                  14
TABLE 6: CHANGE DRIVERS

            CHANGE DRIVER                             SKILLS ISSUE                            DEMAND & SUPPLY
Land reform & industry transformation      Financial management skills              Demand: emergent growers,
                                            (learnerships, bursaries)                employees, new entrants, land
                                           Supply chain skills (technical,          reform beneficiaries, extension
                                            marketing, etc.)                         officers
                                           Mentorship funding, identification       Supply: training service providers,
                                            and training of mentors (sufficient      Agri colleges, universities,
                                            mentors)                                 universities of technology, TVETs,
                                           Extension officer training               commodity organisations
                                            programmes
Skills retention                           Bursary funding for targeted skills,     Demand: scholars, matriculants,
                                            with work-back requirement               university students, young graduates
                                           Career advice (wrong field of study
                                            places learners on unwanted career       Supply: schools, universities, Agri
                                            path)                                    colleges, universities of technology,
                                                                                     TVETs, commodity organisations
Increase in production (citrus, table    Demand for all supply chain skills         Demand: export growers, new
grapes, avocados, macadamias, other       (technical, etc.) at all levels (worker,   entrants, growers changing
nuts, new fruit types)                    all management levels)                     plantings, training service providers,
                                         Demand re-skilling of workers              government departments and
                                         Flexible qualifications allowing job       agencies
                                          mobility
                                         Increased demand for skilled               Supply: training service providers,
                                          workers in government and                  universities, colleges, Agri colleges,
                                          government agencies (DAFF,                 universities of technology, TVETs,
                                          PPECB)                                     QCTO, commodity organisations
Climate change (production area is       Migration of workers, new skills           Demand: growers, workers
shifting eastwards)                       required
                                         Incorporation of latest technology         Supply: training service providers,
                                          and research outcomes in                   universities, universities of
                                          qualifications, curriculums and            technology, TVETs, Agri colleges,
                                          course content                             commodity organisations, research
                                                                                     organisations
Youth bulge                              Demand for skills development at           Demand: scholars, students, rural
                                          younger age (high school level),           youth, junior / middle / upper
                                          employable youths                          management
                                         Supply rural skills development
                                         Management skills to manage                Supply: training service providers,
                                          young workforce                            universities, universities of
                                                                                     technology, TVETs, Agri colleges,
                                                                                     QCTO

                                                                                                                        15
CHANGE DRIVER                             SKILLS ISSUE                         DEMAND & SUPPLY
Logistics and infrastructure               Widening of skills range                 Demand: export growers, other
                                            (engineering, logistics, commercial,     employers in value chain
                                            etc.) requires new qualifications,
                                            broader scope                            Supply: training service providers,
                                                                                     universities, universities of
                                                                                     technology, TVETs, Agri colleges,
                                                                                     QCTO, commodity organisations

Increasingly strict export requirements    Qualifications and training for          Demand: export growers, other
                                            quality control staff                    employers in value chain,
                                           Qualification and training for ethical   government, government agencies
                                            auditors
                                                                                     Supply: training service providers,
                                                                                     universities, universities of
                                                                                     technology, TVETs, Agri colleges,
                                                                                     QCTO, commodity organisations

 2.2.1 Technology and Mechanization
 Development and production concerns in agriculture place an emphasis on technological advancement, to
 increase productivity to keep up with increasing demands for food; however there has not been a concomitant
 focus on technological skills advancement in the sector. The threatening maxim of the sector is that “as
 agriculture becomes more mechanised, the unskilled labour force is replaced by a significantly smaller skilled
 labour force” (Employment Conditions Commission, 2013). However, BMI (2016) reported that, “the
 agricultural mechanisation rate in Africa is the lowest in the world”. With that said, South Africa’s situation is
 somewhat different to the rest of Africa. For instance, South Africa, Morocco and Tunisia comprise the majority
 Africa's new tractor sales (BMI, 2016). Thus, to remain competitive globally, skills training in agriculture needs
 to keep up with technological progress. Internal consultation with AgriSETA staff reveals that there is an
 increasing demand for artisans and technically qualified workers in response to increased mechanisation in the
 sector.

 2.2.2 Climate Change and Drought
 The 2015/2016 drought, a result of the worldwide El Niño effect, is said to be the worst to hit the country since
 1992, and has shifted the domestic maize market into a net important situation (BMI, 2016, GrainSA, 2015,
 AgriSA). Already only 45.6 % of South Africans are food secure (HSRC, 2014), and the drought could have further
 deleterious effects on food security. The drought, along with other challenging environmental factors, could
 act as a disincentive from pursuing an agricultural career. National food security depends on a “capital-
 intensive agricultural sector based on economies of scale” (Kane-Berman, 2016), and thus smaller producers
 are even more at risk during the drought – a difficult economic and environmental climate in which to take
 risks. Subsistence and smaller commercial farms should be offered support, but equally commercial farms need
 to attract those with “green” knowledge skills to ensure food security for South Africans generally.

                                                                                                                      16
2.2.3 Land Reform
The government places high value on the need for land reform as a form of redress for historical issues of
dispossession. There is a target of transferring 30% of agricultural land to black ownership by 2025 (Xingwana,
2008). However, the success of land reform to date has been limited with no increase in production or
economic growth. This is because many beneficiaries lack the necessary production skills and business acumen
to farm effectively. The DRDLR’s 2012 Midterm Review highlighted the need for mentors and strategic partners
to help emerging farmers succeed. However, it was reported in July 2016 that land reform had the potential to
“deter investment in agribusiness activities” and that the “growing exodus of South African farmers” could
have a “detrimental impact on the agribusiness sector, depriving it of knowledge and skills” (BMI, 2016). The
2014 APAP noted that small commercial farmers, of which land reform beneficiaries are a subset, are
disappearing “at an alarming rate”, with smaller farms being taken out of the market by bigger producers who
survive because of economies of scale. These findings, supported by research and already existing programme
interventions, point to the urgent need to retain existing skills in the sector, to mentor emerging farmers in
management skills and enterprise development in the field (Kane-Berman, 2016, stakeholder interviews, 2014,
CDE, 2008).

2.2.4 The Youth Bulge and Skills Development
Youth, people aged 15 – 35, comprise 36% of the South African population, and 70% of the unemployed
(StatsSA, 2016; Merten, 2016). This presents a huge challenge for skills development generally, and specifically
for the agricultural sector, with a waning interest in agriculture and rapid urbanisation. The South African
Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) has called on stakeholders to recognise agriculture as a “high
skilled business with great opportunities for the youth” (AgriSA, 2016). But when youth are largely unskilled or
undereducated, there needs to be major up-skilling across the board before they can take advantage of
available employment opportunities. Demographically, there is a generalised mismatch between the demand
for skilled labour, and the supply of unskilled labour.

    2.3 ALIGNMENT WITH NATIONAL STRATEGIES AND PLANS
The following section draws attention to the national strategy and planning documents that frame AgriSETA’s
mandate for skills development. The legislative and policy frameworks speak to AgriSETA’s constitutional
mandate as a public institution governed by the Public Finance Management Act (1999) to develop skills
programmes in accordance with the Skills Development Act (1998), the Skills Development Levies Act (1999),
and the National Qualifications Framework Act (2008).

There are two seminal strategic documents that underpin AgriSETA’s mandate for skills planning, namely: the
White Paper on Post School Education & Training (2013) and the National Skills Development Strategy III (NSDS
III) (2011 – 2016). Both of these documents highlight the SETAs roles in developing clear, sector-specific
linkages between education and the workplace through an analysis of the demand and supply of skills in their
sector. These documents call for credible institutional mechanisms for skills planning, programmes that are
occupationally oriented, and responsive higher and further education and training institutions. Furthermore,
attention should be given to the needs of local, community enterprises, co-operatives and the like, with a focus
on developing their skills capacities to meet the needs of their particular environments, thereby closing the
gap between the rural and urban South African economies.
                                                                                                              17
The NSDS III is informed and guided by the following overarching government plans: The National Skills Accord
as one of the first outcomes of the New Growth Path, the Industrial Policy Action Plan, 2013/14 – 2015/16
(IPAP), the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme, the Human Resources Development Strategy for
South Africa 2030, the National Development Plan 2030 (NDP), and the Integrated Sustainable Rural
Development Strategy (ISRDS). Collectively, these government plans and programmes recognize the need for
correcting structural imbalances in the economy through “decent employment through inclusive growth”, “a
skilled and capable workforce to support an inclusive growth path”, “vibrant equitable and sustainable rural
communities contributing towards food security for all”, to “protect and enhance our environmental assets
and natural resources”, with the support of “an efficient, effective and development-oriented public service”
(NDP). All these priorities speak to the need for relevant and targeted skills provision that promotes economic
sustainability in the agricultural sector, as well as meeting the needs of all South African communities, both
rural and urban, in terms of food provision and sustainable livelihoods.

    2.4 IMPLICATIONS FOR SKILLS PLANNING
In this chapter we have seen that the legislative and policy frameworks established by government, coupled
with the contextual change drivers and industry specific perspectives on skills development point to the
following 5 skills implications that need to be addressed in the Horticulture subsector Sector Skills Plan:

   1. Practical skills transfer through mentoring and on-the-job training to address the youth bulge;
   2. Human resource development strategies and career advice and expos to attract scholars and graduates
      towards agricultural occupations;
   3. The growing demand in export markets means more initiatives need to be geared towards quality
      control staff and export assessor;
   4. Partnerships with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) for research and development into the subsector;
      and
   5. The development of sustainable farming qualifications and incorporation of latest technology and
      research outcomes in qualifications, curriculum and course content.

    2.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we have seen that the legislative and policy frameworks established by government, coupled
with the contextual change drivers and industry specific perspectives on skills development, point to 5 skills
implications that need to be addressed in the Horticulture subsector. Chapter 3 will elaborate on the specific
demand and supply of skills in the subsector to identify gaps and mismatches in skills provision, providing
evidence that the skills issues identified in this chapter articulate with what is happening on the ground.

                                                                                                            18
CHAPTER 3: OCCUPATIONAL SHORTAGES AND SKILLS GAPS

        INTRODUCTION
Chapter 3 reflects the research completed on skills demand and supply in the Horticulture subsector. The
outcome is the result of an analysis of previous Sector Skills Plans, 2014/15 and 2015/16 WSP data, as well as
engagement with AgriSETA stakeholders. Engagements included interviews, surveys and limited focus groups
with external partners, stakeholders and AgriSETA member companies, as well as consultation with internal
stakeholders, conducted between 2015 and 2017. Effort was taken to ensure cross sectoral inputs were
obtained by reaching out to large levy payers, industry bodies, government departments as well as emerging
small scale entrants in the sector.

    3.2 OCCUPATONAL SHORTAGES AND SKILLS GAPS
       3.2.1 Hard-To-Fill Vacancies (HTFVs)
The analysis conducted has identified the hard-to-fill vacancies (HTFVs) and skills issues as they pertain to the
Horticulture subsector. The skills issues, gaps, as well as the emerging skills needs as identified through the
survey and WSP submissions analyses are outlined in the tables below. Firstly, the needs of small-emerging
farmers and co-operatives are addressed, followed by the needs of commercial farmers and HTFVs identified
through stakeholder engagements.

                                                                                                              19
TABLE 7: SMALL EMERGING FARMERS AND CO-OPERATIVES HTFV

 Subsector        Skills and/or Qualifications Gaps                                         OFO Code
                  National Certificate: Agricultural Machinery Technician                   2017-653301

                  General Education and Training Certificate: Horticulture                  2017-611304

                  Further Education and Training Certificate: Manufacturing Technical
                                                                                            2017-653301
                  Maintenance

 Horticulture     National Certificate: Horticulture                                        2017-611304

                  National Certificate: Agricultural Extension                              2017-213201

                  National Certificate: Farming                                             2017-613101

                  National Certificate: Fruit Packing and Grading Processes                 2017-832904

                  National Certificate: Plant Production                                    2017-613101

TABLE 8: COMMERCIAL FARMERS HTFVS

  Subsector        Skills and/or Qualifications Gaps                                        OFO Code
                   Certificate: Gardening and Horticulture                                  2017-611304

                   National Certificate: Farming                                            2017-613101

                   National Certificate: Agricultural Machinery Technician                  2017-653301

                   General Education and Training Certificate: Horticulture                 2017-611304
  Horticulture
                   National Certificate: Perishable Produce Export Technology               2017-325703

                   National Certificate: Horticulture                                       2017-611304

                   National Certificate: Plant Production                                   2017-611304

                   National Certificate: Fruit Packing and Grading Processes                2017-832904

The following table outlines the top HTFVs as identified by external stakeholders in the Horticulture sub-sector:

                                                                                                              20
TABLE 9: TOP HTFVS (STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT)

Hard to Fill Vacancies (HTFVs)                   Reason                 Demand & Supply                SETA Interventions
                                       Not traditionally part     Demand: processing facilities      Bursaries
                                       of sector, not seen as     (incl. wine cellars), growers      Apprenticeships
                                       career      path    in     (systems engineers), logistics     Career advice
                                       agriculture                service providers, cold stores,
ENGINEER
                                                                  fresh produce terminals
                                                                  Supply:            universities,
                                                                  universities of technology,
                                                                  QCTO (qualifications)
                                       Not              enough    Demand: research institutions,     Bursaries
                                       matriculants        with   growers, employers in trade        Internships / graduate
                                       necessary Maths and        chain, cultivar managers           placements
                                       science grades and         Supply:            universities,   Career advice
HORTICULTURIST/ VITICULTURIST
                                       interest is entering       universities of technology,
                                       post-school education      workplaces
                                       in this field, graduates
                                       need more experience
                                       Not              enough    Demand: research institutions,     Bursaries
                                       matriculants        with   growers, employers in trade        Internships /graduate
                                       necessary Maths and        chain                              placements
                                       science grades and         Supply:          universities,     Career advice
ENTOMOLOGIST
                                       interest is entering       workplaces
                                       post-school education
                                       in this field, graduates
                                       need more experience
                                       Not              enough    Demand: research institutions,     Bursaries
                                       matriculants        with   growers, employers in trade        Internships / graduate
                                       necessary Maths and        chain                              placements
                                       science grades and         Supply: universities,              Career advice
SOIL SCIENTIST
                                       interest is entering       workplaces
                                       post-school education
                                       in this field, graduates
                                       need more experience
                                       Not              enough    Demand: research institutions,     Bursaries
                                       matriculants        with   growers, employers in trade        Internships / graduate
                                       necessary Maths and        chain                              placements
                                       science grades and         Supply: universities,              Career advice
PLANT NUTRITIONIST
                                       interest is entering       workplaces
                                       post-school education
                                       in this field, graduates
                                       need more experience
                                       Not              enough    Demand: research institutions,     Bursaries
                                       matriculants        with   growers, pack houses, cultivar     Internships / graduate
                                       necessary Maths and        managers                           placements
                                       science grades and         Supply: universities,              Career advice
RESEARCH TECHNOLOGISTS
                                       interest is entering       universities of technology,
                                       post-school education      workplaces
                                       in this field, graduates
                                       need more experience

                                                                                                                       21
Hard to Fill Vacancies (HTFVs)           Reason                   Demand & Supply            SETA Interventions
                                 Attracted by other         Demand: export growers, pack   Bursaries
                                 industries,         not    houses, exporters              Internships / graduate
                                 sufficient      bursary    Supply: universities,          placements
MARKET RESEARCHER                support,      graduates    universities of technology,    Career advice
                                 require     experience,    workplaces
                                 not seen as career path
                                 in agriculture
                                 Increase in demand         Demand: logistics companies,   Bursaries
                                 due to export growth,      growers, exporters, pack       Career advice
                                 not seen as career path    houses, cold stores, fruit
LOGISTIC MANAGER                 in agriculture             terminals
                                                            Supply: universities,
                                                            universities of technology,
                                                            TVETs
                                 Increase in demand         Demand: growers, nurseries     Learnerships
                                 due to growth in           Supply: universities,          Bursaries
                                 production         and     universities of technology,    Career advice
PRODUCTION MANAGER               expanding                  TVETs, training service        Occupational
                                 commodities, lack of       providers, QCTO                qualification
                                 occupational                                              development
                                 qualifications                                            Mentorship funding
                                 Increase in demand         Demand: growers, nurseries     Learnerships
                                 due to growth in           Supply: training service       Skills programmes
                                 production         and     providers                      Occupational
                                 expanding                                                 qualification
                                 commodities, lack of                                      development
SKILLED PRODUCTION WORKER        literacy and numeracy
                                 skills form barrier to
                                 accessing         skills
                                 development, lack of
                                 occupational
                                 qualifications
                                 Increase in demand         Demand: pack houses,           Learnerships
                                 due to growth in           growers                        Bursaries
                                 production         and     Supply: universities,          Career advice
                                 expanding                  universities of technology,    Occupational
PACKHOUSE MANAGER
                                 commodities,      new      TVETs, training service        qualification
                                 technologies, lack of      providers, QCTO                development
                                 occupational                                              Mentorship funding
                                 qualifications
                                 Increase in demand         Demand: pack houses,           Learnerships
                                 due to growth in           growers                        Skills programmes
                                 production         and     Supply: training service       Occupational
                                 expanding                  providers, QCTO                qualification
                                 commodities, lack of                                      development
SKILLED PACKHOUSE WORKERS        literacy and numeracy
                                 skills form barrier to
                                 accessing         skills
                                 development, lack of
                                 occupational
                                 qualifications

                                                                                                            22
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