IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase

 
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
WOMEN
 I N FA S H I O N :

Exploitation and Structural
 Sexism.
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
Women In Fashion: Exploitation and
 Structural Sexism.

 Final Major Project, ARTD3066.
 27.05.21
 Eleanor Weston - 27703436
 5335 words
 Image Two - Pinterest.
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
CONTENTS CONTENTS

C O N T E N T S PAG E
 PA RT O N E PA RT T W O
 R E P O RT T H E PAT R I A RC H A L
 SUMMARIES LANDSCAPE

 Pages 6 - 11 Pages 12 - 19

 PA RT T H R E E PA RT F O U R
 THE GLOBAL GLASS L A N G UAG E &
 CEILING GENDER BIAS

 Pages 20 - 37 Pages 38 - 43

 PA RT F I V E PA RT S I X
 THE BEAUTY MARKETING OF
 IDEAL FEMINISM

 Pages 44 - 55 Pages 56 - 63

 PA RT S E V E N PA RT E I G H T
 SOLUTIONS & REFERENCES &
 RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Pages 64 - 75 Pages 76 - 103

 Image Three - Google Images.

 FIVE FOUR
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
01
Summaries

 Image Four - Google Images.
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
PA RT O N E SUMMARIES

 Image Five - Missguided, Instagram

 E X E C U T I V E S U M M A RY
T he fas hio n i n d u str y i s d o m i nated thro ug h ever yday s ex i s t l a ng ua g e,
by the spen d i n g p ower o f wo m en, c o ns ta nt ba r r i er s to s uc c es s, a n d a
and sustain ed by th e wo m en swea r s o c i a l i s ati o n pro c es s that tea ches
m arket, wh i ls t si mu ltan eo us l y di s c r i m i nati o n. T hi s i s per petuated
selling wo m en an ‘ i d eal i s ed’ w i thi n s o c i ety ’s va r i o us i ndus tr ies,
ver s ion of f em i n i n i ty, th at i s ti n g ed i nc l udi ng fa s hi o n. T hi s re p ort
w ith exp lo i tati ve p atri archa l a i m s to o f fer s o l uti o ns c o nc er n ing
undertones (Fri ed m an , 2018). the i s s ues s ur ro undi ng g ender and
 sexism within an industr y dominated
T his re po rt p rovi d es an an a l y s i s by what’s k now n a s ‘ the fema le
into the var yi n g n atu re o f the po und’ . I t pres ents the a utho r ’s own
exp loitatio n o f wo m en w ithi n ‘ Fa c to r s fo r C ha ng e’ fr a m ework
the fas hio n i n d u str y. It dr aw s ( Wes to n, 2 0 2 1 ) hi g hl i g ht i ng that
on a va ri ety o f research , that s o c i eta l s hi ft i s the l o ng -ter m
prov ides an i n si gh t i n to the s o l uti o n fo r c o m batti ng thi s i s s ue,
intrinsic di sc ri m i n ati o n all wom en but es ta bl i s hes that the s ec o nd a r y
fa ce when lo o ki n g at b ar ri er s to s pheres o f br a nd a c ti o n, c us to m er
su ccess in f ash i o n . It lo o ks at the res po ns e, a nd l eg i s l ati o n ca n
c ontempor ar y resu lts o f a so c i ety c o ntr i but e to s ho r t-ter m s o l uti ons
af f ected by Covi d -1 9 , an d th e ef fec t fo r the fa s hi o n i ndus tr y to beg in
this has had o n wo m en’s eq u a l i ty, to di s m a ntl e s tr uc tur a l s ex i s m.
and exp lores th e c o n c e p t o f the
g la ss ceilin g as b o th a p hysi c al, a nd T hro ug ho ut the re po r t the ter m
ps ycholog i c al b ar ri er to wo m en’s ‘ wo m a n’ i s predo m i na ntl y us ed , a s
su ccess w i th i n th i s i n d u s tr y. us i ng ‘ fem a l e’ i s a rg ua bl y a n old-
Ultimately, i t u n c over s th e g row i ng fa s hi o ned ter m refer r i ng t o sex ,
desire for bran d s to u se Fem i n i s m a s whi ch i s po tenti a l l y a n exc l us i o na r y
a p rof it inc en ti ve, th at c ap i ta l i s es ter m ( Ya k ov l ev, 2 0 1 9 ) . T he ter m a ims to a ddres s the s ha red is s ues fa ced by a ll indiv idual s who id entif y
on a cons u m er’s d esi re fo r so c i eta l ‘ fem a l e’ ha s been us ed wh en a s women, or us e s he/her pronouns, within the indus tr y r ather than
chang e, wh i lst h i gh li gh ti n g there refer r i ng to s tati s ti c s, whereby we hig hlig ht the dis pa rities that come with the umbrella ter m of wom an.
ha s b een little d evelo p m en t i n us i ng c a n a s s um e the s tati s ti c i ts el f refer s
the ca u se fo r wo m en’s ad van ta g e. to s ex r ather tha n g ender i dentity. T his re port ha s been orches trated us ing both prima r y and sec ond ar y
 I t i s i m po r ta nt to c o ns i der that not res ea rch. I n relation to methodolog y the a uthor undertook a p r im ar y
T herefore, i t p o ses th e i dea a l l wo m en fa c e t he s a m e i s s ues, or research questionnaire (A ppendices One), consisting of 22 questions which
that society i tself c o n si sts o f a l evel s o f di s c r i m i nati o n pres ented g ained 117 responses. An interview was also undertaken (A ppendices Two)
patria rchal lan d sc ap e, h i gh li g hted i n thi s re po r t. H owever, thi s re port ex ploring the conce pt of unpa id inter ns hips a s a for m of m od er n sl aver y.

 EIGHT NINE
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
PA RT O N E SUMMARIES

 Image Six - Google Images

 T he incons is tency within fa s hion within the indus tr y mu st b e d r aw n
 beg ins with the per s pective that from the under s ta n d ing that it c an
 fa s hion ha s a woma n’s fa ce: occur both overtl y and c over tl y.
 dominated by women’s s pending I ts overt nature m anif ests itsel f
 power, which a mounted to $159 within the critica l issu e of g ar m ent
 billion on fa s hion a lone in 2017 s laver y, with women m aking u p
 (L a i, 2021). T here is, however, 80% g a r ment work er s ( K au r, 2016) .
 a jux ta pos ing notion that the C ons idera bly, its c over t natu re is
 indus tr y is s upported by s ocieta l perha ps what ma sq u es c onsu m er s
 s ex is m, a nd patria rcha l heg emony opinion on wheth er the ind u str y
 which a llows the continuation is s ex is t. T hus, the p erc e p tion
 of ma le domina nce in a ll a s pects g a p derives from the c onc eal ed
 of s ociety – including the nature of covert sexism . T his is
 fa s hion indus tr y (C onnell, 2005). exemplified in fa s h ion’s entr y l evel
 being 70% fema le, highl ighting a
 T he comprehens ion a round s ex is m clea r domina nce of wom en in its l ow

 “ WO M E N ’ S I S S U E S D I D N OT
 S U D D E N LY A P P E A R D U R I N G T H I S
 C OV I D - 1 9 P A N D E M I C B U T W I L L B E
 C O M P O U N D E D B Y I T. ”
 - SIMBA & NGCOBO, 2020.

 pay ing s pheres, but 86% of bra nds indus tr y, when wom en in f ashion
 being ra n by ma le executives (Brown fa ce the s a me obs tac l es as wom en
 et a l, 2018). T hus, a n illus ion is in a multitude of other ind u str ies
 created that s ug g es ts the indus tr y (Gonza lez, 2020). T hu s, soc iety’s
 is s till dominated by women, with nor ma lis ation of the d isreg ard for
 39% of res pondents s tating it does g ender equa lity, is p er p etu ated in
 not a ppea r s ex is t (Wes ton, 2021). the fa s hion indus tr y. Conseq u entl y,
 men ca n enter ‘fem al e d om inated ’
 Ultimately dis pa rity occur s throug h s pheres a nd excel to the top,
 the mis conce ption that women whils t women co ntinu e to f ac e
INTRODUCTION a re at the centre of the fa s hion a ‘g la s s runway’ ( Lai, 2021) .

 TEN ELEVEN
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
02
The Patriarchal
 Landscape

 Image Seven - Google Images
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
PA RT T WO T H E PAT R I A RC H A L L A N D S C A P E

 S I T UAT I O N
 A N A LY S I S :
 Gender equa lity in the pa id a media n aver age of
 UK ha s retrog res s ed, 92p for ever y £ 1 ear ned
 fa lling 12 pla ces in g ender by their ma le counter p ar ts
 equa lity pa rity ra nk ing (Sutherla nd, 2020) .
 Image Eight - Google Images.
 s ince 2006 (W EF, 2020).
 Ultimately leav ing women I t is pos s ible that this
 in the economic ma rk et inequa lity will not
 s everely dis a dva nta g ed cha ng e within the c om ing
 a nd underva lued with the yea r s. T he pa ndemic has
 UK’s wa g e g a p s till at 7.4% a ccelerated patriarchal
 (O NS, 2020). Fa s hion’s bia s, a nd rever s ed work
 pay g a p is often ex pla ined towa rds g ender eq u al ity
 away a s being a res ult of (PWC , 2021). It has
 a la rg e number of women a llowed s tructura l b iases
 dominating the s hop within s ociety to c om e
 f loor, a rg ua bly occupy ing to the s urfa ce, w ith
 the bottom rung s of s ector s dominated by
 the pay s ca le with men women, s uch a s retail ,
 a dminis trating the c-s uite a nd bea uty being hit the
 (O ’C onnor, 2019). T hus, ha rdes t (Hins lif f, 2020) .
 thes e s tatis tics contribute Further more, there has
 to the overa ll idea that been a dis proportionate
 fa s hion’s low pa id s pheres ef fect on Bla ck wom en,
 a re dominated by women. hig hlig hting that the
 With s hop f loor s being pa ndemic ha s ha d a severe
 a cces s ible to the ma jority impa ct on g ender ( F igu re
 of the cons umer s, this 1), but it is impor tant
 perha ps s ug g es ts why 44% to remember it h as not
 of res pondents s tated a f fected ra cia l g rou p s the
 fa s hion wa s, or wa s to a s a me (Ja mes, 2021). With
 certa in ex tent, dominated 58% of Bla ck women b eing
 Figure 1 - Deloitte, 2020. by women (Wes ton, 2021). furloug hed or los ing their
 However, inequa lity in the jobs, compa red to 32% of
 65% 1/3 10% 58% indus tr y s till pres ides, with
 women in fa s hion being
 their white counter p ar ts
 (Peder s on, 2021) .
 of women now of women said of women are of women with
 have more their workloads considering a career children had
responsibility for have increased due break or leaving added childcare
household chores. to the pandemic work entirely responsibilities

 FIFTEEN
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
PA RT T WO PA RT T WO

 C ons idera bly women s ta rted model (A ppendices T hree) the
 the pa ndemic from a point of fa s hion indus tr y mu st c onsid er
 dis a dva nta g e due to pres iding that s imila rly to soc ietal ac tion
 inequa lities a nd s ocieta l ‘ta k ing a ction’ w ithin its ow n
 dis pa rity (Simba a nd Ng cobo, indus tr y will c ontr ibu te to
 2020). T hus, when cons idering the increa s e in wom en-to-
 future think ing it is pla us ible men la bour-forc e r ates by
 that this, combined with the 2030 (Ma dg av k a r et al , 2020) .
 reg res s ive ef fects the pa ndemic However, with retail taking
 ha s ha d on women’s rig hts, will a dva nta g e of th e su sp end ed
 s et women ba ck deca des with g ender pay g a p re p or ting, there
 the potentia l of not clos ing is a pos s ibility th at eq u al p ay
 the wa g e g a p for 200 yea r s will become a low pr ior ity w ithin
 (Topping, 2020). T herefore, the indus tr y, a s a resu l t of the
 in relation to McKins ey ’s ‘do importa nce of moving on f rom
 nothing > ta k e a ction now > the pa ndemic ef f ec ts on retail
 wa it to ta k e a ction’ s cena rio in g enera l (Sutherl and , 2020) .

 Figure 2 - Author’s Own, Adapted From McKinsey, 2020

 DO NOTHING
 results in - £ 1 trillion GDP by 2030 01

 02 WAIT TO TAKE ACTION
 results in + £ 8 trillion GDP by 2030

 03 TAKE ACTION NOW
 results in + £ 13 trillion GDP by 2030

Image Nine - Google Images

 SIXTEEN SEVENTEEN
IN FASHION: Exploitation and Str uctural Sexism - the fmm showcase
PA RT T WO PA RT T WO

 However, w i th th e p red i c ti o n
 that a s we m ove fo rw ard there
 will b e an exp ec tati o n fo r
 bra nd s to take o n b i g ger ro l es, POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
 in rel ati o n to CSR p o l i c i es
 (Fu tureLear n , 2020) that 1. The UK’s gender equality 1. In 2020 a report uncovered the
 enhanc e b ran d p u r p o se (F ig ure score has worsened, dropping truth behind UK sweatshops,
 3), th ere i s a c o n s i d erati o n 12 places since 2006 (World highlighting the exploitation
 that co m p an i es w i ll n o lo ng er o f i nequa l i ty fa c ed by wo m en Economic Forum, 2020). of mig rant women working for
 be able to i gn o re i ssu es o f ( F i g ure 4 ) , we a re po tent i a l l y UK fast fashion brands.
 2. The wage gap is still
 ethics, an d gen d er-rel ated s eei ng a s hi ft tow a rds a m o re prevalent in the UK reporting 2. Fast fashion is expected
 emp loym en t q u eri es ( Yur, po s i ti ve po s i ti o n fo r wo m en, at 15.5% in 2020 (ONS, 2020).
 be worth $43bn USD in 2029
 2021). A lth o u gh th e c u r rent i n fa s hi o n’s future, tha n the 3. This is true in the fashion (Statista, 2021).
 s itu ati o n d i c tates a h i gh -l evel c ur rent s i tuati o n di c tates. industry. With the largest
 3. Climate change af fects
 median wage gap at a UK
 women harder as women are
 brand being 66% in 2018/19
 more likely to live in poverty
 (Drapers, 2019)
 than men (Halton, 2018).
Figure 3 - Brand Purpose Model, Adapted from Aziz, 2017

 SOCIAL TECHNOLOGICAL

 1. The rise in the Me Too 1. Covid-19 has left consumers
 movement has led to g reater reliant on technolog y - meaning
 awareness violence against infor mation can be accessed
 women. easily, and quickly.
 2. There has been a rise in 2. Consumers can now
 the desire for transparency access infor mation about
 - consumers want to know the favourite brands easily,
 about the ethics behind their including infor mation on
 clothing. supply chains, wage gap
 infor mation, and diversity
 3. Societal sexism still prevails
 and representation statistics.
 with 1 in 3 women globally
 experiencing violence (WHO,
 2021).

 Figure 4 - PEST table, Author’s Own, 2021.

 EIGHTEEN NINETEEN
03
The Global Glass
 Ceiling

 Image Ten - Fashion Revolution
PA RT T H R E E G LO BA L G L A S S C E I L I N G

 GLOBAL EFECTS
 T he g loba l indus tr y of fa s t that drop collec tions d ail y
 fa s hion ha s contributed to (Fig ure 6, Pa g e 24) m aintaining
 the ris e of the ‘throwaway the fa s t fa s hion m echanism
 wa rdrobe’ (T homa s, 2019) that ultimately ex p l oits wom en.
 whils t s imulta neous ly
 ex ploiting 16 million people, Neo-Ma rx is m s tates that the
 mos tly women, in the cons umer fa s hion s y s tem is a for m of
 g oods s upply cha in (Anti- ‘cultura l ca pita lis m’ p rof iting
 Slaver y I nter nationa l, 2021). of f of the ex ploitation of l ow
THE CONSUMER ATTITUDES wa g e women worker s ( G ib son
 63% of cons umer s now a nd Sta nes, 2011) . Per hap s
MATRIX cons ider a bra nds s us ta ina bility a n ex tens ion of this is the
Figure 5 - Adapted from Carrigan & Attalla, 2001. promotion to be a k ey cons ideration that a c onsu m er ’s
 purcha s ing fa ctor (Gra ns k og et refus a l to a ck now l ed ge the
 a l, 2020). However, a lthoug h ethica l implications of f ast
 this cons umer, hig hlig hte d in fa s hion when p u rchasing,
 ETHICAL AWARENESS
 the cons umer attitudes matrix develops from s y s tem ic r ac ism ,
 HIGH LOW (Fig ure 5) does ex is t they a re a which often fun c tions w ith
 minority, a s in mos t ca s es, unles s g ender ex ploitation. 80% of
 ethica l is s ues directly a f fect s weats hop work er s are wom en,
 ETHICAL PURCHASE

 the cons umer then they a re a nd big bra nds ex pl oit c u l tu r al
 HIGH

 CONFUSED & often ir releva nt to purcha s ing s tereoty pes that po r tr ay wom en
 CARING & ETHICAL
 UNCERTAIN decis ions (C a r rig a n & Atta lla , worker s in ‘developing’ countries
 INTENTION

 2001). Ultimately s ug g es ting a s pa s s ive a nd f lexibl e ( Cl ean
 that the des ire for ethica lly C lothes C a mpa ig n, 2021) . T his
 produced fa s hion is s urfa ce ma inta ins a ra cist and sexist
 level. Further more, cons umer s s y s tem whereby wom en of
 inter na lis e a ‘lea r nt drive’ for colour pa rta k e in the m ajor ity
 LOW

 CYNICAL & OBLIVIOUS cons ta nt newnes s in a ppa rel of the work a llowing wester n
 DISINTERESTED reinforcing a continuation of bra nds, a nd white CEOs, to reap
 shopping behaviour s with brands the benefits (C hanel , 2020) .

 T W E N T Y T WO TWENTY THREE
PA RT T H R E E G LO BA L G L A S S C E I L I N G

 NEO-
 LIBERALISM:
 However, the Neo-L ibera l
 per s pective of women g a r ment
 work er s is that the g loba lis ed
 indus tr y prov ides opportunity. 93% of
 consumers
THE LEARNING T here is potentia l for women to
 become economically de pendent,
 believe garment
 sweatshops are
PROCESS lea ding to ema ncipator y
 empower ment a nd often a n
 associated with
 developing
Figure 6 Adapted from Jackson & Shaw, 2009, Page Seven. es ca pe from poverty (Muller, countries
 2017) pa rticula rly in countries
 s uch a s Ba ng la des h whereby
 women a s work er s ca n g a in
 a need for recog nition for their economic
 DR I VE ‘newness’
 contributions. However, it is Figure 7 - Author’s Own.
 importa nt to cons ider that this
 is potentia lly a wes ter nis ed
 cheap fast ST I MUL I per spective which stereotypically a re s tereoty ped w ith. In U K
 fashion
 dis a s s ociates s weats hop s laver y s weats hops this i s m anif ested
 from wes ter n countries (Fig ure 7) in the ex ploitation of m ig r ant
 neg lecting that in 2015, L eices ter women who s pea k l ittl e Eng l ish
 specific
 CUE brand with s weats hops a lone contributed (Bla ncha rd, 2017) . H owever,
 daily drops to £1 million in unpa id on a g loba l level it is g l ar ing l y
 wa g es a week (Reuter s, 2020). obv ious that this m istreatm ent
 of women g a r m ent worker s
 positive -
 R ES P O N S E Sweats hops ma inta in a culture of play s into the stereotyp ic al
 satisfies need
 a bus e, a nd fea r in env ironments idea of women b eing sec ond
 whereby women s eek economic cla s s citizens. Add itional l y f ast
 ema ncipation (Kelly, 2020). fa s hion s weats hop s p resent
 customer
 R E I N FO RCE ME N T loyalty & T herefore, they ca nnot be a n a n a cce pta bility that wom en
 continuation
 of habits ema ncipator y conce pt when ca n work in ex ploitative, and
 ex ploitation relates s pecifica lly low pa id employ m ent ( Cairol i,
 to a v ulnera bility woma n 1998) due to their gend er.

 TWENTY FOUR TWENTY FIVE
PA RT T H R E E

 E V E RY
 GARMENT WE
 WEAR HAS A
 SILENT
 #METOO
 WOV E N I N TO
 Image Eleven - Pinterest.

 ITS SEAMS.
W hen women h ave b een i n teg rated i nto
th e i nd u str y to m ake lab o u r ch ea per,
with low salaries and long working hour s, F I G U R E 8 - C A R RY
 S O M E R S, 2 0 1 7
( Fashion Revol u ti o n 2 0 1 5 ) i t b ec o m es
l ess of a n ema n c i p ati o n statem en t, a nd
more of a hu m an ri gh ts i ssu e m a s k ed
with being in th e n am e o f f em i n i s m .

 TWENTY SIX
G LO BA L G L A S S C E I L I N G

 THE CHANGING DEFINITION
 O F M O D E R N S L AV E RY

 Diver s ity is s tif led within the (R a zzu, 2014) wou l d p resent
 indus tr y throug h the ex ploitative the cons ideration that u np aid
 nature of unpa id inter ns hips inter ns hips a re a resu l t of l ess
 (Butler, 2018), which ma k e up productive work in g, and l ow
 for 86% of a ll creative a rts qua lifications. However, throu gh
 inter ns hips (Sa nti, 2019). T his a n interv iew with a F ir st-Cl ass
 dis proportionately a f fects women, g ra duate (s he/her) l ooking to
 who ma k e up the va s t ma jority s ecure full time em p l oym ent
 of fa s hion s tudents s eek ing in the creative ind u str ies, her
 inter ns hips (I g les ia s et a l, 2021) ex periences echoed the sentim ents
 thus this for m of moder n s laver y of the ex ploitati ve natu re of
 ha s become a dis criminator y unpa id work , whilst al so ref u ting
 pra ctice that a llows, ma inly, this theor y. T hro u gh a three-
 women to work for no fina ncia l month unpa id soc ial m ed ia
 g a in (BBC , 2017). Arg ua bly inter ns hip, the pa rtic ip ant stated ,
 women prov iding free la bour ‘the mos t [ s he] ever worked in
 under the guise of an ‘experiential’ one day wa s probabl y 6/ 7 hou r s
 inter ns hip is s y nony mous with but ty pica lly [ it was] m ore l ike
 the ‘deva luation’ of women’s four hour s [ a day]’. She of ten
 work , la rg ely hig hlig hting that refer red to the exp er ienc e of
 in the creative indus tries unpa id being ‘es s entia lly fu l l tim e’ work
 inter ns hips rema in a g ender a nd felt a s thoug h her em p l oyer
 is s ue (Sha de & Ja cobs on, 2015). took a dva nta g e of the team
 who they treated as ‘em p l oyees
 Huma n C a pita l T heor y rather tha n [ unpaid ] inter ns’.

Image Twelve - Pinterest
 TWENTY NINE
PA RT T H R E E

 "As a man it's historically easier for me. I've also never
 been profiled for a job."
 Respondent Four.

 Image Thirteen - Google Images

Imp ly i n g u n p ai d i n ter n s hi ps pa r ti c i pa nt res po ndents ( F i g ure "Even though it's wrong I feel my gender gives me better
a re a resu lt o f less p ro d u c ti ve 9 ) s tati ng t hey r a rel y v i ew thei r
 opportunities."
labour i gn o res th e p rac ti c e’s g ender a s ba r r i er to wo rk .
 Respondent Nine.
connotati o n s to gen d er. T hus,
the parti c i p an ts ex p eri enc es T he deva l uati o n o f wo m en’s
have l ess to d o w i th H u m a n wo rk i s c em ented i n yo ung
C apital T h eo r y (Ra z z u, wo m en g r a duates o ften pay i ng
2014) an d are p erh ap s m o re fo r the ‘ pr i v i l eg e’ o f i nter ni ng "I recognise that I have privilege as a white man - many
a ligned w i th th e ‘ Rel ati ve r ather tha n bei ng pa i d ( B a uc k , assumptions or uncertainties are removed for me because
Attracti ven ess’ c o nc e pt 2 0 2 0 ) . I t i s c l e a r that there i s
(Strob er, 1 9 8 4 ) (A p p en d i c es a s i m i l a r i t y between yo ung
 of it."
Four). Wh ereby wo m en tak e o n i nter ns, a nd g a r m ent wo rk er s, Respondent Eighty Six.
les s attrac ti ve fo r m s o f wo rk due who a l l prov i de a wo rk fo rc e
to employer preferen c es tow ards o f wo m en w i l l i ng to wo rk
ma le wo rker s (Levan o n et a l , fo r l i ttl e to no pay ( Sha de Figure 9 - Author’s Own Primary
2009). T h i s t h eo r y i s echo ed a nd Ja c o bs o n, 2 0 1 5 ) . T hi s
 Research.
by the p arti c i p an ts resp o ns e c em ents the i dea that w i thi n
that wo m en h ave to ‘ wo rk the fa s hi o n i ndus tr y there i s
ha rder, an d m eet ever y c ri ter i a ’ a thi n l i ne between that o f
when i t c o m es to all fo r m s o f s tereo ty pi c a l m o der n day s l ave
emp loym en t. A d d i ti o n ally, thi s l a bo ur, a nd unpa i d i nter ns hi ps
is reiterated th ro u gh th e m a l e reg a rdi ng g ender ex pl o i tati o n.

 T H I RT Y
PA RT T H R E E

 "Becoming a mother and growing a family.
 Women have to take the break, we are the one
UNCONSCIOUS BIAS who have the children, need the recovery and
 our life completely changes. Where as I don’t
 providing a physical barrier think it impacts on the men’s choices or career
 progression."
Co nven ti o n al gender ‘ bro k en r ung ’ prevents Respondent Fifty One.
nor ms c o n tri bu te to wo m en fro m a s c endi ng the
m ai n tai n i n g th e glass c a reer l a dder, ul ti m atel y
c ei li n g, alth o u gh thes e hav i ng a k no c k -o n ef fec t
stereo typ es are o ften whereby the num ber
d i sm i ssed as a c asu al fo r m of wo m en dec rea s e
 "Most child care will naturally fall to 'her' in the
o f sex i sm , t h ey c reate at ea ch m a na g em ent
 early years. So it means she is unable to progress
u n c o n sc i o u s b i as w i thi n l evel ( E l s es s er, 2019).
 as easily and has to make choices which a man
the wo rkp lac e (A g a r s, Unc o ns c i o us bi a s w i thi n doesn't have to. This can very quickly mean
2 0 0 4 ). This p rov i des s o c i ety c a n prevent a women can get "stuck" lower down the
an i n si gh t i n to th e fa c t wo m a n’s i ni ti a l a m bi ti o ns professional ladder, leading to imbalance in
that wo m en are “ 1 7 % of c a reer s uc c es s. senior management."
m o re li kely” th an m en to Tr a di ti o na l bi a s es di c tate Respondent Twenty Nine.
asp i re to exec u ti ve ro l es that do m es ti c wo rk i s
(B ai n , 2 0 1 8 ) yet o nl y natur a l l y a s s o c i ated
“1 4 % o f m aj o r b r a nds w i th wo m en, pro hi bi ti ng
are h ead ed by a f em a l e thei r ec o no m i c po tenti a l
exec u ti ve” (Fri edm a n, ( Uni ted N ati o ns, 2 0 2 0 ) ,
2 0 1 8 ). T h u s, su g ges ti ng a nd a l l ow i ng em pl oyer s "I went for a 2nd round job interview & the
that a lac k o f asp i r ati o n to di s m i s s a wo m a n due to male ceo asked me if I was married & if I was
is n o t a b ar ri er to su c c es s. m o ther ho o d a nd do m es ti c planning to have children & said the job was
 res po ns i bi l i ti es ( Va n- very demanding implying I wouldn’t be suitable
The i d eo lo g y of the E l ven, 2 0 1 8 ) ( F i g ure 1 0 ) . as a potential young mother. I lost out on the job
 to a male!"
 Respondent Fifty One.

 Figure 10 - Primary Research,
 Author’s Own

 T H I RT Y T WO
PA RT T H R E E G LO BA L G L A S S C E I L I N G

 F i g u r e 1 1 M c K i n s e y ‘ Wo m e n I n T h e
 Wo r k p l a c e 2 0 2 0 ’ .
 R E P R E S E N TAT I O N B Y C O R P O R AT E
 RO L E , B Y G E N D E R & R AC E I N 2 0 2 0
 (%)

 MATRIX OF
 DOMINATION
 ENTRY LEVEL SENIOR VP

 MANAGER C-SUITE

 Figure 12 Adapted from Collins 1990
 SENIOR MANAGER Vice President

 5.7%
 13%

 RAC
 19.9%
 9.4%

 34%
 E
 ER PEO
 PLE
 WOMEN
 D OF
 15.8% 11.3%
 COL
 WHITE OUR
 OF EN

 N
 WOMEN M

 GE
 COLOUR O

 SE
 17.8%
 W

 XU
 WHITE
 PEOPLE
 MEN

 AL
 17%
 16.4%
 LGBTQIA+

 ITY
 22.6%
 DOMIANT
 17.1%
 HETEROSEXUAL,
 CIS
 WORKING GROUP

 CLASS
 MIDDLE -
 CLASS
 UPPER
 IDEOLOGY
Fu rther mo re, i n d i vi d u als a re M atr i x o f D o m i nati o n ( F i g u re CLASS WHITE, MALE,
conditioned i n to ac c e p ti n g so c i eta l 1 2 ) s ug g es ts that g ender i s no t a HETEROSEXUAL, CIS,
 YOUNG, ENGLISH, ABLE,

 OR
gend er nor m s th at are m an i fes ted s o l e s ta ndpo i nt w i thi n s o c i ety, a s MIDDLE CLASS
 YOUNG
in s tereotyp i c al p er so n ali ty tr a i ts. i ndi v i dua l s a l l der i ve a va r y ing

 RY NG
 D
T he u nco n sc i o u s b i as i s fo r m ed a m o unt o f pr i v i l eg e reg a rdi ng ENGLISH

 OL
 VE OU
 SPEAKING
when we asso c i ate trad i ti o na l thei r over a l l s o c i eta l s ta ndpoint

 AG
 Y
 ABLE

 RY
leader ship ch arac teri sti c s s uch ( E dl es & A ppel ro uth, 2 0 0 7 ) . T hus, O
 TH

 E
 E

 VE
as ‘tou ghn ess’ w i th m en , yet i t i s i m po r ta nt to under s ta nd that
 ER

 G
when wo m en d i sp lay thes e s l ow s uc c es s i o n fo r wo m en i n work

 UA
as sertive trai ts, th ey are p erc ei ved c a nno t be at tr i buted to g ender G
‘a g g ress ive’ (Van -E lven , 2 0 1 9 ) . a l o ne, to s ug g es t thi s wo ul d be N DISABLED
 to no t ta k e i nto a c c o unt a l l o th er LA
Societa l p o si ti o n i s m ad e up fa c to r s that c a n c a us e unc o ns c i ous ABILITY
of a va ri ety o f f ac to r s o ther bi a s i n c o m bi nati o n w i th g end er,
tha n g en d er. Co lli n’s (19 9 0 ) pa r ti c ul a rl y r a c e ( F i g ure 1 1).

 T H I RT Y F O U R T H I RT Y F I V E
PA RT T H R E E G LO BA L G L A S S C E I L I N G

 F i g u r e 1 3 - M c K i n s e y & C o m p a n y.

 PYSCHOLOGICAL
 BARRIERS
An in t er n ali sati o n o f gender s tereo ty pes that s ug g es t the
stereo typ es resu lts fro m wo rl d w a s no t des i g ned fo r
p er p etu ati o n o f gen d er bi a s ; wo m en to s uc c eed ( A deg o k e,
therefo re, th e g lass c ei li n g c a n 2 0 1 9 ) ( F i g ure 1 3 ) . I m po s ter
become a psychological bar rier s y ndro m e i nc rea s es fo r
p reven ti n g em p loym ent wo m en o f c o l o ur, a s they
successi o n (Rh o d e, 2 0 0 7 ) . m a k e up a s m a l l pro po r ti o n
T his lac k o f c o n f i denc e o f c -s ui te j o bs, therefo re
leads to wo m en q u esti oni ng thi s l a c k o f re pres entati o n
their ow n talen ts, u lti m atel y c a n c reate the i l l us i o n that
shy ing aw ay f ro m wo rkp l a c e there i s l i ttl e po s s i bi l i ty UNSURE
authori ty (A llen , 2 0 1 8 ). T hi s fo r a dva nc em ent ( N a nc e- 14.5%
u ltim ately c o n tri bu tes to over N a s h, 2 0 2 0 ) . T hus, i m po s ter
two th i rd s o f f ash i o n reta i l s y ndro m e po tenti a l l y i s no t a
b oa rd p o si ti o n s b ei n g h el d by ps ycho l o g i c a l ba r r i er but a n
men (M arti n an d F i sh , 2 0 2 0 ) . a c c ur ate s o c i et a l i s s ue that i s
 i nter na l i s ed, a nd w i thi n the
T he in ter n al g lass c ei li n g ha s fa s hi o n i ndus tr y m a ni fes te d
la sting ef f ec ts o n wo m en’s i nto the l a c k o f re pres entati o n
successi o n , as th ey b eg i n o f wo m en w i thi n the c -s ui te.
to vi ew th em selves a s a 53%
‘s u b o rd i n ate’ g ro u p vi ew i ng D ue to the g l a s s c ei l i ng YES
the wo rld f ro m th e ‘ d o m i na nt’ ex hi bi ti ng i ts el f bo th a s a
 32.5%
(ma le) p er sp ec ti ve (Sm i th, s o c i eta l a nd m enta l o bs ta c l e
 NO
2005). Patri arch al no r m s fo r wo m e n, we a rg ua bl y
are h en c efo rth i n ter n al i s ed, bec o m e a c c us to m ed to no t
p reven ti n g wo rkp l a c e s eei ng wo m en i n po s i ti o ns
successi o n . T h i s c an m ani fes t o f power, thus we a c c e pt Do you t hi nk wom e n are m ore li ke ly t o ac c e p t
itself i n to i m p o ster syn d ro m e, that wo m en bei ng a bs ent i n lowe r p ai d j ob s as i t i s d e e m e d ‘ t he nor m ’ t hat
suf fered by 6 6 % o f wo m en, thes e po s i ti o ns i s the ‘ no r m ’ wom e n are p ai d le ss?
which argu ably d eri ves fro m ( R ho de, 2 0 0 7 ) ( F i g ure 1 4 ) .
 Figure 14- Primary Research,
 Author’s Own

 T H I RT Y S I X T H I RT Y S E V E N
04
Language & Gender
 Bias

 Image Fourteen - Google Images
L A N G UAG E & B I A S

 Conditioned and
 Unintentional?

 Image Fifteen - BBC

Gender d i sc ri m i n ati o n is w i thi n a wo m a n is o ften
 ter m’ Girl Bos s ’ ra is es the
emb edd ed w i th i n ever yday di s m i s s ed a s bo s s i nes s r ather
 lis tener s attention to the
lang u ag e, h ei gh ten i n g the tha n a m bi ti o n, a nd pena l i s ati o n
 feminine a s pect of the ter m,
occu r ren c e o f c asu al s ex i s m , o c c ur s due to the di s r upti o n of
 deny ing women the potentia l
deeming it n o r m ati ve a nd s o c i ety ’s no r m s ( M eneg atti &
 to be worthy of ‘C EO ’ or
conseq u en tly ac ti vati n g gender Rubi ni , 2 0 1 7 ) . H enc efo r th, m a l e
 ‘Bos s ’, a s it’s unus ua l to
s tereoty p es, even o c c u r ri n g i n pro g res s i o n c o nti nues w i thi n
 atta ch the g ender of a ma n
those who reject all for ms of gender the wo rk pl a c e, rei nfo rc i ng th e
 to the word bos s (Ander s on,
bia s (Men eg atti & Ru b i n i , 2 01 7 ) . c o nc e pti o n that fa s hi o n fro m
 2020). Further more, it ha s
 the o uts i de a ppea r s do m i nated
 become ironic that a ter m
Lang u ag e b i as h as b ec o m e s o by wo m en but ul ti m atel y o nl y
 v iewed a s a feminis t s log a n is
s u b tle wh e reby i t i s n atu ral to no m en c a n pro g res s to the c -s ui te.
 often printed on fa s t fa s hion
long er no ti c e sex i st assu m p ti o ns
 t-s hirts, whereby more
within sp eech , h i gh li gh ti n g that T he ter m ‘ Gi rl B o s s ’ pro pel l ed by
 often tha n not the t-s hirt
s ociety i s sti ll f u n d am enta l l y the N a s ty Ga l br a nd ( Spr att, 2 0 2 0)
 its elf wa s ma nufa ctured in
s exis t (Sh ari atm ad ari , 2 0 1 6 ) . prov i des i ts el f a s a s i g ni fi c a n t
 a s weats hop (Spratt, 2020).
Gendered lan gu age c an esta bl i s h ex a m pl e o f g endered l a ng ua g e
 Ev idently la ng ua g e not only
its elf th ro u gh c ert ai n wo rds under m i ni ng em powered wo m en.
 reinforces ca s ua l s ex is m but
being d eem ed trad i ti o n a l l y I t i s o ften us ed to l a bel wo m en
 ca n ma s k it throug h s elling
ma sculin e o r f em i n i n e, wh ereby ow ned br a nds, rei nfo rc i ng
 cons umer s ‘g los s y ’ la ng ua g e
lea d er shi p an d exec u ti ve ro l es the tro pe that a m a l e C E Os
 feminis m that cover s up the
ca n b e a sso c i ated w i th typ i c a l l y a re s ti l l the defa ul t w i thi n the
 ver y thing Feminis m, a s a
‘mas cu li n e’ wo rd s. T h u s, the i ndus tr y, m a k i ng wo m en C E O s
 conce pt, a ims to combat.
pos sess ion o f th ese q u al i ti es the a no m a l y ( Spr att, 2 0 2 0 ) . T h e

 F O RT Y F O RT Y O N E
PA RT F O U R L A N G UAG E & B I A S

 M O ST M A L E- C A R EER BI A SED L A N GUAGES

 01 DANISH 04 DUTCH 07 HEBREW

 02 GERMAN 05 ROMANIAN 08 SWEDISH

 03 NORWEIGAN 06 ENGLISH 09 MANDARIN

 F i g u r e 1 5 - Ta b l e a d a p t e d f r o m F o r b e s , 2 0 2 0 .

T he a sy m m etri es o f p ower a re s ubtl y re pro duc ed w i thi n l a ng ua g e,
work ing i n th e f avo u r o f m en, rei nfo rc i ng s tereo ty pi c a l bel i efs
a b out gen d er an d tan g i bl e di s c r i m i nati o n a g a i ns t wo m en
(Meneg atti an d Ru b i n i , 2 01 7 ) . Gendered l a ng ua g e m a i nta i ns pre-
existing so c i etal gen d er b i a s, a l l ow i ng us to rei nfo rc e s ex i s t bel i ef s
s u b cons c i o u sly h eld ab o u t wo m en’s ro l es w i thi n the wo rk pl a c e
in comp ari so n to th e ro le o f m en ( Sto k es, 2 0 2 0 ) . T hus, l a ng ua g e
holds wo m en b ac k f ro m rea chi ng thei r ful l po tenti a l w i thi n the
work p la c e. G en d er stereo types w i thi n s o c i ety w i l l no t di s s o l ve until
the end o r sem en t o f c asu a l s ex i s m , pa r ti c ul a rl y ref l ec ted w i thi n
the u se o f lan gu age i s ad j us ted ( M eneg atti a nd Rubi ni , 2 0 1 7 ) .
 Image Sixteen - Missguided, Instagram

 F O RT Y T WO F O RT Y T H R E E
05
THE BEAUTY
 IDEAL

 Image Seventeen - Google Images
PA RT F I V E T H E B E AU T Y I D E A L

LACK OF DIVERSITY
T h e s ocially c o n stru c t ed f em i ni ne be a uty i dea l i s a hetero no r mative
con ce pt ing rai n ed w i th i n th e f a s hi o n i ndus tr y, m a i nta i ni ng that a woma n’s
appea ra nce is h er key asset (Igi n l a , 2 0 1 9 ) . I t bui l ds o n the to o l s o f o ppres s ion

 Image Eighteen- Vogue, 2017
reinforcing sexi sm , rac i sm an d a bl ei s m , a l l ow i ng the i ndus tr y to prey on a
wom an’s insec u ri ti es wh i lst o f ten s el l i ng her em power m ent ( D efi no, 2020).

Social Comparison
B ody insecu rity h as b een c u ltu r a l l y bea uty i dea l thro ug h the s o l e featuring
in duced in wom en , th ro u gh o u t h i s to r y o f yo ung, thi n, a nd whi te m o d els a nd
to present day, wo m en’s b o d i es have i nf l uenc er s a s a n a s pi r ati o na l nor m for
con s ta ntly been o b j ec ti f i ed i n the i ts c o ns um er s ( Per thui s a nd F indlay,
n ame of bea u ty (I-D, 2 0 1 4 ). T he 2 0 1 9 ) . A rg ua bl y l ea di ng to ‘ U pwa rd
cul tura l f ixati o n o f wo m en’s b o dy So c i a l C o m pa r i s o n’ ( A ppendices
types, and the c o n ti nu ati o n o f b ra nds F i ve) a c ro s s wo m en o f a l l a g es,
h ighlig hting an ‘ i d eal’ b o dy i m a g e, who a re c o ndi ti o ned i nto a cce pting
l eads to a n inc rease i n wo m en’s bo dy that a ppea r a nc e is s y no ny mous
dissatis f action d u e to so c i etal p res s ure w i th i denti ty, henc efo r th res ulting
in relation to b o dy c o m p ari so n (Fra nzo i i n a l a c k o f s el f-es teem due to a n
et a l, 2021). Bran d s p ro p ag ate the unatta i na bl e i dea l ( Fr a nzo i e t a l , 2021).

Tokenism
W hen the bea u ty i d eal i s strayed f ro m whi l s t the br a nd s i mul ta neo us l y refus es
( Figure 16&17 ), d i ver si ty i s o ften to em pl oy B l a c k wo m en pa s t entr y level
 Figure 16 & 17 - The Fashion Spot,(2019), Diversity at NYFW 2020
marketed as a profit buzzword in order to ( C o o per, 2 0 2 0 ) . B r a nds o ft en rema in
mon etise movem en ts fo r ch an ge (Ca s ey, c l o s e to E uro c entr i c bea uty s ta nda rds,
2021) rather th an to tru ly c eleb r ate o ften uti l i s i ng to k eni s m a s a d iver s ity
wom en’s diver si ty. Co n su m er s d em a nd s tr ateg y that s uppo r ts ex i s ti ng c a pita lis t
advo cacy and i n c lu si o n f ro m b ra nds s tr uc tures ( Seng upta , 2 0 1 8 ) . H owever,
in stantly, rather th an ‘ Lag g ard ’ (F ig ure w i th “ 9 9 % o f the po pul ati on” not
18) rea ctive res p o n ses (Mc K i n sey, 2 0 2 0 ) c o nfo r m i ng to fa s hi o n’s ex i s ti ng bea uty
often lea d ing to To ken i sm rath er tha n i dea l , a l a rg e c o ns um er dem o g ra phic
auth entic d iver si ty. T h u s, to keni s m i s a l i enated when di ver s i ty i s utilis ed
al l ud es to equ ali ty o f ten th ro u g h a a s a ti c k -box trend ( H o s k i ns, 2017) or
capitalis ation o f f o f Blac k c u lture, em pl oyed to ex pl o i t wo m en fo r profit.
or the Black L i ves M atter m ovem ent,

 F O RT Y S I X F O RT Y S E V E N
PA RT F I V E T H E B E AU T Y I D E A L

 Image Nineteen - Google Images

 R O G E R ’ S D I F F U S I O N O F I N N OVA T I O N
 Figure 18 - Google Images

 THE TRIPARTITE INFLUENCE MODEL
 Figure 19 - Author’s Own, Adapted from Tiggeman et al, 2016.

 SEL F ESTEEM

The Fashion Media
 C OM PA R IS ON
O stracization o f p lu s-si zed wo m en, that the i ndus tr y c o ns ta ntl y pus hes DRIVE F OR
 THINNESS
in p articu la r, i n th e i n d u str y rem i nds wo m en to a s pi re to the ‘ thi n idea l’
women that strayi n g aw ay f ro m the ( I m a g e 1 9 ) . T he fa s hi o n m ed ia is
standard is ed d ef i n i ti o n o f f em i n ini ty a c o re ‘ s o c i o c ul tur a l tr a ns m itter’
can neg atively d i f f ere n ti ate them ( F i g ure 1 9 ) o f the i dea l , m a i nta ining S O C I O C U LT U R A L B ODY
 BUL IMIA
 IN FLU EN CES D I S S AT IS FAC T I ON
( Peter s, 2014 ). Plu s-si zed c lo thi ng a k ey ro l e i n bo dy di s s ati s fa c ti o n due
can often b eg i n f ro m a si ze 1 4 , when to the per va s i venes s o f per petu ating
 ‘Fam i l y’
th e averag e U K wo m an i s a s i ze the thi n i dea l ( T i g g em en et a l , 2016). ‘M edi a’
 ‘Peer s’
 DEPRESSION
16, a llowing b ran d s to c reate a n M a ny wo m en henc efo r th i nter na lis e INTERNALISATION
il l usion that th ey are ac c o m m o d ati ng thi s i dea l a nd a c c e pt i t a s thei r own,
l arger women wh i lst s i mu ltan eo us l y due to i ts c o ns i s tent do m i na n ce in
dif ferentiating th em (Ban f i eld , 2 0 2 0 ) . m edi a , thus l e a di ng to di s s ati s faction
 RESTRICTION
T hus, the la c k o f re p resen tati o n o f w i th thei r ow n bo di es to become
pl us-s ized wo m en c em en ts th e i dea i nter na l i s ed ( Greenfi el d, 2018).

 F O RT Y E I G H T F O RT Y N I N E
Image Twenty One - Google Images

 PA RT F I V E T H E B E AU T Y I D E A L

 Image Twenty - Google Images

T h e promotio n o f th i s i d eal enha nc es o ppres s i o n.
Women who d o n’t c o n fo r m to i t are us ed a s ‘ to k ens ’ fo r
expres sing them s elves th ro u gh d i f ferenc e, o r they a re
en cou ra ged to m an i p u late th ei r i d enti ty i nto s o m ethi ng
th at cor respo n d s w i th th e i d ea l ( Peter s, 2 0 1 4 ) .

 FIFTY FIFTY ONE
PA RT F I V E T H E B E AU T Y I D E A L
 Image Twenty Two - Instagram

 GENDER & AGEISM
 the grey pound

Societa l p ressu res c o n d i ti o n a bo ut a g ei ng i n o rder t o pro fi t
women i n to c o n stan tly aspi r i ng o f f o f pro duc ts that pro m i s e
for youth f u ln ess (To raj ad a et a l , the ha r m ful , ‘ a nti -a g ei ng ’
2018). Bran d s trad i ti o n ally fo c us i deo l o g y ( A deg ees t, 2020).
solely o n Mi llen n i al an d Gen Z T he pro m o ti o n o f a g el es s nes s
cons u mer s, ali en ati n g th e la rg es t enc o ur a g es wo m en t o c o m pl y
cons u mer g ro u p c o m p ri si ng o f w i th the bea uty i dea l , da m a g i ng
Ba by Bo o m er s wh o c o n tri buted s el f-es teem , a nd pro m o ti ng a n
£ 12.2bn i n 2 0 1 9 to th e to ta l unhea l t hy bo dy i m a g e ( L ew i s
U K f as h i o n sp en d (D i van aus k a s, et a l , 2 0 0 9 ) . H owever, 7 8 % o f
2020). T h e i n tri n si c ag ei s m thi s dem o g r a phi c feel under-
d is p rop o rti o n ately af fec ts re pres ented by fa s hi o n ( M i l es,
women, as th ey are i nu n d ated 2 0 1 9 ) a s a rg ua bl y o l der wo m en
with i d eali sed i m ages of a re di s c o ur a g ed fro m eng a g i ng
‘you ng, u n blem i sh ed b o d i es ’ , in a fa s hi o na bl e l i fes ty l e
encou ra gi n g th em to c o n fo r m to thro ug h a br a nds refus a l to
the ‘a geless’ i d eal (Lew i s et a l , c ater to them . B r a nds o f fer
2009). A f u n d am en tal rej ec ti o n unfa s hi o na bl e a nd a g e-s i g ni fy i ng
of a wom an’s agei n g b o dy o c c ur s, s ty l es i ntendi ng to c o nc ea l the
resulting i n exp lo i tati o n th ro ug h bo dy o f the o l der c o ns um er,
the ind u str y’s d esi re to p ray o n a deem i ng a ny thi ng el s e no t ‘ a g e-
woma n’s c o n d i ti o n ed i n sec ur i ty a ppro pr i ate’ ( L ew i s et a l , 2 0 0 9 ) .

 Image Twenty Three - Instagram
 F I F T Y T WO FIFTY THREE
PA RT F I V E

Fe t i s h i s a t i o n O f Yo u t h

Along si d e t h e exp lo i tati o n o f a g ei ng m i r ro r s s o c i ety ’s ow n
a ge-insec u ri ty f ash i o n i n sti l s i n s ta nda rds when c o ns i der i ng the
older wo m en , th e f eti sh i sati o n bea uty o f wo m en. T hus, wo m en
of you th i n th e i n d u str y ag a i n o f a l l a g e s a re fo rc ed to fi t the
dis p rop o rti o n ately af f ec ts hetero no r m ati ve bea uty i dea l .
women. In m o d elli n g yo uth
intertwi n es w i th vu ln erabi l i ty,
making young and inexperienced
women easy to take ad van ta g e
of (Hal l, 2 0 2 0 ). F u rth er m o re,
the rig i d stru c tu res o f sex i s m
within th e i n d u str y fo rc es yo ung
women to an alyse p h o to s o n
s ocial m ed i a, an d i n m ag az i nes
at a hig h er c o m p arati ve deta i l
than that o f o ld er c o n su m er s
(Lewis et al, 2 0 0 9 ) m aki n g them
more s u sc e p ti ble to ex p lo i tati o n.

Fashion is a de piction of society’s
cultu ra l i d eals (Okwo d u , 20 1 6 )
 Image Twenty Four - Google Images

s u g g es ti n g th at th e ad ver s e
unacce p tan c e of wo m en’s

 FIFTY FOUR
06
MARKETING
 FEMINISM

 Image Twenty Five - Google Images
PA RT S I X MARKETING FEMINISM

 Images Twenty Six - Google Images

 AT T I T U D E B E H AV I O U R A L G A P
 Figure 20 - Author’s Own, Adapted from Becker-Leifhold &
 Heur, 2018.

 Bridg ing the attitude-behav ioura l white ma le, reinforc ing str u c tu r al
 g a p (Fig ure 20) a ppea ls to the inequa lities (Windel s et al , 2019) .
 ‘va lues ’ of the ethica l cons umer,
 therefore bra nds underta k e ca us e Alter natively, fa s hion is em b r ac ing
 related ma rk eting to a f filiate Feminis m’s fourth w ave, ad op ting
 their products to cur rent is s ues the politicis ation of f ashion
 (Fa rche et a l, 2007). As cons umer s (T itton, 2019). T h u s, the foc u s
 favour bra nds that s ha re a nd of women’s empower m ent sel l s
 hig hlig ht their per s ona l va lues Feminis m ba ck to wom en throu gh
 (Beck er-L eifhold & Heur, 2018) cha ng ing the portr ayal of wom en
 Femvertis ing a llows bra nds to within fa s hion m ed ia ( Varghese
 incor porate low- level a ctiv is m to a nd Kuma r, 2020). Consid er abl y,
 sell products in the name of women’s Femvertis ing often f ail s to
 empower ment (Anderton, 2020). cha mpion diver s ity, w ith you ng
 However, when fa s hion bra nds white women commonl y b eing u sed
 a re dominated by men (Fig ure 21, in ‘empower ment m arketing’ ( Earl ,
 Pa g e 61) the s elling of ‘C ommodity 2018), a nd when this stand ard
 Feminis m’ los es the orig ins of is s trayed from, inter sec tional ity

FEMVERTISING Feminis t idea ls, tra ns lating it into
 the la ng ua g e of the ‘domina nt’
 is often ma rk eted as a d iver sity
 marketing strateg y (Sobande, 2019).

 FIFTY EIGHT FIFTY NINE
PA RT S I X MARKETING FEMINISM

 Images Twenty Seven - Google Images

 G E N D E R PAY G A P TA B L E 2 0 1 8 / 1 9
T hus, su g gesti n g th at the
 Figure 21 - Amount earned by women for every pound earned
ma rk eti n g of wo m en’s
 by men, Top Ten Companies with largest gap - Drapers 2019
emp ower m en t is o f ten an
exploitati o n of Fem i ni s t
mess ag es t h at en h a nc es the Male Ga ze ( M ul vey, 1 SWEATY BETTY 6 MISSGUIDED
cor porate p ro f i teer i ng 1 9 7 5 ) ( A ppendi c es Si x ) that
(Varghese an d Ku m ar, 2 0 2 0 ) . di c tates the fa s hi o n i ndus tr y 2 MINT VELVET 7 MONSOON
 thro ug h the do m i na nc e o f
Ma rk eti n g e m p ower m en t is m a l e C E O s. Fem ver ti s i ng by 3 YOURS CLOTHING 8 FARFETCH
of ten pu rely an i n ter n ali sati o n m a l e r a n br a nds m a ni pul ates
of soc i etal stan d ard s that the c o ns um er i nto v i ew i ng the 4 KAREN MILLEN 9 ASOS
de pict wh at ‘ attrac ti ve wo m en’ em power m ent o f wo m en fro m
look like (Wi n d els et al, 2 0 1 9 ) . the per s pec ti ve o f, us ua l l y, the
C ons iderably, Fem verti s i ng
 5 PHASE EIGHT 10 CATH KIDSTON
 whi te m a l e C E O, s ubtr a c ti ng
is p erh ap s an exten si o n o f a l l em power m ent fro m wo m en.

 SIXTY SIXTY ONE
PA RT S I X MARKETING FEMINISM

 Image Twenty Eight - Reshared by Missguided on Instagram - CEO is Nitin Passi [male]

 THE NEW GAZE
T he fas h i o n i n d u str y i s p o si ti o ned hetero s ex ua l whi te m en a l l ow i ng
at the fo ref ro n t o f th e s o c i a l s o c i a l m edi a to rei nfo rc e a s ex i s t,
med ia p h en o m en o n , em b ra c i ng a nd r a c i s t, patr i a rcha l s y s tem
it’s inf luen c e an d p ower (A hm a d whereby the online world is a direct
et a l, 2 0 1 5 ). T h erefo re, s o c i a l ref l ec ti o n o f the o f f l i ne wo rl d ( E l-
med ia s d o m i n an c e i n f as hi o n Wa rda ny, 2 0 2 0 ) . B r a nds pa r ta ke
ha s po ten ti ally re p lac ed the i n thi s per petuati o n o f s o c i et y ’s
Ma le Gaze w i th th e D i gi tal Ga ze s tr uc tur a l bi a s es thro ug h refus i n g
whereby self -em p ower m ent i s to dem o c r ati s e thei r br a nd, a nd
in the han d s o f th e u ser (Jo nes, the c o nti nuati o n o f pa r ta k i n g
2018). H en c efo rth p u tti n g the i n whi tew a s hed m a rk eti ng on
power b ac k i n th e h an d s o f s o c i a l m edi a ( M o nda l ek , 2 0 2 0). s tereoty pica l bea uty idea l when
women. T h e c o n c e p t o f sha r i ng F ur ther m o re, social m edia ma rk eting due to fea r s of a la ck
imag es on so c i al m ed i a h as shi fted i ts el f rei nfo rc es a c ens o r s hi p of eng a g ement, or the ris k of
the power o f ow n er sh i p to the of wo m en w i th I ns ta g r a m ’s hav ing content hidden a s a res ult. the Ma le Ga ze thus view ing their
s harer of th e i m age (Jo n es, 20 1 8 ) ‘ s ha dow ba nni ng ’ po l i cy bodies a s objects, throu gh the
thu s when i m ages o f wo m en a re ( A ppendi c es Seven) k now n to T hroug h cens oring women’s eyes of the obs erver ( Cal ogero,
s hared o n b ran d s so c i al m edi a di s pro po r ti o natel y a f fec t wo m en voices, a nd only hig hlig hting 2004). Arg ua bly the c ensor ship
pag es, bu t th e b ran d i s m a l e o f m a rg i na l i s ed c o m muni ti es. them throug h ma le dominated of women who d on’t c onfor m
ran, the i m age i s sti ll la rg el y T hus, I ns ta g r a m i s bi a s i n favo ur s pheres there is potentia l to the s ta nda rdis ed b eau ty id eal
dictated by th e Male Ga ze. o f whi te, c i s, wo m en s hunni n g for the continuation of Self- (Ba iley, 2009) wil l l ead to the
 vo i c es o f di ver s i ty ( E l - Wa rda ny, O bjectification (Fredrick s on a nd continuation of the op p ression,
T he d ig i tal wo rld , si m i larl y, to 2 0 2 0 ) . T hi s po l i c y enc o ur a g es th e Roberts, 1997). W hereby women a nd objectification of wom en’s
fas hion’s sp h ere, i s d o m i n ated by c o nti nuati o n o f br a nds us i ng th e a re conditioned to inter na lis e bodies within the ind u str y.

 S I X T Y T WO SIXTY THREE
07
SOLUTIONS

 Image Twenty Nine - Google Images
PA RT S E V E N S O LU T I O N S

 Image Thirty- Google Images

 Figure 22 - Factors For
 Change Framework,
 Author’s own framework,
 Weston, 2021.

 FA C T O R S F O R
 CHANGE
Society ’s c o n ti nu ati o n of F i g ure 2 2 hi g hl i g hts that t he
b enevolen t sex i sm h as b ec o m e pr i m a r y c a pa bi l i ty fo r i nf l uenc i n g
a stand ard i sed so c i ali sati o n cha ng e w i thi n fa s hi o n, reg a rdi n g
p roces s, wh ereby i t i s su b tle a nd s ex i s m , w i l l be a s hi ft i n s o c i eta l
u ncons cio u s (M ad sen , 2020). no r m s ( Wes to n, 2 0 2 1 ) . I t s ug g es ts
Society ’s stan d ard i sed sex i sm i s that the s ec o nda r y s pheres of
thus per p etu ated ac ro ss all ag ents cha ng e – br a nd a c ti o n, c us to mer
of socia lisat i o n an d stru c tu res o f res po ns es, a nd l eg i s l ati o n c a n
inf luence (Balvi n , 2 0 1 7 ). Fash i o n’s o nl y be ef fec ti ve a s s ho r t-ter m
sexism p ro blem i s th e refo re s o l uti o ns but w i l l c o nt r i bute to
intrinsically li n ked w i th so c i ety ’s the des i red l o ng -ter m s o l uti o n of Society needs to beg in the proces s of unlea r ning s ocia lly cons truc ted re p resentations
own problems. As society continues s o c i eta l s hi ft. I n the l o ng -ter m of g ender (Ak demir, 2018), a s the s ocia lis ation proces s compel s m en and wom en to
to p reva i l th i s u n c o n sc i o u s bi a s i ndi v i dua l s w i l l beg i n to unl ea r n a dhere to white patria rchy whereby, we buy into g ender bina r y exp ec tations ( Lu a,
toward s gen d er th e so lu ti o n to what they a re s o c i a l i s ed to bel i eve 2019). T hus, a s Fig ure 22 hig hlig hts, a lthoug h the ultimate sol u tion to end ing
f as hion’s p ro blem i s p o ten ti a l l y i s ‘ no r m a l ’ when ta ug ht na r row s ex is m is the prima r y fa ctor of s ocieta l s hift, the s econda r y sp heres for change
long ter m , an d mu lti f ari o us. g ender ro l es ( Uw uj a ren, 2 0 1 4 ). a re the immediate s olutions that ca n contribute to a chiev in g l ong-ter m change.

 SIXTY SIX SIXTY SEVEN
PA RT S E V E N S O LU T I O N S

 Image Thirty Two - Google Images

 Image Thirty One - Sustainable Fashion Forum

S E C O N DAY S P H E R E S :
 Consumer Response

 C ons u mer s o f ten d i sasso c i ate o f a c c o unta bi l i ty ( A hr a m , 2 0 2 0).
 their ram p an t c o n su m eri sm f ro m I f we v i ew the fa s hi o n s y s tem a s
 the women i t exp lo i ts th ro ug h a pro duc t o f c a pi ta l i s m , M a r x i sm
 the alienati o n o f lab o u r (G am bl e, wo ul d hi g hl i g ht that i t i s a n
 2016) (Im age 2 8 ). Co m b ati ng ex pl o i tati ve s y s tem that no l o ng er Ef fective Legislation
 s exis m, i n th i s reg ard , li es i n a l l ow s c o ns um er s to have eno ugh
 a consum er’s ab i li ty to red uc e power i n a dvo c ati ng fo r cha ng e
 consump ti o n h ab i ts w i th b ra nds ( H o bbes, 2 0 1 5 ) . H owever, when I mprov ing cur rent leg is lation is 2020). L eg is lation h enc efor th c an b e
 that inheren tly exp lo i t wo m en c o ns i der i ng c us to m er a c ti o n a s a n importa nt fa ctor for cha ng e, a s utilis ed a s a tool to p rom ote c u l tu r al
 (Bramley, 2 0 2 0 ) b o th o n thei r a c o ntr i buti ng fa c to r fo r cha ng e, cur rent leg is lative pra ctices s uch cha ng e within the i nd u str y ( Fashion
 s u p p ly chai n , an d i n th ei r i n ter na l a nd no t the s o l e pr i m a r y s o l uti o n , a s the 2020 Equa lity Act (GOV UK, Revolution, 2020) aim ing to achieve
 comp any. A lth o u gh , c o n su m er s i t’s i m po r ta nt fo r c o ns um er s to 2021) have not completely the long -ter m s olution of soc ietal
 have the p o ten ti al to ed uc ate c o m muni c ate, as pa r ti c ul a rly protected women from work pla ce cha ng e. As s ince the introd u c tion of
 brands on their ethical preferences, fo l l ow i ng C OV I D -1 9 l i s teni n g dis crimination. I n 2020 nine out the Equa lity Act the w age g ap has
 the pra cti c e o f blam i n g c o n su m er to the c o ns c i o us c o ns um er w ill of ten women s till work ed for dropped 4% (O NS, 2020) , su g gesting
 choice fo r an i ssu e th at i s be a k ey bus i nes s s tr ateg y for compa nies that pay them les s tha n that a ll s olutions to gend er eq u al ity
 inherently system ati c , ri d s b ra nds br a nds ( H a c k enberg, 2 0 2 1). their ma le counter pa rts (I ndv ik , a re long -ter m rather than im m ed iate.

 SIXTY EIGHT SIXTY NINE
PA RT S E V E N S O LU T I O N S

 R E C O M M E N DAT I O N S :
 Brand Action

 Perha p s w i th i n th e sec o n da r y the wo m ens wea r m a rk et. Str ateg ic
 spheres of ch an ge b ran d ac ti o n dr i ft po tenti a l l y o c c ur s i f th e
 hold s the m o st i n f lu en c e w i th i n the br a nd l o s es to uch w i th the needs
 indu str y. Su c c essf u l o rg an i sati o ns o f the env i ro nm ent, ul ti m ately
 trans for m th em selves i nto di s a l l ow i ng the br a nd to perc ei ve
 inclu sive wo rk envi ro n m ents i ts ta rg et c o ns um er ’s needs
 whereby th e b en ef i ts o f d i ver s e ( F utureL ea r n, 2 0 2 0 ) ( F i g ure 2 3).
 teams are u ti li sed (Cata l i no Str ateg i c dr i ft c a n be c o m batted
 and Mar n an e, 2 0 1 9 ), an d 6 o ut by a br a nds tr a ns fo r m ati o n to
 10 cons u m er s w i ll c o n si d er a bec o m e m o re g ender i nc l us i ve.
 b ra nd s eth i c s b efo re bu yi n g fro m T hes e s te ps a re hi g hl i g hted in
 them (Sch averi en , 2 0 1 8 ). T hus, F i g ure 2 4 , whi ch enc o m pa s ses
 a bra nd s en g agem en t w i th the the c o re fa c to r s fo r cha ng e in
 env ironm en t su r ro u n d i n g gender rel ati o n to a br a nds g end er
 d iver s ity i s vi tal, p arti c u larl y i n di ver s i fi c ati o n ( Wes to n, 2 0 2 1).

 F i g u r e 2 4 - E ff e c t i v e
 Gender Diversifaction
 Model, Author’s Own.

Figure 23 - Strategic
Drift, FutureLearn.
 SEVENTY SEVENTY ONE
PA RT S E V E N S O LU T I O N S

Tra nsparen c y d ri ves wo rkpl a c e reduc i ng the pro bl em ati c natu re
standard s i n sweatsh o p s (Fas hi o n o f ‘ o nl y ’ to k eni s m ( Snea der &
Revolutio n , 2 0 2 0 ), an d i n c -su i tes. Yee, 2 0 1 9 ) . T hro ug h thi s m ethod
Brands mu st rec o gn i se th at i t i s o f o rg a ni s ati o na l refo r m , the
d if ficult to ad d ress ch alleng es i ns ti tuti o n c a n bec o m e m ore
relating to gen d er d i ver si ty i f they aw a re o f c o m m o n, s ex i s t i s s u es
are not pre p ared to b e tran sp a rent ( C ata l i no a nd M a r na ne, 2 0 1 9).
about sex i sm w i th i n thei r
company (Wi tten b erg-Cox, 2 0 1 4 ) . F i na l l y, bo th thes e s te ps ta k en
However, statem en ts p ro m i s i ng tow a rds ‘ E f fec ti ve Gender
chang e mu st be c o m b i ned D i ver s i fi c ati o n’ mus t be done
with evi d en c e h i gh li ghti ng i n c o l l a bo r ati o n w i th wo m en
accou ntab i li ty (F i gu re 2 5 ) a nd who s ex i s m ul ti m atel y a f fec ts.
d ata to en su re c o n su m er s a re T hi s i s o f pa r ti c ul a r i m po r ta nce
shop p ing w i th a d i ver se a nd when ens ur i ng the s uc c es s of
ethica l b ran d (Wi n ter stei n , 2 0 1 6 ) . wo m en o f c o l o ur w i thi n the
 wo rk pl a c e, a s r a c i a l bi a s es mu s t
T herefore, stro n g o rg an i sati o na l a l s o be m i ti g ated, a nd i nput on
refor m forc es b ran d s to rec o g ni s e how to a chi eve thi s s ho ul d be
that wom en mu st b e h elp ed to ta k en fro m wo m en o f c o l o ur who
advance tow ard s th e c -s ui te ul ti m atel y k now what i s wo rk i ng
to combat th e leaky p i p el i ne fo r them ( M c Ki ns ey, 2 0 2 0).
(A pp endi c es E i gh t). Ch an ge mus t
occur a n d b e c o m mu n i c ated Ul ti m atel y, to rea ch tr ue br a nd
to consum er s wh en genu inel y Gender Diver sification a ref lective
evolving i n to a gen d er d i ver s e o rg a ni s ati o n w i l l s eek feedba ck
b ra nd . Bran d s mu st c o n s i der o n what hel ps a nd hi nder s
the intro d u c ti o n o f wo m en’s wo m en w i thi n the wo rk pl a c e, a nd
leader ship p ro g ram m es to cha nnel thi s i nto br a nd a c tion
advance wo m en s c areer s, ( C ata l i no a nd M a r na ne, 2 0 1 9).

 TRANSPARENCY ACCOUNTABILITY CHANGE
 Image Thirty Three - Google Images

 Figure 25 - Adapted From Common Objective & Fashion Revolution,
 2019

 S E V E N T Y T WO SIXTY SEVEN
PA RT S E V E N C O N C LU S I O N

 Image Thirty Four - Google Images

 F I N A L S U M M A RY
 & CONCLUSION

U nd oub ted ly i t i s c lear that per petuated w i thi n fa s hi o n thro u g h
the ind u str y p ro f i ts o f f o f the socially c o ns tr uc ted de pi c tions
exp loitation o f wo m en , syn o nym o us of g ender, ba s ed o n s o c i eta l
with the o p p ressi ve n atu re o f per s pec ti ve o f the s exes ( A k demir,
a p atriarch al so c i et y. T h e c o re 2 0 1 8 ) . Gender di s pa r i ty c o nti nues
p roblem a p p ear s to li e i n th e fa c t to be hi g hl i g ht ed, pa r ti c ul a rly
that the i n d u str y, li ke so c i ety, fo l l ow i ng C ov i d-1 9 , therefo re for
s till holds an o u td ated attitude br a nds t o s uc c es s ful l y c o m bat th eir
toward s wo m en (Su th erlan d , 2 02 0 ) . g ender i nequa l i ty i s s ues wh ils t
T his exhibi ts i tself i n th e 6 0 % s i mul ta neo us l y enha nc i ng thei r own
d ominance o f m ale d esi gn er s, a nd pro fi ts, they mus t c o ns i der a da pting
the 86% h ead i n g o f b ran d s by to the c ur rent env i ro nm ent, s ec uring
male CEOs (D an z i ger, 2 0 1 9 ). T hus, thei r ‘ g row th pha s e’ ( Fer ni e, 2 013)
p erhaps the c o re p ro blem li es w i th ( F i g ure 2 6 ) . Wo m en c a re a bo ut being
the continu ati o n o f trad i tio na l re pres ented by br a nds, a nd future
as sociation s w i th gen d er i n so c i ety thi nk i ng, c o ns um er s w i l l c o nti nue to
that de p icts m en as au to n o m o u s a nd c a re a bo ut the va l ues behi nd their
rationa l, a n d wo m en n o n -c o m m i tta l c l o thi ng ( Yur, 2 0 2 1 ) . H enc efo r th,
d u e to family d u ti es (G h an em , 2 0 1 7 ) . to di s m a ntl e the s tr uc tur a l s exis m
Sexist a ss o c i ati o n s w i th gender per petuated i n the i ndus tr y, wo m en’s
are p revalen t i n all i n d u stri es, no t ta l ents mus t be rec o g ni s ed, r ather
just f as hion , bu t c o n ti nu e to be tha n bei ng ex pl o i ted fo r pro fit.

 Figure 26 - Retail Life Cycle,
 Google Images.

 SEVENTY THREE SEVENTY FOUR
08
References

 Image Thirty Five - Emily Ratajkowski, Instagram
PA RT E I G H T APPENDICES

 APPENDICES

 APPENDICES ONE
 Primar y Research - Questionnaire

A p r i m a r y re s e a rch q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n c i n g E RG O n u m b e r
6 3 3 4 0 a s k i n g mu l t i p l e ch o i c e q u e s t i o n s c o n c r n i n g a r e a s f ro m
g e n d e r i n t h e f a s h i o n i n d u s t r y, t o o p i n i o n s o n m o d e r n s l ave r y
a n d u n p a i d i n t e r n s h i p s. T h e s t u d y a c q u i r e d 1 1 7 a n o ny m o u s
p a r t i c i p a n t s, a n d w a s u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g M i c ro s o f t Fo r m s w i t h a
c o n s e n t f o r m a t t a ch e d .

 AGE RANGES
 18-24: 42
 25-34: 23 84 respondents
 35-44: 13 were women
 45-54: 20 33 were men.
 55-64: 13
 65+: 6

 SEVENTY EIGHT SEVENTY NINE
PA RT E I G H T APPENDICES

 A P P E N D I C E S T WO APPENDICES THREE
 Primar y Research - Inter view M c K i n s e y ’s ‘ Wo m e n I n Wo r k : Po t e n t i a l
 Scenarios’ Concept
A p r i m a r y re s e a rch i n t e r v i e w w i t h a r e c e n t U n i ve r s i t y g r a d u a t e
l o o k i n g f o r a ro l e w o rk i n g w i t h i n t h e c r e at i ve i n d u s t r i e s w h o h a d M c K i n s ey h ave h i g h l i g h t e d t h re e p o t e n t i a l
j u s t c o m p l e t e d a n u n p a i d i n t e r n s h i p. T h e i n f o r m at i o n w a s u s e d s c e n a r i o s f o r w o m e n i n w o rk , p o s t C ov i d - 1 9 .
w h e n c o m p l e t i n g t h e ‘ m o d e r n s l ave r y ’ s e c t i o n o f t h e re p o r t a n d I t a s s u m e s t h a t t h e n e g at i ve i m p a c t o n w o m e n ,
p rov i d e d u s e f u l , a n d c o m p l i m e n t e d s e c o n d a r y r e s e a rch . f o l l o w i n g C ov i d - 1 9 r e m a i n s u n a d d r e s s e d , a n d
 studies the GDP outcomes in 2030 based off of
P ro c e s s o f E RG O w a s u s e d a g a i n u s i n g a c o n s e n t f o r m a s s h o w n t h e t h r e e s e p e r a t e a c t i o n p l a n s.
below:
 I h ave u t i l i s e d i t f ro m a n i n d u s t r y p o i n t o f v i e w,
 QUESTIONS: r at h e r t h a n a s o c i e t a l p o i n t o f v i e w t o u n d e r s t a n d
 how brands can go forward in their treatment of
 1. Would you mind stating your official job title
 and confir m whether it was an unpaid, paid,
 w o m e n i n w o rk , f o l l o w i n g t h e c r i s i s, t o c o n t r i bu t e
 or compensated internship? t o a f a i r e r s o c i e t y.
 2. What were your general day to day roles and
 responsibilities?

 APPENDICES FOUR
 3. How many hours a week did you work for the
 company and how long was your internship?
 4. Do you feel as though the work you were
 putting in was of a similar quality to someone
 being paid? S t r o b e r ’s ‘Relative Attractiveness
 5. Do you feel your role/responsibilities were Concept’
 that of paid part time/full time work or did
 you feel like an intern (someone who shadows
 someone else)? S t ro b e r ’s ‘ Re l a t i ve A t t r a c t i ve n e s s ’ c o n c e p t a rg u e s
 6. Did you enjoy your internship? t h at s e g r e g a t i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e m e n h ave t h e
 7. Do you feel as though your employer took f i r s t ch o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h at a r e ‘ re l at i ve l y ’
 advantage of the fact you were unpaid? If so
 can
 a t t r a c t i ve. T h i s ch o i c e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f
 you expand? p o w e r m e n n a t u r a l l y h o l d i n s o c i e t y, a n d w o m e n
 8. Would you do an unpaid internship again? a re o f t e n l e f t t o t a k e o n t h e l e s s a t t r a c t i ve f o r m s
 9. Do you feel it has made it easier for you to o f w o rk a s a r e s u l t . ( L ev a n o n e t a l , 2 0 0 9 ) .
 find per manent work? Or do you feel like it has
 left you open to just accepting more unpaid
 internships? I l i n k e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a rl y t o w o m e n h av i n g
 10. Do you feel as a woman it is common to to take unpaid inter nships or low paid jobs in
 expect we are paid less or encouraged to take
 ‘unpaid’ work to further our careers?
 o r d e r t o w o rk t h e i r w ay s u p t h e c a r e e r l a d d e r, i n
 11. Finally do you believe in the theory of the a comparison to the responses of various male
 glass ceiling and how does it relate to your r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h o s t at e d t h ey
 personal experiences? r a r e l y s a w t h e i r g e n d e r a s a b a r r i e r t o w o rk .

 EIGHTY EIGHTY ONE
PA RT E I G H T APPENDICES

 APPENDICES FIVE APPENDICES SEVEN
 Upward Social Comparison Theor y I n s t a g r a m ’s S h a d ow b a n n i n g Po l i c y

U pw a rd S o c i a l C o m p a r i s o n o c c u r s w h e n a n On Instagram the shadowbanning policy hides
i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r e s t h e m s e l ve s t o s o m e o n e p o s t s f ro m u s e r s w h o d o n’t f o l l o w t h e i n d i v i d u a l
t h ey b e l i eve i s s u p e r i o r. Fr a n z o i e t a l s t at e d who has been shadowbanned (Chacon, 2017). T his
t h at w o m e n a re m o r e o f t e n t h a n m e n t o p a r t a k e can henceforth lead to a lack of enagagement,
in social comparison, and more often than not a n d h i d e s u s e r s f ro m g ro w i n g t h e i r p l a t f o r m s.
t h i s i s u pw a rd , a n d f i n d t h e t h e h i g h e r s t a n d a rd T h i s p o l i c y h a s b e e n u t i l i s e d i n t h i s re p o r t t h ro u g h
is difficult to attain leading to low self-esteem. r e s e a rch h i g h l i g h t i n g t h a t S h a d o w b a n n i n g a s
I n my re s e a rch I f o u n d t h i s w a s p ro p a g at e d a p o l i c y u l t i m a t e l y d i s p ro p o r t i n at e l y a f f e c t s
with the feminine beauty ideal being upheld as w o m e n o f c o l o u r, t h u s l e a d i n g t o I n s t a g r a m
what women should aspire to within the fashion to become white male dominated, reflecting
i n d u s t r y, o f t e n re s u l t i n g i n t h e l o w s e l f - e s t e e m s o c i e t a l s ex i s t s t r u t u r e s.
a n d u n a t t a i n a b l e b e a u t y s t a n d a rd r e s u l t s o f
U pw a rd S o c i a l C o m p a r i s o n .

 APPENDICES SIX APPENDICES EIGHT
 The Male Gaze The Leaky Pipeline

T h e M a l e G a z e t h e o r y w a s d eve l o p e d by L a u r a A c o n c e p t t h a t h i g h l i g h t s w h e r e o r g a n i s at i o n s
M u l vey i n 1 9 7 5 , t h e p e r s p e c t i ve o f i t s e r ve s f i n d t h e m s e l ve s h av i n g a c o n t i n u i n g l o s s o f
to objectify a woman in order to allow her to female talent. It suggests that women and
b e s e e n f ro m a h e t e ro s ex u a l m a l e v i e w p o i n t . m e n a r e h i re d at s i m i l a r r at e s a t e n t r y l eve l ,
U l t i m n a t e l y t h e w o m a n i s p o r t r aye d a s a n o b j e c t . bu t a s c a r e e r s p ro g r e s s w o m e n d i s a p p e a r f ro m
T h i s t h e o re t i c a l c o n c e p t ex p l o re s h o w s o c i e t y the pipeline three times faster than men, once
a n d c u l t u re u l t i m at e l y i n f l u e n c e m e d i a , a n d ex p e r i e n c e h a s b e e n a t t a i n e d . B a r r i e r s c a n
h o w m e d i a c a n p e r p e t u at e g e n d e r i m b a l a n c e s i n c l u d e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s, o r a l a c k o f
w i t h i n s o c i e t y - s o m e t i m e s u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y. a d v a n c e m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o g e n d e r.
I n my re s e a rch I f o u n d h o w t h e M a l e G a z e c a n - ( P WC , 2 0 0 8 ) .
n o w b e l i n k e d t o h o w M e n c a n p o r t r ay f e m i n i s m
on social media, and how consumers can view
a b r a n d t h a t ch a m p i o n s Fe m i n i s m bu t i f t h e
b r a n d i s M a l e C E O o w n e d t h i s p e r s p e c t i ve o n
Fe m i n i s m i s f ro m a m a n’s p o i n t o f v i e w.

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 EIGHTY FOUR EIGHTY FIVE
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