Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018

Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018

The term ‘Indigenous’ as used in this strategy refers to
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

This original artwork was produced by Gilimbaa.

Gilimbaa is an Indigenous creative agency accredited by the
Australian Indigenous Minority Supplier Council.

With the exception of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms and where otherwise noted all material
presented in this document is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia
( licence.

The details of the relevant licence conditions are available on the Creative Commons website
(accessible using the links provided) as is the full legal code for the CC BY 3.0 AU licence

The document must be attributed as Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018.

ISBN        PRINT       978-1-921975-12-7

            PDF         978-1-921975-11-0

            HTML        978-1-921975-16-5


Photography by Lorrie Graham, 2010 and Kerry Trapnell, 2007.

Courtesy of the Department of Families Housing Community Services
and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA).

Please be aware that this strategy may contain the images of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who have passed away.

For more information, please visit
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018


Ministers’ foreword                                                                           2

Overview                                                                                      5

Why do we need an Indigenous Economic Development Strategy?                                   6

   Indigenous economic development matters                                                    6

   Building on progress towards closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage                    6

   Ongoing investment                                                                         7

   A combined effort                                                                          9

   The challenge                                                                             10

Diversity and strengths                                                                      14

   Unique assets and culture                                                                 14

   The importance of location                                                                14

   The opportunity                                                                           17

Setting priorities and taking action                                                         18

   Guiding principles                                                                        18

   Ongoing engagement                                                                        19

   Measuring progress                                                                        19


   Strengthening Foundations                                                                20

   Education                                                                                32

   Skills Development and Jobs                                                              40

   Business and Entrepreneurship                                                            50

   Financial Security and Independence                                                      58


   Significant Australian Government initiatives                                            65
   supporting Indigenous economic development

   Indigenous Economic Development Framework                                                73
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

2 |

      Ministers’ foreword

      The Australian Government                       Australians and communities,             Indigenous Australians’ economic
                                                      job service providers, employers,        participation. Over the past two years
      wants all Australians to share in
                                                      peak bodies, non-government              we have made more than 80,000
      the opportunities of Australia’s                organisations and state, territory and   placements into employment for
      strong economy and to enjoy the                 local governments. We would like         Indigenous job seekers through the
                                                      to thank everyone who took part          Job Services Australia system.
      financial and social benefits
                                                      in the consultations that helped to
      of work.                                                                                 The Indigenous Economic
                                                      shape this Strategy. The Australian
                                                                                               Development Strategy will ensure we
                                                      Government recognises we cannot
      The Indigenous Economic                                                                  continue to create job opportunities
                                                      close the gap alone. Closing the Gap
      Development Strategy will help                                                           and connect Indigenous Australians
                                                      requires a genuine partnership with
      provide a pathway for Indigenous                                                         with jobs, by supporting job readiness,
                                                      Indigenous Australians at all levels
      Australians to have the same                                                             skills development, strengthening
                                                      and the Government is committed
      opportunities as all Australians — to                                                    links between training and jobs,
                                                      to a relationship based on trust and
      get an education, find a job or start                                                    improving employment services
                                                      mutual respect.
      their own business, own their own                                                        and driving demand for Indigenous
      home and provide for their families.            Closing the Gap also requires us to      employment.
                                                      work in partnership with the state and
      It focuses on five key areas                                                             We have invested in areas where
                                                      territory governments, businesses,
      for improving the prosperity                                                             Indigenous Australians bring unique
                                                      not for profit organisations,
      of Indigenous Australians:                                                               skills and assets. For example, the
                                                      Indigenous Australians and the wider
      strengthening foundations to create                                                      Indigenous Ranger Cadetships
                                                      community. Importantly, individuals
      an environment that supports                                                             program in selected regional and
                                                      must also take responsibility for
      economic development; education;                                                         remote schools will give Indigenous
                                                      getting and keeping a job. This
      skills development and jobs;                                                             students the chance to learn skills
                                                      Strategy provides a framework
      supporting business development                                                          and gain the knowledge necessary to
                                                      for us to work in partnership to
      and entrepreneurship; and helping                                                        become a ranger.
                                                      improve the economic situation of
      people achieve financial security and           Indigenous Australians.                  We are helping more young
      independence.                                                                            Indigenous Australians stay at school
                                                      As part of the Government’s ongoing
      This Strategy is the result of extensive                                                 and get the skills they need to get a job
                                                      commitment to Closing the Gap,
      consultation with Indigenous                                                             through the $50.7 million Indigenous
                                                      we are already working to increase
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018


Youth Careers Pathways program,              This Strategy provides a long-term
which provides school-based                  policy framework for the Australian
traineeships in targeted high schools        Government and identifies priority
across the country.                          areas and policy objectives to 2018.
                                             In order to respond to changing
Through the Indigenous
                                             circumstances, the Strategy also
Opportunities Policy the Government
                                             contains a range of actions to 2013
is using its purchasing power to
                                             that will be updated so that the
increase the use of Indigenous
                                             Strategy continues to drive real and
businesses in Australian Government
                                             sustainable progress. Importantly it
funded contracts.
                                             also continues to allow us to work in
Our unprecedented investment is              partnership with Indigenous
beginning to make a difference, but          Australians, communities, business
the Government recognises that               and other groups.
this work will take time and
continued effort.

Jenny Macklin                                Mark Arbib

Minister for Families,                       Minister for Indigenous
Housing, Community                           Employment and
Services and                                 Economic Development
Indigenous Affairs

Chris Evans

Minister for Tertiary
Education, Skills,
Jobs and Workplace
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

4 |
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018



The Australian Government                 The Indigenous Economic
                                          Development Strategy 2011–2018 sets
is committed to ensuring that
                                          out a long-term agenda for Indigenous
Indigenous Australians have               economic participation that will
the same opportunities as                 guide government decision-making
                                          and program development through
non-Indigenous Australians to
                                          to 2018. The Strategy also details
share in the prosperity of our            a program of specific initiatives
nation. Providing Indigenous              and reforms that translate the
Australians with the education,           Australian Government’s priorities            The five priorities of the
                                          into action. These actions will be            Strategy are to:
skills and support to find and            assessed and updated every three
keep meaningful work, and to              years to ensure that the Strategy             1. strengthen foundations
                                          responds to changing circumstances               to create an environment
build financial self-reliance, is
                                          and continues to drive real and                  that supports economic
a crucial part of the Australian          sustainable progress.                            development
Government’s long-term vision             The Australian Government
                                                                                        2. invest in education
for closing the gap in Indigenous         recognises that tangible and
disadvantage.                             lasting improvements in the                   3. encourage participation
                                          economic situation of Indigenous
                                                                                           and improve access to skills
The aim of the Indigenous Economic        Australians cannot be achieved by
                                                                                           development and jobs
Development Strategy 2011–2018 is         government alone.
to support increased personal and         This Strategy supports Indigenous             4. support the growth of
economic wellbeing of Indigenous          Australians to take responsibility for           Indigenous business and
Australians through greater               their own economic wellbeing and                 entrepreneurship
participation in the economy.             to lead independent and productive
Economic independence and                 working lives.                                5. assist individuals and
security are necessary foundations                                                         communities to achieve
for good health, functional families      The Strategy also emphasises the
                                                                                           financial security and
and successful communities.               vital roles that partnerships play in
                                                                                           independence by increasing
                                          this endeavour, across the private
Despite some positive developments,       sector, the not-for-profit sector,
                                                                                           their ability to identify,
Indigenous Australians continue           all levels of government and the                 build and make the most of
to face significant economic              community.                                       economic assets.
disadvantage. Indigenous Australians
are still less likely to finish school,
have a job, own a home or run a
business than non-Indigenous
Australians. The Australian
Government is committed to
overcoming this situation.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

6 |

      Why do we need an
      Indigenous Economic
      Development Strategy?

      Indigenous economic                             Building on progress towards                   In 2008, the Australian Government
      development matters                             closing the gap in Indigenous                  launched the Closing the Gap agenda
                                                      disadvantage                                   in partnership with state and territory
      Australia has a strong economy, with                                                           governments. Closing the Gap is an
      one of the lowest unemployment                  Increasing Indigenous participation            ambitious plan to improve the lives
      rates among countries in the                    in the economy is vital to achieving           of Indigenous Australians. Following
      Organisation for Economic                       the Australian Government’s broader            the National Apology to Australia’s
      Co-operation and Development. It is a           vision of closing the gap between              Indigenous Peoples, the Council of
      priority of the Australian Government           Indigenous and non-Indigenous                  Australian Governments agreed on
      to make sure that Indigenous                    Australians in health, education,              six key targets.
      Australians have the opportunity                employment and life expectancy.
      to contribute to a stronger economy
                                                      The agenda to close the gap on                 Closing the Gap seeks to:
      and achieve greater economic
                                                      Indigenous disadvantage is driven by
      independence and security for                                                                   q close the life expectancy gap
                                                      three important imperatives:
      themselves, their families and their                                                               by 2031
      communities.                                         q to overcome decades of under-
                                                                                                      q halve the gap in child mortality
                                                              investment in services and
      Supporting the participation of                                                                    rates by 2018
      Indigenous Australians in the
                                                                                                      q provide universal access to quality
      economy benefits all Australians.                    q to encourage and support personal
                                                                                                         early childhood education for
      Greater participation in the workforce                  responsibility as the foundation
                                                                                                         all Indigenous four year olds in
      and business will help to close the gap                 for healthy, functional families and
                                                                                                         remote communities by 2013
      in employment and address income                        communities
      disparities between Indigenous                                                                  q halve the gap in educational
                                                           q to build new understanding and
      and non-Indigenous Australians.                                                                    achievement for children in
                                                              respect between Indigenous and
      Increased economic participation will                                                              reading, writing, and numeracy
                                                              non-Indigenous Australians.
      also contribute to strengthening the                                                               by 2018
      national economy and help to meet
                                                                                                      q halve the gap in young people’s
      labour shortages in key industries.
                                                                                                         (20–24 year olds) Year 12 or
                                                                                                         equivalent attainment by 2020
                                                                                                      q halve the gap in employment
                                                                                                         outcomes by 2018.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

The Australian Government is                                                                           |7
investing more than $5.75 billion
over three years from 2011–12 to help
achieve these targets. In addition, a
further $526.6 million over five years
was provided in the 2011–12 Budget
to boost our efforts to Close the Gap.
Economic participation is one of
the key building blocks of this
historic agenda.
A good education, safe housing,
healthy individuals, supportive
families and communities, local
leadership and strong governance
provide the foundations for
economic development. The
Australian Government recognises
the importance of these factors and
this Strategy focuses on the way
that education, health, safety and
community governance affect the
economic wellbeing of Indigenous

Ongoing investment
The Australian Government
commits substantial resources to
mainstream services and programs
that support the development of
individual capacity and economic
opportunity, which are available to all
Australians. The education system,
health, financial management and
employment services all contribute
to building economic participation for
all Australians, including Indigenous
Australians. These programs directly
support the priorities outlined in the
In addition to the significant amount
of investment in ongoing mainstream
programs and the targeted
investment under the Closing
the Gap agenda, the Australian
                                          “Supporting the
Government has numerous ongoing
Indigenous-specific initiatives
and two statutory authorities that
contribute to economic participation
and development.
                                          of Indigenous
                                          Australians in the
                                          economy benefits
                                          all Australians”
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011-2018
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

8 |   The Australian Government                            q The Working on Country
      is investing in a number of key                         Indigenous Ranger Program which
      Indigenous-specific initiatives that                    delivers significant environmental
      support the Strategy:                                   outcomes across remote and
                                                              regional Australia, including
       q The Aboriginal and Torres
                                                              improved management of fire,
          Strait Islander Education
                                                              feral animals, invasive weeds,
          Action Plan 2010–14 which is
                                                              threatened species and coastal
          making substantial and ongoing
                                                              and marine systems.
          investments in Indigenous
          education and training. This                     q The Indigenous Opportunities
          includes investment in the                          Policy (IOP) which was fully
          priorities of:                                      implemented on 1 July 2011.
                                                              Under the IOP, suppliers to the
         > readiness for school
                                                              Australian Government who win
         > engagement and connections                         contracts valued over $5 million
                                                              ($6 million for construction)
         > attendance
                                                              for activity in regions with a
         > literacy and numeracy                              significant Indigenous population
         > leadership, quality teaching and                   are required to develop and
           workforce development                              implement an Indigenous
                                                              Training, Employment and
         > pathways to real post-school                       Supplier plan. The plans include
       q The Indigenous Employment
                                                              strategies for using Indigenous
                                                              businesses in the supply chain.      “Support the
          Program which aims to increase
          economic outcomes and
                                                            > A complementary
                                                              Commonwealth Procurement             development
          participation by encouraging                        Guidelines (CPG) exemption
          employers to provide sustainable
          employment opportunities for
                                                              was introduced on 19 May
                                                              2011 to reduce obstacles for
                                                                                                   of individual
          Indigenous Australians and
          supporting Indigenous Australians
                                                              Commonwealth Government
                                                              agencies to contract directly with   capacity and
          to develop skills and businesses.                   Indigenous small-to-medium
       q The Community Development                           businesses. This will make it
                                                              easier for Indigenous businesses
          Employment Projects program
          which supports Indigenous
          Australians in remote areas
                                                              to compete for government
                                                              contracts, as the procurement        opportunity”
          through community development                       process is simpler and
          and participation opportunities                     administrative costs are reduced.
          that develop skills, improve
          capacity, work readiness and
         > The Australian Government is
           conducting a review of remote
           participation and employment
           services to ensure job service
           providers are best meeting the
           needs of Indigenous and other
           remote job seekers.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018


Some of the most important                  The Strategy identifies a range of
investments that the Australian             specific actions, both mainstream
Government has made over a                  and Indigenous-specific, which are
number of years are through the two         underpinned by or build on these
key statutory authorities responsible       key initiatives and investments. A
for supporting Indigenous economic          summary of a range of Australian
development, the Indigenous                 Government initiatives and programs
Land Corporation and Indigenous             that support Indigenous economic
Business Australia.                         development and participation is also
                                            provided as an Appendix.
 q Indigenous Business Australia
    (IBA) works to increase economic
    independence for Indigenous             A combined effort
    Australians by providing home
    and business loans and joint            Australian Government investment
    venture investment partnerships.        is, however, only one part of the
    Through these initiatives               solution. The private sector, non-
    Indigenous Australians increase         government organisations, other
    their capacity to work with and         levels of government and Indigenous
    benefit from the private sector to      Australians all play essential roles
    pursue business opportunities and       in improving Indigenous economic
    own their own homes. IBA has an         development.
    asset base of approximately             The role of the private sector is
    $1.02 billion.                          particularly significant. Businesses
 q The Indigenous Land Corporation         are the most critical part of a strong
    (ILC) works to achieve economic,        and developing economy. Private-
    environmental, social and               sector engagement is fundamental to
    cultural benefits for Indigenous        improving economic development
    Australians by purchasing and           opportunities for Indigenous
    managing land. Through these            Australians.
    activities Indigenous Australians
    are provided with training
    for jobs and better access to
    education. These initiatives lead to
    sustainable management of land
    and contribute to the protection
    of cultural and environmental
    values. The ILC has an asset base of
    approximately $681 million.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

10 |   There are examples where real                  The challenge
       change is occurring in this area.
       In the mining industry there is                Despite ongoing effort by all partners,
       significant engagement between                 significant challenges remain.
       mining companies and Indigenous                Indigenous Australians are just
       communities and employees. This                over half as likely to finish Year 12
       is making a real difference to the             when compared to non-Indigenous
       rates of Indigenous employment in              Australians. Young Indigenous
       the mining industry and generating             Australians aged 15–19 are less
       opportunities for Indigenous                   likely to be enrolled in school than
       businesses. The Memorandum                     their non-Indigenous counterparts
       of Understanding between the                   (37.9 per cent compared to 51.7 per
       Australian Government and the                  cent) and those aged 20–24 attend
       Minerals Council of Australia                  university at about one-fifth the
       demonstrates both the level of                 rate of their non-Indigenous peers1 .
       opportunity that exists in this                Although Indigenous Australians are
       sector and the commitment by both              participating in vocational education
       government and the mining industry             and training, the level of qualification
       to maximise economic benefits for              and the rates of completion tend to
       Indigenous Australians.                        be low and the levels of participation
                                                      are not adequately reflected in
       The Australian Employment                      employment outcomes.
       Covenant is another example of
       how industry has taken a lead role             In all states and territories, across
       in partnering with governments                 cities, regions and remote areas,
       and Indigenous Australians to help             the rate of Indigenous labour force
       close the gap in employment and                participation is lower, and the
       employment opportunities. Since                unemployment rate higher, than
       it was first announced in 2008, the            for non-Indigenous Australians.
       Australian Employment Covenant                 Indigenous Australians are
       has secured commitments from                   nearly four times more likely to be
       employers across Australia to place            unemployed. Indigenous Australians
       over 50,000 Indigenous Australians             tend to remain unemployed for
       into employment.                               longer, are more likely to be employed
                                                      part-time and a greater proportion
       The non-government sector also                 are not in the labour force (35.5 per
       plays a key role not only in the               cent of working age Indigenous
       provision of support services, but             Australians compared to 21.7 per cent
       also in providing opportunities                of the non-Indigenous working age
       for employment of Indigenous                   population)2. Indigenous Australians
                                                      are less likely to be self-employed
       Government and the private sector              than non-Indigenous Australians and
       can assist in creating opportunities           are under-represented in professional,
       and building individual skills and             managerial, technical and trades-
       capacity. However, the commitment              based occupations.
       of Indigenous Australians to
                                                      This situation is reflected in income
       increase their rate of economic
                                                      levels and financial security. On
       participation is essential to sharing
                                                      average Indigenous Australians
       the benefits of economic growth. In
                                                      earn just over half as much as non-
       resetting the relationship between
                                                      Indigenous Australians (median
       Indigenous Australians and                                                                1 Productivity Commission, 2009 Report on Overcoming
                                                      income of $400 per week compared             Indigenous Disadvantage
       non-Indigenous Australians, the                                                           2 Productivity Commission, 2011, Report on Overcoming
                                                      to median income of $608 per week).          Indigenous Disadvantage
       Australian Government is working
                                                      Only 29 per cent of Indigenous             3 Productivity Commission, 2011 Report on Overcoming
       with Indigenous groups to identify                                                          Indigenous Disadvantage
                                                      Australians own their own home,
       opportunities and develop local
                                                      compared to 65 per cent of non-
       solutions. Leadership is essential
                                                      Indigenous Australians3.
       to making the most of these
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                     | 11

     and develop
     local solutions”
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

12 |   The Indigenous population is                    Indigenous Australians, as the
       very young — almost half of all                 gaps in the workforce created by
       Indigenous Australians are aged                 the ageing of the non-Indigenous
       19 years and under — and growing                population need to be filled.
       fast. In 2006 there were 517,000                Schooling and employment are
       Indigenous Australians and the ABS              the keys to ensuring we make the
       projects that by 2021 the Indigenous            most of these opportunities and
       population will increase to more than           to ensure Indigenous Australians
       720,0004. This means that while the             achieve a greater level of financial
       nation overall adapts to an ageing              independence. Figure 1. provides
       population, Indigenous Australia                a snapshot of these indicators and
       will have particular needs relating             the economic differences between
       to growing numbers of school-aged               Indigenous and non-Indigenous
       children and young job seekers.                 Australians.
       Based on population benchmarks
       for the ABS 2008 National Aboriginal
       and Torres Strait Islander Social
                                                       4 ABS 3238.0 Experimental Estimates and Projections,
       Survey (NATSISS), at least 135,000                Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians,
                                                         1991 to 2021
       Indigenous Australians aged
       4–14 years in 2008 will be of working
       age by 2018. These trends present
       great opportunities for young
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                                                                                                           | 13

                       Indigenous Outcomes                                    Non-Indigenous Outcomes

  Strengthening        Living in state or community housing                   Living in state or community housing
  Foundations          = 39.5%                                                = 3.2%
                       Relying primarily on income support                    Relying primarily on income support
                       = around 40% (among the 18-64 year                     = around 14% (among the 18-64 year
                       old population)                                        old population)

  Education            Year 12 attainment = 47.4%                             Year 12 attainment = 83.8%
                       (among the 20-24 year old population)                  (among the 20-24 year old population)

  Jobs                 Persons 15-64 years                                    Persons 15-64 years
                       Total per cent employed = 53.8%                        Total per cent employed = 75.0%
                       Unemployed rate = 16.6%                                Unemployed rate = 4.2%
                       Not in the labour force = 35.5%                        Not in the labour force = 21.7%

  Business and         Persons 18-64 years in                                 Persons 18-64 years in
  Entrepreneurship     non-remote areas                                       non-remote areas
                       Self employed = 6.7%                                   Self employed = 10.9%

  Financial Security   Median weekly income = $400                            Median weekly income = $608
  and Independence     Home ownership = 29.0%                                 Home ownership = 65.2%

                               Source: Productivity Commission, 2011 Report
                               on Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

14 |

       and strengths

       The Australian Government                            Alongside an increase in the number
                                                            of Indigenous Australians working
       recognises and values the diverse
                                                            in sectors in which Indigenous
       circumstances and experience                         Australians have traditionally been
       of Indigenous Australians.                           involved such as land management,
                                                            literature, the arts, the resources
       To be effective, government
                                                            sector and primary industry, many
       actions must take into account                       Indigenous Australians are making a
       a diversity of cultural identities,                  growing contribution to the broader
                                                            economy in areas such as retail,
       family connections and
                                                            consultancy, the public sector and
       responsibilities, as well as the                     business and entrepreneurship, to
       location and demographic profile                     name a few. Indigenous Australians
                                                            have made these contributions
       of communities. Access to jobs and
                                                            while maintaining and benefiting
       commercial opportunities can be                      from a strong cultural identity within
       very different in cities, towns and                  individuals, families and communities.
       remote areas across the country.
                                                            The importance of location

       Unique assets and culture                            When it comes to economic
                                                            development, place matters. Access to
       Indigenous Australians have unique                   employment opportunities, markets,
       and important assets and skills to bring             services, infrastructure, education
       to the broader economy. This includes                and therefore the ability to participate
       strong social networks and community                 in the broader economy is influenced
       identity, and a rich traditional and                 by where Indigenous Australians
       cultural knowledge that can be                       live. Three-quarters of Indigenous
       valuable economic assets. Indigenous                 Australians live in urban and regional
       culture and its practice can support                 centres. While only 25 per cent live in
       economic participation, development                  remote Australia, the level of economic
       and financial independence.                          disadvantage of Indigenous Australians
       Indigenous Australians own or control                in these areas is acute.
       approximately 20 per cent of land in                 Because opportunities and challenges
       Australia and the resources associated               for Indigenous economic development
       with that land, including access to                  differ across urban, regional and
       minerals, water and areas of high                    remote areas, there is a need for flexible
       biodiversity value.                                  development opportunities that can
                                                            adapt to place and local context.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                     | 15
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

16 |   Cities and larger regional centres                    financial independence. Through             q removing barriers to genuine
                                                             programs such as Connecting                    commercial ventures, which is
       In cities and larger regional centres,
                                                             People with Jobs, the Australian               crucial to ensure that private-
       Indigenous economic development
                                                             Government is supporting                       sector opportunities grow in
       means helping Indigenous
                                                             Indigenous Australians where                   remote locations to complement
       Australians tap into the diversity
                                                             they choose to move to access                  public-sector services and jobs.
       of existing economic activity, for
                                                             education and jobs in locations
       example:                                                                                         Long-term reliance on income
                                                             with increased opportunities.
                                                                                                        support can undermine other
        q the greater availability and
                                                            q Innovative solutions which aim to        capabilities and further entrench
           accessibility of education and
                                                               increase economic participation in       disadvantage. In remote areas,
           vocational training targeted at
                                                               particular locations, such as a fly-in   the focus for governments and
           job opportunities and career
                                                               fly-out mobile workforce, should be      individuals needs to be on:
                                                                                                         q building individual capabilities,
        q opportunities for business
                                                            q Access to infrastructure is                  including foundation skills
           development, home ownership
                                                               important. Government has a role
           and wealth creation are greater in                                                            q improving employment services
                                                               in ensuring that infrastructure
           these locations.                                                                                 to better meet the needs of
                                                               is available and that people are
                                                                                                            remote locations
                                                               in a position to make the most of
       Smaller regional and rural areas                        new technologies that can boost           q creating meaningful participation
                                                               economic participation.                      activities – this means making sure
       In these areas the focus is on
                                                                                                            that Indigenous Australians are
       building individual capabilities and
                                                                                                            encouraged to take the jobs that
       ensuring that welfare systems do not            Remote locations
                                                                                                            are available and that appropriate
       discourage economic participation.
                                                       In remote and very remote                            job search requirements
       Education is of the utmost
                                                       locations education levels can be                    are enforced.
                                                       low, jobs scarce and infrastructure
        q Vocational training should be               undeveloped. Increasing Indigenous
           focused on local employment                 economic participation in these areas
           opportunities and areas where               is about:
           there are identified skills shortages.
                                                            q identifying new opportunities
        q Improved support for business                       and maximising Indigenous
           development will assist more                        employment in the existing
           people in regional areas to achieve                 labour market
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                                    “Success                                                        | 17

                                                                    depends on
                                                                    working in

The opportunity                           New positions are expected to             companies are providing jobs and
                                          significantly increase across a range     allowing Indigenous Australians to
While it is encouraging that there        of industries over the next five          share in wealth creation. Indigenous
has been an increase in involvement       years, offering new opportunities         Protected Areas, while delivering
in sectors of the economy with            at the entry level and for qualified      significant environmental benefits,
traditionally higher Indigenous           applicants. Over the five years to        will also support economic
participation, the Australian             2015–16, significant employment           endeavours such as ecotourism.
Government — and the business             growth is expected in areas such as
                                                                                    There are a growing number of
community — needs to work with            health care, construction and mining.
                                                                                    native title agreements. In addition
Indigenous Australians to look more       Additionally, employment in the
                                                                                    to payments, these agreements often
broadly and consider opportunities        food services industry is projected
                                                                                    include practical benefits such as:
in a wide range of established and        to increase. These sectors provide
emerging sectors.                         opportunities for employment across        q training and employment
A number of sectors, including            all states and territories.
                                                                                     q title to land
mining, health care, social assistance    There are a number of sectors
                                                                                     q business, cultural heritage and
and trades, are experiencing              experiencing skills shortages, such
                                                                                        conservation opportunities.
shortages of skilled workers.             as mining, health and community
Shortages are evident in the              services, food services and               It is critical that these agreements
engineering professions, health           construction, creating a wide range of    provide sustainable and
diagnosis, treatment and nursing          employment prospects.                     intergenerational outcomes for native
professions, automotive, engineering                                                title groups.
                                          As investment in clean energy
and food trades and child care.
                                          sources such as solar, gas and wind       There is a need to recognise the
To assist Indigenous Australians
                                          increases, the growth of the clean        valuable contribution Indigenous
to gain the skills they need to
                                          energy sector will also provide           Australians are making to the
contribute to the labour market in
                                          many new opportunities for jobs and       economy and to work together to
these occupations, the Australian
                                          businesses and initiatives. Through       turn opportunities into jobs and
Government has in place a range of
                                          the Indigenous Carbon Farming             businesses.
initiatives, including scholarships and
                                          Fund under the Carbon Farming
incentives for study at university and
                                          Initiative, the Australian Government
through the vocational education and
                                          will support Indigenous Australians
training system.
                                          to take up opportunities in carbon
Employers also experience difficulty      abatement activities. This may
recruiting workers in the retail,         include savanna fire management,
transport and hospitality sectors.        feral camel management and
These offer entry-level positions to      environmental planting.
the labour market, and may provide
                                          Indigenous-held land provides real
sound opportunities for new job
                                          economic opportunity. Land use
seekers. Job Services Australia plays
                                          agreements should incorporate
a key role in connecting unemployed
                                          strategies that encourage economic
people to employers in these and
                                          participation, like business and home
other sectors.
                                          ownership. Agreements between
                                          Indigenous communities and mining
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

18 |

       Setting priorities
       and taking action

       Just as the Closing the Gap                     work the Australian Government               q Indigenous Australians can make
                                                       is doing to achieve each of the                 a unique contribution to our
       framework provides a clear
                                                       objectives identified in the Strategy.          economy.
       set of shared goals to address
                                                       The actions contained in the Strategy        q Closing the Gap requires a genuine
       Indigenous disadvantage,                        will be updated every three years, as           partnership with Indigenous
       the Indigenous Economic                         the Strategy drives the development             Australians at all levels and the
       Development Strategy 2011–2018                  of new policies and initiatives to              Government is committed to a
                                                       support Indigenous economic                     relationship based on trust and
       provides a vision for government,               development.                                    mutual respect.
       business and Indigenous and
                                                       Government cannot act alone.                 q Lasting Indigenous economic
       non-Indigenous Australians                      Success depends on working in                   wellbeing relies on Indigenous
       and outlines actions for                        partnership with Indigenous leaders,            Australians having the
                                                       communities and individuals                     opportunities and taking
       improving Indigenous economic
                                                       and with businesses, industry                   responsibility for their individual
       development.                                    peak bodies and non-government                  and family wellbeing, education
                                                       organisations.                                  and economic independence.
       The Strategy sets out a long-term
       policy framework for Indigenous                 By monitoring, progressing and               q Indigenous leadership is essential
       economic development that will                  developing the actions under this               to leading and shaping sustainable
       guide government decision-making                Strategy we expect to see:                      improvements in Indigenous
       and program development through to                                                              economic wellbeing.
                                                            q a better skilled and motivated
       2018, which aligns with the timeframe                   Indigenous workforce capable of      q Real, sustainable change cannot be
       of the Closing the Gap agenda. It                       finding and keeping jobs, starting      achieved by government alone. It
       sets priorities and objectives and                      businesses and building assets          relies on Indigenous Australians,
       describes the initial actions the                                                               the private sector, the not-for-profit
       Australian Government will take in                   q a stronger and more viable
                                                                                                       sector and all levels of government.
       the priority areas.                                     Indigenous business sector
                                                                                                    q Action is most effective when
       The priority areas and actions in the                q an economic environment
                                                                                                       it supports the goal of greater
       Strategy reflect the input provided                     that supports greater use and
                                                                                                       Indigenous economic self-reliance.
       through public submissions and                          recognition of Indigenous skills,
       discussions with the private sector,                    assets and opportunities.            q Effective action targets both
       the not-for-profit sector, all levels of                                                        existing and future needs. A
                                                                                                       long-term perspective is essential
       government and the community.                   Guiding principles
       In addition to the actions already                                                              to building greater economic
       identified, the Strategy provides a             The success of this Strategy relies             independence and prosperity for
       basis for the Australian Government             on the commitment and actions of                Indigenous Australians.
       and stakeholders to work together to            all partners including governments,
       develop new policies and actions in             the private sector and Indigenous
       these areas.                                    Australians. All actions developed
                                                       under this Strategy will be guided by
       This Strategy will be implemented               the following principles:
       through the actions embedded in
       the Strategy. The actions identify the
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                                                                                                        | 19

Ongoing engagement                        The Australian Government will                to track progress. The Strategy will
                                          continue to work in partnership               not duplicate existing reporting
Genuine engagement with                   with Indigenous Australians. This             processes, rather it will be used
Indigenous Australians is                 will include working with a range             to monitor broader progress and
fundamental to the Australian             of individuals, bodies and groups             develop future actions.
Government’s efforts to increase          that offer specific expertise and
personal and economic wellbeing                                                         Key indicators of economic
                                          knowledge on particular areas in the
and close the gap in Indigenous                                                         development are already captured
                                          continued development of
disadvantage.                                                                           in the Australian Government’s
                                          the Strategy over time. This will
                                                                                        reporting against Closing the
The successful implementation             include, for example, the National
                                                                                        Gap targets (such as education
of this Strategy relies on the            Congress of Australia’s First Peoples,
                                                                                        and employment) and the
active involvement of Indigenous          Native Title Representative Bodies
                                                                                        Productivity Commission’s reporting
Australians, government and the           and Land Councils and the newly
                                                                                        on Overcoming Indigenous
community. This includes volunteers,      established Indigenous Business
                                                                                        Disadvantage (such as household
businesses, industry peak bodies and      Policy Advisory Group.
                                                                                        and individual income). The Prime
non-government organisations.             Measuring progress                            Minister’s annual Closing the Gap
It will be essential for the Australian                                                 statement to Parliament reports on
                                          This Strategy provides a high-level
Government to maintain this                                                             these indicators and the progress
                                          policy framework and describes
engagement as it develops, designs                                                       that is being made in these
                                          the major actions the Australian
and implements the range of                                                             important areas.
                                          Government is taking to achieve
programs and actions that will            its goal of improved economic
respond to the key economic               development for Indigenous
priorities and actions articulated in     Australians. Specific targets and
the Strategy.                             reporting arrangements are built
                                          into each of the programs and
                                          initiatives identified in the Strategy
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

20 |
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

                                                            | 21

Priority 1:
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

22 |

       Individuals are more likely to engage           community, where local leadership
       in the broader economy when they                sets an inspiring example of success
       are healthy, live in safe, well-run             and wellbeing. Where these factors
       communities and when welfare and                are present, people are better able
       taxation policies are designed to               to access and benefit from the
       support participation.                          education and vocational skills
                                                       development opportunities that
       An environment that encourages
                                                       will create pathways to economic
       people to develop the skills they
       need to get a job or establish a
       business is crucial to improving the            The Australian Government’s
       long-term prosperity and economic               unprecedented investment in
       independence of Indigenous                      these foundations of economic
       Australians. Settings that best                 wellbeing is already making a real
       support economic development are                difference to Indigenous Australians’
       those where people have access to               lives. Government also has an
       basic services and infrastructure               important role in ensuring that the
       such as health care, live in safe,              legal, taxation and welfare systems
       resilient communities and have                  encourage economic participation
       stable and secure accommodation.                and do not create disincentives that
       Strong, local governance is also                impede successful participation in
       required to provide a strong                    the economy.
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

Strengthening Foundations                                                                                                                       | 23

Objective 1.1 Increase access to safe and affordable housing

Affordable housing gives people the            benefiting from the significant new               The renegotiation has resulted in a
chance to raise families in the safety         investment the Australian Government              new sense of drive and urgency, with
and security of their own homes. In            has undertaken in response to                     New South Wales, Western Australia,
a safe and stable home, Indigenous             decades of under-investment in safe               Tasmania and the Northern Territory
Australians are better able to develop         and affordable housing. The benefits              all exceeding their new housing targets
the skills needed to find and keep jobs        of this investment are considerable,              during the 2010–11 financial year.
and have successful working lives.             particularly in areas where Indigenous
                                               Australians make up a significant                 Overall since the commencement of the
The Australian Government provides             proportion of social housing residents.           National Partnership on
mainstream housing assistance to               To ensure the benefits of this investment         1 January 2009 until 30 June 2011,
low-to-medium income households                are sustained into the future Indigenous          more than 800 new houses have been
through Commonwealth Rent                      Australians must be encouraged to take            completed and 3,100 houses have been
Assistance, as well as funding under           responsibility for homes.                         rebuilt and refurbished nationally.
the National Affordable Housing
Agreement which supports state and             The Australian Government has                     Private ownership plays a significant
territory government social housing            committed an unprecedented                        part in providing Australians with
initiatives. With Indigenous Australians       $5.5 billion over ten years from                  access to secure housing. Historically
earning, on average, about two–thirds          2008–09 through the National                      however Indigenous Australians have
as much as non-Indigenous Australians,         Partnership Agreement on Remote                   not enjoyed the same rates of home
access to safe and affordable housing          Indigenous Housing. Under the                     ownership as other Australians. While
is critical. Under the Social Housing          National Partnership jurisdictions have           the rate of Indigenous home ownership
Initiative more than 19,600 new social         committed to 20 per cent Indigenous               is increasing it is still only slightly over
housing dwellings are being built and          employment over the life of the                   half of the national rate. As Indigenous
around 80,000 existing homes repaired          program.                                          economic wellbeing improves, income
and upgraded. Indigenous Australians                                                             levels and the rate of home ownership
make up around 8 per cent of Australia’s       The National Partnership Agreement                are expected to rise. In addition
public housing residents, totalling 2,500      on Remote Indigenous Housing                      to working closely with financial
Indigenous households supported                is a joint partnership between the                institutions and state and territory
under the Social Housing Initiative.           Australian, state and Northern Territory          governments to address this issue the
                                               Governments. The Agreement was                    Australian Government also funds
Like most Australians, the majority of         renegotiated in late 2009 to provide              direct assistance through Indigenous
Indigenous Australians (75 per cent)           greater incentives for performance,               Business Australia’s home loan
live in urban and regional areas where         resulting in better than expected                 programs (Home Ownership Program
they have access to a range of housing         delivery.                                         and Home Ownership on Indigenous
services and opportunities. The                                                                  Land Program).
Australian Government is committed             Under the revised arrangement up to 25
to working with state and territory            per cent of a jurisdiction’s capital works        Home ownership is also recognised in
governments and services to increase           funding allocation can be reallocated if          Priority 5 as an important element of
the supply of safe and affordable              agreed targets are not met.                       Financial Security and Independence.
housing. Indigenous Australians are

Objective 1.1 Increase access to safe and affordable housing

 Strategies to 2018                 Actions to 2013

 Increase the supply of safe        Work with state and territory governments and private providers to continue to increase the supply of
 and affordable housing             public and community housing under the National Partnership Agreement on Remote Indigenous
                                    Housing and the National Affordable Housing Agreement and work with private providers to increase the
                                    supply of affordable housing.

 Encourage responsibility for       Continue to work with the state and territory governments to ensure that robust tenancy management
 homes                              arrangements in community and public housing are in place, and promote greater care and responsibility
                                    for homes under the National Partnership Agreement on Remote Indigenous Housing and the National
                                    Affordable Housing Agreement.

 Support the transition from        Work with state and territory governments to expand access to affordable home ownership through
 tenancy to home ownership          mortgage assistance, matched savings accounts and shared equity schemes.
 Note that a full list of actions   Continue to provide access to affordable home loans to eligible Indigenous Australians through
 supporting this Strategy is        Indigenous Business Australia (providing an average of $103.9 million per annum in home loans over
 provided under Objective 5.1       three years).
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

24 |   Strengthening Foundations

       Objective 1.2 Ensure infrastructure investments support economic development

       Economic activity and growth                     Investment in new information                        It also has the potential to create
       rely on quality infrastructure. The              technology is essential to increasing                new employment and enterprise
       Australian Government is making                  access to markets in regional and                    opportunities in Indigenous
       record investments to modernise,                 remote locations. In particular, the                 communities, particularly in regional
       improve and increase Australia’s                 National Broadband Network will                      and remote locations. Ensuring these
       economic infrastructure. In many                 be a critical enabler as it is rolled                potential benefits are maximised
       regional and remote areas Indigenous             out. This investment can boost                       is a priority for the Australian
       communities face infrastructure                  productivity, drive innovation and                   Government.
       challenges that require specific                 lift economic output. It will help
       attention. In these locations, new               give children access to world-class
       infrastructure that can drive                    education resources, provide access
       economic development must be a                   to better health care and enable local
       priority for government.                         businesses to reach new markets.

       Objective 1.2 Ensure infrastructure investments support economic development

        Strategies to 2018      Actions to 2013

        Increase access to      Continue to roll out the National Broadband Network nationally.
        new information         Improve access to basic telephone services and public internet facilities in remote communities through the Indigenous
        technology              Communications Program ($31 million over four years from 2009–10).

        Improve essential       Implement the Remote Indigenous Energy Program to help remote Indigenous communities access clean, affordable
        infrastructure          and reliable 24-hour power supplies through installing renewable energy generation systems such as solar panels and
                                wind turbines in around 50 remote Indigenous communities across Australia ($40 million over 5 years from 2011–12).
                                Provide critical safety upgrades to remote and isolated airstrips across Australia, including in remote Indigenous
                                communities through the Regional Aviation Access Program ($33.5 million over two years from 2011–12) which
                                includes $12.1 million over three years from 2010–11 for safety upgrades to airstrips at Indigenous communities.
                                With the state and territory governments, ensure new housing constructed under the National Partnership on Remote
                                Indigenous Housing have access to essential service infrastructure (power, water, sewerage, roads) in priority remote
                                communities and town camps. This includes funding, jointly with the Northern Territory Government, of over $150
                                million over five years from May 2009 for the Alice Springs Transformation Plan which will transform town camps into
                                fully serviced suburbs like any other in the town.
                                Work with state and territory governments to implement revised roles and responsibilities for funding and delivery of
                                municipal and essential services and related infrastructure in remote communities, as committed to by the Council of
                                Australian Governments under the National Partnership on Remote Indigenous Housing.
                                Provide new purpose-built or refurbished community stores and store manager accommodation across the Northern
                                Territory to help ensure healthy and affordable food is readily available ($50 million between 2011 and 2015).
                                Complete projects to upgrade water supply and wastewater infrastructure such as treatment facilities, water storage
                                capacity and pipe networks in remote communities, and support these communities in the overall management of their
                                water supply systems ($51.7 million over four years from 2011).
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

Strengthening Foundations                                                                                                               | 25

Objective 1.3 Increase access to health services

Poor health can have a significant         as it is to all Australians. Indigenous      Partnership Agreement on Closing
impact on a person’s capacity to           Australians are more likely than             the Gap in Indigenous Health
participate in the economy. Healthy        non-Indigenous Australians to be             Outcomes.
people develop their capabilities          hospitalised for most diseases and
                                                                                        The Australian Government is
through education and training and         conditions, experience disability and
                                                                                        committed to increasing access
grasp opportunities to work or start       reduced quality of life due to ill health
                                                                                        to health services for Indigenous
businesses. Indigenous Australians         and die at a younger age than other
                                                                                        Australians through investing in
experience significantly lower health      Australians.
                                                                                        health infrastructure, providing
outcomes than other Australians and
                                           In an effort to address decades              better coordinated care, assisting with
improving Indigenous health will
                                           of under-investment in health                the cost of medicines and improving
result in significant benefits impacting
                                           services in Indigenous communities,          access to follow-up health care.
both directly and indirectly on their
                                           the Australian Government has                Another priority is the expansion
ability to participate in the economy.
                                           increased its annual specific                of the Indigenous health workforce
Ready access to quality health             Indigenous health expenditure by             to ensure the provision of effective,
services is crucial to the health and      87 per cent since 2007–08. This              culturally-sensitive health services.
wellbeing of Indigenous Australians,       includes the $1.6 billion National
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

26 |
       Objective 1.3 Increase access to health services

        Strategies to 2018               Actions to 2013

        Improve health                   Invest to improve access to health services by providing 15 new or expanded Indigenous health clinics and 40
        infrastructure                   new renal dialysis chairs through the Health and Hospitals Fund - Regional Priority Round ($113.4 million over
                                         five years from 2011–12).
                                         Improve the quality and safety of health services delivered to Indigenous Australians by assisting Indigenous
                                         health organisations to achieve clinical accreditation through the Establishing Quality Health Standards
                                         program ($35 million over four years from 2011–12).

        Support an expanding             Under the Indigenous Chronic Disease package ($805.5 million over four years from 2009–10), fund a total
        Indigenous health                of 698 new positions nationally, with many positions focusing on employment and training of Indigenous
        workforce                        Australians. This includes:
                                          Þ Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Outreach Workers
                                          Þ practice managers
                                          Þ Project Officers in Divisions of General Practice and NACCHO and State Affiliates
                                          Þ additional health professionals in Indigenous health services
                                          Þ Regional Tobacco Coordinators
                                          Þ Tobacco Action Workers
                                          Þ Healthy Lifestyle Workers
                                          Þ a flexible pool of funding to recruit Care Coordinators based on local needs.

        Increase access to mental        Expand the Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program to deliver culturally appropriate suicide
        health services                  prevention and mental health services to around an additional 18,000 Indigenous Australians ($36.5 million
                                         over five years from 2011–12).
                                         Address child–abuse related trauma of Indigenous children, families and their communities in the remote
                                         Northern Territory by funding Mobile Outreach Service Plus and related services ($15.6 million over four years
                                         from 2008–09).

        Improve access to primary        Establish 62 Medicare Locals as part of the National Health Reform agenda including in regional locations
        health care                      with significant Indigenous populations such as Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Kimberley-
                                         Pilbara Medicare Locals. Medicare Locals will be primary health care organisations established to coordinate
                                         primary health care delivery and tackle local health care needs and service gaps. They will drive improvements
                                         in primary health care and ensure that services are better tailored to meet the needs of local communities
                                         ($493 million over four years from 2011–12).
                                         Under the Commonwealth’s Indigenous Chronic Disease package ($805.5 million over four years from
                                           Þ tackle chronic disease risk factors including smoking, poor nutrition and lack of exercise and deliver
                                              community education initiatives to reduce the number of Indigenous Australians with these risk factors
                                           Þ improve chronic disease management and follow-up care in primary care by providing incentives
                                              and support for accredited general practices and Indigenous health services to detect, treat and
                                              manage chronic disease more effectively, supporting Indigenous Australians to participate in their
                                              own healthcare and by increasing access to affordable specialist, allied health care and medicines for
                                              Indigenous Australians with a chronic disease
                                           Þ increase the capacity of the primary care workforce to deliver effective health care to Indigenous
                                              Australians by funding more than 160 new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Outreach Workers,
                                              75 additional health professionals and practice managers in Indigenous health services, and a range of
                                              workforce training and professional development activities.
                                         Implement and evaluate pilot projects providing mobile dental equipment and services to rural and regional
                                         Indigenous communities ($11 million over four years from 2009–10).
                                         Provide dental follow-up services to children living in the prescribed areas of the Northern Territory with a
                                         referral from a Child Health Check or from a subsequent follow-up service such as a primary health care
                                         consultation ($10.7 million over three years from 2009–10 as part of the $131.1 million Closing the Gap –
                                         Northern Territory – Indigenous Health and Related Services measure).
Indigenous Economic Development Strategy 2011–2018

Strengthening Foundations                                                                                                                           | 27

Objective 1.4 Support safe communities

All Australians have the right to               in education and housing can make a                  take responsibility for choices that
live in safe communities, free from             real difference.                                     lead to healthier lives. The Australian
violence, abuse and fear. For too many                                                               Government recognises that by
                                                Safe and stable communities promote
Indigenous Australians, communities                                                                  providing positive role models and
                                                social engagement, achieve better
are not the safe places they should be.                                                              setting high expectations, strong
                                                educational outcomes and are
                                                                                                     Indigenous leaders can make a vital
While state and territory governments           more likely to attract investment by
                                                                                                     contribution to the security and
have primary responsibility for                 lowering risk for business.
                                                                                                     wellbeing of their communities.
ensuring that Indigenous Australians
                                                Every individual and family has a role
enjoy the same level of safety as
                                                to play in rebuilding and enforcing
other Australians, the Australian
                                                the social norms that underpin
Government also has a part to play.
                                                successful communities. Positive
People need to feel safe in their
                                                social norms encourage people to
homes and streets before investment

Objective 1.4 Support safe communities

 Strategies to 2018    Actions to 2013

 Improve               Reduce family violence by implementing the Indigenous Family Safety Program ($64.4 million over four years from
 community safety      2010–11) which will:
                        Þ address alcohol abuse, with an urgent focus on reducing the supply of alcohol
                        Þ provide more effective police protection to reduce incidents of violence
                        Þ work with strong local leaders to strengthen social norms against violence by changing attitudes and fostering
                           respectful relationships
                        Þ coordinate support services to aid the recovery of people who experience violence, including children who
                           experience or witness violence.
                       Support Indigenous communities to develop local solutions for promoting community safety through fostering
                       women’s leadership, building community capacity and improving access to services under the National Framework for
                       Protecting Australia’s Children and the National Plan to Reduce Violence Against Women and their Children.
                       Reduce petrol sniffing in remote communities by expanding the rollout of Opal fuel from 110 sites to 150 sites
                       nationally under the Petrol Sniffing Strategy ($38.5 million over four years from 2010–11).
                       Increase the police presence in remote communities in the Northern Territory with five new permanent police stations
                       ($47.8 million in 2011–12) and eight sworn community police engagement officers ($1.7 million in 2011–12).
                       Reduce offending and reoffending through focused initiatives under the Indigenous Justice Program
                       ($11.4 million in 2011–12) including provision of holistic through-care programs for people exiting prison.
                       Support new community solutions for fighting alcohol and substance abuse in Indigenous communities, including
                       development of alcohol and substance abuse management programs through the Breaking the Cycle initiative
                       ($20.0 million over three years from 2011–12).
                       Encourage safe Indigenous communities by improving the capacity of Australian justice systems to deliver on the needs
                       of Indigenous Australians, reducing Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system, addressing substance
                       abuse, and strengthening partnerships between communities, governments and stakeholders under the National
                       Indigenous Law and Justice Framework.
You can also read