Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD

 
Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
Innovative Citizen Participation and
       New Democratic Institutions
   CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE

                             HIGHLIGHTS

                                2020
Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                   Catching the Deliberative Wavee
OECD WORK ON OPEN GOVERNMENT
                                                                                                                                     WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS HIGHLIGHTS?

The OECD has been at the forefront of evidence-based analysis of open government reforms in                                          This highlights document covers the main findings and proposals from the Innovative Citizen
member and non-member countries. The OECD Open Government Project provides countries                                                 Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave report.
with a sequence of analysis and actionable support. This includes:
                                                                                                                                     Public authorities from all levels of government increasingly turn to Citizens' Assemblies, Juries,
•   Open Government Reviews                                                                                                          Panels and other representative deliberative processes to tackle complex policy problems
•   Capacity building seminars for public officials and civil society                                                                ranging from climate change to infrastructure investment decisions. They convene groups
•   Regional networks to exchange common challenges and good practices                                                               of people representing a wide cross-section of society for at least one full day – and often
                                                                                                                                     much longer – to learn, deliberate, and develop collective recommendations that consider the
                                                                                                                                     complexities and compromises required for solving multifaceted public issues. This "deliberative
THE OECD RECOMMENDATION ON OPEN GOVERNMENT                                                                                           wave" has been building since the 1980s, gaining momentum since around 2010.

                                                                                                                                     Based on the analysis of close to 300 representative deliberative practices, the report explores
The OECD Recommendation of the Council on Open Government was adopted in 2017                                                        trends in such processes, identifies different models, and analyses the trade-offs among
and represents the first international legal instrument in this area. In it, open government is                                      different design choices as well as the benefits and limits of public deliberation. It includes
defined as “a culture of governance that promotes the principles of transparency, integrity,                                         Good Practice Principles for Deliberative Processes for Public Decision Making, based on
accountability and stakeholder participation in support of democracy and inclusive growth”.                                          comparative empirical evidence gathered by the OECD and in collaboration with leading
Moreover, the Recommendation provides a comprehensive overview of the main tenets of                                                 practitioners from government, civil society, and academics. Finally, the report explores the
the open government strategies and initiatives by setting 10 provisions to guide Adherents to                                        reasons and routes for embedding deliberative activities into public institutions to give citizens
improve their implementation.
                                                                                                                                     a more permanent and meaningful role in shaping the policies affecting their lives.

OECD WORK ON INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION                                                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
This area of work supports countries in the implementation of Provision 9 of the OECD
Recommendation of the Council on Open Government (2017), which focuses on exploring                                                  1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................2
innovative ways to effectively engage with stakeholders to source ideas, co-create solutions,
and seize opportunities provided by digital government tools. It focuses on new research in                                          2. Good practice principles for deliberative processes for
the area of innovative citizen participation practices to analyse the new forms of deliberative,                                        public decision making......................................................................................................................................8
collaborative, and participatory decision making that are evolving across the globe.
                                                                                                                                     3. Different models of representative deliberative
As part of this work, the OECD has been engaging with the Innovative Citizen Participation                                              processes................................................................................................................................................................12
Network, a network of practitioners, designers, academics, researchers, civil servants, and
                                                                                                                                     4. Overview of key trends...................................................................................................................................18
curators to frame the topic and scope of research, to gather feedback and inputs to the
research in an ongoing manner, and to strengthen the ties between these important groups of                                          5. What is a successful representative deliberative
actors.                                                                                                                                 process?..................................................................................................................................................................24

Participo is a digital digest co-ordinated by the OECD Innovative Citizen Participation team.                                        6. Reimagining democratic institutions: why and how to
It is a space of exchange between public servants, practitioners, researchers, academics, and                                           embed public deliberation............................................................................................................................34
designers about the future of democracy more broadly.
                                                                                                                                     7. Proposals for action.........................................................................................................................................40
Check it out at medium.com/participo
Join the conversation on Twitter! #delibWave
                                                                                                                                        Consult the complete report:

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                             INTRODUCTION

                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGHLIGHTS
            1                                                                              T
                                                                                                   he increasing complexity of policy           of principles is rooted in ancient Athenian

                       INTRODUCTION
                                                                                                   making and the failure to find solutions     democracy and were applied throughout
                                                                                                   to some of the most pressing policy          history until two to three centuries ago. It
                                                                                                   problems have prompted politicians,          is their modern application, to complement
                                                                                           policy makers, civil society organisations, and      representative democratic institutions, that
                                                                                           citizens to reflect on how collective public         make such processes innovative today.
                                                                                           decisions should be taken in the twenty-
                                                                                           first century. There is a need for new ways          As the use of representative deliberative
                                                                                           to find common ground and take action.               processes proliferates, this report provides
                                                                                           This is particularly true for issues that            evidence to guide policy makers on good
                       KEY TERMS                                                           are values-based, require trade-offs, and            practices and options for institutionalising
                                                                                           demand long-term solutions. The OECD has             citizen deliberation. It is the first empirical
                                                                                           collected evidence and data that support             comparative study that analyses how
                                                                                           the idea that citizen participation in public        deliberative processes are being used for public

                       THREE CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION                                        decision making can deliver better policies,
                                                                                           strengthen democracy and build trust. This
                                                                                                                                                decision making around the world. Drawing
                                                                                                                                                on data collected from 289 case studies (282

                       IN STUDY                                                            report focuses on representative deliberative
                                                                                           processes in particular, as part of a wider effort
                                                                                                                                                from OECD countries) from 1986 to October
                                                                                                                                                2019, and in collaboration with an international
                                                                                           by democratic institutions to become more            advisory group, the OECD has identified twelve
                                                                                           participatory and open to informed citizen           distinct models of deliberative processes,
                                                                                           input and collective intelligence.                   evaluated what a ‘successful’ process entails,
                       WHY REPRESENTATIVENESS AND                                                                                               developed good practice principles, and
                                                                                           Assembling ordinary citizens from all parts          explored three routes to institutionalising
                       DELIBERATION?                                                       of society to deliberate on complex political        citizen deliberation. This research and proposals
                                                                                           questions and develop collective proposals has       for action fit within the organisation’s work on
                                                                                           become increasingly attractive in this context.      innovative citizen participation, which seeks
                                                                                           Over the past few decades, the ‘deliberative         to guide countries on the implementation
                       WHEN TO USE REPRESENTATIVE                                          wave’ has been building. Public authorities
                                                                                           at all levels of government have been using
                                                                                                                                                of provisions 8 and 9 of the 2017 OECD
                                                                                                                                                Recommendation on Open Government.
                       DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES                                              Citizens’ Assemblies, Juries, Panels, and other
                                                                                           representative deliberative processes. In            Growing efforts to embed public deliberation
                                                                                           these processes, randomly selected citizens,         into public decision making could be seen
                                                                                           making up a microcosm of a community, spend          as the start of a period of transformation
                                                                                           significant time learning and collaborating          to adapt the architecture of representative
                                                                                           through facilitated deliberation to develop          democracy. Democratic institutions across
                                                                                           informed collective recommendations for public       the world are beginning to transform in ways
                                                                                           authorities.                                         that give citizens a more direct role in setting
                                                                                                                                                agendas and shaping the public decisions that
                                                                                           In many ways, combining the principles of            affect them. Based on extensive data and
                                                                                           deliberation (careful and open discussion            analysis, this OECD report contributes to the
                                                                                           to weigh evidence about an issue),                   emerging international evidence base about
                                                                                           representativeness (achieved through random          these trends and helps public authorities
                                                                                           sampling from which a representative selection       implement good practices and consider routes
                                                                                           is made), and impact (with a link to public          to institutionalising citizen deliberation.
                                                                                           decision making) is not new. This combination

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                                          INTRODUCTION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HIGHLIGHTS
    KEY TERMS                                                                                             TABLE 1. KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DELIBERATIVE AND PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY

                                                                                                                                      Number of participants                 Type of participation         Participant selection method
    In this report, representative                           which emphasises the need to find                                        Relatively small (but                  Deliberation, which           Typically, a civic lottery,
                                                                                                          Deliberative
    deliberative processes are often                         common ground.                                                           representative) groups of              requires that participants    which combines random
                                                                                                          democracy
    referred to in shorthand as deliberative                                                                                          people, as it is difficult to          are well-informed about       selection with stratification,
    processes, and the term is used                          Random selection is used as a                                            have deep deliberation                 a topic and consider          to assemble a public body
    interchangeably with deliberative                        shorthand to refer to recruitment                                        among large numbers.                   different perspectives in     that is representative of the
    mini-public. It refers to a randomly                     processes that involve random sampling                                                                          order to arrive at a public   public; able to consider
    selected group of people who are                         from which a representative selection is                                                                        judgement (not opinion)       perspectives, and not
                                                                                                                                                                             about “what can we            vulnerable to being stacked
    broadly representative of a community                    made to ensure that the group broadly
                                                                                                                                                                             strongly agree on?”           by representatives of
    spending significant time learning                       matches the demographic profile of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                           powerful interest groups.
    and collaborating through facilitated                    community (based on census or other
    deliberation to form collective                          similar data).                                                                                                  More participation, in all
                                                                                                          Participatory               Large numbers of people,                                             Self-selected participation
    recommendations for policy makers.                                                                                                ideally everyone affected              aspects of politics, from
                                                                                                          democracy                                                                                        in order to enable as many
                                                             Finally, the report makes frequent                                       by a particular decision.              all citizens who choose to    people as possible to share
    Deliberative institutions refer to                       references to citizens. The term is meant                                The aim is to achieve                  be involved; an embrace       the experience.
    forms of citizen deliberation that have                  in the larger sense of ‘an inhabitant                                    breadth.                               and encouragement of a
    been embedded in public decision-                        of a particular place’, which can be                                                                            diversity of opportunities
    making procedures through legal                          in reference to a village, town, city,                                                                          for political engagement.
    mechanisms.                                              region, state, or country depending on
                                                             the context. When the word citizen is        Source: Table is author’s own creation, based on descriptions in Carson and Elstub (2019).
    Deliberation refers to public                            employed, it is not meant in the more
    deliberation (as opposed to internal                     restrictive sense of ‘a legally recognised
    deliberation) and to group deliberation                  national of a state’, and is thus used
    (as opposed to individual deliberation),                 interchangeably with ‘people’.                         THREE CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION IN THE STUDY
                                                                                                                    In analysing the evidence collected on deliberative processes across countries, three core defining
                                                                                                                    features were revealed as being of key importance, a fact also reflected in the work of a number of
           DELIBERATIVE AND PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY                                                                 scholars in the field. These were thus the three criteria required to be included in this study:

                                                                                                                    1. Deliberation, which involves weighing carefully different options, access to accurate and relevant
               •   Deliberative democracy is the wider political theory that claims that political                     and diverse information, and participants finding common ground to reach a group decision;
                   decisions should be a result of fair and reasonable discussion among citizens.
                   Gastil and Levine’s Deliberative Democracy Handbook (2005) argues that                           2. Representativeness, achieved through random sampling from which a representative selection
                   “deliberative democracy strengthens citizen voices in governance by                                 is made to ensure the group broadly matches the demographic profile of the community against
                   including people of all races, classes, ages and geographies in deliberations                       census or other similar data, and
                   that directly affect public decisions”. The theory gained traction in academic
                                                                                                                    3. Impact, meaning decision makers agree to respond to and act on recommendations.
                   literature in the 1980s (e.g. Mansbridge, 1980; Habermas, 1981).

               •   Participatory democracy has a slightly longer history, gaining ground with
                   the activist movements of the 1960s that demanded greater participation in
                   government decision making (e.g. civil rights, women’s liberation movements,
                   see Pateman, 1970). A central tenet to later work on participatory democracy
                   is that it must increase the capacities of citizens to participate, which
                   necessitates reform of democratic institutions to make participation more
                   meaningful (Pateman, 2012).
                                                                                                                                G1000 Amersfoort, 9 April, 2016.

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHT                                                                                                                            INTRODUCTION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGHLIGHTS
    WHY REPRESENTATIVENESS AND DELIBERATION?
                                                                                                                           7
                  1                                                                                    2                         Help counteract polarisation and disinformation. Empirical research has shown
                                                                                                                                 that “communicative echo chambers that intensify cultural cognition, identity
                                                                                                                                 reaffirmation, and polarisation do not operate in deliberative conditions, even in
                                                                   Greater legitimacy to make hard                               groups of like-minded partisans” (Dryzek et al, 2019; see Grönlund et al., 2015). There
        Better policy outcomes because                             choices. These processes help policy                          is also evidence to suggest that deliberation can be an effective way to overcome
        deliberation results in considered                         makers to better understand policy                            ethnic, religious, or ideological divisions between groups that have historically found
        public judgements rather than public                       priorities, the values and reasons behind                     their identity in rejecting that of the other (Ugarizza et al., 2014).
        opinions. These processes create                           them, to identify where consensus is and
        the spaces for learning, deliberation                      is not feasible, and to overcome political
        and the development of informed                            deadlock.
        recommendations, which are of
        greater use to policy and decision
                                                                                                                   WHEN AND WHEN NOT TO USE REPRESENTATIVE
                                                                                                                   DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES
                                                                            4
        makers.

                                                                                                                   Drawing on the evidence collected and existing scholarship, deliberative processes have been shown to
                                                                                                                   work well for the following types of problems:

             3                                                                Signal civic respect and
                                                                                                                   Values-driven dilemmas

                                                                                                                                                                                Complex problems that require trade-offs
                                                                              empower citizens. Engaging           Many public policy questions are values-
                Enhance public trust in government and                        citizens in active deliberation      driven. Representative deliberative
                democratic institutions by giving citizens                    can also strengthen their            processes are designed in a way that                              Representative deliberative processes are
                an effective role in public decision making.                  sense of political efficacy          encourages active listening, critical                        designed to provide participants with time to
                People are more likely to trust a decision                    (the belief that one can             thinking, and respect between                                learn, reflect, and deliberate, as well as access
                                                                                                                   participants. They create an environment                         to a wide range of evidence and expertise
                that has been influenced by ordinary people                   understand and influence
                                                                                                                   in which discussing difficult ethical                      from officials, academics, think tanks, advocacy
                than one made solely by government or                         political affairs) by not
                                                                                                                   questions that have no evident or ‘right’                       groups, businesses and other stakeholders.
                behind closed doors. Trust also works two                     treating them as objects of          solutions can happen in a civil way, and                     These design characteristics enable citizens to
                ways. For governments to engender trust                       legislation and administration       can enable participants to find common                     grapple with the complexity of decision making
                among the public, they must in turn trust                     (see Knobloch et al., 2019).         ground.                                                        and to consider problems within their legal,
                the public to be more directly involved in                                                                                                                            regulatory and/or budgetary constraints.
                decision making.
                                                                                                                   Long-term issues that go beyond the

                                                                                                6
                                                                                                                   short-term incentives of electoral cycles

                5                                              Strengthen integrity and prevent corruption
                                                                                                                   Many public policy issues are difficult decisions to take, as their benefits are often only reaped in the
                                                                                                                   long term, while the costs are incurred in the short term. Deliberative processes help to justify action
                                                                                                                   and spending on such issues, as they are designed in a way that removes the motivated interests of
                                                                                                                   political parties and elections, incentivising participants to act in the interests of the public good.
       Make governance more inclusive                          by ensuring that groups and individuals
       by opening the door to a much                           with money and power cannot have undue
       more diverse group of people.                           influence on a public decision. Key principles      However, deliberative processes are not a panacea; they do not address all of the democratic and
       With their use of random selection                      of deliberative good practice are that the          governance problems outlined in this introduction. Democratic societies face a wide set of challenges,
       and stratified sampling, they bring                     process is transparent, visible, and provides       which require different methods of resolution or participation. For example, deliberative processes are
       in typically excluded categories like                   an opportunity for all stakeholders to present      not sufficient to address the problems of political inclusion and collective decision making. The former
       youth, the disadvantaged, women, or                     to the participants. Participants’ identities are   is better satisfied through political equality in the form of universal suffrage, and voting is useful for
       other minorities into public policy and                 often protected until after the process is over     broader participation in decision making (though often suffers from voters having low information).
                                                                                                                   Nor are deliberative processes well-suited for urgent decisions, problems in the late stages of decision
       decision making.                                        to protect them from being targeted by interest
                                                                                                                   making where possible solutions are limited, for issues that involve national security, or for resolving
                                                               groups.
                                                                                                                   binary questions. Democratic governance requires the use of different mechanisms for different
                                                                                                                   purposes to take advantage of their strengths and weaknesses.

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD
     OECD :: INNOVATIVE
             INNOVATIVE CITIZEN
                        CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
                                PARTICIPATION AND
                                              AND NEW
                                                  NEW DEMOCRATIC
                                                      DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
                                                                 INSTITUTIONS -- HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                 HIGHLIGHTS                               GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES FOR DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES FOR PUBLIC DECISION MAKING

                                                                                                                                                                                                               HIGHLIGHTS
             2          GOOD PRACTICE                                                         T
                                                                                                     he OECD has drawn the common principles and good practices, identified in the evidence
                                                                                                     gathered for this report, together into a set of Good Practice Principles for Deliberative
                                                                                                     Processes for Public Decision Making. These principles could provide policy makers with

                        PRINCIPLES
                                                                                                     useful guidance as to the establishment of deliberative processes and the implementation of
                                                                                              provisions 8 and 9 of the Recommendation on Open Government.

                                                                                              In addition to the comparative empirical evidence gathered by the OECD and from which they

                        FOR DELIBERATIVE                                                      were drawn, the principles also benefitted from collaboration with international practitioners from
                                                                                              government, civil society, and academics: Yago Bermejo Abati; Damian Carmichael; Nicole Curato;
                                                                                              Linn Davis; Yves Dejaeghere; Marcin Gerwin; Angela Jain; Dimitri Lemaire; Miriam Levin; Peter

                        PROCESSES                                                             MacLeod; Malcolm Oswald; Anna Renkamp; Min Reuchamps; and Iain Walker.

                        FOR PUBLIC                                                                                                                                                         2
                        DECISION MAKING                                                                                          1                 ACCOUNTABILITY

                                                                                                                                                    There should be influence on public
                                                                                                    PURPOSE
                                                                                                                                                    decisions. The commissioning public
                                                                                                                                                    authority should publicly commit to
                                                                                                   The objective should be                          responding to or acting on participants’
                                                                                                   outlined as a clear task and                     recommendations in a timely manner.
                                                                                                   is linked to a defined public
                                                                                                   problem. It is phrased neutrally                 It should monitor the implementation of
                                                                                                   as a question in plain language.                 all accepted recommendations with regular
                                                                                                                                                    public progress reports.

                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                       TRANSPARENCY

                                                                                                                       The deliberative process should be announced publicly
                                                                                                                       before it begins. The process design and all materials
                                                                                                                       – including agendas, briefing documents, evidence
                                                                                                                       submissions, audio and video recordings of those presenting
                                                                                                                       evidence, the participants’ report, their recommendations
                                                                                                                       (the wording of which participants should have a final say
                                                                                                                       over), and the random selection methodology – should be
                                                                                                                       available to the public in a timely manner.

                                                                                                                       The funding source should be disclosed. The commissioning
                                                                                                                       public authority’s response to the recommendations and the
                                                                                                                       evaluation after the process should be publicised and have a
                                                                                                                       public communication strategy.

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                            GOOD PRACTICE PRNICIPLES FOR DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES FOR PUBLIC DECISION MAKING

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           HIGHLIGHTS
                                                           4                                                                                                                                     8
          INCLUSIVENESS                                                                                             TIME

          Inclusion should be achieved by considering                                                               Deliberation requires adequate time for participants to learn, weigh the evidence,
          how to involve under-represented groups.                                                                  and develop informed recommendations, due to the complexity of most policy
          Participation should also be encouraged and                                                               problems. To achieve informed citizen recommendations, participants should meet
          supported through remuneration, expenses,                                                                 for at least four full days in person, unless a shorter time frame can be justified.
          and/or providing or paying for childcare and                                                              It is recommended to allow time for individual learning and reflection in between
          eldercare.                                                                                                meetings.

                                                                                             5
                                                                                                                                                                                                      10
             REPRESENTATIVENESS
             The participants should be a microcosm of the general public. This is achieved through
                                                                                                                                                9                       PRIVACY
             random sampling from which a representative selection is made, based on stratification
             by demographics (to ensure the group broadly matches the demographic profile of
                                                                                                                INTEGRITY                                               There should be respect for
             the community against census or other similar data), and sometimes by attitudinal                                                                          participants’ privacy to protect them
             criteria (depending on the context). Everyone should have an equal opportunity to                  The process should be run by an arm's                   from undesired media attention and
             be selected as participants. In some instances, it may be desirable to over-sample                 length co-ordinating team different                     harassment, as well as to preserve
             certain demographics during the random sampling stage of recruitment to help achieve               from the commissioning public                           participants’ independence,
             representativeness.                                                                                authority. The final call regarding                     ensuring they are not bribed or
                                                                                                                process decisions should be with the                    lobbied by interest groups or
                                                                                                                arm's length co-ordinators rather                       activists. Small group discussions
                                                                                                                than the commissioning authorities.                     should be private. The identity

                                                                                                        7
                                                                                                                Depending on the context, there                         of participants may be publicised
                                                                                                                should be oversight by an advisory or                   when the process has ended,
                                                                                                                monitoring board with representatives                   at the participants’ consent. All

                                           6
                                                                                                                of different viewpoints.                                personal data of participants should
                                                                                                                                                                        be treated in compliance with
                                                                                                                                                                        international good practices, such as
                                                                        GROUP DELIBERATION
                                                                                                                                                                        the European Union’s General Data
                                                                                                                                                                        Protection Regulation (GDPR).
         INFORMATION
                                                                        Participants should be able to find
                                                                        common ground to underpin their
         Participants should have access to a                           collective recommendations to the     EVALUATION
         wide range of accurate, relevant, and                          public authority.
         accessible evidence and expertise.                                                                   There should be an anonymous evaluation by the participants to

                                                                                                                                                                                                    11
                                                                        This entails careful and active       assess the process based on objective criteria (e.g. on quantity and
         They should have the opportunity to                            listening, weighing and considering   diversity of information provided, amount of time devoted to learning,
         hear from and question speakers that                           multiple perspectives, every          independence of facilitation). An internal evaluation by the co-ordination
         present to them, including experts                             participant having an opportunity     team should be conducted against the good practice principles in
         and advocates chosen by the citizens                           to speak, a mix of formats that       this report to assess what has been achieved and how to improve
         themselves.                                                    alternate between small group and     future practice. An independent evaluation is recommended for some
                                                                        plenary discussions and activities,   deliberative processes, particularly those that last a significant time. The
                                                                        and skilled facilitation.             deliberative process should also be evaluated on final outcomes and
                                                                                                              impact of implemented recommendations.

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Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD :: INNOVATIVE
     OECD    INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
                                PARTICIPATION AND NEW
                                                  NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
                                                                 INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                      DIFFERENT MODELS OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES
     OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN
                        CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND
                                              AND NEW DEMOCRATIC
                                                      DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS -- HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                 HIGHLIGHTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HIGHLIGHTS
             3          DIFFERENT MODELS
                                                                                              O
                                                                                                       ver the years, due to the combined             The models can be characterised by four types
                                                                                                       efforts of policy makers, academics
                                                                                                                                                      of purpose:
                                                                                                       and civil society, numerous models

                        OF REPRESENTATIVE                                                              of representative deliberative
                                                                                              processes have been developed, tested, and
                                                                                              implemented across the world. Drawing on
                                                                                                                                                        1.   Informed citizen recommendations on
                                                                                                                                                             policy questions: These processes require

                        DELIBERATIVE                                                          the new empirical research collected and                       more time (on average a minimum of four
                                                                                              broader theoretical research on deliberative                   days, and often longer) to allow citizens
                                                                                              models, the OECD has identified 12 models of                   adequate time and resources to develop

                        PROCESSES
                                                                                              representative deliberative processes grouped                  considered and detailed collective
                                                                                              by four types of purpose.                                      recommendations. They are particularly
                                                                                                                                                             useful for complex policy problems that
                                                                                              These models refer to categories of different                  involve many trade-offs, or where there is
                                                                                              types of representative deliberative processes                 entrenched political deadlock on an issue.
                                                                                              based on their distinct properties and
                                                                                              characteristics. The models are: Citizens'                2.   Citizen opinion on policy questions:
                                                                                              Assembly; Citizens' Jury/Panel; Consensus                      These processes require less time
                        EXAMPLE: CITIZENS' JURY/PANEL                                         Conference; Planning Cell; G1000; Citizens'                    than those in the first category,
                                                                                              Council; Citizens' Dialogue; Deliberative                      though still respect the principles of
                                                                                              Poll/Survey; World Wide Views; Citizens'                       representativeness and deliberation,
                                                                                              Initiative Review; the Ostbelgien Model;                       to provide decision makers with more
                                                                                              and the City Observatory.                                      considered citizen opinions on a policy
                        CHOOSING A MODEL OF                                                   Overall, the choice of deliberative models
                                                                                                                                                             issue. Due to the time constraints, their
                                                                                                                                                             results are less detailed than those of the
                        DELIBERATIVE ENGAGEMENT                                               has so far depended on the familiarity with
                                                                                              the model and experience using it, leading
                                                                                                                                                             processes designed for informed citizen
                                                                                                                                                             recommendations.
                                                                                              to preferences in different countries for
                                                                                              specific models. However, their widespread                3.   Informed citizen evaluation of ballot
                                                                                              use signals their universality and potential                   measures: This process allows for a
                                                                                              applicability in different national and local                  representative group of citizens to
                                                                                              contexts.                                                      identify the pro and con arguments
                                                                                                                                                             for both sides of a ballot issue to be
                                                                                              The deliberative models presented here are                     distributed to voters ahead of the vote.
                                                                                              not necessarily exhaustive. Each model shares
                                                                                              the essential phases of quality representative            4.   Permanent representative deliberative
                                                                                              deliberative processes: learning, deliberation,                bodies: These new institutional
                                                                                              and the development of collective                              arrangements allow for representative
                                                                                              recommendations. This highlights document                      citizen deliberation to inform public
                                                                                              provides an overview of the different models;                  decision making on an ongoing basis.
                                                                                              full details are available in the accompanying
                                                                                              report.
                                                                                                                                                                                    G1000 Amersfoort, 9 April, 2016.

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                     13
Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions - CATCHING THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE - OECD
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                                                        DIFFERENT MODELS OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                                                                                             EXAMPLE: CITIZENS' JURY/PANEL
          FIGURE 1. MODELS OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES

                                                                                                                                                                             To illustrate the workings of a representative                                  Processes that have taken place
                                  Average          Average          Average      Number of            Use by                Result                 Policy questions
                                 number of         length of      length from times used to          countries                                    addressed to date
                                                                                                                                                                             deliberative process, the Citizens’ Jury/Panel                                  over consecutive days
                                                                                                                                                                             model is described here, given it is the most
                                participants       meetings        first to last    date
                                 per panel                          meeting       process
                                                                                                                                                                             popular model. All other models are detailed in
                                                                                  (panels)                                                                                   the full report.                                                                The Citizens' Jury was developed in the United
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             States by Ned Crosby and the Jefferson Center
Informed citizen recommendations on policy questions                                                                                                                         Used at all levels of government, Citizens’                                     in 1971. The initial design and method follow
                                                                                                                                                                             Juries and Panels have been initiated to address                                a rigid model and cause some confusion as
                                                                                                                     Detailed,               Electoral reforms,
Citizens' Assembly                     90          18.8 days       47 weeks            6 (6)        CAN, IRL         collective              institutional setup,            a broad range of policy questions, the most                                     many processes labelled as Citizens' Juries in
                                                                                                                     recommendations         constitutional questions        common ones being infrastructure, health, urban                                 other countries do not follow the same strict
                                                                                                                                                                             planning, environment, and public services. Most                                design criteria of the initial model. Distinctive
Citizens' Jury/Panel                   34          4.1 days         5 weeks          115 (168)
                                                                                                                                             Broad range of topics. Most     of them have been ad hoc, but there is also one                                 characteristics of these Citizens' Juries are that
                                                                                                    AUT, AUS,                                common: infrastructure,
   a) consecutive day                  30          3.4 days         0 weeks           23 (40)       BEL, CAN,                                health, urban planning,         institutionalised model of an ongoing Panel.                                    they are usually smaller than the average –
      meetings                                                                                      FRA, POL,        Collective              environment                                                                                                     between 12 to 24 people – and they typically
                                                                                                    ESP, GBR,        recommendations
   b) non-consecutive day              35          4.1 days         7 weeks          90 (126)       USA                                      Ongoing processes               Citizens’ Juries and Panels follow the same                                     run three to six days consecutively (Jefferson
                                                                                                                                             mandated to provide input       learning, deliberation, and decision-making phases                              Center). While this approach was developed in
      meetings                                                                                                                               on various questions when
                                                                                                                                             public authority is in need     as Citizens’ Assemblies, but more concisely. They                               the United States (US), it has been replicated
   c) ongoing                          32           11 days          2 years           2 (2)        CAN
                                                                                                                                                                             are, to date, the most adapted of representative                                in other places, including examples in Australia,
                                                                                                    AUS, AUT,
Consensus Conference
                                                                                                                     Collective              New technology,                 deliberative models, and three main sub-                                        Canada, Denmark, France, Korea, Spain, and the
                                       16          4.0 days         2 weeks           19 (19)       DNK, FRA,        recommendations         environment, health             categories have emerged over time:                                              UK.
                                                                                                    NOR, GBR
                                                                                                                     Collective position     Most common use for
Planning Cell                          24          3.2 days         0 weeks          57 (247)       DEU, JAP         report/citizens         urban planning, but also
                                                                                                                     report
                                                                                                                                                                             1.   processes that have taken place over
                                                                                                                                             other topics
                                                                                                                                                                                  consecutive days;
Citizen opinion on policy questions
                                                                                                                                                                             2.   processes where meeting days are spread out
                                                                                                                                             Strategic planning:                  over numerous weeks, and
G1000                                 346          1.7 days         4 weeks           12 (12)       NLD, ESP        Votes on proposals       developing a future vision      3.   ongoing panels over much longer periods of
                                                                                                                                             for the city
                                                                                                                                                                                  time (e.g. two years).
                                                                                                                                             Various topics, most
                                                                                                                    Collective
Citizens' Council                      15          1.7 days          1 week           14 (24)       AUT, DEU                                 common: environment,
                                                                                                                    recommendations
                                                                                                                                             strategic planning

                                                                                                                    Broad ideas/             Various topics, often several
Citizens' Dialogues                   148          2.1 days          4 weeks         38 (112)       Globally
                                                                                                                    recommendations          addressed at once                    FIGURE 2. CITIZENS’ JURY/PANEL MODEL
                                                                                                    ARG, ITA,
                                                                                                                    Survey opinions
                                                                      0 weeks         14 (15)       JAP, USA,
Deliberative Poll/Survey              226          1.6 days                                                         and opinion              Various topics
                                                                                                    KOR, MNG,                                                                                                            Face-to-face meetings for 4.1 days over 5 weeks
                                                                                                                    changes
                                                                                                    CHN, BRA                                                                                                                            (on average)
                                                                                                                                             Environment issues on a
World Wide Views                      120            1 day            0 weeks         4 (150)       Globally        Votes on proposals                                                                                   For ongoing processes: face-to-face meetings for
                                                                                                                                             global scale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       11 days over 2 years
Informed citizen evaluation of ballot measures
                                                                                                                    Collective                                                                                           Learning Consultation Deliberation Decision
Citizens' Initiative Review            22            4.4 days          0 weeks         8 (8)        USA             statement of key         Various topics                                                               stage     stage         stage    making stage
                                                                                                                                                                                    Random selection
                                                                                                                    facts
                                                                                                                                                                                     of 34 citizens on                                                                                           Collective

                                                                                                                                                                                                              →
Permanent deliberative bodies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  →
                                                                                                                                                                                         average                        • Introductory   • Stakeholder      • Discussing      • Agreeing on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          readings         hearings           evidence          the final set                      Local/regional/
                                                                                                                                             Mandate to set the                                                         • Learning       • Hearings of      • Assessing         of recom-
                                       24            No data                                                        Collective               agenda and initiate                                                                                              options           mendtions        Recommen-       national government
The Ostbelgien Model                                                  1.5 years        1 (1)        BEL                                                                                                                   sessions         the public
                                                       yet                                                          recommendations                                                                                                                         • Impartial                            dations
                                                                                                                                             citizens’ panels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              facilitators
                                                                                                                                             Mandate to evaluate
City Observatory                                                                                                    Decisions on             citizen proposals and
                                       49             8 days            1 year         1 (1)        ESP
                                                                                                                    citizen proposals        suggest them for referenda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Various methods of citizen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            engagement (surveys, public
Note: All calculations for this table have been made by the authors on the basis of the data from the 289 cases, which together feature 763 separate deliberative                                                            consultations, roundtables)
panels, collected for this study, from OECD Member and non-Member countries. The average length from first to last meeting of the Planning Cell is an exception
due to lack of data. In this instance, Nexus Institute, the principal organisation implementing Planning Cells in Germany, was consulted. The overall average length
of meetings of Citizens' Jury/Panel is calculated not including the ongoing processes.                                                                                            Source: Author's own creation based on data in the OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).

14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                            DIFFERENT MODELS OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HIGHLIGHTS
     Processes where meeting days are                           Ongoing panels over much longer                                 At the local and regional levels, a G1000                                                           Other important considerations include
                                                                                                                                or a Citizens’ Council can be reasonable                                                            available time and resources, level of
     spread out over numerous weeks                             periods of time (e.g. two years)
                                                                                                                                options for residents to develop a collective                                                       government, and policy area. For example,
                                                                                                                                vision for a municipality and to address less                                                       the Consensus Conference model is helpful
     In contrast, similar processes called Reference            Finally, the third sub-category of Citizens’ Juries/            complex community problems, as they are                                                             to assess technological advancements, as the
     Panels in Canada, pioneered by MASS LBP, evolved           Panels refers to an ongoing representative
                                                                                                                                more open-ended and flexible formats. On                                                            format allows citizens to question scientists
     from the experience of the Citizens' Assemblies            deliberative body for a longer period and on
                                                                                                                                the other hand, if decision makers desire                                                           and policy makers extensively to get to the core
     in British Columbia and Ontario in the late 2000s.         multiple issues related to one policy area. As
                                                                of early 2020, it has been used only in Canada                  specific, informed recommendations for a                                                            of an issue. Figure 3 provides further indications
     During this same period (and without awareness
     of one another at the time), the newDemocracy              and run by MASS LBP, with many of the same                      pressing policy problem, then they need to                                                          on the properties of each model based on their
     Foundation in Australia was separately developing          characteristics of a Reference Panel in terms of                clearly define the task for participants.                                                           use to date.
     a similar deliberative model to MASS LBP's, calling        average number of participants (around 30),
     its processes Citizens' Juries.                            selection through a civic lottery, an in-depth
                                                                learning phase, deliberation moderated by
     The Canadian and Australian Reference Panels               skilled facilitators, and ultimately the provision
     and Citizens' Juries tend to involve larger                of informed inputs to policy makers.                            FIGURE 3. PROPERTIES OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE MODELS
     groups of participants (usually around 36 to
     45) and the meetings are spread out over                   An example is the Toronto Planning Review
     numerous weekends, based on the view that                  Panel (TPRP) 2015-2017 and 2017-2019. The
     this is crucial for the learning process and for           remit of the TPRP is to provide informed inputs                                       Complexity              Depth of                Flexibility                       Resources            Length of the           Level of                                                So far used as
     quality deliberation. They also began the trend            on a regular basis on planning issues to the                                          of the policy         recommen-                 given to                          necessary              process            government for                                             permanent or
     of a new and rigorous two-stage method for                 City’s Chief Planner and Planning Division. At the                                      question              dations                participants                                                                which used so far                                              ad hoc
     random selection, called a "civic lottery", which          time of writing in early 2020, a similar panel is

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          National/Federal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Regional/State
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 participant-led
                                                                operating on transportation issues in the Greater

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rigid format
     is now widely used.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             International

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Permanent
                                                                                                                                                                                     Detailed ,
                                                                Toronto and Hamilton Area, commissioned

                                                                                                                                                                                     extensive

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                High-cost
                                                                                                                                                                  Complex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Low-cost

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ad hoc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Flexible,
                                                                                                                                                     Simple
                                                                by Metrolinx, the regional public transport

                                                                                                                                                                            Broad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Local
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Short

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Long
     In the UK, there was a peak in the use of
     Citizens' Juries (similar to the Jefferson Center's        authority.
     approach), in the late 1990s/early 2000s. Since                                                                   Informed citizen recommendations on policy questions
     the late 2010s, the term Citizens' Assembly
     has been used to describe many of the most                                                                        Citizens' Assembly                                                                                                                                         ✔ ✔ ✔                                                       ✔
     recent processes that are in fact more similar to                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔                                                     ✔         ✔
                                                                                                                       Citizens' Jury/Panel
     Citizens' Juries and Reference Panels.
                                                                                                                       Consensus Conference                                                                                                                                           ✔                                                       ✔
     In Poland, Citizens' Panels ("panel obywatelski")                                                                 Planning Cell                                                                                                                                              ✔ ✔ ✔                                                       ✔
     are closely aligned to the practices in Canada
     and Australia, although they tend to be slightly                                                                  Citizen opinion on policy questions
     larger (around 60 participants).
                                                                                                                       G1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ✔                                                           ✔
                                                                                                                       Citizens' Council                                                                                                                                          ✔ ✔ ✔                                                       ✔         ✔
     CHOOSING A MODEL OF DELIBERATIVE ENGAGEMENT                                                                       Citizens' Dialogues                                                                                                                                        ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔                                                     ✔
                                                                                                                       Deliberative Poll/Survey                                                                                                                                   ✔ ✔ ✔                                                       ✔
     The most appropriate deliberative model                    Citizens’ Juries/Panels are focused processes          World Wide Views                                                                                                                                                                                        ✔              ✔
     depends primarily on the policy problem.                   to advise on a specific policy issue, typically at
                                                                                                                       Informed citizen evaluation of ballot measures
     The more complex the question is and the                   sub-national level although they have also been
     wider its implications, the more detailed                  used nationally/federally. As shorter, usually         Citizens' Initiative Review                                                                                                                                          ✔                                                 ✔         ✔
     recommendations are required and hence the                 four-to-six day processes gathering 35-50
                                                                                                                       Permanent deliberative bodies
     more elaborate deliberative process is applicable.         randomly selected citizens, they are long enough
     For example, Citizens’ Assemblies are well-suited          for citizens to develop detailed, informed             The Ostbelgien Model                                                                                                                     ongoing                     ✔                                                           ✔
     to address constitutional questions and issues             recommendations to address specific policy             City Observatory                                                                                                                         ongoing           ✔                                                                     ✔
     of national or greater importance, as this model           issues, but require less time and less resources
     allows for extensive learning about the policy             than Citizens’ Assemblies. They can thus be used                 Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
     issue and in-depth careful deliberation.                   more often and yield quicker results.

16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS
     OECD :: INNOVATIVE
     OECD    INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
                                PARTICIPATION AND NEW
                                                  NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
                                                                 INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS
     OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN
                        CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND
                                              AND NEW DEMOCRATIC
                                                      DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS -- HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                 HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                       OVERVIEW OF KEY TRENDS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                HIGHLIGHTS
             4          OVERVIEW OF KEY                                                       REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES ARE LARGELY
                                                                                              TAKING PLACE IN OECD COUNTRIES
                        TRENDS

                                                                                              T
                                                                                                      he cases that the OECD has collected in this report are from
                        REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES                                         the countries in Figure 4. This figure is not a ranking, nor is
                                                                                                      it representative of all the cases in a country. It is a graphic
                        ARE LARGELY TAKING PLACE IN OECD                                              representation of the number of cases that the OECD has
                        COUNTRIES                                                             collected. The countries with the largest number of cases are also
                                                                                              those in which a number of the deliberative models were initiated:
                                                                                              the Planning Cell originates in Germany, the Citizens’ Assembly in
                                                                                              Canada, and the Consensus Conference in Denmark.

                        THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE HAS BEEN
                        BUILDING OVER TIME
                                                                                                  FIGURE 4. NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES PER COUNTRY, 1986-2019

                        REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE
                        PROCESSES HAVE BEEN USED AT ALL                                               Norway
                                                                                                         Italy
                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                     1

                        LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT                                                           Estonia
                                                                                                       Ireland
                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                         2
                                                                                                       Poland                4
                                                                                                      Belgium                4
                                                                                                        Korea                    5

                        THE CITIZENS' JURY/PANEL IS THE MOST                                        EU/Global
                                                                                                        Spain
                                                                                                                                     8
                                                                                                                                         9

                        OFTEN USED MODEL                                                               France
                                                                                                  Netherlands
                                                                                                                                              12
                                                                                                                                               13
                                                                                                        Japan                                  13
                                                                                                           UK                                           15

                        REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE
                                                                                                        OECD                                            15
                                                                                                       Austria                                           16

                        PROCESSES HAVE BEEN
                                                                                                 United States                                               17
                                                                                                     Denmark                                                                  25

                        COMMISSIONED FOR A WIDE                                                        Canada
                                                                                                     Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               48

                        RANGE OF POLICY ISSUES                                                       Germany                                                                                                                   48
                                                                                                                 0           5           10        15             20     25          30          35          40          45      50

                                                                                                  Note: n=282. Data for OECD countries is based on 18 OECD countries that were members in 2019 plus the European Union
                                                                                                  Source: OECD Database of Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).

18
18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                                                                                            OVERVIEW OF KEY TRENDS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               HIGHLIGHTS
      THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE HAS BEEN BUILDING OVER TIME                                                                                                       FIGURE 6. REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES HAVE BEEN USED MOST OFTEN LOCALLY,
                                                                                                                                                              THOUGH EXAMPLES EXIST AT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT

      Since 2010, there has been a notable trend                                                        Conferences in Denmark. Since 2011, the               Representative deliberative processes at all levels of government, 1986-2019
      for public authorities to increasingly use                                                        number of deliberative processes has been                                                              International 3%
      representative deliberative processes for                                                         steadily increasing. Between 2011 and 2019,
      public decision making. A first wave of interest                                                  there have been 177 deliberative processes in
      took place between 1996 and 2000 and was                                                          total with an average of 25 processes per year
                                                                                                                                                                                                        National/Federal
      characterised by high number of Planning Cells                                                    in the period of 2016-2019                                                                            15%
      in Germany, as well as a peak in Consensus                                                        (Figure 5).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Local
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    52%
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Regional/State
                                                                                                                                                                                                             30%

      FIGURE 5. THE DELIBERATIVE WAVE HAS BEEN BUILDING OVER TIME
      Number of representative deliberative processes per year, 1986 – October 2019

      30                                                                                                                                                      Note: n=282; Data for OECD countries is based on 18 OECD countries that were members in 2019 plus the European Union.
                                                                                                                                               28             Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
                                                                                                                                          26
      25                                                                                                                                                 24

                                                                                                                                                              THE CITIZENS' JURY/PANEL IS THE MOST OFTEN USED
                                                                                                                                                              MODEL OF DELIBERATIVE PROCESS
                                                                                                                                                    20
      20                                                                                                                             19
                                                                                                                                18

      15
                                                                                                                 15
                                                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                                                              The Citizens’ Jury/Citizens’ Panel is the most                                such as the Citizens’ Assembly (six times) and
                                                               13                                                          13
                                                                                                                                                              widely used model of representative deliberative                              international processes that require extensive
                                                                                                                                                              process to date (used 115 times, 42% of all                                   co-ordination efforts such as World Wide Views
      10                                               9
                                                                                                         8                                                    cases). Other shorter processes such as the                                   (four times) have been employed less frequently.
                                                                    6       6               6   6   6                                                         Planning Cell (57 times), Citizens’ Dialogues (38                             New, innovative, institutionalised deliberative
                                               5   5                                5   5                    5
       5                                                   4            4                                                                                     times), Consensus Conferences (19 times), and                                 processes that have only started emerging
                                                                                3
           2                           2                                                                                                                      Citizens’ Councils (14 times) have also been used                             recently – such as the Ostbelgien model and
               1   1       1       1       1
                       0       0                                                                                                                              quite extensively. Longer, more complex models                                Madrid City Observatory – took place only once.
       0

      Note: n=282; Data for OECD countries is based on 18 OECD countries that were members in 2019 plus the European Union. Processes that
                                                                                                                                                                           FIGURE 7. THE CITIZENS’ JURY/PANEL HAS BEEN USED MOST OFTEN BY PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
      spanned over multiple years are noted by the year of their completion (except for permanent ongoing processes).                                                      FOR PUBLIC DECISION MAKING
      Source: OECD Database of Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
                                                                                                                                                                           Total number of times each deliberative model has been used for public decision making, 1986-2019
                                                                                                                                                                                125
                                                                                                                                                                                      115

                                                                                                                                                                                100

     REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES HAVE BEEN
     USED AT ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT                                                                                                                                            75

                                                                                                                                                                                               57

                                                                                                                                                                                 50

     Representative deliberative processes have been                                                    federal level (Figure 6). Three per cent have                                                  38

     carried out at all levels of government, and have                                                  been international processes initiated by
                                                                                                                                                                                 25
     been most popular on the local level (52% of                                                       international organisations or supranational                                                           19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               12
     cases). Thirty per cent have been commissioned                                                     bodies, spanning either across multiple                                                                                         8      7       6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1       1
     by regional or state public authorities and                                                        countries globally or across various EU member                            0

     15% have been carried out on a national or                                                         states.

20                                                                                                                                                                         Note: n=282; Data for OECD countries is based on 18 OECD countries that were members in 2019 plus the European Union.
                                                                                                                                                                           Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                                                                                                OVERVIEW OF KEY TRENDS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HIGHLIGHTS
             FIGURE 8. REGIONAL TRENDS OF DIFFERENT DELIBERATIVE MODELS
                                                                                                                                                         PUBLIC AUTHORITIES HAVE COMMISSIONED
                                                                                                                                                         REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES
                                                                                                                                                         FOR A WIDE RANGE OF POLICY ISSUES

                                                                                                                                                         The range of policy issues addressed using representative deliberative processes
                                                                                                                                                         has been wide and increasing (Figure 10). The issues that are embarked upon most
                                                                                                                                                         often are those that have a direct impact on citizens’ everyday lives and those
                                                                                                                                                         to which citizens can easily contribute their personal opinions and experiences:
                                                                                                                                                         urban planning and health. Local and regional/state level representative
                                                                                                                                                         deliberative processes are commonly concerned with urban and strategic planning,
                                                                                                                                                         infrastructure, and health questions. National and international ones are most
                                                                                                                                                         often about environment and technology policy issues.

                                                                                                                                                              FIGURE 10. REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES HAVE BEEN USED BY PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
             Note: The colour indicates the dominant deliberative model; the number indicates the total of representative deliberative processes in a         MOST OFTEN FOR ADDRESSING ISSUES THAT HAVE A DIRECT IMPACT ON A COMMUNITY’S LIFE,
             country. The map excludes international processes that took place in more than one country.*
             Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
                                                                                                                                                              SUCH AS PLANNING, HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

                                                                                                                                                              Number of times a policy issue has been addressed through a representative deliberative process

                                                                                                                                                                      Urban planning                                                                                                                        43
                                                                                                                                                                                Health                                                                                         32
     FIGURE 9. REGIONAL TRENDS OF DIFFERENT DELIBERATIVE MODELS: EUROPE                                                                                                  Environment                                                                                    29
                                                                                                                                                                   Strategic planning                                                                           26
                                                                                                                                                                        Infrastructure                                                                          26
                                                                                                                                                                                 Other                                                                     24
                                                                                                                                                                       Public services                                                        16
                                                                                                                                                                          Technology                                                12
                                                                                                                                                                               Various                                              12
                                                                                                                                                                               Energy                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                      Public spending                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                       Transportation                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                 Institutional set-up                                      8
                                                                                                                                                                 Citizen engagement                                    6
                                                                                                                                                                     Electoral reform                              5
                                                                                                                                                                      Gender equality                      3
                                                                                                                                                                   Legislative reform                      3
                                                                                                                                                                             Taxation                  2
                                                                                                                                                                                Family                 2
                                                                                                                                                                               Culture                 2
                                                                                                                                                                       Administration                  2
                                                                                                                                                                                Justice            1
                                                                                                                                                              Constitutional question              1
                                                                                                                                                                                               0               5               10        15        20      25           30          35          40           45   50

                                                                                                                                                              Note: n=282; Other policy issues include: agriculture; constitutional questions; consumer protection; cooperative housing; culture;
                                                                                                                                                              firework use; gambling regulations; gender equality; justice; legislative reform; migration; noise pollution; safety; science and research;
                                                                                                                                                              socioeconomic development; sustainable development; taxation; water management; youth.
                                                                                                                                                              Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).

     Note: The colour indicates the dominant deliberative model; the number indicates the total of representative deliberative processes in a country.
     The map excludes international processes that took place in more than one country.*
     Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).
     *This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sov¬ereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of
     international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.

22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     23
OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS
     OECD :: INNOVATIVE
     OECD    INNOVATIVE CITIZEN
                        CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
                                PARTICIPATION AND
                                              AND NEW
                                                  NEW DEMOCRATIC
                                                      DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
                                                                 INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                 HIGHLIGHTS
     OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN  PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS -- HIGHLIGHTS                                                                          WHAT IS A 'SUCCESSFUL' REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESS?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HIGHLIGHTS
             5          WHAT IS A 'SUCCESSFUL'
                                                                                              H
                                                                                                       ow a representative deliberative                                          1. Design integrity: the procedural criteria
                                                                                                       process is designed and run, and                                                which ensure that a process is perceived
                                                                                                       the impact that it has on policy and                                            as fair by the public and in line with

                        REPRESENTATIVE
                                                                                                       the wider public are all questions                                              principles of good practice;
                                                                                              that arise when determining whether it
                                                                                              has been a success. Drawing on the new                                             2. Sound deliberation: the elements that

                        DELIBERATIVE
                                                                                              empirical comparative research collected by                                              enable quality deliberation that results
                                                                                              the OECD and wider theoretical research                                                  in participants’ arriving at sound public
                                                                                              on deliberation, this chapter seeks to assess                                            judgement;

                        PROCESS?
                                                                                              the different approaches and designs of
                                                                                              deliberative processes.                                                            3. Influential recommendations and
                                                                                                                                                                                       actions: the evidence of impact on public
                                                                                              Nabatachi et al. (2012) have outlined                                                    decision making, and
                                                                                              evaluation principles for the practice and
                                                                                              impact of deliberative civic engagement,                                           4. Impact on the wider public: the
                                                                                              covering four aspects. The OECD draws                                                    secondary and long-term effects on
                        RANDOM SELECTION                                                      inspiration from this framework for                                                      efficacy and public attitudes.
                                                                                              analysis, adapted to the specific focus on
                                                                                              representative deliberative processes and
                        OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION                                  the type of data collection that was feasible
                                                                                              for this report (see Figure 11):

                        COMMITMENT BY DECISION MAKERS
                                                                                                   FIGURE 11. FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS FOR REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES

                        DURATION

                                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                                      The procedural criteria                            •   Scope of the remit
                                                                                                                                                      which ensure that a process                        •   Random selection methods
                                                                                                      DESIGN INTEGRITY
                        INFORMATION AND LEARNING                                                                                                      is perceived as fair by the                        •   Duration
                                                                                                                                                      public and in line with                            •   Commitment by decision makers
                                                                                                                                                      principles of good practice
                        FACILITATION
                                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Information and learning
                                                                                                                                                      The elements that enable                           • Facilitation
                                                                                                 SOUND DELIBERATION                                   quality deliberation that                          • Decision making within the
                                                                                                                                                      results in public judgement                          representative deliberative process
                        PARTICIPANT RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR
                        IMPLEMENTATION                                                                                                                                                                   • Process outputs

                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                        INFLUENTIAL                                   The evidence of impact on                          • Response to citizens'
                                                                                                   RECOMMENDTIONS                                     public decision making                               recommendations
                        MONITORING AND EVALUATION                                                      AND ACTIONS                                                                                       • Implementation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                           recommendations
                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Monitoring and evaluation
                        PUBLIC COMMUNICATION FOR PUBLIC

                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Public communication as a tool for
                        LEARNING                                                                         IMPACT ON THE                                The secondary and long-                              public learning
                                                                                                           WIDER PUBLIC                               term effects on public                             • Combining participatory methods
                                                                                                                                                      learning and attitudes                               with representative deliberative
                        COMBINING PARTICIPATORY METHODS                                                                                                                                                    processes
                        WITH REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE                                           Source: Adapted by OECD from Nabatachi, Tina, John Gastil, Matt Leighninger, and G. Michael Weiksner (2012). Democracy in

                        PROCESSES
                                                                                                   Motion: Evaluating the Practice and Impact of Deliberative Civic Engagement, Oxford: Oxford University Press, DOI:10.1093/
                                                                                                   acprof:oso/9780199899265.003.0010.

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OECD : INNOVATIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND NEW DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS - HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                                                                  WHAT IS A 'SUCCESSFUL' REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESS?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              HIGHLIGHTS
     RANDOM SELECTION                                                                                                                            OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO PARTICIPATION
     Random selection attempts to overcome the                                    commonly used random selection processes                       Ensuring that all citizens have equal                                             In the 172 cases for which there is data,
     shortcomings and distortions of “open” and                                   include single-stage random selection (22%)                    opportunities to participate is key to achieving                                  participants are compensated in one way or
     “closed” calls for participation. It ensures that                            and a mix of random and targeted selection of                  inclusiveness and representativeness. The                                         another 57% of the time (Figure). In 44% of
     nearly every person has an equal chance of                                   hard-to-reach groups (4%).                                     difficulty of this varies depending on                                            deliberative processes there is remuneration
     being invited to participate and that the final                                                                                             the time commitment required and the                                              in the form of payment. In a small number of
     group is a microcosm of society. It can also                                 When stratifying the final sample of citizens,                 salience and interest of the policy issue.                                        cases, transport costs are compensated (7%)
     insulate the process from an overwhelming                                    all deliberative processes select participants                 People have other commitments, different                                          or expenses are covered (6%). There is no
     influence of vested interests. While it is not a                             according to demographic selection criteria                    levels of financial stability, and low trust of                                   remuneration in 43% of deliberative processes.
     statistically perfect method, it delivers a more                             that matches the general makeup of the wider                   government institutions. Different barriers                                       The majority of these latter instances are at the
     mixed and diverse sample than any other                                      population (such as that available in a census),               to participation include costs of participation                                   local level, where arguably costs to participate
     recruitment process.                                                         and usually includes at least four criteria:                   (e.g. transportation, accommodation, potential                                    are lower. The rationale for non-remuneration
                                                                                  gender; age; geography, and socioeconomic                      wages lost), and lack of clear communication                                      is that participation in a deliberative process
     The most popular random participant selection                                factors (a variable that captures disparity                    about the process, its importance, the level                                      activates a civic responsibility to volunteer in a
     method for representative deliberative                                       in income and education levels). While                         of commitment required of participants, and                                       democracy. In many cases, it is equally driven
     processes to date has been two-stage selection                               demographic stratification is enough to ensure                 expected outcomes. Nevertheless, there are                                        by budgetary constraints. As the data collected
     (59%), commonly called a “civic lottery” (Figure                             diversity and representativeness, in some                      several ways to lower barriers to participation                                   in this study does not contain details regarding
     12). This method has mostly been used in                                     circumstances it may not be enough to ensure                   and achieve higher response rates.                                                the response rates of different demographics,
     Germany, Australia, Canada, and the United                                   credibility, requiring discursive or attitudinal                                                                                                 it is not possible to draw concrete conclusions
     States (US), although there are also a handful                               representation as well.                                        Often participants are remunerated based on                                       regarding the impact of remuneration on the
     of examples from other countries. Other less                                                                                                the rate of the national wage average or at the                                   decision to participate. Other studies suggest
                                                                                                                                                 rate that people are reimbursed for jury duty.                                    that payment does encourage demographics
                                                                                                                                                 However, the potential impact of receiving                                        that generally do not participate otherwise,
                                                                                                                                                 remuneration for participation on some                                            notably young people and those with lower
                                                                                                                                                 participants’ social security benefits should be a                                incomes (newDemocracy Foundation and UN
            FIGURE 12. TWO-STAGE RANDOM SELECTION IS THE MOST COMMON RANDOM PARTICIPANT                                                          consideration.                                                                    Democracy Fund, 2019: 150).
            SELECTION METHOD FOR REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES
            Random participant selection methods used for representative deliberative processes for public
            decision making, 1986-2019
                                                                                                                                           FIGURE 13. PARTICIPANTS IN REPRESENTATIVE DELIBERATIVE PROCESSES RECEIVE SOME FORM OF
                                                                                                                                           REMUNERATION OF EXPENSES COVERAGE IN SLIGHTLY MORE THAN HALF OF CASES

                                                                   Single-stage                                                            Remuneration of participants of representative deliberative processes for public decision making,
                                                                      random                                                               1986-2019
                                                                                                                                                                               Expenses
                                                                     selection                                                                                                                                                   Transport
                                                                                                                                                                                covered
                                                                        22%                                                                                                       6%                                           compensation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7%

                                    Two-stage random
                                                                                                     Random selection
                                        selection
                                          59%                                                         (stages unclear)                                                            Remunerated
                                                                                                            15%                                                                      44%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Non-
                                                                                        A mix of random and                                                                                                  remunerated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                43%
                                                                                         targeted selection
                                                                                                 4%
                                                                        Three-stage random
                                                                             selection
                                                                                0%                                                         Note: n=172; Data for OECD countries is based on 15 OECD countries that were members in 2019 (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,
            Note: n=282; Data for OECD countries is based on 18 OECD countries that were members in 2019 plus the European Union/Global.   Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Korea, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, United Kingdom and United StatesSA) plus the European
            Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).                                        Union/Global, from 1986-2019.
                                                                                                                                           Source: OECD Database of Representative Deliberative Processes and Institutions (2020).

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