International Conference 19 - 20 February 2020 Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa - Hochschule ...

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International Conference 19 - 20 February 2020 Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa - Hochschule ...
International Conference
Universities, Entrepreneurship and
Enterprise Development in Africa
19 – 20 February 2020

                     as part of

International Conference 19 - 20 February 2020 Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa - Hochschule ...
Table of Contents

Welcome                                                            3

Description of session formats & paper submission guidelines       4

Conference Committee & Session Chairs                              5

Session abstracts                                              6 – 62

Organisation │Sponsors                                            63

International Conference 19 - 20 February 2020 Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa - Hochschule ...
We welcome you to the 8th annual conference
Universities, Entrepreneurship and
Enterprise Development in Africa

Dear Conference Participants,

We welcome you to the 8 annual conference "Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise
Development in Africa".

The conference is organized by Hochschule           The conference continues the successful
Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied               tradition of the previous years and provides
Sciences and is part of the project “BET            a unique platform in Germany, allowing the
Ghana – Building Expertise and Training for         exchange among businesses and between
growth in the consumer goods and food               industry and academia from Europe and
processing industry”1, financed by the              Africa. The conference highlights the issues
German Federal Ministry of Economic                 entrepreneurship and Small and Medium
Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and               Enterprises (SME) in Africa, market entry
administrated by the German Academic                and market development in Africa,
Exchange Service (DAAD). The project is             international business between Germany
conducted through the Hochschule Bonn-              and Africa, as well as enterprise
Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences in        development and the training and
Germany and the University of Cape Coast            recruitment of qualified personnel.
in Ghana.                                           Consideration will be given especially for the
                                                    opportunities of networking between
                                                    universities and businesses.

                          During the conference you have
                          internet access through WiFi:

                                  Event ID:      UEED-Africa
                                  Password:      pqa269UrP8

                                  In emergency cases, you can reach the
                                  organization team on this number:
                                  +49 2241 865-9714

International Conference 19 - 20 February 2020 Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa - Hochschule ...
Description of session formats
Development in Africa

       This conference especially aims at facilitating networking and personal exchange.
       We therefore offer a variety of innovative discussion formats:

          ▪     Panel Discussion
                A discussion of a subject of public interest by a group of persons forming a panel before
                an audience.

          ▪     World Café
                The World Café provides a set-up of café tables, each one with a specific topic to discuss
                in small groups.

          ▪     Presentations and Discussions
                In each session two presentations are held, with ample time for subsequent discussion.

          ▪     Poster sessions
                We have poster presentations throughout the entire conference as well as specific poster
                presentations slots on both conference days.

              We have reserved substantial time slots during coffee and lunch breaks that allow further

       Guideline for authors (Deadline, limit of 7,500 words)

       As a result of the conference all submitted papers will be published in a collected edition.
       Please notice the following guidelines for submitting a paper:

          ▪     Paper submission deadline: 15 April 2020
          ▪     Submission email address:
          ▪     Maximum length of paper: 7,500 words
          ▪     A template for the paper will be available as download on our website:

Conference committee and session chairs
       for presentations and discussions
Entrepreneurship and
       We would like to thank our conference committee for the interesting collection of conference

          ▪   Subtheme 1: Business and entrepreneurship in Africa
              Prof. Dr. Winfried Polte, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Prof. Dr. Klaus Deimel, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Dr. Luc Da Gbadji, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Dr. Mavis Benneh Mensah, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

          ▪   Subtheme 2: Entrepreneurial education for employment and economic growth
              Prof. Dr. Rosemond Boohene, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applies
              Sciences, Germany and University of Cape Coast, Ghana
              Christine Freitag, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Prof. Dr. Francis Boachie Mensah, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
              Oghenekome Umuerri, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

          ▪   Subtheme 3: Consumer goods & Food Processing Industries
              Marc Zander, africon, Germany
              Oghenekome Umuerri, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

          ▪   Subtheme 4: Tourism as entrepreneurial opportunity in Africa
              Prof. Dr. Peter Thuy, IUBH - International University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Dr. David Rempel, IUBH - International University of Applied Sciences, Germany

          ▪   Subtheme 5: University- Industry Linkages (Applied research and teaching
          ▪   Prof. Dr. Rosemond Boohene, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applies
              Sciences, Germany and University of Cape Coast, Ghana
              Prof. Dr. John Garchie, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

          ▪   Subtheme 6: E-Learning & Digitalization
              Daniel Seibert, Hochschule Bonn Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
              Stefan Freitag, Hochschule Bonn Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

          ▪   Subtheme 7: Sustainable/Responsible business
              Prof. Dr. Wiltrud Terlau, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,
              Prof. Dr. Martin Hamer, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,
              Eileen Küpper, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 115

Session Chair: Dr. Luc Da Gbadji, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

SME Growth in Ghana: The role of the telecommunication liberalization

Eric Osei Owusu-Kumi, Ghana Technology University College, Ghana
Millicent Asah-Kissiedu, Koforidua Technical University, Ghana
Frank Senyo Logio, Ghana Technology University College, Ghana

Globally, telecommunication sector has been         A survey research design and structural
undeviating in its evolution, and influence on      equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was applied in
all aspects of human lives. In contemporary         analyzing the 261 SME owner respondents
times, Ghana’s telecommunication history            across three major commercial towns in
emerged after the liberalization of the sector      Ghana; Accra, Kumasi and Koforidua.
in 1996, after the passing of the
                                                    The results showed that, liberalizing the
telecommunication reform legislation. Since
                                                    telecom sector has had an influenced on the
then, developments within the sector have
                                                    growth of SMEs in Ghana through a
leapfrogged, making Ghana one of the few
                                                    mediating role of technology and innovations,
countries within the sub-Saharan Africa to
                                                    market accessibility and resource availability;
pass the 100% penetration rate of mobile
                                                    which are the main growth factors of SMEs in
telephony. At the backdrop of this
                                                    Ghana. This implied that the liberalization
liberalization and deregulation success story is
                                                    created an avenue for SMEs to use the
the rise and dominance of the Small and
                                                    technology tools available to them to
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. This
                                                    innovate, create new channels of market and
research work aimed at finding an empirical
                                                    develop the right technology applications for
evidence to support if any, the roles played by
                                                    an effective and efficient resource scouting,
the deregulation of telecom sector on the
                                                    acquisition and developing for their use. In the
steadily growth of SMEs in Ghana.
                                                    process, SMEs in Ghana became competitive
                                                    and consequently grew.

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 115
Session Chair: Dr. Luc Da Gbadji, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Entrepreneurship training and performance of businesses among youth school dropouts

Muhammed Ngoma, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda
Peter Ntale, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda
Richard Ntalumbwa, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda

We use randomized control trials to test the        festivity seasons to rule out the spurious
effects of entrepreneurship training on the         effects of better performance resulting from
performance of small businesses run by youths       the Christmas and New Year festivities). We
who dropped out of school. We also test the         measured the effects of the trainings on
role of action regulation and self-efficacy in      entrepreneurship behavior and performance
the relationship between entrepreneurship           of small businesses owned by the youth
training and performance of the small               school dropouts in each group.
businesses. We conducted a baseline survey in
                                                    The results indicated that entrepreneurship
the four major regions of Uganda (eastern,
                                                    training had significant positive effects on
northern, western and central regions). The
                                                    business performance in both groups. The
baseline study sample was 691 small
                                                    results further revealed that Self-efficacy and
businesses owned by youth school dropouts.
                                                    Action Regulation were strong predictors of
The youth school dropouts were then                 small business performance. Self-efficacy
randomly assigned to three groups; test             turned out to be a moderator, while Action
group1 (STEP training); test group2 (PI             Regulation a mediator in the relationship
training); control group (no training). The         between entrepreneurship training and small
control group was promised one of the               business performance. The study recommends
trainings much later. Thus, we have the STEP        that the training of small business owners
youths, the PI youths and the NT youths. All        who have dropped out of school should be
the trainings combined both theory and action       action-based with a focus on improving
principles. Data was collected from both the        entrepreneurial self-efficacy and action
test and control groups while businesses of         regulation. This will enhance small business
the respondents were on-going (excluding the        performance.

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 117
Session Chair: Christine Freitag, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

University-Industry Linkages in Kenya: Institutional Capacities and Gaps.

Laban P. Ayiro, Daystar University, Kenya

Universities in Kenya and globally are               strategies. It was further evident that while
recognized as sources of knowledge creation,         most universities have flagged industry
innovation and technological advances. Across        linkages in their strategic plans, many lack the
the globe, they are being positioned as              requisite policies and mechanisms for ensuring
strategic assets in innovation and economic          meaningful interactions with the productive
competitiveness, and as problem-solvers for          sector.
socio-economic issues affecting their
                                                     Research output in Kenyan Universities lies
countries. collaborations between higher
                                                     low as in many African universities an aspect
education institutions and industry can play a
                                                     that is driven by the low percentage of
critical role in securing additional resources for
                                                     academic staff who hold doctoral degrees and
higher education, promoting innovation and
                                                     are exposed to the rigours of research. It was
technology transfer, and ensuring that
                                                     established from the study that only 4
graduates are exposed to the skills and
                                                     universities out of 99 had some rudimentary
knowledge required in the workplace. Kenyan
                                                     representations of science parks and
universities face considerable constraints that
                                                     technology incubators. Considering that these
affect their institutional research capacity yet
                                                     entities serve as the ‘seed-beds’ for the
many of them are taking steps to initiate and
                                                     rapturing of novel and innovative solutions, it
promote measures to strengthen institutional
                                                     is obvious that this is a serious gap and
capacity so as to enhance linkages with
                                                     impacts negatively on research outputs such
industry. There is, however, a paucity of data
                                                     as patenting and licensing. Most of the
to provide a concrete and realistic picture of
                                                     linkages with the productive sector were
what has already been achieved and what
                                                     found to be predominantly in the agriculture
remains to be done so as to provide a
                                                     and agribusiness; ICTs; environmental
strengthened and synergetic engagement
                                                     management; computer engineering; and
with industry.
                                                     mining sectors of the economy.
The findings of this study reveal that a number
                                                     In contrast, only three universities reported
of universities in Kenya have made strides in
                                                     collaboration with the manufacturing, mining
establishing viable linkages with the industry
                                                     and entertainment industries. Based on the
by embedding the linkages with industries
                                                     capacities and gaps reported by universities,
into their strategic plans and establishing
                                                     and their proposed intervention mechanisms,
functional units to operationalize these
                                                     the study suggests that funding, skills
linkages. It was however, noted that the units
                                                     development and support for establishing
operate on minimal budgets in a number of
                                                     and managing technology incubators and
the universities, and that the staff component
                                                     business parks would help directly respond to
is lacking in expertise in areas such as
                                                     the needs and priorities of Kenyan universities
entrepreneurship, intellectual property right
                                                     as they strive to build stronger linkages with
management, and impactful marketing
                                                     the productive sector.

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 117
Session Chair: Christine Freitag, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Promotion of Entrepreneurial Education at Mount Kenya University
Dr. Peter G. Kirira, Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Prof. Dr. Peter Wanderi, Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Bonface Joel Malala, Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Fiona Oyatsi, Mount Kenya University, Kenya
Dr. Bibianne Waiganjo-Aidi, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

Universities are at the forefront of any             Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and
country’s economic development efforts. They         Somaliland. In the last five (5) years, MKU has
play an invaluable role in passing knowledge         established, participated and promoted
on to the next generation and creating new           various initiatives geared towards
knowledge through research. Due to low               institutionalizing entrepreneurship education.
growth of demand for skilled labour against a        Some of the initiatives include; strategic
backdrop of a large number of students               partnerships (examples Industry, Non-
exiting Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)         Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and
every year, the transition rate from college to      Community Based Organizations (CBOs),
the workplace is very low. Consequently,             Micro & Small Enterprise Authority), University
more HEIs around the world are paying                entrepreneurship core unit, Graduate
attention to entrepreneurial education.              Enterprise Academy, Enterprise Fund, Student
                                                     Training in Entrepreneurial Promotion, Boot
The idea is that graduates with
                                                     Camps amongst others. These initiatives have
entrepreneurial skills may have a high chance
                                                     contributed to institutionalization of
of creating work and livelihoods for
                                                     entrepreneurship to some degree at MKU.
themselves and their communities). In Kenya,
the concept of academic entrepreneurship is          This paper will report on i) the nature of the
not new. However, there is no clear road map         initiatives, and ii) the experiences, challenges
or curriculum for producing graduates with           and opportunities that these initiatives have
sufficient entrepreneurial skills and mindset.       had on transformation of a HEI into an
Therefore, entrepreneurship education is yet         entrepreneurial University. In conclusion, our
to be institutionalized though different             experience has demonstrated that
institutions have adopted various strategies         entrepreneurial training cannot be achieved
intended to foster positive attitudes about          through a classroom environment alone. The
entrepreneurship as well as to develop skills        University should invest in initiatives that
for starting a business. Mount Kenya                 promote practical entrepreneurial experience.
University (MKU) is one of the largest private       The value of value-adding partnerships in this
University in Eastern Africa region.                 process cannot be gainsaid.
The University has a population of 40,000
students distributed in various campuses in

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 118

World Café:
Diversity (Competence) as entrepreneurial asset and universities contribution

Sarah Friedrichs, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany

The World Café aims at finding out, how to          various topics in the form of a World Café. In
foster and develop diversity competence at          this way, everyone is given the opportunity
universities and in enterprises. Diversity          Diversity (Competence) as entrepreneurial
competence here stands for the ability to deal      asset and universities contribution to get
with diversity, similar to e.g. intercultural       involved and take something out of the
competence.                                         workshop for themselves and their daily work.
                                                    Through group work, participants can inspire
At work you can't help but meet people who
                                                    each other and benefit from each other's
are different from you. Studies report time
                                                    knowledge and experience.
and again that various teams deliver better
results. However, this is only possible if          Three tables with different themes are
employees are able to work with people who          planned. Each topic will be considered from
are different. But how does a productive            the perspective of the universities and from
cooperation of diverse people succeed and           the perspective of enterprises. Participants
how can this diversity be made usable? This is      move between the different tables so that
where the interaction between universities          each can discuss any topic.
and companies begins. Already at the
                                                    Focus of the 3 thematic tables:
university the most different personalities
meet each other. Campus life thereby forms a        Development and Use of Diversity
microcosm and serves as a mirror of society.        (Competence) for a better Employability
The universities are
                                                    How can universities contribute to the
challenged not only to educate their students       development of diversity competence? |What
in their subjects, but also to develop their        added value can companies gain from
social skills and contribute to their personal      diversity (competence)?
development. This prepares the students well
                                                    Diversity measures and anti-
for their professional life and increases their
employability. Companies also benefit from
these skills. How exactly this is possible is to    Which measures to promote/appreciate
be worked out in the workshop. Measures to          diversity and against discrimination are already
increase the sensitivity to diversity and against   taking place at your university/company? |
discrimination will also be discussed.              What other measures could
                                                    universities/companies take?
                                                    Marketing Diversity (competence)
After a short input on the definition of
diversity and diversity competence and an           How can universities improve the teaching of
insight into the various dimensions of diversity    diversity competence and participation in
(with the help of a short video, link see below     diversity activities? | How can enterprises use a
in the section 'Procedure'), the participants       diversity-sensitive work environment to recruit
will become active themselves and deal with         and increase job satisfaction/success?

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 119
Session Chair: Prof. Dr David Rempel, International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef,

Redevelopment of Fosu Lagoon, Cape Coast, into an Ecotourism Enclave

Haruna Ndebugri, Cape Coast Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ghana
Patricia Abena Kissi, Cape Coast Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ghana

The Central Region is considered as the             relocate them to a designated site; and the
heartbeat of tourism in Ghana; and Cape             possible impact the relocation will have on
Coast, its capital, has many tourist sites which    their operations; and on tourism development
when well-developed, maintained and                 in Cape Coast and beyond.
enhanced could create jobs for the youth and
                                                     The study employed a descriptive design. The
improve the economic activities within the
                                                    target population for the study were members
metropolis. Statistics indicate that eight out of
                                                    of the Siwdu Garages Association; and the
every ten tourists who come to Ghana visit the
                                                    Cape Coast Metropolitan Assembly,
Central Region, and Cape Coast in particular.
                                                    specifically, the Metropolitan Chief Executive
Thus, the competitive advantage of the region
                                                    and the Investment Officer. Convenience
is tourism. In line with the above, there is an
                                                    sampling was used to select respondents for
important tourist attraction, the Cape Coast
                                                    the study; thus, the respondents were selected
Fosu Lagoon which has the potential to be
                                                    based on their availability and willingness to
developed into a major ecotourism enclave to
                                                    take part in the survey. The instruments used
contribute to the socio-economic
                                                    for the survey were a questionnaire and the
development of the Cape Coast metropolis,
                                                    interview guide; and they were designed in
and the Central Region and Ghana. However,
                                                    line with the objectives of the survey. Findings
there are artisans such as welders, mechanics,
                                                    from the survey indicated that the
and spare parts dealers, and garages, whose
                                                    stakeholders did not oppose the relocation;
activities and work along the lagoon, pollute
                                                    but rather came out with the challenges
the lagoon, reducing the quality of water in
                                                    impeding their relocation to the new site
the lagoon, endangering and destroying
                                                    designated for their relocation. It can be said
aquatic life in the lagoon, risking the health of
                                                    that, the plan to relocate the garages from the
the members of the communities surrounding
                                                    Cape Coast Fosu Lagoon area; and to develop
the lagoon; and hampering the development
                                                    it into an ecotourism enclave is a good
of the lagoon into a potential tourist enclave.
                                                    initiative to accelerate development in the
Therefore, the Cape Coast Regional Chamber          Cape Coast metropolis and beyond. And thus,
of Commerce and Industry is embarking on            the support of relevant stakeholders, including
advocacy actions to help in the relocation of       investors and international NGOs, is being
the artisans working alongside the lagoon, in       sought to ensure that the relocation of the
order to redevelop the lagoon into a                garages takes place; and the Fosu Lagoon is
sustainable and vibrant tourist enclave. To         redeveloped into a sustainable eco-tourism
carry out an effective advocacy, the Chamber        enclave. This, it is hoped, will contribute to
undertook a survey to assess the acceptance         tourism development in Ghana.
or otherwise of the garages to the plan to

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 119
Session Chair: Prof. Dr David Rempel, International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef,

Paragliding as a Tool for Promoting Tourism in Ghana

Michael Kissi, Cape Coast Technical University, Ghana
Lucy Deborah, Cape Coast Technical University, Ghana

Ghana joined South Africa and Kenya as              were to ascertain from local residents and
African countries where the exciting aviation       businesses how the festival was promoting
sport of paragliding has been organised. The        tourism; find out from the visitors their
addition of this aviation sport to the tourist      perceptions of the role of the festival in
attractions of Ghana, took place on the first       promoting tourism in the district; and solicit
Ghana Hang and Paragliding Festival, from           recommendations from the local residents,
Good Friday, March 25 to Easter Sunday,             and visitors how the festival could be
March 27, 2005 in the Kwahu South District          enhanced. The answers to the objectives were
(KSD) of the country (Ayim, 2005). Since its        found by administering two sets of
inception in the country, the paragliding           questionnaires to Local Residents and Visitors;
festival has been organised every year, except      and analysing the data in the light of the
2009, and purportedly, the participation and        objectives.
engagement of international and domestic
                                                    The study established that, for both Local
tourists in the festival has been massive over
                                                    Residents and Visitors, the paragliding festival
the years (Imbeah, Hodibert, & Amankwa,
                                                    had a favourable impact on the promotion of
                                                    tourism. However, they pointed out some
Thus, the main objective of the study was to        challenges facing the organisation of the
assess the impact of the paragliding festival in    festival; and gave some recommendations for
the promotion of tourism in the KSD of              improving the festival to make it more
Ghana. The specific objectives of the study         attractive for visitors and tourists.

Wednesday, 19
Wednesday, 19 February
              February 10:45
                       10:45 –– 12:00
Room: CC 120
Room:    120

Panel Discussion:
Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial University: a case of Cape Coast Technical University

Dr. Nina Afriyie, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Prof. Dr. Rosemond Boohene, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applies Sciences,
Germany and University of Cape Coast, Ghana

As universities strive to become                       scholars among the instructors and professors
entrepreneurial, tension arises between this           of (CCTU) were selected purposively. Data
new role and that of the traditional academic          were collected through closed ended
culture. Nevertheless, Universities must cohere        questionnaires. Research model was also
entrepreneurship as this new mission has               analyzed through structural equation
feedback into and enhances their overall               modeling approach by means of Partial Least
activities. This paper aims to present a review        Square (PLS) software. It was revealing that
of models to establish what the possibilities          entrepreneurial university creates
and challenges of becoming entrepreneurial             entrepreneurial students through mentoring
Universities are for Cape Coast Technical              teacher that explore opportunity via
University. The study attempts to invent new           government and industrial connection. In
models by reviewing existing models and                addition, greater involvement of external
factors available in literature and adapts them        stakeholders and greatest commitment of
for best use in the Cape Coast Technical               internal stakeholders is crucial in building an
University (CCTU). This study employs both             entrepreneurial University. Breaking barriers in
qualitative and quantitative approaches in             the rigid internal structure of the universities
achieving it aims. Regarding the qualitative           seems to be also very important in increasing
part, data were collected from 12 scholars in          the ability of implementing entrepreneurial
Cape Coast Technical University by means of            concept.
in-depth interviews with open-ended
questions. Regarding the quantitative part, 50

Key words: Entrepreneurial University, CCTU, external stakeholders, internal stakeholders, internal
structure, PLS

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 130
Session Chair: Stefan Freitag, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Boosting Digital Africa: A framework to run digital transformation

Karim Baïna, ENSIAS, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco
Salah Baïna, ENSIAS, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco
Bouchaïb Bounabat, ENSIAS, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco

For African Countries as for others, Digital        ▪   inadequacy between teaching and the
Transformation is a necessity. It is the case for       market
Governments and Private organisations               ▪   Discontinuity between government,
regardless of their size. Meanwhile, African            universities & industries
countries need to recognise this potential,
                                                    In this paper, authors expose different use
bypass dependencies, and develop its own
                                                    cases and success stories of digital
new economy based on entrepreneurial
                                                    transformation that have been deployed in
education, innovation, and digitalisation. Less
                                                    African countries, Morocco as main example.
than ten years ago, in 2005, barely two
                                                    Developing large scale digital strategies inside
percent of Africans (including North Africans)
                                                    companies turns often to be an open
were connected to the Internet; today,
                                                    innovation problem where ecosystems have a
nineteen percent venture online. This
                                                    major role. Despite the problems that may
percentage is clearly still much lower than the
                                                    encounter innovation and entrepreneurship
worldwide average of 40.4%, but it’s just as
                                                    incentives in Africa, this paper exposes some
clear that the gap is closing at a dizzying pace.
                                                    Moroccan initiatives to enhance the impact of
The number of African internet users this
                                                    University programs and Entrepreneurship
decade has increased by more than a
                                                    programs to encourage digital ecosystems.
thousand percent. The internet penetration
rate worldwide is twice that of Africa, but ten     The paper finally presents a holistic approach
years ago it was seven times greater.               for digital transformation, most approaches
                                                    focus on the technological aspect of this
Internet penetration growth may be a very
                                                    revolution, however other pillars are to be
good indicator; however, it is not the only
                                                    considered. Data usage, Innovation
ingredient to make digital revolution in Africa.
                                                    management and Ecosystems building.
African countries suffer from many problems
                                                    Human Centricity is also a real challenge for
that keep innovation and entrepreneurship
                                                    digital revolution, Humanizing Digital will be
very difficult:
                                                    one of the greatest issues in Africa but also in
▪   difficult access to information, and            other continents.

Wednesday, 19 February 10:45 – 12:00
Room: C 130
Session Chair: Stefan Freitag, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Codeshare-Teaching – How to teach in two locations simultaneously

Prof. Dr. Ralf Meyer, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Prof. Dr. Daniel Agyapong, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied               teams work on a semester-project together
Sciences (H-BRS) and the University of Cape         using digital tools (videoconferencing and
Coast/Ghana (UCC) have developed together           digital platforms) to facilitate their projects. In
a course that is taught jointly by Prof. Ralf       the Winter Semester 2019/2020, the teams
Meyer (H-BRS) and Prof. Daniel Agyapong             focused on the consumer good foods and
(UCC). The course focuses on international          food processing industry in Ghana supporting
aspects of Finance and will be offered at H-        H-BRS and UCC’s 3-year BET project.
BRS and at the UCC simultaneously. Teaching
                                                    The presentation at the 8th Annual
will alternate between the two professors and
                                                    Conference “Universities, Entrepreneurship
videotaped for the students in the respective
                                                    and Enterprise Development in Africa”
other location.
                                                    highlights the key learnings from this
In addition, the students are assigned to           innovative teaching concept and discusses the
mixed teams across the two locations. The           next steps that have been planned

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 115
Session Chair: Dr Luc Da Gbadji, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Exploratory Study of the Entrepreneurial Eco-system in Central Region, Ghana

Dr. Mavis Mensah, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Dr. Edward Nii Amar Amarteifio, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Entrepreneurial eco-system comprises                cultural monuments, top educational
interdependent actors and factors that are          institutions, forest and other resources that
strategically coordinated to promote                present business opportunities in the
productive entrepreneurship. Through the lens       transport, fishing, tourism, agro and food
of institutional theory and resource-based          processing sectors. The region is, however,
view theory, major factors within the               not economically vibrant. The latest Ghana
entrepreneurial eco-system are government           Poverty and Inequality Report (2016) shows
policies and public and private infrastructure      that poverty rate of the region is high (18.8%)
and services in the legal, regulatory, financial,   as compared to Greater Accra Region (5.6%)
educational, commercial, physical and social        while the formal industrial sector keeps
landscape of a given geographic area. A             dwindling with an estimated annual job loss
sound eco-system is an imperative for               of 606. It is generally claimed that the region
entrepreneurs to engage in productive               does not have effective and efficient
entrepreneurship that will drive economic           entrepreneurial eco-system but there are
growth and development. Although Ghana is           virtually no studies that analyse the
considered a top economic performer in Sub-         entrepreneurial eco-system and its elements.
Saharan Africa, its entrepreneurial eco-system      This study seeks to set the pace with an
is far from being supportive, especially for        exploratory study guided by two major
productive entrepreneurial activity that will       research questions: (1) Which factors within
place the country on the pedestal of                the entrepreneurial eco-system do
transformational growth. For instance,              entrepreneurs consider critical for productive
national and international surveys indicate         entrepreneurship? (2) What are the key
that Ghana is among the bottom ten                  constraints that entrepreneurs encounter
countries in the world in terms of ease of          within the entrepreneurial eco-system?
doing business, global competitiveness and
                                                    Informed by a descriptive research design,
trading across borders. While acknowledging         quantitative data were collected using self-
the importance of such surveys, it is               administered questionnaires from an
imperative to note that often national surveys,     accidental sample of 44 entrepreneurs who
for example, unfairly mask critical regional and    took part in the business and entrepreneurial
local disparities and are unable to gain the        training of the presidential business support
right policy attention.                             programme in the Central Region of Ghana in
                                                    July 2019. The entrepreneurs participated in
The purpose of this study is, therefore, to         the training with the aim of enhancing their
explore the entrepreneurial eco-system in the       entrepreneurial competencies and to tap into
Central Region of Ghana. Relative to other          funding opportunities meant to help them
                                                    scale up their businesses. As work in progress,
regions in Ghana, the Central Region is
                                                    exploratory factor analysis is being conducted
endowed with aquatic and marine resources,          with the IBM SPSS 20. The findings of the

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 115

  study will provide initial insights into the      means to validate an adapted instrument for
  current state of the entrepreneurial eco-         regional and local studies while advancing
  system in the Central Region. It will also be a   knowledge for scholars, practitioners and

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 115
Session Chair: Dr Luc Da Gbadji, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Assessing tax evasion among SMEs on the Ghanaian economy

Dr. Abdul-Aziz Abdul- Rahaman, Kumasi Technical University, Ghana

Taxation plays an important role in economic        these tax evasion determinants were
development by sustaining the existence of          significantly affecting or influencing the
the state and financing both social                 Ghanaian economy. These include waste and
programmes and infrastructure investment. It        corruption by government, complex tax
also aids in the allocation of resources,           system, high tax burden, compromised tax
redistribution of income, and correction of         agents, inadequate tax education, non-
negative externalities as well as protection of     consideration of taxpayers’ view, lesser
domestic industries, including SMEs, by             punishment for tax evaders. On the other
restricting imports. There are some                 hand, the remaining two determinants of tax
determinants which breeds fertile grounds for       evasion such as owners’ unawareness to pay
tax evasion, which results in the low level of      tax and the notion of only the rich pays tax
taxation in Ghana which subsequently affect         were found not to contribute significantly, in
the economy.                                        terms of effect, on the economy.
Therefore, the study focused on identifying          Also, tax evasion was found not really depend
the key determinants of tax evasion and assess      on the type of business engaged in by SMEs. It
its effects on the Ghanaian economy. Case           was recommended that policy makers and
study research design was adopted, and              stakeholders alike should consider
cluster sampling technique was also employed        implementing the following; developmental
to gather data from SMEs who ply their              oriented spending by the government,
businesses in and around Sunyani. Structural        reduced tax rate, increase tax education,
Equation Modelling was utilized to model the        enforcement of penalties on those who evade
data.                                               tax and instituting computerized tax
                                                    administration structure to eliminate human
The results identified nine key determinants of
tax evasion among SMEs. However, seven of

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 117
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Ralf Meyer, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Fostering self-employment after graduation: Lessons from the Supervised Agribusiness
Projects at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Dr. Martin Bosompem, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Graduate unemployment has become a                  SAPs offer students opportunity to put into
national security issue in most African             practice agribusiness and entrepreneurial
countries, including Ghana. It is estimated that    knowledge and skills they had acquired during
there were over 271000 unemployed                   the period of their training in the university.
graduates in Ghana as at 2015. One of the
main reasons given is the unavailability of jobs    The intent is to stir-up students’ willingness
for these graduates. Experts advocate that          and ability to start their own agribusiness
teaching entrepreneurship courses in tertiary       venture after graduation, therefore reducing
institutions is one of the ways to reduce           graduate unemployment. The SAPs, therefore,
graduate unemployment since they would be           serve as the conduit to connect agro-
prepared to start their own business after          technology and agribusiness business models
graduations. Agribusiness has also been             that can serve as case studies and learning
identified as the pivot of jumpstarting             centers for research, learning and industry.
economic transformation in Africa through
                                                    This paper reviews the philosophy and the
the development of agro-based industries
                                                    principal components of the SAPs as part of
(Byerlee, Garcı´a, Giertz, Palmade, &
                                                    BSc. Agribusiness programme at the University
Gurcanlar, 2013).
                                                    of Cape Coast, Ghana. It also assesses
The Supervised Agribusiness Project (SAP) is a      students’ and graduates’ impression of the
critical component of the B.Sc. Agribusiness        SAPs components of the programme and its
programme in the University of Cape Coast,          potential impacts on their willingness to start
Ghana. As part of SAPs, students are given          their own business after graduation. The
the opportunity to identify agribusiness            lessons learnt could serve as a way of
opportunities, write feasible business plans        improving the programme and also a model
and implement the identified plans on a             for preparing undergraduates to be self-
miniature basis under the supervision of            employed after graduation in the Ghanaian
coaches and mentors made of faculty                 and African context.
members and industrial partners. Hence, the

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 117
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Ralf Meyer, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Contents, curricula and teaching methodologies of entrepreneurial education
Augustus Mutemi Mbila, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

Most economies across the globe rely on             entrepreneurial education that can be utilised
entrepreneurship for growth. There is               by the teacher to prepare students adequately
evidence to suggest that entrepreneurship           so that they are in a good position to generate
creates job opportunities and spurs economic        entrepreneurial ideas and to identify
growth and development (Pacheco, Dean, &            entrepreneurial opportunities.
Payne, 2010; Mojica, Gebremedhin, &                 Regarding the content that should be taught
Schaeffer, 2010, and Solomon, 2007). Despite        in an entrepreneurship class, preliminary
the fact that entrepreneurship is one of the        research suggests that learners taking
fastest growing education disciplines globally,     entrepreneurship should be taught “about”
researchers are still divided on what should be     entrepreneurship, “for” entrepreneurship, and
taught and how it should be taught in               “through” entrepreneurship. Teaching them
institutions of higher learning. Entrepreneurial    “about” entrepreneurship requires the
decision-making is laced with uncertainty and       teacher to focus on such concepts as business
drawbacks. Hence, entrepreneurship learners         plan generation, marketing, financial
must be taught using practical and conceptual       management, and business management.
methodologies to equip them with the                Teaching “for” entrepreneurship requires the
requisite knowledge and skill that will enable      teacher to inculcate such concepts to the
them to confront such challenges in their           learners as idea generation, innovation,
entrepreneurial activities.                         creativity, networking, opportunity
 This calls for entrepreneurship teachers to be     recognition, expecting and embracing failure,
innovative and to also encourage their              and adapting to change. Teaching “through”
learners to be innovative as entrepreneurship       entrepreneurship requires the teacher to
involves the generation of new business ideas.      inculcate the use of real entrepreneurial
Traditional teaching methodologies of               activities so that the students experience being
entrepreneurial education placed the teacher        entrepreneurs and not just pretending to be
at the fulcrum about which the pendulum of          entrepreneurs. Use of internships, incubators,
entrepreneurial education oscillated (Gibb,         person-induced business simulation, and
1993 a, b, c). Students would play a passive        product creations are some of the contents
role in the learning process, the teacher would     utilised.
dictate notes, students would be encouraged         Suggested teaching methodologies include
to read books in the library, and minimal           innovative teaching methodologies like group
teaching aids would be utilised. Arasti et al.      projects, business plan generation and
(2012) argue that this method only prepares         development, role play, and computer
students to look for jobs after school, instead     simulation of business games, other
of being creators of jobs.                          methodologies include entrepreneur
                                                    presentations, case studies/project-based
This presentation will criticise the traditional    learning, and problem-based learning.
teaching methodologies of entrepreneurial           Teachers will be encouraged to invite guest
education as being theoretical in nature and        speakers who comprise entrepreneurs in the
unable to prepare students to respond to            market, and to make use of real-life examples
entrepreneurial challenges of the moment.           of successful entrepreneurial activities in
The presentation will therefore recommend           different industries.
innovative teaching methodologies of

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 118
World Café:
Doing business between SMEs: Personal interactions as success factor

Sonja Mattfeld, Jacobs University Bremen, Germany

SME development in African countries and                 and knowledge and show that you are
building partnerships with German SMEs is a              willing to learn and adopt the German
common goal of many national and                         way of engineering, management etc.
international development schemes, exchange
                                                     ▪   Be aggressive to your German
of business associations, private consultants
                                                         counterpart, name your own
and other programs and stakeholders.
                                                         achievements, correct him on his
However, creating business networks and
                                                         potential eurocentric superiority claims
platforms, organising delegation trips, B2B-
                                                         and educate him on the needs of the
meetings etc. can only be accompanying
                                                         markets and how German products and
measures and the starting point for the direct
                                                         management methods should be
contact and communication between business
                                                    Table 3:
It is the subsequent personal interaction which
                                                    Imagine an African and German SME meeting
is crucial for the success of negotiations,
                                                    for the first time. What kind of patterns/
partnerships and investments - particularly on
                                                    backgrounds/ prejudices might influence their
SME-level where individuals are not as easily
                                                    interaction and in which way?
replaceable as in big corporations. The idea of
this World Café is therefore to shed light on        ▪   Social/ personal aspects like nationality,
the background of these interactions, detect             culture, sex, age, title
common pitfalls and best practices as well as
                                                     ▪   Business expectations based on given
to identify catalysers which increase/ decrease
                                                         information like size of company,
the chance for successful interactions by
                                                         turnover, country policies, economic
discussing the following topics:
                                                         growth rates, etc.
Table 1:
                                                     ▪   Introductions, selections and judgements
Discuss a controversial statement: "At the first
                                                         of third parties prior to the meeting: type
meeting many German SMEs/ individuals have
                                                         of stakeholder (consultant, public
the preconceived notion of superiority of their
                                                         institution, private contact), intensity of
products and services and do not listen to new
                                                         preparation and briefing, type of
concepts and ideas of their Africa
                                                         assessment (positive, negative)
counterparts. Reason for this is that Germans
do not look for true partners and a                 Finally, the results of all tables will be shared
conversation on equal-ranked basis but are          in a common plenum session. The aim is to
rather looking for subordinated                     use the outcome of the World Café in order
relationships."Lead questions: Do you agree?        to create new transdisciplinary models for the
Why yes? Why no? Own examples?                      analysis of success factors of business relations
                                                    between German and African SMEs. The
Table 2:
                                                    interactive World Café seems to be ideal
Put yourself in the shoes of an African SME.
                                                    format in order to motivate international and
What might be the more promising strategy
                                                    interdisciplinary participants to share their
during a first meeting with a German SME
                                                    academic and practical knowledge and
when targeting a successful long-term
                                                    experience in an easy and informal
relationship on equal footing? Discuss the 2
                                                    atmosphere. However, the concept can also
provoking statements:
                                                    be adapted to a workshop or panel discussion
 ▪   Present yourself inferior to the potential     format if needed.
     German partners, neglect your own skills

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 119
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. David Rempel, International University of Applied Sciences Bad Honnef,

Women entrepreneurial journeys through tourism in Ghana

Albert Kimbu, University of Survey, United Kingdom
Anna de Jong, University of Survey, United Kingdom
Manuel Alector Riberio, University of Survey, United Kingdom.
Cristina Figuora, University of Survey, United Kingdom
Dr. Issahaku Adam, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Ewoenam Afenyo-Agbe, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Ogechi Adeola, Pan Atlantic University, Nigeria

Entrepreneurship possesses the potency to           in tourism trade. A sequential explanatory
spur job creation and economic growth as            mixed methods approach was used to gather
well as advance gender equality leading to          data for the study using questionnaires and in-
poverty reduction among economically                depth interviews. A stratified random
vulnerable groups including women, thereby          sampling technique was used to draw
contributing towards achieving Sustainable          respondents 300 women entrepreneurs in
Development Goals 5 and 10.                         tourism for questionnaire administration
Entrepreneurship is an important venture,           whiles purposive sampling was used to select
especially for women in sub-Saharan Africa          17 others for follow-up in-depth interviews.
who constitute about half of the population
                                                    The findings revealed that women
but experience a high incidence of poverty
                                                    entrepreneurs encountered challenges in
and social exclusion compared to men.
                                                    accessing capital to start their tourism
Nonetheless, the proportion of successful
                                                    businesses as a result of their inability to
women entrepreneurs is lower than that of
                                                    provide collateral demanded by financial
men, with many operating in the informal
                                                    institutions. Therefore, they relied on their
sector in sub-Saharan Africa, even in tourism,
                                                    savings to start their businesses, a reason that
a sector that provides an accessible
                                                    explained why most operate micro and small
entrepreneurship gateway due to its low entry
                                                    enterprises. In operational terms, they were
requirements. Meanwhile, entrepreneurship is
                                                    constrained by the inability to penetrate the
often presented as a way to enhance gender
                                                    market due to the small nature of their
equality in sub-Saharan African countries. Yet,
                                                    businesses as well as irregular supply of
there are significant gendered barriers
                                                    inputs, high taxes and levies. They were
influencing women’s potential to benefit from
                                                    equally inhibited by lack of information and
entrepreneurship in Ghana and other African
                                                    support from state agencies in terms of
countries. This study aims at understanding
                                                    mentoring and business registration. The
women’s experiences in tourism
                                                    competing demands of their household duties
entrepreneurship in Ghana including
                                                    as women also presented challenges for some
examining their access to capital and support
                                                    of the women, particularly those in the hotel
resources to start tourism businesses,
                                                    and restaurant industries, resulting in breaking
analysing the constraints they encounter and
                                                    down of the marriages of the some of the
analysing their life satisfaction as
                                                    women with some also being stereotyped as
                                                    being promiscuous. Interestingly, most of the
The study focused on women entrepreneurs in         women were satisfied with their lives as
the tourism industry in Ghana, precisely in         entrepreneurs because entrepreneurship has
Accra and Cape Coast due to their importance        helped them gain economic freedom, and

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 119

enhanced their social status, particularly in the   financial institutions. The Ministry of Business
area of decision making. It is recommended          Development, as well as the Ministry of
that women entrepreneurs should form                Gender and Social Protection and tourism
collaborative networks to be able to produce        authorities in Ghana, should set-up specialised
collaterals required to secure capital from         businesses advisory and support units targeted
                                                    at women entrepreneurs.

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 119
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. David Rempel, IUBH - International University of Applied Sciences Bad
Honnef, Germany

Market Potential of Eco-Mountain-Bike Cycling Tours in Kenya – Expert survey

Prof. Dr. Felix Wölfle, IUBH – International University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Marcel Kremser, IUBH – International University of Applied Sciences, Germany

Tourism in Kenya is already known quite well         estimated by focusing the German source
for its safari tours, what is more or less typical   market. The operationalisation of this
for several African countries. To ensure a           estimation was an expert survey to get a deep
sustainable tourism development, different           insight in the according estimation of biking
forms of tourism has to be considered. One           tour operators, destination managers and
out of these forms could be Eco-Mountain-            other Mountain-Bike experts. The findings
Bike Cycling Tours, as these tours are gaining       should give indications for the possibilities to
in popularity, for example in Germany. The           develop Eco-Mountain-Bike tourism as a
purpose of the study underlying this abstract        touristic alternative and addition to existing
was the analysis of the market potential of          touristic products.
Eco-Mountain-Bike Cycling Tours in Kenya,
Key words: Mountain-Biking, Eco-Cycling, Kenya, Active Eco-Tourism in Emerging Tourism markets.

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 120

Panel Discussion:
Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development in Africa

Almuth Dörre, Agentur für Wirtschaft & Entwicklung, Germany

The Agency for Business and Economic                Research and science cooperation enable
Development (AWE) is the key contact partner        companies to open up new markets with
of German development cooperation for               innovations and
German and European companies planning to
                                                    adapt them to the local context; the
get involved in developing and emerging
                                                    universities receive impetus for their
                                                    application-oriented research. Practical and
The AWE is supported by the Deutsche                demand-oriented initial and further training of
Gesellschaft für Internationale                     skilled workers for the labour market is
Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the KfWs                   essential to ensure "employability" in
Group’s Deutsche Investitions- und
Entwicklungsgesellschaft (DEG) and is               German development cooperation supports
financed by the German Federal Ministry for         cooperation between German
Economic Cooperation and Development                universities/universities of applied sciences and
(BMZ).                                              African universities through various support
                                                    programs. In addition, companies specifically
AWE's advisory services relate to funding and
                                                    establish cooperation with science in Africa
financing instruments of German
                                                    within the framework of funding programs.
development cooperation as well as
international development banks. In addition,       Within the framework of the conference
companies benefit from the international            “Universities, Entrepreneurship and Enterprise
networks of development cooperation in              Development in Africa”, a panel discussion
Germany and abroad in around 130 countries.         with participants from industry (and possibly
                                                    academia) will address and discuss the
Africa offers great economic opportunities,
                                                    following issues:
but many German companies still find it
difficult to get involved in the market. Market     ▪   What was implemented with which
entry can be successful with good                       partners (outline of the project)?
preparation, a local presence and intensive         ▪   Which goals should be achieved by the
networks.                                               project?
                                                    ▪   What is the entrepreneurial added value?
The cooperation between companies and
                                                    ▪   What were the biggest challenges and
universities/universities of applied science from
                                                        how were they met?
Germany and Africa can be one strategy. This
                                                    ▪   What are the lessons learnt from the
can be advantageous for all parties involved.

Wednesday, 19 February 13:30 – 14:45
Room: C 130
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Rosemond Boohene, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applies
Sciences, Germany and University of Cape Coast, Ghana


1. BET Ghana Baseline Survey of the Consumer Goods and Food Processing Industry in
    Prof. Dr. Ernest Abano, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

2. GTAI in Africa – supporting trade and investment with business information.
   Wolfgang Karg, German Trade and Invest (GTAI), Germay

Wednesday, 19 February 15:15 – 16:30
Room: C 115
Session Chair: Dr. Luc Da Gbadji, Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences,

Strategic Planning Competitive Advantage: Employee Behaviour Structure Perspective

Jackson K. Maingi, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Zachary B. Awino, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Peter O. K’Obonyo, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Ganesh P. Pokhariya, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Several studies have been carried out in the        cross-sectional survey design. Data collected
past to find out how strategic planning and         from 122 large manufacturing firms was
competitive advantage are connected and the         analysed using both descriptive and inferential
causes of differences in competitive advantage      statistics. Hypotheses were tested using both
among firms. Scholars have argued that              simple and multivariate regression analysis as
competitive advantage can emanate from              well as hierarchical analysis for mediating and
either internal or external sources and is          moderating effects. The findings indicate that
usually in several forms which include;             overall strategic planning has a statistically
valuable resources, the position held within        significant influence on competitive advantage
the industry, position within the marketplace,      and that employee behaviour completely
operating at lower costs than rival firms,          mediates the relationship between strategic
differentiation, capabilities and dynamic           planning and competitive advantage while
capabilities. This study sought to advance          organizational structure has a partial
knowledge and was based on the premise              moderating effect between strategic planning
that strategic planning influences competitive      and competitive advantage. In addition, the
advantage both directly and also indirectly by      joint influence of employee behaviour and
way of the mediating influence of employee          organizational structure is different from the
behaviour and the moderating effect of              influence of individual variables on the
organizational structure. The study was             relationship between strategic planning and
underpinned by the competitive advantage            competitive advantage. The outcomes from
typology/theory, the resource-based theory,         this research lend support to previous
dynamic capabilities theory, goal-setting           enquiries and support all the theories used to
theory and contingency theory. The study            underpin the study.
used a positivist research paradigm and a

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