Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

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Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

Maryland Ready
      2013 - 2017
 Maryland State Plan for
Postsecondary Education

                         MARYLAND HIGHER
                       EDUCATION COMMISSION
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

        Anwer Hasan
    Sandra L. Jimenez

      Brandon G. Bell
        Vivian S. Boyd   Martin O’Malley
           Lisa Latour   Governor
      Ian MacFarlane
          Joel Packer    Anthony G. Brown
    Edith J. Patterson   Lt. Governor
Gregory A. Schuckman
     Rizwan A. Siddiqi   Danette G. Howard
       John W. Yaeger    Secretary of Higher Education
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education





14	2013 – 2017 STATE PLAN GOALS








Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

      The Maryland Higher Education Commission           statement that signals our willingness to take
is pleased to present Maryland Ready, the                the necessary steps that will make our already
State’s Plan for Postsecondary Education, which          noteworthy system all the more remarkable.
is designed to guide future postsecondary                Maryland Ready captures our commitment to
endeavors through 2017. Maryland Ready                   progressive thinking, resiliency, responsiveness,
aptly captures the present status of the State’s         inclusiveness, and thoughtfulness as we move
postsecondary system and outlines a vision for           forward during an era of rapid and unparalleled
the future. Our system is strong and noted as a          change for higher education.
national exemplar. Maryland Ready affirms our                  As a course is charted for the years ahead,
commitment to exploring innovative learning and          there are problems of great significance that
teaching approaches; maintaining collaborative           must be addressed. Postsecondary leaders must
and productive relationships with the Governor,          work closely with colleagues from elementary and
the General Assembly, and other state agencies;          secondary schools to ensure that students are
and working cooperatively across segments of             prepared to succeed when they arrive on Maryland
postsecondary education and with our PreK-               campuses. Furthermore, we must press ourselves
12 colleagues to achieve positive outcomes for           to think differently about students (many of whom
Maryland students and to advance the long- and           were once considered nontraditional but now
short-term goals of the State.                           represent a growing majority) and how practices
      Since the 2009 State Plan was adopted,             can be adjusted to meet their needs. Finally, we
Maryland has been lauded for: 1) being one of            must continue to examine the integral role that
the first states to adopt a college completion           postsecondary education and training play in
goal and 2) being the leading state in moderating        maintaining our State’s competitive workforce and
tuition rates during the most crippling economic         thriving economy. We must be willing to modify and
recession in recent history. In fact, while many other   realign our efforts, with respect to this important
states curtailed their support for higher education,     role, in order to meet Maryland’s changing needs.
Maryland, made unprecedented investments.                      It is our sincere belief that the key tenets of
These investments allowed students and their             Maryland Ready, if supported by all members
families to benefit from a tuition freeze for four       of the postsecondary community and other
consecutive academic years from 2006-2007                partners and stakeholders, will move the State
through 2009-2010.                                       toward enrolling and graduating more Maryland
      While we have accomplished much and are            residents who are seeking world-class training
proud of the achievements that have been gained          and educational opportunities. If the goals stated
thus far, our title, Maryland Ready, reflects the        herein are applied and implemented, Maryland
present reality that there is still much more to be      will also make further progress toward becoming
done and that key stakeholders, ranging from             the destination of choice for students from
policymakers to campus leaders to our PreK-12            other states and countries seeking educational
partners, stand poised to take on the challenges         experiences of the highest caliber.
that lie ahead. Maryland Ready is an action

                                   2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education
                 E D U C AT I O N I N M A R Y L A N D

                       Maryland is fortunate to have a strong          manages the State’s $100 million financial
                 postsecondary system which consists of a vast         aid program, and provides research and data
                 array of colleges, universities, and private career   analysis which help to shape postsecondary
                 schools that are committed to serving students        policy decisions.
                 with a diverse set of skills and aspirations. The          The Commission works closely with the
                 Maryland Higher Education Commission is the           following six distinct segments which comprise
                 State’s postsecondary coordinating board, and         the State’s postsecondary system: the Maryland
                 one of the Governor’s cabinet-level agencies,         Association of Community Colleges, the Maryland
                 which is responsible for working collaboratively      Association of Private Colleges and Career
                 with the postsecondary segments to achieve            Schools, the Maryland Independent College and
                 the State’s higher education goals. The               University Association, Morgan State University,
                 Commission reviews and approves                                   St. Mary’s College of Maryland, and
                 program proposals and new                                                 the University System of
                 institutions that wish to                                                         Maryland.
                 operate in Maryland,

Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

      The       Maryland     Higher    Education    efficient use of State funds. Accomplishing this
Commission (MHEC) is charged with producing         formidable challenge is possible but will require
a statewide plan every four years that clearly      institutions to reexamine their philosophies,
outlines the priorities and major goals for the     practices, and policies, instituting change where
State’s postsecondary system. The 2013 –            it is warranted.
2017 State Plan for Postsecondary Education,              The first section of Maryland Ready presents
Maryland Ready , fulfills this charge and is the    seven significant issues that the State has
result of a year-long, collaborative planning       identified as both challenges and opportunities
 process that involved MHEC Commissioners           that must be addressed in the ensuing years.
    and staff members; leaders from colleges,       This section is followed by a discussion of six
      universities, and private career schools,     overarching goals, which provide direction for
        including faculty, staff, and students;     moving the postsecondary community forward
          colleagues from other state agencies;     over the next four years. The goals articulated in
          representatives from the business         Maryland Ready are:
         community; and other key stakeholders.       ..   Quality and Effectiveness
           The      landscape    has     changed      ..   Access, Affordability, and Completion
      substantially since June 2009 when the          ..   Diversity
     Commission released the last Maryland
                                                      ..   Innovation
     State Plan for Postsecondary Education. That
                                                      ..   Economic Growth and Vitality
     Plan was developed and published during the
                                                      ..   Data Use and Distribution
    middle of the Great Recession, the nation’s
   most substantial economic downturn since the           These goals have been constructed broadly
  Great Depression. Maryland was not affected       so that every postsecondary institution in the
as severely as other states, but the impact was     State – regardless of mission, sector, student
still profound and extremely difficult for many     population, or location – can see itself reflected
Maryland residents and businesses. According        therein. At the same time, however, the goals
to the U.S. Census Bureau, the State lost nearly    contain the level of specificity necessary to gain
146,000 jobs during the recession. Although the     traction on these most important issues. This
State has not fully recovered, as of March 2013,    is evidenced by the action recommendations
Maryland had made considerable progress,            and implementation measures that follow the
replacing 96.7% of jobs lost. Like other State      narrative for each goal.
entities, colleges and universities also suffered         While Maryland Ready is the State’s plan
during the economic downturn. Many institutions     for postsecondary education, and calls on
experienced declines in financial gifts from        institutions, policymakers, and campus leaders
donors, and the value of endowments decreased       to take specific actions, the Plan, at its core,
considerably as the market plummeted.               is about supporting opportunities, pathways,
      Understanding that the economic recovery      and policies that will allow more students to
is incomplete, MHEC believes Maryland Ready         succeed in postsecondary education and in the
is presented during a period of extraordinary       workforce of the 21st century. This fundamental
change in postsecondary education, where            principle should guide the efforts of those who
Institutions are expected to do more with           will be working throughout the next four years to
less while being held accountable for their         bring this Plan to life.
                               2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

    The State has identified several critical      the Annie E. Casey Foundation (2012) show
challenges and opportunities that must be          there is an increasing proportion of children
acknowledged, prioritized, and aggressively        living below or near the poverty line in Maryland.
confronted if the goals articulated in Maryland    According to data from the Maryland State
Ready are to be accomplished. Many of these        Department of Education (MSDE), in school
issues are longstanding, intertwined in various    year 2012-2013, 43% of Maryland PreK-12
ways, and closely aligned with the goals           students were approved for the National Free
discussed in this Plan. Clearly, finding long-     and Reduced-Price Meal Program, compared
term, systemic solutions will be difficult and     to 31% in 2002-2003 and 27% in 1992-
progress will take time. Nevertheless, failure     1993 (MSDE, 2012). In the coming years,
to begin addressing these challenges with          many of these students will matriculate through
targeted diligence will prevent the State from     Maryland’s PreK-12 system, and seek some
becoming a national and international leader       form of postsecondary training, credential, or
in postsecondary education moving forward in       degree, and need considerable amounts of
the 21st century.                                  financial aid to do so. Given the State’s already
                                                   burdened financial aid programs, however,
DEMOGRAPHY                                         Maryland may face challenges in providing
    In the 8th edition of the Western Interstate   students with the financial support needed to
Commission on Higher Education’s (WICHE)           accomplish their postsecondary aspirations.
Knocking at the College Door: Projections of       This is something the State must address
High School Graduates, it is noted that after a    during the tenure of this Plan.
substantial increase in the production of high          In addition to a growing number of children
school graduates between the early 1990s and       living in poverty, the racial/ethnic composition
2008, the number of high school graduates in       of the State continues to shift. According to
Maryland is expected to decline by as much         WICHE’s projections, the number of white
as 10% during the remainder of the decade          recent high school graduates is expected
(Prescott & Bransberger, 2012). This decline       to decline while the number of racial/ethnic
may already be influencing postsecondary           minorities is anticipated to increase over the
enrollment in the State. Fall 2012 marked          next several decades. Maryland’s evolving
the first decline after 15 consecutive years       demography poses potential challenges for
of enrollment growth. However, some of this        postsecondary institutions, since the fastest-
decrease should also be attributed to the          growing and largest (but still growing) minority
economic recovery, which is likely attracting      groups in the State have not historically fared
potential students toward an improving             well with respect to critical postsecondary
job market and away from postsecondary             outcomes when compared to their peers.
education.                                              The fastest-growing group in the State
    The State anticipates that more potential      is the Hispanic population. Despite currently
students in the college pipeline will come from    comprising approximately 8.5% of Maryland
lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Data from         residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013), the

                               2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
Maryland Ready 2013 - 2017 Maryland State Plan for Postsecondary Education

                   Hispanic population grew nearly 107% during          COLLEGE COMPLETION
                   the previous decade (U.S. Census Bureau,                   For the past several years, college
                   2011). The surge in the Hispanic population          completion has been a primary focus of
                   is also affected by growth in immigrants from        postsecondary education in Maryland.
                   other nations whose primary language is not          Understanding the critical importance of degree
                   English. It is expected that this rapid growth       attainment to both individuals and the State,
                   will continue in the next several decades.           Governor Martin O’Malley established a goal in
                   Institutions will need to expand their support       2009 that by 2025, 55% of Maryland residents
                   for English for Speakers of Other Languages          ages 25 to 64 will have a college degree.
                   (ESOL) to meet the needs of this growing             For individuals, a college degree can provide
                   population and to allow Maryland to be a             employment stability and financial security.
                   national leader in providing educational             Increased degree attainment also benefits
                   opportunity and supporting diversity.                the State by increasing citizen engagement
                         The African American population is not         in activities such as voting and volunteering,
                   growing as rapidly as other racial/ethnic            and by reducing crime, poverty, and reliance
                   minority groups but remains, by far, the largest     on public assistance. Additionally, citizens with
                   racial/ethnic minority group in the State,           college degrees are needed in order for the
                   approximating 30% of Maryland residents (U.S.        State to remain globally competitive in an ever-
                   Census Bureau, 2013). Census data show that          evolving, knowledge-based economy where
                                     between 2000 and 2010, the         employment opportunities will increasingly
      CITIZENS WITH COLLEGE African American population                 require some form of postsecondary credential.
DEGREES ARE NEEDED IN ORDER increased by roughly 15%, and                     The completion of workforce training
    FOR THE STATE TO REMAIN projections suggest that this               programs, credentials, and certifications holds
      GLOBALLY COMPETITIVE group will continue to grow in               tremendous value for those who complete
        IN AN EVER-EVOLVING, coming years (U.S. Census                  them. By 2020, roughly 66% of all jobs and
KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY. Bureau, 2011).                                 new employment opportunities in Maryland
                                           The State’s changing         will require some form of postsecondary
                   demography influences most of the goals              training beyond high school, according to the
                   included in Maryland Ready. These changes will       Georgetown University Center on Education
                   force the State and all Maryland postsecondary       and the Workforce (2012). However, only
                   institutions to examine their outreach and           45% will require a college degree. Therefore,
                   recruitment strategies, teaching and instruction     it is critical that the State continue to offer a
                   methods, financial aid systems, academic             diverse array of high-quality postsecondary
                   support services, and use of technology.             opportunities for Maryland residents, while
                   In many ways the State’s future social and           ensuring that students are provided the
                   economic outlook is dependent upon how well          financial, social, and academic supports
                   postsecondary institutions adapt to the changing     needed to complete a postsecondary degree,
                   demography and educate and support these             certificate, or training program. It will be difficult
                   populations. It is critical that Maryland colleges   for the State to continue to attract high-quality
                   and universities adjust current philosophies,        jobs if Marylanders do not have the requisite
                   practices, and policies to accommodate               skills desired by employers.
                   students who are less white, less affluent, and of         Maryland must strengthen its commitment
                   nontraditional age.                                  to improving college retention, transfer,
                        MARYLAND READY
and graduation rates. Currently, 45.4% of           exist among postsecondary institutions in the
Marylanders hold a college degree (U.S.             State. Specifically, Maryland must focus on
Census Bureau, 2012), and in order to reach         narrowing the retention and graduation gaps
the 55% goal, Maryland postsecondary                that exist between the State’s historically black
institutions would need to increase degree          colleges and universities
production by approximately 2.25% annually,         (HBCUs) and its traditionally
according to MHEC projections. These annual         white institutions (TWIs).
increases would result in Maryland colleges         Understanding that HBCUs
and universities awarding nearly 55,000             are more likely than other four-
degrees per year by 2025 – an additional            year, residential, traditionally
10,500 degrees above 2011-2012 levels. The          white campuses to serve
State’s future will be closely wedded to its        academically underprepared and
higher education system’s ability to ensure that    lower income students, tit is not
growing numbers of students are equipped            expected that HBCU graduation
with the knowledge and skills needed to keep        rates will be equivalent to those
the State economically competitive well into the    at TWIs. However, the State does
21st century.                                       not believe that commitments to
                                                    access and academic excellence
CLOSING ACHIEVEMENT GAPS                            are mutually exclusive, and is
     In higher education, the term achievement      therefore dedicated to working
gap has traditionally been used to describe         with all of Maryland’s HBCUs
notable inequities and disparities between          to narrow institutional gaps in student retention and
groups on important outcomes, such as               graduation. A more expansive discussion on the
transfer, retention, and graduation. Reducing       achievement gap is included in Goal 3.
the achievement gap is an important goal not
only because it helps to remedy persistent          COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS
social inequalities, but also because it improves         Nearly 60% of recent high school
the overall educational attainment of the State’s   graduates who enroll in Maryland public
population. Although the achievement gap            colleges and universities are assessed to
is not a new issue within the State, Maryland       need some form of developmental instruction
remains committed to improving outcomes for         (i.e., remediation) before taking credit-
groups that have historically lagged behind         bearing college courses (MHEC, 2013a).
those of their peers. Chief among these groups      Developmental education is designed to
are: 1) African Americans, roughly 30% of all       provide basic instruction in mathematics,
Marylanders and the State’s largest racial/         English, and reading for students who are not
ethnic minority group; 2) Hispanics, the State’s    prepared to engage in a collegiate curriculum
fastest-growing minority population; and 3) Pell    immediately upon enrollment. Developmental
Grant recipients (i.e., low-income students),       education poses a problem for some students
approximately 30% of all undergraduate              since remedial courses do not count toward
students in Maryland.                               a college certificate or degree, even though
     In addition to closing gaps in performance     students spend time and money on these
among student populations, there is also a          classes. Additionally, remedial instruction at the
commitment to narrowing disparities that            postsecondary level represents inefficient use
                               2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

     of State resources: first resources are used          help determine if students are ready for entry-
     for instruction at the PreK-12 level, and then        level, credit-bearing college courses. In addition,
     additional resources are used for instruction in      11 independent colleges and universities in
     the same subjects at the postsecondary level.         Maryland are participating in the development
          With the hope of improving the college           of the assessments, which will be implemented
     and career readiness of high school graduates,        during the 2014-2015 school year.
     Maryland was one of the first states to adopt              In time, the State believes the Common
     the Common Core State Standards in English            Core State Standards will help improve college
                       language arts and mathematics       readiness and substantially reduce the need for
                        in the spring of 2010.             developmental education for recent high school
                        Coordinated by the National        completers. However, in the short term, students
                        Governors Association and the      who have not benefitted from many years of
                        Council of Chief State School      instruction under the Common Core State
                        Officers, the Common Core          Standards may have difficulty demonstrating
                        State Standards are designed       college readiness given the rigor of the PARCC
                        to establish goals and             assessments. If this proves true, the State
                        expectations for what students     must be prepared to meet the developmental
                        should learn in grades PreK-       education needs of more students during the
                        12 to be prepared for success      next few years. Although it might be ideal to
                        in college or the workforce        eliminate all developmental education, it is
                        after completing high school.      likely that some form of remediation will always
                        These new standards will be        be necessary, particularly for adult students
                        implemented during the 2013-       returning to pursue a college degree after years
                        2014 school year.                  away from formal education setting.
                             To assess systematically
                        what students learn under          COLLEGE AFFORDABILITY
                        the Common Core State                   Keeping college affordable is a key State
                        Standards            curriculum,   policy priority. The price of a college education
                       Maryland also joined the            is often the most dominant factor affecting
     Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness           students’ decisions to attend college, persist
     for College and Careers (PARCC). PARCC is a           from year-to-year, or leave postsecondary
     consortium of 22 states working collaboratively       education altogether. Without question, a
     to develop a series of computer-based K-12            college degree is a valuable commodity worthy
     assessments that are aligned with the Common          of a personal investment of financial and other
     Core State Standards and measure higher-              resources, but the State must ensure that the
     order skills such as critical thinking and problem    opportunity to attain a college credential or
     solving. To date, all Maryland community              degree is reasonably priced and affordable for
     colleges and the University System of Maryland        all Marylanders, regardless of their personal or
     have committed to participate in PARCC, to            family income.
     help develop the college-ready assessments,                College affordability can be maintained in
     and ultimately, to use the assessment scores to       two ways. One way is to control tuition. During

Governor Martin O’Malley’s tenure, Maryland           will be especially critical as more low-income
moved from being the seventh most expensive           students seek postsecondary credentials and
state to the 27th most expensive state for            degrees in the coming years.
resident undergraduate students at public four-
year institutions. This was largely a result of a     AWARDING CREDIT FOR LEARNING
tuition freeze initially implemented during the            For the State to develop a seamless,
2006-2007 academic year. Although a tuition           student-friendly system of postsecondary
freeze was not established for community              education, it is necessary for Maryland colleges
colleges, tuition and fees at these institutions      and universities to reexamine the ways students
went from eighth most expensive to 19th most          earn certificates and degrees and accumulate
expensive among all states (College Board,            academic credit. Traditionally, colleges and
2012).                                                universities have provided students with awards
      A second way to ensure college remains          based upon the cumulative amount of “seat
affordable is to provide students with financial      time” devoted toward earning a postsecondary
aid. Although the State has done an excellent         credential. Learning is assessed at the course
job of controlling tuition during times of great      level but rarely in any standardized fashion.
economic difficulty, it was only able to maintain     At many institutions, instructors teaching the
financial appropriations for student financial        same course are covering different content,
aid (i.e., grants and scholarships). This level of    emphasizing the importance of different skills
funding, however, did not keep pace with the          and competencies, and requiring students
significant increase in student demand for            to demonstrate mastery of different learning
financial aid. While funding was maintained for       outcomes. It is assumed that once a student
State programs, financial aid applications for        spends a predetermined amount of time (e.g.,
Maryland students increased from 109,314 in           30, 60, or 120 credit hours) navigating this
FY 2009 to almost 179,000 in FY 2013, a 63%           system that the student has learned what is
surge. As a result, the financial aid waitlist grew   necessary to receive a certificate or a degree
from 5,000 to 36,000 students during this time,       from that institution. However, in reality, the
and many students with significant financial          competencies and skills a student develops can
need – many of whom were eligible for the Pell        vary significantly depending on the professors
Grant – were unable to receive educational            a student encounters and the core and elective
grants from the State.                                courses a student chooses.
      The lack of financial aid forced many                The current system places a premium
low-income and moderate-income students               value on seat time instead of focusing on
to increase their reliance on loans to meet           the mastery of specific learning outcomes.
their postsecondary education costs. Moving           Academic credit should be awarded based
forward, the State must examine its portfolio         upon the demonstration of pre-identified
of financial aid programs to determine how            learning outcomes, no matter how, where, or
aid can be provided to students in ways that          when learning occurs. If learning is the central
incentivize success and completion, while             focus, the postsecondary institution where
simultaneously enhancing access by keeping            the credits are earned should be of lesser
college affordable for all Marylanders. This          importance and clear, defined pathways for

                                 2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

                     transferring credit from institution to institution   category in the nation, behind health care.
                     should be developed.                                       Since 2006-2007, Maryland’s production of
                          Rethinking the traditional system of             STEM degrees has increased over 26%, from
                     awarding credits, credentials, and degrees            nearly 9,000 to approximately 11,300 in 2011-
                     will require institutions to expand or begin          2012 (MHEC 2007; MHEC 2012). To continue
                     their experimentation with nontraditional             this trend, postsecondary institutions will need
                     instructional approaches, such as accelerated         to become more adept at attracting, retaining,
                     learning models that are often self-paced             and graduating a more diverse population of
                     and competency-based courses that are                 students in these critical disciplines. College
                     developed around predefined outcomes.                 and university faculty must help to cultivate,
                     Additionally, efforts to expand prior-learning        develop, and support the STEM interests of
                     assessment models that recognize and reward           more women and racial/ethnic minorities.
                     demonstration of learning from life, workplace,       Additionally, postsecondary institutions must
                     military, vocational, and other experiences           adequately prepare high-quality STEM teachers
                     should be developed. This issue is examined           who will help educate the STEM collegians of
                     more fully in Goal 4.                                 the future.

                     SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY,                                  CONCLUSION
                     ENGINEERINGAND MATHEMATICS (STEM)                          The seven topics detailed in this section
                      Increasing the number of STEM degrees                do not provide a comprehensive summary of
                  awarded to students is another key goal for              all the challenges the State must confront
                  Maryland postsecondary education. STEM-                  in the coming years, but, instead, they offer
                                  related occupations are critical         background and insight on recurring themes
SINCE 2006-2007, MARYLAND’S because they are closely tied                  that appear throughout many of the goals
       PRODUCTION OF STEM to technological innovation,                     in Maryland Ready. Certainly, these issues
DEGREES HAS INCREASED OVER economic growth, and increased                  pose great challenges, but they also present
  26%, FROM NEARLY 9,000 TO productivity. Currently, workers               many opportunities for progress and success.
      APPROXIMATELY 11,300. with STEM competencies and                     Diligently tackling these obstacles and finding
                                  degrees are in high demand.              longstanding solutions to these problems will
                  Data from the Georgetown University Center for           strengthen and solidify the State’s future while
                  Education and the Workforce (2011) rank STEM             ensuring Maryland’s system of postsecondary
                  jobs as the second fastest-growing occupational          education is among the best in the world.

                     MARYLAND READY

       A C C E S S , A F F O R D A B I L I T Y,
           AND COMPLETION.
                  D I V E R S I T Y.
               I N N O V AT I O N .
               A N D V I TA L I T Y.
    D ATA U S E A N D D I S T R I B U T I O N .

      E F F E C T I V E LY F U L F I L L T H E E V O L V I N G
   E D U C AT I O N A L N E E D S O F I T S S T U D E N T S ,
            T H E S TAT E , A N D T H E N AT I O N .

          Maryland Ready ’s first goal centers on         arranged to support the achievement of that
     maintaining and improving the quality and            goal. For example, at a research university, one
     effectiveness of postsecondary institutions          indicator of quality might be the number of
     and the postsecondary sector. This goal              technological innovations that are successfully
     incorporates several of the central objectives       developed into practical applications. Indicators
     of Maryland Ready as described in the                of effectiveness might include the processes
     Preamble and Significant Issues sections             for hiring and rewarding faculty who conduct
     of this Plan, including the need to enhance          research and develop applications; the
     college readiness, improve degree progress           planning, building, and budgeting processes
     and degree completion, and serve newly               that ensure the construction and operation of
     emerging populations in the State. This goal         high-quality research spaces; and the curricular
     statement defines the concepts of quality and        structures that encourage students to develop
                      effectiveness as they apply         the skills to carry out research with the potential
                      to postsecondary education          for transfer. However, an institution focused on
                      and highlights the diverse          undergraduate education might adopt a set of
                      missions       of    Maryland’s     indicators that tracks the number of faculty who
                      postsecondary institutions. It      are recognized as excellent teachers, supports
                      also includes a description of      a budgeting process that promotes innovative
                      the institutional characteristics   instruction, or establishes administrative
                      needed to ensure that quality       structures that facilitate student progress.
                      and effectiveness can be                 Obviously, each institution will have different
                      sustained, a discussion of how      indicators of quality and effectiveness, and
                      faculty and staff contribute to     these terms should be broadly defined so that
                      quality and effectiveness, and      Maryland’s diverse array of colleges, universities
     an examination of the overlapping objectives         and private career schools can see themselves
     of preparing students for academic success,          reflected in this important goal. Each institution
     degree progress, and degree completion. Finally,     must identify measures of quality that are
     this goal statement considers the link between       aligned with its mission, and should then work to
     resources and a quality postsecondary system         develop processes and systems that will allow it
     in Maryland, the need for institutions to develop    to meet those benchmarks.
     additional resources, and the ways that the State
     can promote effectiveness in its operations.         MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING QUALITY
                                                          AND EFFECTIVENESS FOR INSTITUTIONS
     QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS                                  In order to maintain and improve quality and
          The concepts of quality and effectiveness       effectiveness, institutions and their leaders must
     relate to the ways that postsecondary                have the flexibility and resilience to address the
     institutions work to achieve their missions.         changing needs of the State and its citizens.
     Quality refers to the degree to which an             Each of the topics described in the Significant
     institution successfully achieves its goals, while   Issues section of this Plan represent challenges
     effectiveness refers to the extent to which          for institutions. To meet these challenges,
     an institution’s structures and processes are        institutions must build on their strengths, but

must also be open to adapting these strengths                  During the last few decades, institutions in
in versatile ways to serve students. They must            Maryland, like those throughout the nation, have
embrace change and actively seek to respond to            become more reliant on adjunct faculty to deliver
evolving conditions, rather than relying on what          instruction. Working professionals who serve as
has been successful in the past.                          adjunct faculty teaching in their area
     Institutions must also acknowledge that they         of expertise can provide invaluable
have many different roles and responsibilities            benefits to students and fellow
in terms of educating their students, which               faculty alike, and adjunct faculty can
include: facilitating lifelong learning, preparing        also allow institutions to offer certain
students to enter the workforce and advance in            kinds of specialized instruction.
their careers, fostering cultural understanding,          In addition, the use of adjunct
emphasizing ethical principles and practices              faculty can allow institutions to
in personal and professional interactions, and            respond rapidly to changing student
conveying the importance of contributing to the           enrollment demands. However,
common good as a citizen of the local, national,          excessive use of adjunct faculty can
and global communities. The extent to which               have disruptive consequences for
institutions are able to fulfill these responsibilities   both students and faculty. Because
is closely aligned with Maryland’s ability to meet        many adjunct faculty are unable to
its short- and long-term educational goals.               return to the institution from one
                                                          term to the next, they are often
QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS                                 unable to provide the long-term
THROUGH FACULTY AND STAFF                                 supportive relationships that allow
    Regardless of its mission, sector, or student         students to thrive, and unable to
population, no postsecondary institution is able          participate in initiatives and programs
to fulfill its responsibilities or meet the goals         to improve institutional effectiveness.
of quality and effectiveness without capable              In addition, a disproportionate
and committed faculty and staff. High-caliber             number of adjunct faculty can raise
faculty members noted for distinguished                   serious challenges to the ability of faculty to
teaching, research, and service are at the                participate in effective shared governance. The
core of the academic enterprise. Faculty must             use of adjunct faculty at all institutions should
be equipped with the resources necessary                  be considered carefully in order to ensure
to deliver exemplary education, including                 that it does not impede instruction or student
systems of institutional self-examination,                persistence and degree completion.
assessment, and benchmarking; access to                        Knowledgeable staff and robust student
optimal use of technology in support of teaching          support services are also essential to a high-
and learning; and continuing instructional                quality education. As the needs of students
enhancement, curricular innovation, and program           change, institutions must modify their services
development to prepare students for an evolving,          to meet those needs. For example, colleges and
global society.                                           universities that have primarily used residence

                                     2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

     halls to develop a sense of community among         effort to help students set academic goals,
     students and to convey important information        achieve related milestones, and complete
     to them may need to modify their approach           degree and certificate programs.
     to better serve adult learners and other non-            College completion begins with college
     residential students. Faculty and staff should      readiness. As Maryland has adopted the
     be aware of the ways in which they both             Common Core State Standards, college and
                 support the educational mission of      university leaders support the alignment of
                 the institution and should work in      K-12 standards with postsecondary readiness
                 partnership to serve students. Staff    criteria. Postsecondary institutions that offer
                 and faculty alike – including adjunct   instruction leading to teacher certification have
                 faculty – must have opportunities for   also committed to modifying their curricula to
                 professional development to ensure      ensure that new teacher candidates are well
                 that students receive high-quality      qualified to educate K-12 students according to
                 instruction and service.                the Common Core State Standards. Moreover,
                      In addition, institutions should   many postsecondary institutions offer programs
                 examine their structures and            designed to increase college readiness for
                 processes to ensure that they           students of all ages and grade levels. These
                 promote effectiveness for all           activities include camps that introduce students
                faculty and staff. All faculty and       to math, science, and other academic subjects;
     staff members should understand how their           workshops that guide academic preparation for
     work supports the institutional mission, and        college; and events that familiarize students
     their promotion and reward systems should           and families with financial aid and the college
     be closely aligned with this mission. Moreover,     application process. These activities should be
     institutions must ensure that all processes are     continued and expanded.
     adapted to bolster the mission. For example,             Additionally, new student populations are
     a research university might educate its             entering postsecondary education. These
     custodial staff so that it develops expertise       include students who are the first in their families
     and responsibility in maintaining leading-edge      to attend college and adult students seeking
     research facilities, while a residential college    additional training or credentials. Some of these
     might see that each residence hall has its own      students will have had little or no preparation
     custodial team that can be integrated into the      for college. Institutions will have to be more
     communal life of each building. Again, each         proactive in providing support and guidance for a
     institution must commit itself to identifying the   greater variety of students making transitions into
     best ways to promote effectiveness consistent       postsecondary education.
     with its mission.                                        Another increasingly common kind of
                                                         transition is transfer among institutions.
     PREPARATION FOR STUDY                               While Maryland’s postsecondary system has
     AND DEGREE COMPLETION                               long valued and promoted the transfer of
          Notwithstanding their diverse missions,        students from community colleges to four-year
     all institutions share the goals of educating       institutions, students are transferring among
     students and ensuring that they earn credits        institutions using different paths. Systems
     and degrees. Institutions must make a special       designed to facilitate one particular kind of

transfer may not be adequate to ensure that         for colleges and universities. While the recent
students pursuing alternate transfer paths are      recession accelerated a long-term decline in
able to achieve their educational goals. While      funding for postsecondary education in many
postsecondary institutions must establish their     states, Maryland maintained a strong level
own standards for accepting transfer credit,        of support for its institutions. As the
they also have a responsibility to ensure that the  economy       continues       to   recover,     it
transfer process is as seamless as possible and     is important for the State to retain its
reduces or eliminates obstacles for incoming        commitment to investing in postsecondary
students. The development                                                education so that the
of      statewide      transfer     FOR ITS PART, THE STATE HAS          primary tenets of this goal
articulation agreements, in AN ESSENTIAL ROLE TO PLAY IN – quality and effectiveness
addition to the Associate MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING – can be preserved and
of Arts in Teaching and the         QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS            strengthened.
Associate of Science in                 IN HIGHER EDUCATION.                  The     postsecondary
Engineering degrees, would                                               segments themselves must
help to create a less burdensome transition         also continue to seek multiple sources of
for students. Additionally, all institutions should funding. Most institutions seek grants to support
expand their transfer services so that students     faculty research, and still others seek support
clearly understand options and requirements         from foundations and other organizations to
and are equipped to succeed at the transfer         sustain and improve student
institution.                                        outcomes. These efforts
     Maryland         Ready        means       that should continue and expand.
postsecondary institutions must ensure that         In addition, some public
they are equipped to educate all students,          colleges and universities
and that they will work to improve the degree       have begun to cultivate
to which students are prepared to succeed in        philanthropic           support
postsecondary education. In order to ensure         through endowment and
that students meet their academic goals,            annual giving. Institutional
institutions must do more than offer high-          endowment,                which
quality coursework. They must also provide          represents        investments
a range of services that are continuously           comprised of accumulated
assessed to ensure that they are supporting         private support, generates
students in earning their degrees or achieving      income that provides an
other academic objectives.                          important stream of revenue
                                                    for operating purposes every
STATE INVESTMENT                                    year. Annual giving includes
AND STATE ROLE                                      current gifts that support both the institution’s
     For its part, the State has an essential role  current expenses and the permanent
to play in maintaining and improving quality        endowment. While most private colleges and
and effectiveness in higher education. Most         universities have a long-established tradition of
obviously, it provides a large share of funding     philanthropic support, many public institutions

                               2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

     lack this history and will need time to develop           In addition, the State should continue to
     the necessary infrastructure to support              evaluate its student financial aid programs to
     a sophisticated advancement operation.               ensure that they provide appropriate incentives
     Nevertheless, colleges and universities should       for students to pursue educational opportunities
     begin or continue to cultivate their efforts in      well suited to their goals as well as the needs
     this area.                                           of the State. For example, some financial aid
          Finally, the State should explore structural    programs offer loan forgiveness for graduates
     changes that could improve the effectiveness of      who work in high-need, public sectors. These
     its own policies. For example, operational funding   programs can be very attractive to individuals
     for higher education has traditionally been          who have already chosen to enter these fields.
     calculated on the basis of student enrollment        However, they may be less effective at increasing
     alone, rewarding institutions for providing access   the number of postsecondary students initially
     to education. The State has begun to consider        entering these fields. For instance, loan
     new methods of funding that are designed to          forgiveness programs may not seem particularly
     connect funding to other policy goals such as        attractive or meaningful to students who
     degree completion. This is a commendable             need significant scholarship support early in
     development. At the same time, the State must        their studies, or to students considering fields
     proceed carefully to avoid creating perverse         requiring lengthy and expensive educational
     incentives – for example, a funding formula tied     preparation. The State should work to ensure
     to graduation rates might encourage institutions     that these and other State policies are arranged
     to limit access to those students most likely to     to promote an optimal level of quality and
     graduate. Thus, the State must develop new           effectiveness within and among institutions.
     structures to promote its policy goals.

G O A L 1 : A C T I O N R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S

   ..   he Commission, in consultation with colleges and universities, will examine the feasibility of establishing or
        reinstituting programs designed to support the recruitment and retention of talented faculty, such as the Southern
        Regional Education Board’s Doctoral Fellows Program.
   ..    he Commission, in partnership with colleges and universities, will develop strategies to encourage and support
         ongoing development for all faculty and staff that leads to improvements in educational technology, learning
         assessment, student support services, and instruction and pedagogy.
   ..    he Commission, in consultation with colleges and universities, will provide information and conduct studies, within
         its existing reports or stand-alone reports, to examine whether the use of adjunct faculty has any effects on student
         progression and to encourage explicit standards for the strategic use of adjunct faculty.
   ..    he Commission, in consultation with postsecondary institutions, will provide information, within its existing reports or
        stand-alone reports, about institutional initiatives and other practices designed to expose more students to research
        skills and experiences that are relevant to their fields of study and future career goals.

   ..   In preparation for the 2016-2017 academic year, the Commission will assist the Maryland State Department of
          Education (MSDE) with the development of transition courses and other instructional opportunities for 12th grade
          students who have not achieved college and career readiness by the end of the 11th grade.
   ..    he Commission, in consultation with postsecondary institutions, will develop reports on best practices and other
         initiatives to encourage institutions to expand and strengthen programs supporting student populations undergoing
         critical transitions, including new and transfer students, first-generation students, and adult students entering or
         reentering postsecondary education.

   ..    he Commission and the segments of postsecondary education will continue to support the annual progression of
         funding for all public four-year institutions toward the attainment of the funding guideline by FY 2018.
   ..    he Commission and the segments of postsecondary education will continue to support the annual progression toward
         restoring full statutory funding of the formula-aided segments of postsecondary education by FY 2018.
   ..    he Commission and the segments of postsecondary education will continue to support the annual progression toward
         full implementation of the funding strategy for regional higher education centers by FY 2018.
   ..    he Commission and the segments of postsecondary education will continue to explore the possible development and
         implementation of a performance-based funding system for postsecondary education by FY 2018.
   ..   he Commission and the segments of postsecondary education will explore the possible development and
        implementation of initiatives to support philanthropic giving to colleges and universities.
   ..    he Commission, in consultation with the segments of postsecondary education, will review and revise the capital
         planning guidelines to ensure that colleges and universities make the most use of space, that State resources can
         be directed to support the most essential instructional and research needs, and that the priorities of Plan Maryland –
         Smart Growth are incorporated into capital planning.

                                          2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
GOAL 2:       ACCESS,
A F F O R D A B I L I T Y, A N D C O M P L E T I O N .
    A N D S U P P O RT I N G AC C E S S , A F FO R DA B I L I T Y
                     A N D C O M P LE T I O N.
     A F F O R D A B I L I T Y, A N D C O M P L E T I O N .

           Postsecondary education access, afford-           financial assistance programs. The completion
     ability, and completion are the linchpins for           discussion includes information about statewide
     an educated citizenry and an innovative and             policies, pathways to credential attainment, and
     productive workforce for the State’s 21st century       new initiatives to increase completion rates. Goal
     knowledge-based economy. Maryland Ready’s               2 concludes with a series of action items that
     Goal 2 outlines a plan of action for access,            are intended to move its primary tenets from
     affordability, and completion over the next four        conception to implementation.
     years to ensure that Maryland and its citizens
     continue to excel in all ways. Each of these terms      ACCESS
                                                                   Maryland Ready recognizes that access
                                                             is the first step in ensuring that all Marylanders
                                                             who can benefit from and are willing to
                                                             engage in postsecondary education have
                                                             the opportunity to do so. To make the most
                                                             of postsecondary learning options, students
                                                             need to have a level of academic preparation
                                                             that will allow them to be deemed “college
                                                             ready.” It is particularly important to ensure
                                                             that students have a sound knowledge-base
                                                             in the STEM disciplines, as Maryland will have
                                                             a continued demand for highly-educated and
                                                             well-trained workers in these areas. Academic
                                                             preparation, however, is not sufficient to ensure
                                                             access. Students and families must be aware
                                                             of postsecondary education opportunities
                                                             and options and have the financial literacy
                                                             skills necessary to secure funding to support
     is defined within the context of Maryland’s current     enrollment.
     postsecondary education milieu and with the
     anticipated needs of the State and its citizens         Preparation for
     in mind. The meaning of access, to include              Postsecondary Learning
     preparation, outreach, and financial literacy,              Maryland seeks to create the conditions
     is discussed. The importance of increasing              necessary for its residents to successfully
     academic preparation in STEM (science,                  transition into postsecondary education and to
     technology, engineering, and mathematics)               take advantage of the careers for which they
     is also highlighted. Affordability, an important        have received adequate preparation and training.
     condition for access, is described in terms of the      In order for this type of learning environment
     postsecondary education costs for students and          to exist, students must experience a seamless
     their families, and the important role of the State’s   transition from secondary to postsecondary

level coursework. Additionally, options that allow   the Commission, with support from Complete
returning adult learners and underprepared           College America, embarked on a statewide
high school students to refresh their academic       effort to redesign developmental mathematics
knowledge and skills must be made available.         courses, given data which showed that these
Three current efforts which focus on the             classes often serve as significant barriers to
implementation of the Common Core State              academic progression. Preliminary results
Standards, the redesign of developmental             from the pilot courses suggested that, in most
(remedial) courses, and the expansion of             cases, there was an increase in the percentage
early college access opportunities, particularly     of students who successfully completed the
in STEM disciplines, are promising initiatives       redesigned course. Results will be studied
to achieve improved academic readiness               over time as these pilot courses are expanded
for college-level work. To ensure that more          to include more sections. Additionally, data
students are prepared to be successful               collected by the Maryland Association of
when they enroll in their first college course,      Community Colleges (MACC) show that
achievement gaps between groups must be              community college students who successfully
attended to as early as possible.                    complete developmental education are more
      Maryland’s recent adoption of the Common       successful in persisting, transferring, or
Core State Standards (introduced in the              graduating than their peers who were deemed
Significant Issues section of Maryland Ready)        college-ready when they initially enrolled
is a noteworthy reform effort which aims to          (MACC, 2013).
prepare high school graduates for success in              Academic preparation in STEM disciplines
college and careers. However, underprepared          is of particular interest to the State. Maryland
high school students and returning adult             has the second highest concentration of STEM
learners may still need to improve their reading,    jobs in the nation, and is adding employment
English, and mathematics skills before they          opportunities in these areas faster than
are able to begin college-level coursework.          all but five other states (U.S. Chamber of
Developmental courses are designed to                Commerce, 2013). Simply stated, the State
help students who may need considerable              needs more college and university graduates
preparation or just an academic refresher            who are prepared for STEM careers. The
before they can move on to more rigorous             Maryland State Department of Education
classes. These courses may be noncredit or           (MSDE), in consultation with the Commission,
provide credits that do not count toward a           is administering the Early College Innovation
degree. Developmental classes increase the           Fund. This competitive grant program, which
cost and amount of time required to earn a           is based upon partnerships between local
degree or credential, and many students who          education agencies and postsecondary
take these courses become discouraged and            institutions, supports the creation and
do not make adequate progress. Several new           expansion of early college access programs
initiatives to redesign developmental courses        that provide accelerated pathways for students
are underway at Maryland institutions. In 2011,      interested in STEM credentials and careers.

                                 2013 – 2017 MARYLAND STATE PLAN FOR POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION
                           A F F O R D A B I L I T Y, A N D C O M P L E T I O N .

                           THE ROLE OF OUTREACH                                   Financial literacy in the postsecondary
                           AND FINANCIAL LITERACY.                           education context means that students and
                            As a precursor to postsecondary education        families are provided with timely and easy-
                      enrollment, students and families need to              to-understand information about the cost of
                      understand what postsecondary education                attendance to include “sticker price” versus net
                      opportunities exist. They must also have the           cost; financial planning options such as 529
                      financial knowledge and skills to fund their           College Savings Plans; and state and federal
                      education. Outreach is an especially important         financial aid application processes, timelines,
                      access strategy to inform low income, minority,        and programs. Maryland is working to provide
                      first-generation, and other underrepresented           early information to families and students
                                 student populations about college           regarding financial planning and assistance
     BETWEEN 2005 AND 2013, readiness, the cost of attendance,               for postsecondary education. As such, the
   RESIDENT UNDERGRADUATE academic expectations, and career                  Commission collaborates with MSDE to ensure
TUITION AT MARYLAND PUBLIC pathways. The Commission, other                   that the PreK-12 financial literacy curriculum
    FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES AND State           agencies,     postsecondary       includes grade appropriate information about
    UNIVERSITIES WENT FROM institutions,             and        nonprofit    paying for college.
      SEVENTH TO 27TH MOST       organizations      currently     engage
    EXPENSIVE IN THE NATION in outreach efforts across the                   AFFORDABILITY
                                 State to convey this message. The                Affordability is defined as the extent to
                      Commission’s outreach programs, supported by           which Marylanders are ready to pay for and
                      federal grants, include participation in college       manage the costs of enrolling in postsecondary
                      fairs, financial aid presentations at secondary        education while supporting themselves, and
                      schools, and events and forums in community            in some cases, their families. The State and
                      and faith-based organizations. While these efforts     the postsecondary education segments
                      have been successful, the Commission must              support affordability by limiting tuition and fee
                      continue to work to develop a statewide outreach       increases; developing ways to control the cost
                      brand and collaborate with like-minded State           of textbooks, software, and other associated
                      agencies, institutions, and nonprofits to distribute   expenses; and providing financial aid to low-
                      this information more broadly. The action items for    and moderate-income students.
                      Goal 2 lay out a plan to expand current outreach
                      efforts so that they are more deliberately targeted    Tuition and Other
                      to PreK-12 students and families earlier in the        Costs of Attendance
                      college planning process, and are more inclusive             Over the last several years, Maryland
                      of adult learners in accordance with the recent        has made significant strides toward making
                      College and Career Readiness and College               public higher education more affordable. Since
                      Completion Act of 2013. The Commission is also         2007, public colleges and universities have
                      determining how to effectively use its relatively      received substantial support in the form of
                      new social media presence and increase the use         tuition stabilization funds. As a result of these
                      of its web resources for this purpose.                 investments, between 2005 and 2013, resident

                           MARYLAND READY
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