Measuring BAP outcomes from landscape scale projects in Cornwall

Measuring BAP outcomes from landscape scale projects in Cornwall

Measuring BAP outcomes from landscape scale projects in Cornwall

Measuring BAP outcomes from landscape scale projects in Cornwall Upland Oak Woodland planting on a China clay tip, part of the China Clay Woodlands Project -Photo Cheryl Marriott A report for Natural England prepared by Cornwall Wildlife Trust as part of the Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative March 2008

Contents Summary 4 1 Introduction 6 1.1 The aim of this report 6 1.2 Background to the landscape-scale projects 6 1.3 Biodiversity Action Plans 20 2 Methodology 21 2.1 Desk study of BAP habitats and species 21 2.2 Project activity information collection 21 3 Results 23 3.1 Explanation of results tables 23 3.2 Results- Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage 25 China Clay Woodlands 29 Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE project 32 HEATH Project 39 Waves of Heath 45 3.3 Results Overview 49 4 Conclusion/Recommendations 54 4.0 Conclusion 54 4.1 Recommendations 54 References 55 Appendix 1 – BAP habitat maps 56 Appendix 2 – Map of areas grazed through the Mid-Cornwall 68 Moors LIFE Project List of Tables Table 1 - Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage Habitat Information Table 2 - Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage Species Information Table 3 - China Clay Woodlands Habitat Information Table 4 - China Clay Woodlands Species Information Table 5 - Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project Habitat Information Table 6 - Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project Species Information Table 7 - HEATH Project Habitat Information Table 8 - HEATH Project Species Information Table 9 - Waves of Heath Project Habitat Information Table 10 - Waves of Heath Project Species Information Table 11 - Delivery against Regional HAPs Table 12 - Delivery against National HAPs

List of Maps Map 1 - Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage Project Area Map 2 – China Clay Woodlands Project Area Map 3 - Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project Area Map 4 - HEATH Project Area (whole area) Map 5 - HEATH Project Area (Penwith East) Map 6 - HEATH Project Area (Penwith Mid) Map 7 - HEATH Project Area (Penwith West) Map 8 - HEATH Project Area (Lizard) Map 9 - HEATH Project Area (Godolphin) Map 10 - HEATH Project Area (Redruth) Map 11 - HEATH Project Area (St Agnes) Map 12 - Waves of Heath Map 13 - Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage BAP habitats Map 14 - China Clay Woodlands BAP habitats Map 15 - Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE BAP habitats Map 16 - HEATH Project (whole area) BAP habitats Map 17 - HEATH Project (Penwith East) BAP habitats Map 18 - HEATH Project (Penwith Mid) BAP habitats Map 19 - HEATH Project (Penwith West) BAP habitats Map 20 - HEATH Project (Lizard) BAP habitats Map 21 - HEATH Project (Godolphin) BAP habitats Map 22 - HEATH Project (Redruth) BAP habitats Map 23 - HEATH Project Area (St Agnes) BAP habitats Map 24 – Goss Moor Grazing Map List of Graphs Graph 1 - Number of Cornwall BAP volume 3 HAPs and SAPs influenced and numbers of targets and actions contributed to by project Graph 2 – Number of HAPs and SAPs influenced and numbers of targets and actions contributed to by project.

Summary x Natural England approached Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative in 2007 to look at the impact that 5 landscape-scale projects in Cornwall have had with regard to delivery of the Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan (Vol 3). The projects are: ƒ Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritage- Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall ƒ China Clay Woodland Project ƒ Mid-Cornwall Moors Life Project ƒ HEATH (Heathland, Environment, Agriculture, Tourism, Heritage) Project ƒ Waves of Heath x An analysis of the initial extent of BAP habitat was completed for each project area. This was done using BAP habitat information held on the Environmental Records Centre for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (ERCCIS) Geographical Information System (GIS).

x An analysis of BAP species was carried out using GIS and species records held by ERCCIS. For each project a 500m buffer was drawn around clusters of the separate project sites. x Project Officers were asked to provide information on which BAP and non-BAP habitats have been gained, lost or altered as part of the project activities. x In total, 7 individual Habitat Action Plans (HAPs) and 29 Species Action Plans (SAPs) in Cornwall BAP volume 3 were influenced by the projects. Eleven HAP targets, 8 HAP actions, 36 SAP targets and 16 SAP actions were contributed to overall.

x The Waves of Heath project activities have been related to the UK BAP since the Isles of Scilly are not covered by the Cornwall BAP and as yet there is no BAP for Scilly.

Waves of Heath contributed to one national HAP, influencing one HAP target, and 5 national SAPs, influencing 16 SAP targets. x Two projects delivered against the lowland heathland management target T2 in the local BAP, leading to an overall contribution of 2,261.3 hectares. No percentage achievement can be given as the target is not SMART. x Two projects delivered against the lowland heathland re-creation target T3 in the local BAP, leading to an overall contribution of 185.5 hectares, 17.6% of the target.

x Two projects delivered against the wet woodland restoration target T1 for SSSIs and SACs in the local BAP, leading to an overall contribution of 254.7 hectares. The target is not SMART but an associated action is to restore 50 hectares so this has been exceeded several times over. x The same 2 projects also delivered against the (very similar) wet woodland restoration target T3 in the local BAP, leading to an overall contribution of 254.7 hectares. The target is to restore 50 hectares so again this has been exceeded.

x The contribution to some Regional BAP targets is significant.

The Cornwall projects collectively contribute to 13% of the lowland heathland maintenance target, 19% of the lowland heathland restoration target, almost 6% of the woodland restoration target, nearly 30% of the fen maintenance target and 5% of the purple moor grass and rush pasture maintenance target. x The contribution to some National BAP targets is significant. The Cornwall projects collectively contribute to 4% of the lowland heathland maintenance target, nearly 18% of the lowland heathland expansion target, 3.3% of the fen maintenance target and 4.6% of the purple moor grass and rush pasture maintenance target.

x Even taking into account the limitations of the methods used in this report it is clear that significant contributions have been made towards BAP targets, particularly when viewed against regional and national HAP targets. This shows that the landscape scale projects studied have delivered very positive changes for biodiversity in Cornwall. x Various recommendations to take forward in future landscape scale projects and recommendations for improvements that can be made to Cornwall BAP volume 3 are suggested in section 4.1.

1 Introduction 1.1 The aim of this report Natural England approached Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative in 2007 to look at the impact that 5 landscape-scale projects in Cornwall have had with regard to delivery of the Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan (Vol 3).

The projects are: x Tomorrows Heathland Heritage- Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall x China Clay Woodland Project x Mid-Cornwall Moors Life Project x HEATH (Heathland, Environment, Agriculture, Tourism, Heritage) Project x Waves of Heath Only one of these projects was complete at the time of writing but all have been running for several years. All five projects have/had specific targets for habitat creation and/or management. Some reporting against BAP targets has been carried out but this is fairly limited. This report aims to assess all five projects against BAP targets. It is hoped that the results will help to shape future landscape-scale projects in the county and that the simple methodology used here can be replicated elsewhere.

1.2 Background to the landscape-scale projects Tomorrows Heathland Heritage- Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall The Tomorrow's Heathland Heritage putting back the wild heart of Cornwall project is now complete. The project was a landscape scale post-mining regeneration project that successfully re-created lowland heathland on former china clay waste tips in the St Austell mining through a combination of re-seeding, scrub clearance and using traditional grazing methods. This was achieved through a partnership between English Nature (now Natural England), Imerys, Cornwall County Council and Goonvean and was supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

Map 1 below shows the areas of heathland created through the project.

China Clay Woodland Project The China Clay Woodland Project is an Objective One funded initiative to re-create and restore 800 ha of native broadleaf woodland. The project is a partnership between Imerys and Natural England and aims to create more than 339 hectares of new native broadleaf woodland on former china clay waste tips in mid-Cornwall. The project also aims to bring 400 hectares of existing woodland into sustainable management, with species such as conifers and rhododendron removed and replaced with tree species that are native to Cornwall. Map 2 below shows the area of woodland planted as part of the project.

Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project The Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project is a partnership project that aims to improve the key habitats for the marsh fritillary in mid-Cornwall. Through the restoration of key habitats such as moor and wet and dry heaths, the Project also aims to benefit other important plant and animal species. The project is connected to the re-routing of the A30 trunk road; this provided an opportunity to reconnect patches of habitat. Map 3 below shows the areas that together make up the mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project.

HEATH (Heathland, Environment, Agriculture, Tourism, Heritage) Project The HEATH project aims to lay the foundations for restoration of heathlands by re- introducing traditional farming practices such as scrub clearance, grazing, bracken control and controlled burning, to over 4000Ha of heathland.

The project aims to work on 58 sites across West Penwith, the Lizard and the North Coast of Cornwall. Map 4 below shows the suite of sites involved in the project. Maps 5-11 show the same sites on a smaller scale.

Waves of Heath The Waves of Heath project is restoring 592 hectares (1,463 acres) of lowland heathland on the Isles of Scilly. This is being achieved by scrub control through cutting, rolling and burning. Reinstating grazing is also an important aspect of the project. Map 12 below shows the Waves of Heath project sites.

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright.

Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 Tomorrow's Heathland Heritage Project Area Scale 1:40,000 on A3 ¯ Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall 0 2,300 4,600 1,150 Meters Map 1

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 China Clay Woodland Project Area Scale 1:38,500 on A3 ¯ 0 2,200 4,400 1,100 Meters Map 2

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information.

No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project Area Scale 1:50,500 on A3 ¯ 0 2,900 5,800 1,450 Meters Map 3

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Area Scale 1:170,000 on A3 ¯ 0 9,900 19,800 4,950 Meters Map 4

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information.

No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Penwith - East Scale 1:33,500 on A3 ¯ 0 2,000 4,000 1,000 Meters Map 5

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Penwith - Mid Scale 1:28,000 on A3 ¯ 0 1,600 3,200 800 Meters Map 6

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information.

No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Penwith - West Scale 1:21,500 on A3 ¯ 0 1,250 2,500 625 Meters Map 7

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project The Lizard Scale 1:37,000 on A3 ¯ 0 2,200 4,400 1,100 Meters Map 8

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information.

No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Godolphin, Rosudgeon and Praa Sands Scale 1:20,500 on A3 ¯ 0 1,200 2,400 600 Meters Map 9

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project Redruth Area Scale 1:26,500 on A3 ¯ 0 1,500 3,000 750 Meters Map 10

This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information.

No further copies may be made. The map is based on Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of the Controller of her Majestys Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Cornwall County Council LA076538 2005 HEATH Project St Agnes Area Scale 1:26,500 on A3 ¯ 0 1,500 3,000 750 Meters Map 11

Map 12 Waves of Heath Project Area This copy has been reproduced specifically to supply an individual with CWT information. No furthur copies may be made. This map is based upon Ordnance Survey material with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her majesty’s Stationery Office © Crown copyright. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings Cornwall County Council LA 076538, 2006 Waves of Heath boundaries 0 1,500 3,000 750 Meters 1:47,000 Scale Key

1.3 Biodiversity Action Plans The Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan The Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan has three parts: x Cornwall’s Biodiversity volume 1- Audit and Priorities (1997)1 x Cornwall’s Biodiversity volume 2- Action plans (1998) 2 x Cornwall’s Biodiversity volume 3- Action plans (2004) 3 Volume 1 set out to assess the status and trends in biodiversity in Cornwall and the main factors influencing those trends.

Volume 1 also established priority species and habitats and made recommendations for immediate action. The species and habitat list in volume 1 was derived in part from the UK Biodiversity Steering Group long list of globally threatened and declining species. Local experts added additional species which they felt were of conservation concern in the county. Volume 2 sets out the action plans that resulted from focus groups formed to address the priorities highlighted in volume 1. Each action plan follows a set format and includes a table of actions showing lead and other partners. Volume 3 identifies all the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP) Priority Habitats and Species that occur in Cornwall in order to guide local conservation work to contribute to UK BAP targets.

Volume 3 compliments rather than replaces volumes 1 and 2. It was hoped that by ‘UK Proofing’ the Cornwall BAP, volume 3 would form a clearer link with national habitat and species actions. This would then enable the Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) to identify any gaps in delivery of UK BAP actions and obtain funding for UK priority habitats and species.

Isles of Scilly BAP The Cornwall BAP volume 3 does not include the Isles of Scilly. A BAP audit of the Isles of Scilly has recently been completed by the Environmental Records Centre for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (ERCCIS), but no plan has yet been produced. For this reason, the outcomes of the Waves of Heath Project will be measured against the regional and UK BAP rather than a local BAP. UK Biodiversity Action Plan Review At the time of writing the UK BAP list had been updated and approved but the England list was not yet published. Work is planned to incorporate the new England BAP list into Cornwall’s Biodiversity volume 3 but has not yet started.

For this reason, this report relates to the UK BAP list prior to it being updated in 2007.

2 Methodology 2.1 Desk study of BAP habitats and species Habitats An analysis of BAP habitat was completed for each project. This was done using BAP habitat information held on the ERCCIS Geographical Information System (GIS). Digital project boundaries were used to calculate the area of mapped BAP habitat on each of the separate sites which make up each of the five projects. The BAP habitats information used is that which was mapped as part of the NBN pilot BAP habitat mapping work completed in 2005/06. This does introduce a possible source of error but it is the best information currently available to us.

The methodology used in the BAP habitat mapping means that some areas are classed as ‘definitely present within the polygon but not mappable’ or ‘probably the priority habitat but some uncertainty of interpretation’. It is possible for one area to be classed as 2 different priority habitat types under these categories. Where this was the case, for example for large areas of Goss Moor in the mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE project, advice was taken from the Project Officers as to which habitat to class the area as.

At the time of writing digital BAP habitat information was not available for the Isles of Scilly. Instead, information from project officers was used to determine the habitat types on project sites. Maps showing the extent of BAP habitat are shown on maps 13-23 in appendix 1. Species An analysis of BAP species was carried out using GIS and species records held by ERCCIS. For each project a 500m buffer was drawn around clusters of the separate project sites. Records of BAP species within those areas were then compiled. The resultant BAP species lists were reviewed by ERCCIS staff, CWT staff and in some cases, the Project Officers.

BAP species that were thought likely to be on the sites but which are generally under-recorded, such as relatively common species, were added to the lists. Likewise, BAP species which were on the lists but which were thought unlikely to be found on the habitat types on the project sites were removed. 2.2 Project activity information collection Project Officers were asked to provide information on which BAP and non-BAP habitats have been gained, lost or altered as part of the project activities. The format and level of detail of this information vary greatly between the 5 projects: Tomorrows Heathland Heritage- Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall ƒ A GIS layer of the area of lowland heath created was supplied.

ƒ Project Officers from the mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE project and the China Clay Woodland project were able to give information on the likely BAP species impacts of the project.

China Clay Woodland Project ƒ A GIS layer of the area of woodland planted up to the end of 2007 was supplied, but it is recognised that further planting has taken place since. However, figures were supplied for the area of planting and woodland restoration by the Project Officer and these include the area that the Project Officer was confident would be complete before the end of the project.

ƒ The Project Officer and the mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE Project Officer gave information on the likely BAP species impacts of the project activities. Mid-Cornwall Moors Life Project ƒ A GIS layer of the project area was supplied.

ƒ A GIS layer of the areas of the project that have been brought back into grazing was supplied (see appendix 2). ƒ Verbal information on other project activities was given, but collated figures for the area of track cutting, heathland burning and scrub clearance were not available at the time of writing.

ƒ The Project Officer gave information on the likely BAP species impacts of the project activities. HEATH (Heathland, Environment, Agriculture, Tourism, Heritage) Project ƒ A GIS layer of the project area was supplied. ƒ Information on the area of new or improved grazing, heathland re-creation, scrub clearance and bracken clearance for each project site was supplied. For sites where the work is not yet complete, figures were included where the Project Officers were confident that the work would go ahead before the end of the project.

Waves of Heath ƒ A GIS layer of the project area was supplied.

ƒ A detailed breakdown of the grazing, burning, scrub and bracken clearance on project sites over 4 years was supplied. Unfortunately, whilst the information was very detailed, it was not possible to determine how much of the management over the 4 years was repeated on the individual sites, and how much was new. We have assumed that most of the management has been repeated year on year, so took the areas managed in year 4 to represent the total area under that form of management.

3 Results 3.1 Explanation of results tables Tables on the pages that follow include information on the project activities for each of the 5 projects and how this relates to BAP targets and actions. An explanation of each of the column headings is provided below. Habitats Initial extent -The initial extent of the habitat in the project area is listed in hectares. Re-creation gain - Where new priority habitat has been created as part of a project the extent is given in hectares. Loss due to project activities - Where an area of habitat has been lost due to project activities the area in hectares is given, if known.

Positive habitat modification - Where an area of habitat has been modified in a positive way due to project activities the area in hectares is given, if known. Negative habitat modification - Where an area of habitat has been modified in a negative way due to project activities the area in hectares is given, if known. Relevant HAP targets - This lists the Cornwall BAP volume 3 Habitat Action Plan Targets that have been delivered as part of the project (or UK BAP targets in the case of the Isles of Scilly Waves of Heath project). Reference numbers already used in the Cornwall entries on the Biodiversity Action Reporting System (BARS see www.ukbap-reporting.org.uk ) are used.

The habitat coding uses an abbreviation of the habitat name, for example, target 1 for lowland heathland is ‘Habitat_LH_T1’. Target achieved? - Where the HAP targets are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Trackable) and there is enough information, a percentage achievement of the individual target has been calculated. Where a percentage cannot be given due to a lack of information or a SMART target a comment is included if it is thought the target is achieved in part. Relevant HAP actions - This lists the Cornwall BAP volume 3 Habitat Action Plan actions that have been delivered as part of the project (or UK BAP actions in the case of the Isles of Scilly Waves of Heath project).

As above, reference numbers already used in the Cornwall entries on the Biodiversity Action Reporting System are used. This analysis concentrates on actions relating directly to habitats, particularly the ‘site safeguard and management’ actions.

Action achieved? - Where the HAP actions are SMART and there is enough information, a percentage achievement of the individual action has been calculated. Where a percentage cannot be given due to a lack of information a comment is included if it is thought the action is achieved in part. Species ERCCIS records -This lists the date of the most recent record held at ERCCIS for BAP species for the project sites and surrounding area. This list has been trimmed down by ERCCIS, CWT and Project staff by removing species thought unlikely to be present in the habitats found on project sites. For example a rare lichen found on bare china clay deposits came up in the mid-Cornwall Moors desk study but clearly is not relevant to the wet heath habitats of the project area.

Information from Project Officer/ERCCIS Staff/CWT Staff -Brief details of the habitat requirements of the species and/or the relevance of the project activities to that species help to illustrate how the BAP actions and targets were assigned. Relevant SAP targets -This lists the Cornwall BAP volume 3 Species Action Plan targets that have been delivered as part of the project (or UK BAP targets in the case of the Isles of Scilly Waves of Heath project). Reference numbers already used in the Biodiversity Action Reporting System (BARS) are used; the species coding uses the species group and an abbreviation of the Latin name of the species.

For example target 1 for linnet is ‘Bird_CC_T1’. This analysis concentrates on actions relating directly to species, particularly the ‘species management and protection’ actions. Target achieved? -Where the SAP targets are SMART and there is enough information, a percentage achievement of the individual targets has been calculated. Where a percentage cannot be given due to a lack of information or a SMART target a comment is included if it is thought the target is achieved in part. Relevant SAP actions -This lists the Cornwall BAP volume 3 Species Action Plan actions that have been delivered as part of the project (or UK BAP actions in the case of the Isles of Scilly Waves of Heath project).

As above, reference numbers already used in the Biodiversity Action Reporting System (BARS) are used. This analysis concentrates on actions relating directly to species, particularly the ‘species management and protection’ actions.

Action achieved? Where the SAP targets are SMART and there is enough information, a percentage achievement of the individual action has been calculated. Where a percentage cannot be given due to a lack of information a comment is included if it is thought the action is achieved in part.

3.2 Results Tomorrows Heathland Heritage- Putting back the wild heart of Cornwall

Initial extent (ha) Re-creation gain (ha) Loss due to project actions (ha) Positive habitat modification (ha) negative habitat modification (ha) Target achieved? Actions achieved? BAP habitat Fen 0.17 Changes in this habitat due to the activities of the THH project are thought unlikely.

Lowland heathland 0 181 Habitat_LH_T3 Re-establish 1050ha of lowland heathland in Cornwall, consolidating the existing blocks. 17% of target achieved Habitat_LH_5.2. 5 Achieve 750ha of heathland re-creation in the St Austell heathland sub-zone of the mid-Cornwall moors heathland zone.

24% of the action achieved Wet woodland 0.14 Changes in this habitat due to the activities of the THH project are thought unlikely. Relevant HAP targets Relevant HAP actions Table 1 - China Clay THH - Habitat Information

Table 2 - THH China Clay Heaths - Species Information BAP Species ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target achieved? Action achieved? Fencing and reintroduction of grazing likely to have a positive impact if the species can spread to project sites. Vplant_EV_ T2 Enhance population numbers through experimental management at a range of extant sites.

Light grazing and the associated trampling of paths may well prove effective. Increasing the number of footpaths criss-crossing the coastal heaths may well be beneficial too. Target not very SMART but some positive effect possibly achieved as part of this project, monitoring required. 1990 Some fencing was completed on Retire common and cattle grids were put on Goss Moor, this allowed grazing so should have had a positive impact. Butterfly_EA _T1 Ensure 80% of marsh fritillary sites are in appropriate management regimes. Target achieved in part Butterfly_EA _5.2.3 Encourage favourable management of all known sites and associated potential sites.

Action achieved in part Butterfly_EA _T2 Maintain at least the same number of sites and colonies as known in 2000 Target achieved in part Butterfly_EA _5.2.4 Encourage the formation of large site networks and viable meta-populations centred around large or medium sized colonies.

Action achieved in part Butterfly_EA _T3 Ensure that at least 5 sites in each key area (mid- Cornwall moors, the Culm measures, Bodmin Moor) are managed for marsh fritillary as a primary management objective. Target achieved in part due to this project Habitat creation and management should have had a positive impact. Butterfly_PA _T1 Maintain populations at all known sites. Achieved in part Butterfly_PA _5.2.2 Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat within 0.6 – 1.0km of each other.

Action achieved in part Butterfly_PA _5.2.3 Restore suitable heathland habitat, initially concentrating on abandoned metalliferous mining areas.

Action achieved in part Birds: 1994 New breeding opportunities created. Bird_AA_T1 Maintain the 2004 breeding population and range. Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. Bird_AA_T2 The priority for skylark is to promote widespread sympathetic land management, particularly in key areas. Target is not SMART, but the project has achieved it in part. 1992 New breeding opportunities created. Bird_AA_T1 Maintain the 2004 population: c30 males at c15 sites.

Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. Bird_AA_5.2 .3 Ensure specific management of all key sites for nightjar. Action achieved in part Bird_AA_T2 Increase the numbers and range of nightjar to 50 males at c20 sites by 2010. Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. BAP Species ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target achieved? Action achieved? Vascular plants: Euphrasia vigursii Vigur's eyebright marsh fritillary Eurodryas aurinia Plebejus argus silver-studded blue Relevant SAP action Relevant SAP action Alauda arvensis s kylark nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus Relevant SAP target Relevant SAP target

Birds: recent New suitable habitat created. Bird_CC_T1 In the short term, maintain current population and range within Cornwall. Target achieved in part Bird_CC_T2 In the long term, see a sustained recovery in numbers and evidence of significant increases in population within key areas – coastal strip, Lizard, West Penwith, Bodmin Moor and the mid-Cornwall moors. Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. 1968 Management work on Hensbarrow expected to have a positive impact. Bird_ES_T1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range.

Target achieved in part Bird_ES_T2 In the long term, see a sustained recovery in numbers, with measurable increases within key areas.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. 2005 Habitat creation likely to have provided foraging habitat. Mammal_M A_T1 Maintain the existing populations and range of pipistrelles (based on 2004) in Cornwall. Target achieved in part Mammal_M A_T3 Wherever possible achieve an increase in population within the county by improving habitats and safeguarding linear landscape features. Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required.

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum greater horseshoe bat 2004 Habitat creation likely to have provided foraging habitat. Mammal_R F_T2 Facilitate an increase in the population within the county by protecting and where necessary improving roost sites and the surrounding foraging habitat and commuting routes. Target achieved in part Rhinolophus hipposideros lesser horseshoe bat 2005 Habitat creation likely to have provided foraging habitat. Mammal_R H_T2 Facilitate an increase in the population within the county by improving habitats and connectivity between existing roosts.

Target achieved in part Carduelis cannabina linnet Mammals: Pipistrellus pipistrellus & P.

pygmaeus pipistrelle bat Emberiza schoeniclus reed bunting

China Clay Woodland Project

Table 3 - China Clay Woodland- Habitat information Initial extent (ha) Re-creation gain (ha) Loss due to project actions (ha) Positive habitat modification (ha) negative habitat modification (ha) Target achieved? Action achieved? BAP habitat Fen 0.81 0 0 0 Lowland heathland 1.63 0 0 0 Purple Moor Grass and Rush Pasture 0 0 0 0 Wet woodland 0 0 0 0 New upland oak ash woodland (alder as pioneer to be removed in future) 0 358 0 0 Habitata_UO_T 3 Expand the area in Cornwall of well-managed oak woodland with a diverse and characteristic community of animals and plants, without consequent loss of other semi-natural habitats.

Target not SMART 5.2.12 Expand the area in Cornwall of well-managed oak woodland with a diverse and characteristic community of animals and plants, without consequential loss of other semi-natural habitats by about 10% (140ha), particularly through expansion into currently open ground by planting and natural regeneration, and restocking conifer sites adjacent to oak woodland with native broadleaf species. Specific target 150ha by 2005. Action 100% achieved Non-BAP habitats Scrub See species section Other woodland not classified as BAP 280 0 0 280 0 Rhododendron and other exotic species removed from shelter belts, presume no negative impact on BAP species.

Fencing (>8km) has allowed some THH sites to be grazed 39.4 0 0 39.4 0 Will have contributed to the THH project outcomes, so picked up in that section. Relevant HAP Targets Relevant HAP actions Woodland only planted where there has been tipping so no loss.

Species Group ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target Achieved? Action ref Action Text Action achieved? Caprimulgus europaeus nightjar 1992 Early stages of woodland growth may benefit the species and in the longer term woodland edge will be created. Bird_CE_T2 Increase the numbers and range of nightjar to 50 males at c20 sites by 2010.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Carduelis cannabina linnet There are recent records on site. There has been some gorse clearance prior to planting which may have had a slight temporary negative impact, early stages of woodland growth and creation of woodland edge may negate this so overall no impact. Bird_CC_T2 In the long term, see a sustained recovery in numbers and evidence of significant increases in population within key areas – coastal strip, Lizard, West Penwith, Bodmin Moor and the mid-Cornwall moors.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Emberiza schoeniclus reed bunting 1968 Short term positive whilst new woodlands are in early stages of growth. Bird_ES_T1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range. Target achieved in part Muscicapa striata spotted flycatcher 1986 Long term positive due to creation of new woodland. Bird_MS_T1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range in Cornwall. Target achieved in part Pyrrhula pyrrhula bullfinch 1991 Short term positive whilst new woodlands are in early stages of growth, long term positive due to creation of woodland edge habitat Bird_PPv_T 1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range in Cornwall.

Target achieved in part Turdus philomelos song thrush 1991 Creation of woodland and woodland edge likely to be slight positive. Bird_TP_T1 Maintain the 2004 population and range in Cornwall. Target achieved in part Lutra lutra European otter 1993 Planting of woodlands in river valleys will provide cover and potential holt sites in the longer term. Mammal_LL _T2 Expand the 2004 otter populations. Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Mammal_LL _5.2.2 Secure appropriate management of riparian habitats and catchments in woodlands to enhance otter populations.

Action achieved in part Muscardinus avellanarius Dormouse Woodland and woodland edge creation likely to be positive long term.

Mamal_MA_ T1 Ensure no loss of the 2004 range in Cornwall. Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Mammal_M A_5.2.3. Encourage the management of woodlands and hedgerows so as to maintain 2004 populations and prevent habitat fragmentation. Action achieved in part 1991 Early stages of the woodland growth and woodland edge habitat will provide foraging opportunities . MammalPPi _T1 Maintain the existing populations and range of pipistrelles (based on 2004) in Cornwall. Target achieved in part Mammal_P Pi_T3 Wherever possible achieve an increase in population within the county by improving habitats and safeguarding linear landscape features.

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum greater horseshoe bat Not recorded on the project sites but are in the area so early stages of the woodland growth and woodland edge habitat will provide foraging opportunities. Mammal_R F_T2 Facilitate an increase in the population within the county by protecting and where necessary improving roost sites and the surrounding foraging habitat and commuting routes.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Rhinolophus hipposideros lesser horseshoe bat 1992 Early stages of the woodland growth and woodland edge habitat will provide foraging opportunities. Mammal_R H_T2 Facilitate an increase in the population within the county by improving habitats and connectivity between existing roosts. Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Table 4- China Clay Woods - Species Information Relevant SAP target BAP Species Pipistrellus pipistrellus & P. pygmaeus pipistrelle bat Mammals: Birds:

Mid-Cornwall Moors Life Project

Initial extent (ha) Re-creation gain (ha) Loss due to project actions (ha) Positive habitat modification (ha) negative habitat modification (ha) Target achieved? Action achieved? BAP habitat 211.93 0 0 186 0 Habitat_F_T2 Maintain and where necessary restore favourable habitat condition on all key fen sites including the maintenance and restoration of sustainable management regimes. Target not SMART 5.2.3 Secure favourable management of all significant fen sites designated as SSSI. Part achieved Habitat_F_T6 Within SSSIs instigate appropriate management so that all significant stands of fen are in favourable condition by 2010.

Target not SMART Lowland heathland 194.67 0 0 131 0 Habitat_LH_T2 Ensure that all viable heathland blocks are managed appropriately to restore and enhance their biodiversity. Target not SMART 5.2.4 Source and encourage grazing animals and markets. Link with economic initiatives relevant to heathland management, especially development of extensive grazing and markets. Link with initiatives on the THH mid-Cornwall Project, Bodmin Moor and mid-Cornwall LIFE Project Part achieved 306.08 0 0 272 0 Habitat_PMGR P_T1 Arrest the depletion of surviving purple moor grass and rush-pasture throughout Cornwall (eg - area of Culm grassland in North Cornwall last recorded in 1999 at 349ha).

Target not SMART Habitat_PMGR P_T2 Within SSSIs in Cornwall, initiate rehabilitation management for all significant stands of purple moor grass and rush pasture in unfavourable condition by 2005 (eg - unfavourable area of Culm grassland in North Cornwall SSSIs recorded in 2002-03 at 64ha). Target not SMART 308.68 0 216 0 Habitat_WW_T1 Initiate re-habilitation management for wet woodlands within SSSIs and cSACs by 2004. Achieve favourable condition, or unfavourable recovering condition, in all significant stands of wet woodland within SSSIs and cSACs by 2010. Target not SMART 5.2.7 Encourage the restoration of at least 50ha of wet woodland Action achieved Habitat_WW_T3 Identify and encourage the restoration of at least 50ha of woodland wherever possible extending or linking existing woodland Target Achieved Non-BAP habitat Scrub- Gorse See species table Scrub- Willow See species table Bracken See species table Table 5 - Mid-Cornwall Moors LIFE - Habitat Information Fen Wet woodland Purple moor grass and rush pasture Relevant HAP actions Relevant HAP targets

Species Group ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target achieved? Action achieved? Euphrasia vigursii Vigur's eyebright 2000 Scrub clearance and bringing sites back into grazing should have a positive impact. Vplant_EV_ T2 Enhance population numbers through experimental management at a range of extant sites. Light grazing and the associated trampling of paths may well prove effective. Increasing the number of footpaths criss-crossing the coastal heaths may well be beneficial too. Target not very SMART but some positive effect possibly achieved as part of this project, monitoring required.

Vplant_EV_ 5.2.1 Promote beneficial management at all extant sites plus heathland sites where it formerly occurred. Lycopodiella inundata marsh clubmoss 2002 Bringing sites back into management by grazing, burning and scrub clearance should help. Moss_LI_T1 Maintain and increase the population of the species at Retire Common.

Target not very SMART but possibly achieved as part of this project, monitoring required. Mentha pulegium pennyroyal 1909 Not recorded for a long time but current management would favour the species if it were to spread back. Vplant_MP_ 5.2.3 Ensure appropriate habitat management to encourage existing populations to spread, incorporating it into agri-environment schemes. Action may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. Pilularia globulifera pillwort 2002 Reintroduction of grazing on sites and resultant poaching should be beneficial.

Vplant_PG_ T1 Maintain the 2004 range of pillwort in Cornwall. Target may have been avhieved in part but monitoring required Vplant_PG_ 5.2.2 Re-introduce suitable management to old sites where possible. Action achieved in part Ranunculus tripartitus three-lobed water-crowfoot 2002 Reintroduction of grazing on sites and resultant poaching, and scrub management has been beneficial and this species has increased on the project sites. Vplant_RT_ T1 Maintain viable populations at all extant sites. Target achieved in part Flies: Asilus crabroniformis hornet robberfly Not recorded here but management should favour it if it can spread into the area.

Fly_AC_5.2. 1 Promote favourable management in all SSSIs and nature reserves where the species occurs, or formerly occurred. Action achieved in part Table 6 - Mid-Cornwall Moors - Species Information Vascular plants: Relevant SAP action BAP Species Relevant SAP target

Species Group ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target achieved? Action ref Relevant SAP action Action achieved? Bees: Bombus humilis brown carder bumblebee 1997 Reintroduction of grazing and scrub clearance should help. Bee_BH_T1 Maintain populations at all known sites.

Target may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. Bee_BH_5.2 .1 Where possible, ensure that all occupied and nearby potential habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri- environment scheme management agreements. Action achieved in part assuming that the species is still found in the area 2002 Project sites managed specifically for this species; scrub clearance, reintroduction of grazing and controlled burning.

Butterfly_EA _T1 Ensure 80% of marsh fritillary sites are in appropriate management regimes. Target achieved in part Butterfly_EA _5.2.3 Encourage favourable management of all known sites and associated potential sites. Action achieved in part Butterfly_EA _T2 Maintain at least the same number of sites and colonies as known in 2000. Target achieved in part Butterfly_EA _5.2.4 Encourage the formation of large site networks and viable meta-populations centred around large or medium sized colonies. Action achieved in part Butterfly_EA _T3 Ensure that at least 5 sites in each key area (mid- Cornwall moors, the Culm measures, Bodmin Moor) are managed for marsh fritillary as a primary management objective.

Yes - achieved for the mid- Cornwall moors key area Known on project sites. Reinstatement of heathland management should help. Butterfly_PA _T1 Maintain populations at all known sites. Achieved in part Butterfly_PA _5.2.2 Where possible, increase the available habitat at known sites and adjacent areas, and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat within 0.6 – 1.0km of each other. Action achieved in part Butterfly_PA _5.2.3 Restore suitable heathland habitat, initially concentrating on abandoned metalliferous mining areas.

Action achieved in part Moths: Hemaris tityus narrow- bordered bee hawk No recent records but may be under-recorded.

Uses same food plant as marsh fritillary so reinstatement of heathland management is beneficial if this species is still on site. Moth_HT_5. 2.1 Encourage an increase in the available habitat and attempt to link up existing fragments of habitat. Action achieved in part Hydrelia sylvata waved carpet 1989 Status on project sites not known but scrub clearance and track creation/clearance positive if they are on project sites.

Moth_HS_T 1 Maintain populations at all known sites. Target may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. Moth_HS_5. 2.1 Where possible, ensure that five main occupied sites are appropriately managed, for example through SSSI or WGS management agreements. Action may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. marsh fritillary Eurodryas aurinia Butterflies: Plebejus argus silver-studded blue Relevant SAP target BAP Species

Species Group ERCCIS Records Information from Project staff/ERCCIS staff/CWT staff Target achieved? Action ref Relevant SAP action Action achieved? Moths: Mythimnia turca double line 1985 There are more recent records and Adrian Spalding has done some survey work.

Work on sites to maintain a mosaic of habitats should have a positive effect Moth_MT_T 1 Maintain populations at all known sites. Target may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. Moth_MT_5. 2.1 Where possible, ensure that all occupied habitat is appropriately managed by 2008, for example through SSSI or agri-environment scheme management agreements.

Action may have been achieved in part but monitoring is required to check current status of the species on project sites. 2001 Reinstated heathland management and maintenance of habitat mosaic should be positive. Bird_AA_T1 Maintain the 2004 breeding population and range. Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. Bird_AA_T2 The priority for skylark is to promote widespread sympathetic land management, particularly in key areas. Target is not SMART, but the project has achieved it in part. 1967 There are recent records on Criggan Moor and Hensbarrow, reinstated heathland management and scrub clearance may be beneficial.

Bird_CE_T1 Maintain the 2004 population: c30 males at c15 sites. Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. Bird_CE_5.2 .3 Ensure specific management of all key sites for nightjar. Action achieved in part Bird_CE_T2 Increase the numbers and range of nightjar to 50 males at c20 sites by 2010. Project work is likely to have contributed to this target. 1981 These are still present on project sites. Scrub control and low intensity grazing should have benefitted this species. Bird_CC_T1 In the short term, maintain current population and range within Cornwall.

Target achieved in part Bird_CC_T2 In the long term, see a sustained recovery in numbers and evidence of significant increases in population within key areas – coastal strip, Lizard, West Penwith, Bodmin Moor and the mid-Cornwall moors.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. 1993 Still on project sites. Management to retain habitat mosaics with plenty of wet, open areas should be beneficial. Bird_ES_T1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range. Target achieved in part Bird_ES_T2 In the long term, see a sustained recovery in numbers, with measurable increases within key areas.

Target may be achieved in part but monitoring is required. Muscicapa striata spotted flycatcher 1993 Still here, expansion of grazing and positive woodland edge management should have helped. Bird_MS_T1 In the short term, maintain the 2004 population and range in Cornwall. Target achieved in part Birds: Alauda arvensis s kylark Caprimulgus europaeus nightjar Carduelis cannabina linnet Emberiza schoeniclus reed bunting BAP Species Relevant SAP target

You can also read