Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
Perspective Munich l Concept

                   Munich: Future Perspective
                   Strategies, Guidelines, Projects
Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
Munich: Future Perspective
    Strategies, Guidelines, Projects

    Magazine updating the Perspective Munich report
    City Council resolution of 5 June 2013

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -

                                                          Dear citizens of Munich,

                                                          Our city is booming. In 15 years'        What has already become clear is          Munich is known for being a toler-
    Dieter Reiter                                         time, about half a million more          that city development sometimes           ant and convivial city. This sense of
    Mayor of the Bavarian State Capital of Munich         people will live in Munich than in       involves a bit of tinkering. At any       solidarity must also be applied when
                                                          1958, when I was born. Munich has        rate, it requires an equal amount         it comes to city development issues.
                                                          nevertheless been able to preserve       of patience, skill and a steady
    A city that grows dynamically faces enormous          its special charm, not least because     hand. This is why a hand-drawn            In spite of all worries about the

    pressure for change. Mobility, housing space,         my predecessors have acted re-
                                                          sponsibly and with foresight. A key
                                                                                                   city impression adorns the cover.
                                                                                                   We trust that Munich’s citizens will
                                                                                                                                             rental price trend, increasing traffic
                                                                                                                                             and climate change, we should not
    architecture, nature, social aspects – the city       task of the administration is to
                                                          retain Munich’s unique atmosphere
                                                                                                   pitch in and co-operate in forming
                                                                                                   their city. Therefore, we decided
                                                                                                                                             forget that changes represent great
                                                                                                                                             opportunities as well. Allow me to
    administration is faced with the challenging task     for future generations while at the
                                                          same time, being open to change.
                                                                                                   to publish the Perspective Munich
                                                                                                   report as a magazine for the first
                                                                                                                                             refer to Albert Einstein who – as
                                                                                                                                             you know – spent his childhood in
    of creating conditions that allow the preservation    In the course of an intensive joint
                                                                                                   time. On 64 pages we present the
                                                                                                   great challenges of the future as
                                                                                                                                             Munich’s Lindwurmstrasse: “Life is
                                                                                                                                             like riding a bicycle. To keep your
    of our city’s identity. The cooperation of all city   process, the city administration has
                                                          updated the existing city develop-
                                                                                                   compactly as possible and provide
                                                                                                   background information and solution
                                                                                                                                             balance, you must keep on moving.”

    departments and the vigorous participation of         ment concept and has adapted it to
                                                          changing framework conditions. The
                                                                                                   strategies. City advisors outline their
                                                                                                   biggest future challenges, commit-
                                                                                                                                             Adopting this beautiful metaphor
                                                                                                                                             that so perfectly suits our cyclists
    citizens is needed to achieve the best outcome        existing subject-oriented guidelines
                                                          were extended to include a guiding
                                                                                                   ted citizens reveal in interviews how
                                                                                                   they will implement our theoretical
                                                                                                                                             capital, I am convinced that our joint
                                                                                                                                             pedalling will pay off and wonderful
    for our city and its people. This is why we have      principle and four strategic guide-      guidelines as real projects, and          perspectives will open up for Munich
                                                          lines. With the new guiding principle    matching figures will demonstrate         in years to come.
    Perspective Munich!                                   “City in Balance” and the guidelines     which elements will undergo the
                                                          based thereon, we have created           most severe changes. Just as in           Yours
                                                          reliable signposts allowing us to take   our urban development planning,
                                                          the right decisions. Citizen partici-    topics, projects and participants are
                                                          pation is an important foundation to     being interconnected, bundled and
                                                          create a balance of powers. A key        integrated.
                                                          principle of Perspective Munich is
                                                          thus the ongoing dialogue with our
                                                          citizens. The best example of that
                                                          was the broadly organised participa-
                                                          tion process for updating Perspec-                                                 Dieter Reiter
                                                          tive Munich in 2012.                                                               Mayor of the State Capital of Munich

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -


                                                                  / 32   Integrated Strategy
                                                                  / 34   History
                                                                  / 36   Overall System –
                                                                         Perspective Munich

                                                                  / 38   Guiding Principle – City in Balance
                                                                  / 40   Strategic Guidelines
                                                                  / 48   Overview of 16 Thematic
                                                                         Guiding Principle and
                                                                         Guidelines of
                                                                         Perspective Munich
                                / 24   Dialogue

                                / 26   Quality through Dialogue
                                / 28   München Mitdenken

                                                                                                               / 50   Hot spots for Action
                                                                                                               / 54   Designing with Care
    / 06   City in Transition                                                                                  / 57   One out of Ten!
    / 08   Let’s get started
    / 14   Facts and Figures
    / 18   Urban Development
           is no Algorithm

                                                                  / 66   Letter from the Head of
                                                                         Department of Urban Planning
                                                                  / 68   Imprint

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in
We are the city – and we keep on growing.
According to available forecasts, the number
of Munich’s inhabitants will increase by about
230,000 by 2030 compare to the figures of
2013. This growth poses immense challenges
and crucial questions for the city: How do we
retain our quality of life? How do we respond
to the lack of affordable living space? How do
we solve area conflicts? How do we avoid
social polarisation? At the same time, global
challenges such as climate change and scarcity
of resources require our attention as well.

That Munich will change its look is therefore
certain. The question is, how will we succeed
in meeting the needs of all social groups in
these times of radical change? The urban
development concept Perspective Munich
contributes to expanding and utilising the
management and organisation options and
creates new impetus while retaining Munich’s
core identity.

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in Transition | Let’s get started

Let’s get

                At this table in Munich’s City Hall, words are turned into
                                                                                                  		With Perspective
                deeds. It is where members of the City Council of the                             		          Munich, we can
                State Capital of Munich discuss items and take decisions                          capitalise on a flexible orien-
                                                                                           / 01
                on a weekly basis – a good place to start the search for                          tation framework for future
                Munich’s greatest challenges.                                                     urban development and have
                                                                                                  a binding objective that many
                                                                                                  departmental plans and
Professor Merk, a newspaper today             In light of the pressure on growth the
                                                                                                  measures are aligned with.
featured the headline “Munich is              Perspective Munich report was sup-                  Prof. Dr (I) Elisabeth Merk,
bursting at the seams.” What can the          plemented by the guiding principle                  Department of Urban Planning and Building Regulation

urban planning office do against that?        “City in Balance”. Where do you see
                                              particularly high risks for the city to
MERK:  Growth must be managed. To             lose its balance?
avoid growth impairing the quality of
life we need a set of strategies and a        MERK:   In my opinion, the mobility is-
wide range of measures. At the end of         sue is an important key for the further
the day, all urban departments and the        development of Munich. This issue
entire urban society are affected. We         will decide whether citizens continue
must react to changed requirements            to experience a high quality of life. I
with regard to urban construction and         would even go further and include the
housing, infrastructure, the education        entire greater Munich region in that.
and vocational training system, health        These issues can only be tackled in
and care services, and social and             cooperation with the surrounding area.
cultural integration.                         Mobility is a crucial issue here. We
                                              must ensure that the people who fre-
With Perspective Munich we can                quent the city can do so well. I do not
capitalise on a flexible orientation frame-   think that the motto in the 21st centu-
work for future urban development             ry can be to accommodate ever more
and have a binding objective that many        and ever bigger cars everywhere.
department plans and measures are             Within the inner city areas we can pro-
aligned with. These growth dynamics           bably implement innovative concepts,
and the closely affiliated demographic,       such as electric mobility, car sharing,             / 01   From left to right:
social, economic or also ecological           e-bikes, improved suburban transport                       Rosemarie Hingerl
aspects permeate the urban develop-           concepts. Since stagnation is neither                      Department of Public Construction
ment concept as a central theme.              politically nor socially an option, a well                 Prof. Dr (I) Elisabeth Merk (left)
                                              thought-through public transportation                      Department of Urban Planning
                                              system – also extending to the greater                     and Building Regulation

                                              region – must provide strategic relief              / 02   Meeting room in the new City Hall
                                              that could not be implemented in the         / 02
                                              city alone.

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in Transition | Let’s get started

                                                                                                                                           MARKWARDT:     The strategy in Munich       ecologically or demographically desira-             We are integrated in the Perspective
                                                                                                                                           has been the same for nearly 60             ble or intelligent. Territory and space             Munich committees and contributed to
                                                                                                                                           years – and has now been intensified        are finite and the many conflicting in-             updating the urban development con-
                             Due to economic                                                                                               once more: We keep an affectionate          terests of urban society are not helpful            cept as well. We get involved when
                                                                                                                                           eye on our real estate capital. In other    either. People who make a good living               it comes to the city administration’s
                       efficiency and prosperity,                                                                                          words: The normal procedure is to           and have a safe job in Munich want                  management and to the question of
                                                                                                                                           acquire property once you know exact-       their environment to change as little               how to retain its capacity to act − also
                       Munich is in great shape;                                                                                           ly what to do with it i.e. you buy today,   as possible. Those who arrive in Mu-                in future. In the new strategic guideli-

                       however, we are at risk                                                                                             build tomorrow and sell the day after.      nich, however, expect that housing be               ne entitled “Foresight and Cooperative
                                                                                       / 01   Dr Wilfried Blume-Beyerle
                                                                                              Department of Public Security and Order
                                                                                                                                           Here, we acquire properties without         created, and seek cultural offers and               Management”, the city administration,

                       of suffocating from our                                                                                             knowing their purpose the day after.
                                                                                                                                           Today we partly benefit from the fact
                                                                                                                                                                                       changes in the social structure. These
                                                                                                                                                                                       expectations often collide. Today we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           for instance, has set the goal of esta-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           blishing an intensive and transparent

                       success.                                                                                                            that we can resort to properties that
                                                                                                                                           were acquired by the city more than
                                                                                                                                                                                       already have areas in the city where
                                                                                                                                                                                       the people who live there vehemently
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           dialogue with all stakeholders when it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           comes to urban development and de-
                       Dr Wilfried Blume-Beyerle                                                                                           100 years ago. Whenever it is possible      protest against housing densification.              sign. Participation and cooperation are
                       Department of Public Security and Order                                                                             to acquire land at reasonable prices,       This is a massive problem already:                  among our key issues. Moreover, we
                                                                                                                                           we take it. On the other hand, we           Those people who are established in-                make sure that the urban development
                                                                                                                                           hold on to what we already have, un-        tend to retain their status quo. That is            objectives defined become binding for
                                                                                               Munich is also home to important and        less it is already booked for a certain     a balancing act that must be managed                the city administration.
                                                                                               very successful universities, colleges      purpose. Re. barracks: After German         by intelligent planning, but which can
                                                                                               and research institutions. All this and     reunification, when the federation          be achieved by intelligent, powerful
Are there still any areas left for innova-        manner. This is why we see the edu-          many other factors make Munich at-          re-organised its military, we bought        decisions.
tive urban development?                           cation guideline under the aspect of         tractive and lure companies as well.        all the barracks we could get a hold
                                                  equal opportunities, i.e. providing the      Only recently, Microsoft has returned       of, particularly focusing on residential    Mr Kotulek, what is the role of the
MERK:   The former military barracks              best possible offer to every child.          to Munich, while Brainlab moved to          construction.                               Mangerial Board in shaping the future?
that became vacant due to the German                                                           Riem. Companies need employees
Federal Armed Forces’ reform pro-                 In your opinion, what is the most diffi-     who in turn must also be able to live       When you think about Munich’s               KOTULEK:  The Mangerial Board is a
cess, for example. Munich seized the              cult challenge Munich is faced with?         here. This is exactly why we have           future, what is your biggest concern?       cross-sectional department and as
opportunities that were offered there.                                                         conflicting interests that need to be                                                   such, of course, deals with strategic
We are planning for an excellent blend            SCHWEPPE:   We need to perform a             solved: Since Munich has hardly any         MARKWARDT:    The most pressing con-        urban development issues as well.
of living and working space for people            balancing act: In parallel with qualita-     space left to offer, the companies          cern is that we are running out of land,
of different age groups as well as va-            tive development, we must advance            that strive to expand their business or     and/or that we cannot develop proper-
rious social and ethnic backgrounds.              quantitative development. That means,        want to start up here compete with          ties in a way that would be politically,
Barrack areas such as in Fürstenfeld-             we must build schools and day care           residential users who move to Munich.
bruck or Landsberg am Lech would be               centres and we must do so in dimen-          We have to find solutions here.
outstanding locations to effectively              sions we have not applied since the
recycle space and develop a high-                 1960s. This can only work based on           You have to attract new companies to
quality living and working environment.           a cooperation of departments: The            Munich on the one hand, but there is a
This would not only relieve pressure              Department for Urban Planning must           massive lack of space on the other –
on the city of Munich, but also on the            provide forecasts, the Department of         a dilemma?
entire region. That is why I advocate             Public Construction has to push faster
an alliance of regional housing and               implementation, the Department of            SCHMID:  I would rather call it a cycle:
urban development concepts. We can-               Finance and Budget must approve fun-         No business means no jobs and no
not solve all these problems within               ding and the Department of Communal          income for the city to finance public
the city alone.                                   Services has to acquire land. There are      services. No jobs also means no
                                                  many stakeholders; no one can carry          need for additional living space. No or
Mr Schweppe, as head of the                       such weight on their own.                    very expensive housing space in turn
Department of Education and Sports,                                                            stands for labour shortage. I hope
the education guideline is of major               Mr Schmid, as second mayor you               that the change from an industrial to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           / 04
importance to you. What challenges                have also been heading the Depart-           a service society will provide some
do you face?                                      ment of Labour and Economic                  relief here. Significantly more people
                                                  Development for the better part of a         can be employed per business and/or
                                                                                                                                                                                             / 02
SCHWEPPE:    The education guideline              year. How would you describe your            office unit in the service sector than in
for us is all about opportunities and             experience as Munich’s “economic             the space-intensive production sector.
justice, about the quality of education.          advisor” during that year?                   Nevertheless, we must be alert at the
I think the demand for day schools                                                             same time. When looking at the big                                                                                                          / 04    From left to right:
leads to a new perception of schools,             SCHMID:   Munich and its region have         picture, it is this proverbial Munich                                                                                                               Dr Thomas Böhle
to the realization that schooling                 been prospering economically. Think          blend of producing and high-tech                                                                                                                    Department of Personel Management
comprises many more things, i.e. com-             about the clusters in the information        companies that explains why Munich                                                            / 02   Joachim Lorenz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Dr Ernst Wolowicz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Department of Finance and Budget
petencies that are otherwise predomi-             and telecommunication or the biotech         is so successful in the first place.                                                                 Department of Health and Environment
nantly acquired outside of school, such           sector. We are currently in the process                                                                                                    / 03   From left to right:
as music, culture and sports. However,            of significantly supporting the creative     Mr Markwardt, the lack of space is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Brigitte Meier
I do not believe that the guideline we            economy as well, which is why we             key issue that concerns your depart-            / 03                                                 Department of Social Affairs
developed at that time already tackled            have now created a competence                ment in particular. How do you deal                                                                  Axel Markwardt
these issues in such a differentiated             team that works across departments.          with it as a municipal advisor?                                                                      Department of Communal Services

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in Transition | Let’s get started

Mr Böhle, how can an HR advisor              What challenges does the demogra-           – as decided by the city council – by     in the community. The decision on                  to do more for cyclists in general. In                 procedures and to tackle new projects
succeed in recruiting suitable               phic change entail here?                    50% in 2030, compared to the values       who gets to use a place could be quite             Holland we can see what happens if                     without anticipating results. Artists
personnel when living costs are                                                          of 1990.                                  wrong and lead to disputes in the                  everyone rides a bike and people sud-                  and creatives have ideal prerequisites
this high?                                   MEIER:   A key question here is how we                                                community. This is why I consider it               denly no longer know where to put it.                  to constructively contribute to such
                                             ensure that older people who are poor       Which issues is the Health sector         a preventive task to establish rules.                                                                     processes.
BÖHLE:    The challenge lies in the tough    or at the threshold of poverty can con-     focusing on?                                                                                 Dr Küppers how is culture linked to
competition for qualified employees.         tinue to participate socially. Of course,                                             The mobility issues was often identi-              urban development?                                     The Department of Arts and Culture
Unlike numerous competitors, we are          there are nursing homes, old age and        LORENZ:  In addition to the demogra-      fied as a major problem by your                                                                           spearheads the guideline “Strengthen-
facing the special difficulty that our       service centres, but above all there is     phic change we concentrate on health      peers – that is within your scope of               KÜPPERS:  When planning cities and                     ing Culture”. Why is so much weight
32,000 jobs are subject to strict require-   a demand for housing space that is          prevention for families from disadvan-    responsibility among other things,                 their future development, living and                   attributed to international cooperation
ments imposed by law and collective          affordable and meets the requirements       taged social classes who do not have      isn’t it?                                          working are not the only aspects                       here?
agreements. In the city with the highest     older people have. There are other          the same access to prevention offers                                                         you should concentrate on. Action
cost of living, mainly caused the high       challenges too, in addition to the in-      as members of the educated classes.       BLUME-BEYERLE:    Securing mobility is             concepts that take into account all                    KÜPPERS:   In light of our current, globally
level of rent, HR recruitment becomes        creasing numbers of older people. We        It becomes increasingly problematic       certainly one of the greatest challen-             matters of life and co-existence must                  influenced world it is well-nigh impos-
a special challenge. We try to tackle the    are also facing a continued pluralisation   that families with children from disad-   ges. Due to economic efficiency and                incorporate cultural aspects as well.                  sible to separate the art scene into
issue by using HR marketing measures,        of lifestyles and life situations here in   vantaged social classes are falling       prosperity, Munich is in great shape;              We have to explore new paths in cul-                   purely local centres and affiliations. In
developing our own new training and          Munich. City society is growing more        by the wayside. The annual school         however, we are at risk of suffocating             tural urban development, as dialogue                   parallel with the international work of
study courses and by generously sup-         colourful; individualisation progresses,    entrance examinations regularly lead      from our success. If the population                between citizens, cultural and creative                institutions, an increasing cultural dif-
porting people in a material respect.        family networks are weakened. All this      to alarming discoveries. About 12,000     grows, the need for mobility increases             stakeholders and investors. We want                    ferentiation manifests itself within the
For the guideline “Foresight and Coope-      coincides with social changes and an        children come to us every year,           as well. I share Professor Merk’s view             to creatively rethink the city and create              cities. International and intercultural
rative Management”, we committed to          increasing risk of poverty for different    many of them with pre-existing health     that this will lead to some restrictions           new connections between living,                        aspects blend with one another. These
developing an administration oriented        population groups. At the end of the        deficits. Obesity, unsatisfactory co-     with regard to individual traffic. This            working, culture and knowledge. This                   developments must be taken into ac-
to learning that focuses on the poten-       day, it is all about the question of how    ordination and lack of exercise play a    does, however, not only mean promo-                should also include the spirit to explore              count by local art promotion measures.
tial of its employees and that together      we can retain and promote a caring          considerable role here.                   ting more bicycle traffic. You also have           unbeaten paths, to follow different
with a purposeful HR policy meets            and committed urban society. The                                                                                                                                                                Dr Wolowicz, why is there no guide-
social challenges such as demographic        guideline that was developed when           Dr Blume-Beyerle, where is the Depart-                                                                                                              line on “Finances”?
change and lack of specialists. We see       updating Perspective Munich applies         ment of Public Security and Order par-
the intercultural opening process of our     to the Department of Social Affairs         ticularly affected by the consequences                                                                                                              WOLOWICZ: In the strategic guideline
administration as an opportunity.            to a special degree. At present, we         of the pressure through growth?                                                                                                                     “Foresight and Cooperative Manage-
                                             are also co-developing the “Social”                                                                                               We must build                                                 ment” we took into account the
Ms Meier, in light of the social diversi-    guideline in cooperation with other         BLUME-BEYERLE:  We are increasingly                                                                                                                 increasing importance of financial
ty in our city, the rent cost issue parti-   departments.                                faced with problems regarding the         / 02                                   schools and day care                                               framework conditions for urban de-
cularly challenges the Department of                                                     “public space” issue. How do we                                                                                                                     velopment. Here you now find objec-
Social Services.                             Mr Lorenz, the Department of Public         properly deal with the various usage                                             centres and do so                                                  tives with regard to a finance and of
                                             Health and Evironment is a key player       requirements regarding public areas?                                                                                                                political-economic framework. The pro-
MEIER: In my opinion, the discussion         when it comes to future-related issues.     We could easily allocate every bit of                                            in dimensions we                                                   tection of long-term financial flexibility
on affordable living space for middle-       What steps do you take?                     space in Munich several times over                                                                                                                  of urban development policy was de-
class families is not just about crea-                                                   during the month of July. We must ask                                            have not applied                                                   emed a prime purpose. In the long run,
ting housing space in Munich, but            LORENZ:   We will focus on the topic        ourselves: What kind of utilization do                                                                                                              this is the most important prerequisite
should rather concentrate on the             of “adjusting to climate changes”.          we want to have? Which conflicts will                                            since the 1960s.                                                   for a successful urban development
idea of a metropolis region. We must         That means preservation of fresh air        develop? How can they be solved?                                                                                                                    process.
develop the entire region – both in          corridors, reservation of space that is     This requires preventive measures
                                                                                                                                                                          Rainer Schweppe
terms of transport and infrastructure        not only intended for recreational pur-     when talking about protecting peace                                              Department of Education and Sports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             How do you contribute to urban de-
to create a reasonable work-life balan-      poses, but generally contributes to the                                                                                                                                                         velopment as a city treasurer?
ce. We will not be able to meet these        city’s quality of life. The second focus
requirements for all people within           is on air pollution control: We might                                                                                                                                                           WOLOWICZ:    To express it in simple
Munich alone. However, if we tackle          have solved the fine dust problem to a                                                                                                                                                          terms: Munich must learn to cope
the issue of a metropolis region in          considerable extent, but the nitrogen                                                                                                                                                           with growth-related stress. We have
a broader sense, we suddenly have            oxide problem has not been eliminated                                                             The complete interviews:                                                                      structurally growing expenditures for
completely different development             so far. We are way above European            / 01                                                                                                                                               infrastructure investments, for school
opportunities.                               limits here. However, this is an issue                                                                                                                                                          buildings, for day care facilities, for pu-
                                             that cannot only be solved by traffic                                                                                                                                                           blic transport as well as for HR matters
                                             planning, but also needs to be tackled                                                                                                                                                          in the city administration. Under finan-
                                             by the business sector. This also mat-                                                                                                                                                          cial aspects we must decide: Which
                                             ches a key climatic protection challen-                                                                                                                                                         infrastructure facilities are required?
                                             ge, namely to reduce CO² emissions                                                                                                                         How can they be financed? These are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             highly relevant questions determining
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the future of the city of Munich.
                                                                                                                                                                                                / 01   Mayor Josef Schmid
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Department of Labour and              Interviews by Marco Eisenack
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Economic Development

                                                                                                                                                                                                / 02   From left to right:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rainer Schweppe
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Department of Education and Sports
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dr Hans-Georg Küppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Department of Arts and Culture

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Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in Transition | Munich – Key Figures

                                                                      A glance at the statistics reveals:                                                                        Development of space requirements

                                                                      Munich is facing tremendous challenges                                                                     Using space more efficiently

Munich –
                                                                                                                                                                                 Munich is a booming city and it will continue to be so. While 650 hectares of barrack, railway, industrial and traffic
                                                                                                                                                                                 areas which had become available could be used for planning and construction purposes over the past 20 years, today
                                                                                                                                                                                 there is only a reserve of about 50,000 housing units. However, by 2030 at least two or three times that much housing

Key Figures
                                                                                                                                                                                 space will be required. Consequently, we will soon be facing bottlenecks in the housing market, particularly when it comes
                                                                                                                                                                                 to publicly funded housing programmes.

                                                                                                                                                                                 How can new areas be generated in a densely populated, growing city?

                                                                                                                                          +26 %                                  The long-term settlement development project “Langfristige Stadtentwicklung” primarily focuses on the qualified densificati-
                                                                                                                                                                                 on of settlements from the 1950s to the 1980s which account for one quarter of all populated areas. In addition, commercial
                                                                                                                                                 Advanced age:                   areas are to be transformed into mixed development areas with a share for new forms of housing, and the development of
                            +13 %                                                                                                                Ages 75 +
                                                                                                                                                                                 urban construction is to be advanced at Munich’s north-eastern outskirts. Still, these measures will not suffice in the long run
                                                                                                                                                 2013: 118,000
                                                                                                                                                                                 when it comes to creating enough housing space for all those seeking to live in Munich. In order to meet housing demands
                                   Household formation,                                                      +15 %                               2030: 148,200
                                                                                                                                                                                 exceeding that limit, the cooperation of the state capital of Munich with its surrounding towns, municipalities and districts in
                                   Working life:
                                   Ages 25 – 39                                                                                                                                  the region will become increasingly important as they still offer potentials for new housing construction.
                                   2013: 401,700                                                                   Primary school:
                                   2030: 454,300     +18 %                                                         Ages 6 – 9                                                    Source: “Long-term demographic development”, city council resolution of 17 July 2013
                                                                                                                   2013: 46,000
                                                                                                                   2030: 53,200
                                                            Secondary level ll,
                                                            vocational training:                                                                                                                      Population forecast 2013 to 2030:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      + 230,000
                                                            Ages 16 – 18
                                                            2013: 33,100

                                                            2030: 39,200

                                                                                                                                                                                                      = 1.72 Mio
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Inhabitants (main and secondary residents)

                                                                                                                                                                                 Development of poverty in old age                                             Number of people, affected by
                                    Seniors:                                                                                                                                                                                                                   poverty in old age in 2013
                                    Ages 65 – 74                                                                                                                                 Solidarity with the less privileged
                                    2013: 144,600                                                       Child care:
                                    2030: 154,500                                                       Ages 0 – 2
                                                                                                        2013: 43,000
                                                                                                                                                                                 Despite favourable economic conditions and low un-
                             +7 %                                                                       2030: 47,600
                                                                                                                                                                                 employment figures, poverty in Munich is not decrea-
                                                                                                                                                                 Working life:   sing. Causes include lower pension entitlements, the
                  Ages 3 – 5
                                                                                              +11 %                                                              Ages 40 – 64    effects of low wage sector occupation and rising rents.
                                                                                                                                                                 2013: 490,900
                  2013: 38,600                                                                                                   FH, University                                  In the future we will have significantly higher numbers
                                                                                   Secondary level l,                                                            2030: 567,400
                  2030: 43,200                                                                                                   Vocational qualification:                       of older people threatened by poverty – including the
                                                                                   Age 10 – 15                                   Ages 19 – 24                                    resulting challenges in all areas of life. These people
                                                                                   2013: 63,300
           +12 %                                                                   2030: 75,200
                                                                                                                                 2013: 114,200
                                                                                                                                 2030: 131,300               +18 %               need support, particularly in a prospering city with high
                                                                                                                                                                                 living costs, such as Munich. By 2020, the number of
                                                                                                                                                                                 people receiving “old-age basic income support” will
                                                                          +19 %                                            +15 %                                                 presumably have doubled compared to 2011.
Demographic development                                                                                                                                                          Source: München sozial 2013 (Department of Social Services)
Our population keeps growing, but not to the same extent everywhere                                                                                                              and Poverty Report 2011

By 2030, the population of Munich will have risen to about 1.72 million inhabitants. This corresponds to an increase of
almost 15% over 2013. The different age groups are hereby subject to varying growth rates posing very different demands
on the city’s development. While the number of minors will increase by 11 to 19%, there is also a rise in the number of                                                                                     Number of people, affected
                                                                                                                                                                                                            by poverty in old age in 2020
people in advanced age groups. The group of people aged 75+ will be subject to the highest increase of all demographic
groups. At 26% their number is increasing by a quarter; in absolute terms, this corresponds to an increase of 118,000 in
2013 to about 148,200 in 2030.
Source: Population forecast of the Bavarian State Capital of Munich, planning forecast 2013-2030

16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17
Munich: Future Perspective - Strategies, Guidelines, Projects Perspective Munich l Concept -
City in Transition | Munich – Key Figures

Development of rents                                                                                                                              Development of the choice of transport
Rents will continue to rise                                                                                                                       Out of the car, on the bike

                                                                                                                                                  Between 2002 and 2008, the percentage of distances travelled by principal means of transport has evolved from 10%
                                                                                                                                                  to 14% in favour of bicycle traffic. Distances travelled by public transport, have roughly remained at the same
                                                                                                                                                  level (21%). Car use has declined to a 37% share. The modal split is – as per definition of the findings of “Mobilität in
                                                                                                                                                  Deutschland” – the percentage of distances travelled by the respective principal means of transport.
                                                                                                                                                  Source: Mobilität in Deutschland (MiD) [Mobility in Germany] 2002 and 2008

Net base rent in EUR/m² living area
(Private residential construction)

     16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            28 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 %



     4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 %
     2                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 %


              1985                    1990                 1995                   2000       2005   2010   2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                              37 %                      28 %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 %
                                                                                                                  Re-letting year of
As is widely known, property prices in Munich have been soaring for                                               construction, until 1948
years. The high demand for real estate as investment objects additio-
nally pushes prices – with considerable effects on rent levels. Rents                                             Re-letting year of con-
in 2013, when objects were occupied for the first time, were at about                                             struction, starting from 1949                                                     Main means of transport – modal split:
15.40 per square metre. That corresponds to a rise of approximately                                                                                                                                                                                         According to a survey in the frame-
45% in relation to the 1990 value. Publicly funded housebuilding is not                                           First-time occupancy in                                                                                                                   work of the Radverkehrskampagne
considered in this statistics, but it contributes to prices not rising even                                       the respective year                                                                                                                       (cycle traffic campaign) 2011 the
more rapidly and is to be promoted more intensively.                                                                                                                                                                                                        share of cyclists in the modal split
Source: IVD – IVD Wohn-Preisspiegel, 2014 (Reference object: well situated 70m² apartment)                                                                                                         Pedestrians      Private    Public transport Bicycle     amounts to 17%.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 transport and
18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19
City in Transition | Urban Development is no Algorithm

                                                       “All those striving to offer
                                                       positive prospects to this
                                                       ‘cosmopolitan city with
                                                       a heart’, should ensure that
                                                       this phrase does not dis-
                     Urban                             integrate into a mere
                     Development is                    platitude.”
                                                       LaBrassBanda                                                                                           On the one hand the city is to remain

                     no Algorithm
                                                       Brass Punk band                                                                                        attractive and must continue to de-
                                                                                                                                                              velop. This concerns many areas that
                                                                                                                                                              are generally regarded as the greatest
                                                                                                                                                              challenges for the city: economic
                                                                                                                                                              competitiveness, both nationally and
                                                                                                                                                              internationally, adequate education
                                                                                                                                                              and cultural offers, attractiveness by
                                                                                                                                                              expertise and the chance to unfold
                                                                                                                                                              individual creativity. In general terms,
                                                                                                                                                              the goal should be an increase in the
                                                                                                                                                              quality of life by means that are both
                                                                                                                                                              socially and ecologically sound. The
                                                                                                                                                              latter often requires higher invest-
                                                                                                                                                              ments, which often pay off on a long-
                                                                                                                                                              term basis only.

                                                                                                                                                              However, on the other hand we fa-
                                                                                                                                                              ce the not less important challenge
                                                                                                                                                              that Harlander calls ‘protecting and
Perspective Munich intends to provide answers to the                                                                                                          stabilising existing social structures`.
                                                                                                                                                              Depending on the perspectives and
future’s most urgent challenges. But what are these                                     Excessive alarmism is surely inappropriate, but
                                                                                                                                                              needs of different social groups,
                                                                                                                                                              but also affected by individual life
key challenges? We have asked experts and creative                                      we feel that in our growing cities, above all in
                                                                                        Munich, urban societies are more and more
                                                                                                                                                              situations, there is a great variety of
                                                                                                                                                              impact levels. In the abovementioned
artists in Munich to share their views.                                                 drifting apart socially in view of exploding rents
                                                                                        and purchase prices on the property markets.
                                                                                                                                                              strained relationship, above all, the
                                                                                                                                                              people with lower incomes must not
                                                                                                                                                              become excluded social losers, says
                                                                                                                                                              Harlander. It was a socially mixed city
                                                                                                                                                              that contributed to its attraction in the
                                                                                        Prof. Dr Tilman Harlander                                             first place and filled it with life – in
                                                                                        Housing and Urban Sociologist                                         this connection the sociologist re-
                                                                                                                                                              fers to a “deeply rooted charm” that
                                                                                                                                                              needs to be preserved in Munich.

                                                                                                                                                              The obstacles impairing successful
                                                                  Tilman Harlander grew up in Schwa-             find there at the time”, he says. This       urban development are of a diverse
                                                                  bing and today is one of Germany’s             assessment was not at all about a            nature. There can be no illusion that
                                                                  most renowned city researchers. The            misplaced desire for romanticism or          all problems could be solved satisfac-
                                                                  sociologist is an expert when it comes         preservation, he says, as any city is cer-   torily – as solutions were as different
                                                                  to assessing Munich’s problems and             tainly forever changing and therefore        as the interests of the inhabitants
                                                                  opportunities: “During the 1950s and           also requires continuous modernisa-          behind them. But in Munich it is con-
                                                                  1960s, I came to appreciate and love           tion. But particularly in Munich there       sidered a particularly important chal-
                                                                  the marvellously small, social and             was a special tension.                       lenge, not only to be successful, but
                                                                  mixed-use urban spaces you could                                                            to be social at the same time.

20                                                                                                                                                                                                   21
City in Transition | Urban Development is no Algorithm

                                             ence factors outside its control. If cer-   in the self-perception of the state ca-
                                             tain measures are not implemented,          pital and its elected local politicians”,
                                             this might be for reasons that cannot       comments Maximilian Heisler of the
                                             be attributed to Munich.                    interest group “Bündnis bezahlbares
                                                                                         Wohnen”. He is confident that this
                                             Forecasts nevertheless help to reco-        can work out: “The proud image of
                                             gnize scope for action and to action        Munich’s unique blend should not just
                                             itself. The controlling mechanisms          be used as a figurehead, but recogni-
                                             must then become more flexible as           zed in its creativity, technicality and
                                             well: Variety, to a certain extent even     variety and be actively utilised. Here
                                             complexity, are characteristics for a       lie hidden treasures for this city so-
                                             city. But the more open and pluralistic     metimes referred to as the “Florence               Apart from the immense structural
                                             a society becomes, the more flexible        at the Isar river”; and don’t worry, the           problems affiliated with the conti-
                                             an administration must be in its plan-      general mood is still positive.”                   nuously increasing population in
                                             ning. It is important that many voices                                                         Munich, each inhabitant of this city
                                             are heard and as many stakeholders as       A particularly great challenge Munich              will be required to further refine and
                                             possible are involved in the decision-      faces is, of course, the immense influx            strengthen their individual social
                                             making processes. “Transparency             of people, one of the most important               competence.“
                                             of political measures for the urban         factors of demographic development.
                                             society plays a key role, as expressed      Amongst other reasons this also
                                                                                                                                            Luise Kinseher
Good seismographs are the state-                                                                                                            Munich cabaret artist and actress
ments of creative artists and scientists
who come from Munich or live here.
When asked about future challenges,
nearly all of them bring up the strained
relations between the pursuit for eco-
nomic success and the increasingly wi-
                                                   “There is a requirement, or rather, an
dening social gap. “We must not turn
Munich into a habitable, functional ma-
                                                   opportunity to implement innovative traf-
chine for optimised, achievement-ori-              fic concepts with short-distance mobility,
ented yuppies. Everyone should rather
always be aware of the fact that we                improved inter- and multi-modality as-
live in a community, which does not                                                                                                         supports the assumption that Munich
have to be profitable at all times, but            pects. This is supplemented by sharing                                                   will continue countering the German            Maximilian Heisler
                                                                                                                                                                                           Bündnis bezahlbares Wohnen (Alliance for Affordable Living)
which always needs to remain huma-                                                                                                          trend and generate a surplus of births,
ne and social“, adds Luise Kinseher,               offers and the use of electric vehicles in                                               since many young people start their
actress and winner of the Bavarian Ca-                                                                                                      families only once they have moved
baret Award 2014. And the Folk Brass               motor traffic, two-wheeled traffic, public                                               here. We currently expect a growth
Punk band LaBrassBanda comments:                                                                                                            in population of 9% by 2020 and 15%
“It is important that Munich, despite              and business transport. Munich offers                                                    by 2030. Due to the constant influx
all its economic success, does not lose                                                                                                     of young people and the surplus of
sight of its heart and gemütlichkeit.”             good basic conditions and has a sound                                                    births Munich’s urban society hardly        The share of people with migration
                                                                                                                                            ages. However, a strong rise is to be       background, which at the end of 2014
Within both areas, urban development               starting position.”                                                                      expected in the group of people of          was at 41%, will continue to rise as
is primarily faced with the key question                                                                                                    advanced age. Numerically strong co-        well. In the children and young people
of control possibilities and capabilities.                                                                                                  horts grow to old age, life expectancy      group, this value has been twice as
And what applies to all areas is: Many                                                                                                      fortunately continues to increase as        high and thus already much higher
factors cannot be influenced in the first                                                   Prof. Dr-Ing. Klaus J. Beckmann                 well, and with it the demand for age-       anyway. Adapted educational offers
place. The development of a city such                                                       President of the Academy for Spacial Research   appropriate living and for a barrier-free   will therefore be required, as well as
                                                                                            and Planning (ARL)
as Munich, with its large, international-                                                                                                   city. This is just one of the reasons       measures aiming at generating equal
ly working companies and its strong                                                                                                         why the public suburban traffic should      opportunities, such as access to the
tourism sector, also depends on global                                                                                                      be developed further.                       education system.
economic developments that are bare-
ly foreseeable.                                                                                                                             The aforementioned problem of the in-       At a national level we see a general
                                                                                                                                            creasing social gap directly influences     trend towards increasing differences
The economic crisis of 2008, for in-                                                                                                        this development too: Many older            in income. Usually, older people and
stance, revealed how quickly forecasts                                                                                                      people are threatened by poverty in         people with migration background are
can become void – the city’s finances                                                                                                       old age and depend on rents not being       the most negatively affected. Eleven
can thus change rapidly due to influ-                                                                                                       increased or only to a minimum extent.      percent of Munich’s households cur-

22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               23
City in Transition | Urban Development is no Algorithm

                                                 It’s not enough to insulate
rently live in poverty – the number of
children who receive advance alimony             individual houses and install
                                                 more efficient heating here
payments has nearly doubled from
3,300 to about 5,700 between 1999
and 2008.

Influx, increasingly diverse lifestyles          and there.“                                                                            “If Munich is no longer affordable for
and less and less space for new buil-
dings have led to considerable price
                                                 Patrick Illinger
                                                                                                                                        craftsmen, we have a massive problem.
pressure hard to counter with free
market means. Potential areas for new
                                                 Head of Science with Süddeutsche Zeitung
                                                                                                                                        Eventually my children will visit the country
housing construction are extremely
scarce.                                                                                                                                 instead of the zoo and say: ‘Look daddy,
With the project “Langfristige Sied-
                                                                                                                                        a plumber! Over there – a carpenter!’”
lungsentwicklung” (Long-term settle-
ment development) solutions for the                                                                                                                                 Mehmet Scholl
foreseeable bottleneck in settlement                                                                                                                                Former Bayern München football professional
                                                                                                                                                                    and Munich citizen by choice;
space are being looked for. The key                                                         more efficient heating here and there”.                                 published in Süddeutsche Zeitung, 6 June 2014
question here is: Which planning stra-      Planning of settlement and housing              There must be an overall concept
tegies allow for a socially balanced        structures here must go hand in hand            that integrates mobility, resource and
housing policy on suitable areas? The       with the planning of public transporta-         energy consumption and takes into
Department of Urban Planning and            tion systems. “As a growing city and            account the lifestyles of citizens. Re-
Building Regulations had various stra-      region, Munich increasingly requires            ferences to the ecological significance
tegies examined by experts in these         a co-ordinated development of settle-           of own actions, according to Illinger,
areas: densifying existing residential      ment and transport issues”, says Klaus          should – as far as possible – be
areas with the objective to improve the     J. Beckmann, President of the Acade-            perceived as ‘favourable’. What we
housing offer, a strategy for city and      my for Spacial Research and Planning.           need are concrete individual incenti-
landscape-compatible settlement and         “People must be equally aware of the            ve systems to prevent the waste of
free space development at the outs-         dearth of space and of transport ca-            valuable resources.” The problem de-
kirts, and restructuring commercially-      pacity bottlenecks in road and railway          finition is global in this case, however,
oriented city districts to achieve higher   systems which cannot be easily elimi-           its implementation must be managed          we position ourselves well and create         In a diverse urban society it can no
residential use.                            nated.”                                         predominantly at a local level.             incentives for new companies as well.         longer be assumed that all challenges
                                                                                                                                        Among other things, this requires an          equally concern all of its members.
Sociologist Harlander considers Munich      The steadily increasing number of               Even if framework conditions are sub-       intact infrastructure as well as a ge-        Depending on the perspectives and
quite well-prepared: “My wish is that       commuters already shows that the                ject to permanent change: Numerous          nerally positive image of the city and        needs of different social groups, but
the city of Munich continues to develop     readiness to accept longer distances            challenges are not new but represent        metropolitan region of Munich.                also affected by their individual life
its pioneering role − widely recognized     grows as well, irrespective of the              ongoing topics in Munich’s develop-                                                       situations, this leads to quite different
at a national level − in further stabili-   means of transport. This in turn leads          ment. This includes, for example, that      These are by far not all the challenges       impact levels.
sing social cohesion within its urban       to an increased environmental impact,           companies based in Munich receive           the state capital will face in coming
society, in particular with the instru-     above all due to increased CO² and              location-related benefits. Independent      years – some might not even be                Munich’s future challenges provide the
ment of a ‘socially compatible use of       noise output. There is no doubt that            studies have proven that Munich’s           known yet. Important key words of the         foundation of the guiding principle as
land’ (SoBoN).“                             further planning must be based on a             position is excellent, both at a natio-     future are, for example, knowledge            well as of strategic and thematic gui-
                                            holistic concept in cooperation with            nal and international level. Its eco-       economy, multi-functionality of public        delines, based on which Perspective
                                            regional communities.                           nomic development is described as           space, reacting to special needs in in-       Munich formulates answers for the
                                                                                            dynamic, while the quality of life and      dividual districts where challenges can       future. / CL
                                            This admittedly requires superordinate          environmental standards are high. In        be most divers in nature. This again
                                            ideas that tackle several problems at           the course of liberating international      takes us back to the starting point:
                                            the same time. Patrick Illinger, Head           trade we must, however, ensure that         Munich’s original charm must be pre-
                                            of the science department of Süddeut-                                                       served, and a high identification of its
                                            sche Zeitung comments for instance:                                                         citizens both with their city and their
                                            “Lowering energy and resource                                                               direct neighbourhood is enormously
                                            consumption of a city must not be                                                           helpful. This can only be achieved if
                                            attempted only on a small scale. An ur-                                                     people are included in the future de-
                                            ban area is an interconnected system,                                                       velopment of their city and commit to
                                            almost an organism. It is not enough                                                        it. This would ensure that Munich can
                                            to insulate individual houses and install                                                   retain the state-of-the-art and remain
                                                                                                                                        true to its traditions at the same time.

24                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25
Every urban society is a market of the most
varied interests as well. Citizens, companies,
policy-makers, administration representatives –
all these stakeholders have their particular
expectations with regard to their city. However,
when pressure on growth is high, these needs
increasingly collide. An open and comprehen-
sive exchange of interests helps to gather
important knowledge, thus creating the require-
ments for optimum decisions to be taken in
each individual case. Public relations and
an active culture of participation are hence key
elements of Perspective Munich. A core
principle is to establish a culture of open and
in-depth dialogue with citizens and social groups
as early as possible. Perspective Munich means
planning in progress.

26                                                  27
Dialogue | Quality through Dialogue

                                                                                                                     Planning-related public relations and the involvement
                                                                                                                     of citizens are fundamental prerequisites for sustainable
                                                                                                                     urban development, where as many interests as
                                                                                                                     possible are incorporated.

Dialogue                                                                                                                                                       setting up the Maxvorstadt arts area, a
                                                                                                                                                               new instrument was introduced with
                                                                                                                                                               the citizen appraisal that is perfectly
                                                                                                                                                               suited for answering questions with an
                                                                                                                                                                                                           expected to provide internet-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                           options to inform transparently and to
                                                                                                                                                                                                           include citizens in the decision-making
                                                                                                                                                                                                           process. The “muenchen-mitdenken.
                                                                                                                                                               overall impact. 100 participants who        de” project functioned as a beacon,
                                                                                                                                                               were randomly selected among the            allowing for comprehensive online par-
                                                                                                                                                               population register, compiled the app-      ticipation when updating Perspective

                                                                                                                                                               raisal with the goal of better exploiting   Munich, in addition to the existing offli-
                                                                          Entitled “Zukunft findet Stadt” (City of   Planning-related public relations form    the potential of the area that is so im-    ne elements.
                                                                          the future), the Department for Urban      the basis of a successful citizen par-    portant for the arts and culture.
                                                                          Planning and Building Regulations          ticipation – a feature that looks back                                                Increased participation also means mo-
                                                                          organises an exhibition on current         on a long tradition in Munich. As early   Social changes become increasingly          re time, more funding and more com-
                                                                          issues and questions at the beginning      as in 1968, Mayor at that time, Hans      visible: Citizens today seek more acti-     munication expertise within the admi-
                                                                          of every year. The scope ranges from       Jochen Vogel, brought Munich’s “pa-       ve participation in planning processes.     nistration. The more people involved in
                                                                          living conditions via monument protec-     nel for urban development issues” to      Surveys confirm that more and more          the decision-making, the more compli-
                                                                          tion, all the way to city shape and city   life. Since 1972, the city has financed   people feel that important decisions        cated and more complex the process
                                                                          centre concept issues. The interest of     a non-profit association as interface     are taken over their heads. A wide          can become. Special workshops and
Effective “planning in pro-                                               people in the exhibition and the com-      between citizens, administration and      bandwidth of contribution options a         panels often reveal that interests signi-
                                                                          prehensive framework programme             politics of urban development with the    well as starting discussions and parti-     ficantly diverge. Since not all conflicts
gress” can only succeed                                                   has been growing constantly since          ‘Munich Forum’.                           cipation as early as possible improves      can be eliminated, the acceptance of
when based on reliable                                                    1999: In 2015, nearly 19,000 people                                                  mutual understanding, allows both           democratically-taken decisions is part
information and long-term                                                 visited the exhibition “Innenstadt wei-    Independent of the formal participa-      sides to react and thereby puts plan-       of the participation process as well.
                                                                          terdenken” and using approximately         tion steps as stipulated by building      ning on a sustainable basis. If citizens
oriented communication.                                                   6,000 sticky notes, left a great variety   law, an increasing number of informal     are informed about projects promptly,       For this, Head of Department of Urban
                                                                          of ideas and comments on the city          procedures are established in today’s     invited to participate and co-determine     Planning Elisabeth Merk, happily calls
                                                                          centre’s development.                      building management. When planning        decisions, this leads to qualitatively      on the following formula: “The ob-
                                                                                                                     the Bayernkaserne, or the Au-based        better results. In addition, an increased   jective should be: Quality for the city,
                                                                          In order to interest young people          Paulaner Area for instance, the classic   acceptance of these decisions results       through dialogue about the city.” / ME
                                                                          in architecture and urban develop-         competition process was combined          in continuous interest that future pro-
                                                                          ment planning, the “Münchner               with an extended participation tool.      jects benefit from as well.
                              Centrepiece of our public relations         Schulwettbewerb”(Munich school             Citizens were already involved prior to
                              efforts is the so-called “PlanTreff” that   prize) is awarded once per year. About     the competition’s start, so that their    Formats and limits are co-ordinated at
                              was launched at the start of Perspec-       450 children and young adults create       suggestions could be included in the      the beginning of the participation pro-
                              tive Munich in 1995 as information          visions for their Munich every year.       tendering process. As part of work-       cess. In projects that affect the entire
                              centre for urban development. Infor-                                                   shops, the competition results were       city, different public relations instru-
                              mation on planning, projects and ur-        For urban planners it is also important    later revised against the background      ments and components and their par-
                              ban development issues is organised         to take issues beyond their technical      of the joint recommendations by the       ticipation forms interlink. The district
                              comprehensively in line with citizens’      everyday ones into account. The            jury, politicians and the public. When    committees in the districts play a sub-
                              needs in the form of publications and       “Münchner Gespräche zur Stadtbau-                                                    stantial role in involving people on-site
                              exhibitions there. Numerous events          kultur” (Munich’s discussions on the                                                 and representing local interests.
                              and hand-on formats for different tar-      culture of urban development) outline
                              get groups facilitate and promote dia-      the greatest planning and development                                                The possibilities of the internet today
                              logue at eye level. Cooperation with        challenges from different points of                                                  multiply and accelerate communicati-
                              universities, institutions and other        view within society. Head of Department                                              on. Social media, apps and blogs are
                              cities provides new impetus and helps       of Urban Planning Merk hereby invites                                                more and more effectively used – by
                              urban stakeholders to look beyond           people from different walks of life to                                               citizens and as well as by professional
                              their own planning horizons.                join the public discourse twice a year.                                              stakeholders. The administration is

28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 29
München                                                              ➳
                                                                     Workshops, events and an online
                                                                     dialogue platform – many components
MitDenken                                                            contributed to delivering the desired

                                                                                       problems can be pointed out that have
                                                                                       so far been neglected in individual
                                                                                       districts. The active participation at the
                                                                                       same time depicts where the greatest
Under the motto “München                                                               cross-district challenges lie and deli-
MitDenken”, updates to                                                                 vers tangible trends that avoids urban
                                                                                       planning over people’s heads. The
Perspective Munich were                     the process via various workshops. An      participation of citizens can thus affect
discussed with the general                  intercultural team of experts discussed    real projects as well as the strategy be-
public and other stake-                     with citizens and people with migration    hind them. Another important aspect:
                                            background what they would desire          The dialogue widens people’s perspec-
holders in the spring of 2012               for their future in Munich, while the      tives and helps them to appreciate the
via a cross-media participa-                regional planning association debated      interests of others as well.
                                            cooperation and participation possibili-
tion process – a dialogue
                                            ties in the region.                        For the first time in the discussion on
about the fundamental goals                                                            Munich`s Perspective an online portal
of urban development.                       An external council accompanied the        was created where citizens could par-
                                            process of updating Perspective Mu-        ticipate in updating the urban develop-
                                            nich together with the city council’s      ment concept. This electronic pin wall,
                                            political groups and administration        named www.muenchen-mitdenken.
At the end of the evening 88 post-its       representatives. In the course of 15       de collected another 450 ideas, 1,600
adorned a two-metre wide pin wall and       workshops in total, various debates        comments and over 12,000 evaluati-
that was only the beginning. The pro-       were initiated in different commit-        ons in the period between 16 April and
posals for the state capital’s future we-   tees, points of view shared, contents      11 May 2012. All contributions were
re as concrete as they were held gene-      developed, scrutinised, approved – or      evaluated later, documented and inte-
rally, from the noise reduction tunnel      discarded again. The update draft that     grated into the long-term urban deve-
at Tegernseer Landstrasse in Giesing        developed in this way formed the           lopment concept. The proposals on the
all the way to solar energy settlement      basis of the dialogue and discussions      website were moderated and general
projects for all of Munich. They all con-   with the general public.                   as well as cross references to similar
tributed to advancing urban develop-                                                   ideas were made.
ment as part of Perspective Munich.         As early as in March, former mayor
The Anton Fingerle educational centre       Christian Ude had kicked off the “pu-      Overall, discussions on the internet
in Giesing hosted the first event in a      blic phase” at Munich’s Literaturhaus.     were also led extremely constructively.
row of three public city meetings on        As a round table event with the pro-       The many, mainly official but private
23 April 2012, where the people of          vocative title “Boomtown Munich – Is       comments as well, led to another
Munich could contribute their ideas.        success eating up its children?” he        significant effect – a greater measure
This was followed by two other, equal-      discussed the challenges of a dynami-      of understanding of the things that are
ly well attended meetings in Hadern         cally growing city with scientists and     possible and feasible when it comes to
and in Milbertshofen. Children and          citizens as podium guests.                 urban development planning. The on-
young people were also involved in                                                     line option had furthermore increased
                                            For the state capital Munich the dia-      the number people participating in
                                            logue on the future of the city is the
                                            basis of its actions. Nobody knows the
                                            city with its minor and major problems
                                            better than its inhabitants. The more
                                            intensive the participation, the better

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Dialogue | München MitDenken

            / 01

                                                                                   The most important findings
                                                                             in the public phase:
                                                                             Munich’s people are, above all, concerned
                                                                             about the quality of life in their city as a
                                                                             consequence of its growth. The discussion
                                                                             has been and remains controversial, for
                                                                             example, the desire for affordable housing
                                                                             on the one hand and the wish to protect
                                                                             established structures against subsequent
                                                                             densification on the other. The challenge of
                                                                             integrated urban development planning is to
                                                                             balance such opposing interests.

                                                                             Other key issues in Munich (selection):
                                                                             –– More participation in decision-making        the PlanTreff at Blumenstrasse and         and organisation phase. We succee-
                                                                                processes                                    also granted the option of presenting      ded in addressing a broader public
                                                                             –– More quality when implementing new           their ideas themselves and in greater      and in leading a lively discussion on
                                                                                building and subsequent densification        detail − as for instance the most po-      Munich’s urban development”. The
                                          / 01                                  projects
                                                                                                                             pular proposal with 323 supporters         fact that the city hereby utilised the
                                                                             –– Development and revaluation of public        to preserve the Boarding School at         idea of an online survey was positively
                                                                                transport as well as pedestrian and
                                                                                bicycle traffic                              Hochstrasse in its existing form. It       recognised even nationwide: In May
                   / 01   Participation on-site                                                                              turned out the initiators were not         2013, Head of Department of Urban
                                                                             –– Retaining attractive green areas
                   / 02   Participation on-line                                                                              only concerned about this individual       Planning Merk received the “Online
                                                                             –– Improving the offer of day care facilities
                          Using the “” site
                                                                                and youth leisure activities
                                                                                                                             school, but that they were focusing        Partizipation 2013” main prize for the
                          citizens were equally able to contribute ideas
                                                                                                                             on the principle of offering good edu-     “München MitDenken” initiative in the
                                                                             –– Shaping public space
                                                                                                                             cation to single parent children and       federal capital. “The project is charac-
                                                                             –– Improving regional cooperation
                                                                                                                             to people with lower incomes and           terised by its high level of participation,
                                                                                                                             unfavourable working hours. At the         a positive media resonance and good
                                                                                                                             same time, this again confirmed the        public relations during the entire pro-
                                                                                                                             thesis that citizens’ requests almost      cess. “The successful blend of online
                                                                                                                             automatically served a concrete and        and offline elements is remarkable”,
                                                                           the discussion: A survey revealed                 a general purpose. Other often sup-        was one of the reasons provided by
     / 02                                                                  that 57% of participants had not heard            ported proposals were among others:        the jury. During the award ceremony,
                                                                           about Perspective Munich before.                  “100,000 new trees”, “A new cir-           Merk announced the city’s intention to
                                                                                                                             cular track for the public transport       intensify its communication with peop-
                                                                           On 30 July 2012, Head of Department               system”, “optical sustainability for       le in future. / CL
                                                                           of Urban Planning , Elisabeth Merk,               new buildings - more beautiful new
                                                                           was delighted to personally meet                  houses” – to name a few.
                                                                           some of the people who had provided
                                                                           ideas: The authors of the 15 most                 After conclusion of the online dialogue,
                                                                           successful proposals were invited to              the page was archived including all
                                                                                                                             its information and contributions
                                                                                                                             and can still be accessed today via

                                                                                                                             After evaluation of the public phase
                                                                                                                             and the detailed feedback, the City
                                                                                                                             Council decided to update Perspective
                                                                                                                             Munich on 5 June 2013. The coun-
                                                                                                                             cillors were not only presented with
                                                                                                                             the documentation of the public par-
                                                                                                                             ticipation, but the strategic guidelines
                                                                                                                             were revised as suggested by the
                                                                                                                             public. Even if most city districts were
                                                                                                                             focusing on concrete on-site requests,
                                                                                                                             both in meetings as part of the www.
                                                                                                                    online dia-
                                                                                                                             logue, some citizens felt the need to
                                                                                                                             word the guidelines less bureaucra-
                                                                                                                             tically – hoping to attract even more
                                                                                                                             people as a result.

                                                                                                                             The evaluation report came to a posi-
                                                                                                                             tive conclusion: “The proactive parti-
                                                                                                                             cipation confirmed the considerations
                                                                                                                             during the public conceptual design

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