NEBRASKA SCIENCE STANDARDS - Grades K-12 301 Centennial Mall South Lincoln, Nebraska 68509-4987

 
301 Centennial Mall South
         Lincoln, Nebraska 68509-4987

NEBRASKA SCIENCE STANDARDS
                  Grades K-12

  Adopted by the Nebraska State Board of Education
                  October 6, 2010
Adopted 10-6-10
SC K-12.1 Comprehensive Science Standard – Inquiry, the Nature of Science, and Technology
Students will combine scientific processes and knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to ask questions about phenomena and propose
explanations based on gathered evidence.
  1. Inquiry, the Nature of                                                          Grade Band Standards
 Science, and Technology                     K-2                               3-5                               6-8                               9-12
                                SC2.1.1 Students will ask        SC5.1.1 Students will plan        SC8.1.1 Students will design        SC12.1.1 Students will design
                                questions and conduct            and conduct investigations        and conduct investigations          and conduct investigations
      1. Abilities to do        investigations that lead to      that lead to the development      that will lead to descriptions of   that lead to the use of logic
      Scientific Inquiry        observations and                 of explanations.                  relationships between               and evidence in the
                                communication of findings.                                         evidence and explanations.          formulation of scientific
                                                                                                                                       explanations and models.
Scientific Questioning          SC2.1.1.a Ask questions that     SC5.1.1.a Ask testable            SC8.1.1.a Formulate testable        SC12.1.1.a Formulate a
                                relate to a science topic        scientific questions              questions that lead to              testable hypothesis supported
                                                                                                   predictions and scientific          by prior knowledge to guide
                                                                                                   investigations                      an investigation

Scientific Investigations       SC2.1.1.b Conduct simple         SC5.1.1.b Plan and conduct        SC8.1.1.b Design and                SC12.1.1.b Design and
                                investigations                   investigations and identify       conduct logical and sequential      conduct logical and sequential
                                                                 factors that have the potential   investigations including            scientific investigations with
                                                                 to impact an investigation        repeated trials                     repeated trials and apply
                                                                                                                                       findings to new investigations

Scientific Controls and                                                                            SC8.1.1.c Determine controls        SC12.1.1.c Identify and
Variables                                                                                          and use dependent                   manage variables and
                                                                                                   (responding) and independent        constraints
                                                                                                   (manipulated) variables

Scientific Tools                SC2.1.1.c Select and use         SC5.1.1.c Select and use          SC8.1.1.d Select and use            SC12.1.1.d Select and use
                                simple tools appropriately       equipment correctly and           equipment appropriate to the        lab equipment and
                                                                 accurately                        investigation, demonstrate          technology appropriately and
                                                                                                   correct techniques                  accurately

Scientific Observations         SC2.1.1.d Describe objects,      SC5.1.1.d Make relevant           SC8.1.1.e Make qualitative          SC12.1.1.e Use tools and
                                organisms, or events using       observations and                  and quantitative observations       technology to make detailed
                                pictures, words, and numbers     measurements                                                          qualitative and quantitative
                                                                                                                                       observations

Scientific Data Collection      SC2.1.1.e Collect and record     SC5.1.1.e Collect and             SC8.1.1.f Record and                SC12.1.1.f Represent and
                                observations                     organize data                     represent data appropriately        review collected data in a
                                                                                                   and review for quality,             systematic, accurate, and
                                                                                                   accuracy, and relevancy             objective manner

                                                                                     1
Adopted 10-6-10
  1. Inquiry, the Nature of                                                        Grade Band Standards
 Science, and Technology                     K-2                             3-5                              6-8                              9-12
Scientific Interpretations,                                     SC5.1.1.f Develop a             SC8.1.1.g Evaluate                SC12.1.1.g Analyze and
Reflections, and Applications                                   reasonable explanation based    predictions, draw logical         interpret data, synthesize
                                                                on collected data               inferences based on observed      ideas, formulate and evaluate
                                                                                                patterns/relationships, and       models, and clarify concepts
                                                                                                account for non-relevant          and explanations
                                                                                                information

                                                                                                                                  SC12.1.1.h Use results to
                                                                                                                                  verify or refute a hypothesis

                                                                                                                                  SC12.1.1.i Propose and/or
                                                                                                                                  evaluate possible revisions
                                                                                                                                  and alternate explanations

Scientific Communication        SC2.1.1.f Use drawings and      SC5.1.1.g Share information,    SC8.1.1.h Share information,      SC12.1.1.j Share information,
                                words to describe and share     procedures, and results with    procedures, results, and          procedures, results,
                                observations with others        peers and/or adults             conclusions with appropriate      conclusions, and defend
                                                                                                audiences                         findings to a scientific
                                                                                                                                  community (peers, science
                                                                                                                                  fair audience, policy makers)

                                                                SC5.1.1.h Provide feedback      SC8.1.1.i Analyze and             SC12.1.1.k Evaluate scientific
                                                                on scientific investigations    provide appropriate critique of   investigations and offer
                                                                                                scientific investigations         revisions and new ideas as
                                                                                                                                  appropriate

Mathematics                     SC2.1.1.g Use appropriate       SC5.1.1.i Use appropriate       SC8.1.1.j Use appropriate         SC12.1.1.l Use appropriate
                                mathematics in all aspects of   mathematics in all aspects of   mathematics in all aspects of     mathematics in all aspects of
                                scientific inquiry              scientific inquiry              scientific inquiry                scientific inquiry

                                                                                   2
Adopted 10-6-10
  1. Inquiry, the Nature of                                 Grade Band Standards
 Science, and Technology      K-2                 3-5                              6-8                                9-12
                                    SC5.1.2 Students will            SC8.1.2 Students will apply        SC12.1.2 Students will apply the
                                    describe how scientists go       the nature of science to their     nature of scientific knowledge to
    2. Nature of Science            about their work.                own investigations.                their own investigations and in
                                                                                                        the evaluation of scientific
                                                                                                        explanations.
Scientific Knowledge                SC5.1.2.a Recognize that         SC8.1.2.a Recognize science        SC12.1.2.a Recognize that
                                    scientific explanations are      is an ongoing process and the      scientific explanations must be
                                    based on evidence and            scientific community accepts       open to questions, possible
                                    scientific knowledge             and uses explanations until        modifications, and must be
                                                                     they encounter new                 based upon historical and current
                                                                     experimental evidence not          scientific knowledge
                                                                     matching existing
                                                                     explanations

Science and Society                 SC5.1.2.b Recognize that         SC8.1.2.b Describe how             SC12.1.2.b Describe how society
                                    new discoveries are always       scientific discoveries influence   influences the work of scientists
                                    being made which impact          and change society                 and how science, technology,
                                    scientific knowledge                                                and current scientific discoveries
                                                                                                        influence and change society

Science as a Human                  SC5.1.2.c Recognize many         SC8.1.2.c Recognize                SC12.1.2.c Recognize that the
Endeavor                            different people study science   scientists from various            work of science results in
                                                                     cultures have made many            incremental advances, almost
                                                                     contributions to explain the       always building on prior
                                                                     natural world                      knowledge, in our understanding
                                                                                                        of the world

                                                                                                        SC12.1.2.d Research and
                                                                                                        describe the difficulties
                                                                                                        experienced by scientific
                                                                                                        innovators who had to overcome
                                                                                                        commonly held beliefs of their
                                                                                                        times to reach conclusions that
                                                                                                        we now take for granted

                                                        3
Adopted 10-6-10
  1. Inquiry, the Nature of                                   Grade Band Standards
 Science, and Technology      K-2                3-5                                6-8                                9-12
                                    SC5.1.3 Students will solve a    SC8.1.3 Students will solve a       SC12.1.3 Students will solve a
        3. Technology               simple design problem.           design problem which involves       complex design problem.
                                                                     one or two science concepts.
Abilities to do Technical           SC5.1.3.a Identify a simple      SC8.1.3.a Identify problems for
Design                              problem                          technical design

                                    SC5.1.3.b Propose a solution     SC8.1.3.b Design a solution or      SC12.1.3.a Propose designs and
                                    to a simple problem              product                             choose between alternative
                                                                                                         solutions of a problem

                                                                                                         SC12.1.3.b Assess the limits of a
                                                                                                         technical design

                                    SC5.1.3.c Implement the          SC8.1.3.c Implement the             SC12.1.3.c Implement the
                                    proposed solution                proposed design                     selected solution

                                    SC5.1.3.d Evaluate the           SC8.1.3.d Evaluate completed        SC12.1.3.d Evaluate the solution
                                    implementation                   technological designs or products   and its consequences

                                    SC5.1.3.e Communicate the        SC8.1.3.e Communicate the           SC12.1.3.e Communicate the
                                    problem, design, and solution    process of technical design         problem, process, and solution

Understanding of Technical                                           SC8.1.3.f Distinguish between       SC12.1.3.f Compare and
Design                                                               scientific inquiry (asking          contrast the reasons for the
                                                                     questions about the natural         pursuit of science and the pursuit
                                                                     world) and technological design     of technology
                                                                     (using science to solve practical
                                                                     problems)

                                                                     SC8.1.3.g Describe how science      SC12.1.3.g Explain how science
                                                                     and technology are reciprocal       advances with the introduction of
                                                                                                         new technology

                                                                     SC8.1.3.h Recognize that            SC12.1.3.h Recognize creativity,
                                                                     solutions have intended and         imagination, and a good
                                                                     unintended consequences             knowledge base are all needed
                                                                                                         to advance the work of science
                                                                                                         and engineering

                                                                     SC8.1.3.i Compare and contrast
                                                                     the reporting of scientific
                                                                     knowledge and the reporting of
                                                                     technological knowledge

                                                         4
Adopted 10-6-10
SC K-12.2 Comprehensive Science Standard – Physical Science
Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of the Physical Sciences to make
connections with the natural and engineered world.
                                                                              Grade Band Standards
   2. Physical Science
                                           K-2                         3-5                            6-8                            9-12
                              SC2.2.1 Students will        SC5.2.1 Students will         SC8.2.1 Students will         SC12.2.1 Students will
                              observe and describe         explore and describe the      identify and describe the     investigate and describe
         1. Matter
                              properties of objects and    physical properties of        particulate nature of matter matter in terms of its structure,
                              their behavior.              matter and its changes.       including physical and        composition and conservation.
                                                                                         chemical interactions.
Properties and Structure of SC2.2.1.a Observe              SC5.2.1.a Identify mixtures SC8.2.1.a Compare and
Matter                        physical properties of       and pure substances           contrast elements,
                              objects (freezing and                                      compounds, and mixtures
                              melting, sinking and
                              floating, color, size,
                              texture, shape, weight)

                              SC2.2.1.b Separate and        SC5.2.1.b Identify physical    SC8.2.1.b Describe              SC12.2.1.a Recognize
                              sort objects by physical      properties of matter (color,   physical and chemical           bonding occurs when outer
                              attributes                    odor, elasticity, weight,      properties of matter            electrons are transferred
                                                            volume)                                                        (ionic) or shared (covalent)

                              SC2.2.1.c Measure objects     SC5.2.1.c Use appropriate
                              using standard and non-       metric measurements to
                              standard units                describe physical
                                                            properties

States of Matter              SC2.2.1.d Identify solids     SC5.2.1.d Identify state       SC8.2.1.c Recognize most        SC12.2.1.b Describe the
                              and liquids and recognize     changes caused by              substances can exist as a       energy transfer associated
                              that liquids take the shape   heating and cooling solids,    solid, liquid, or gas           with phase changes between
                              of their container            liquids, and gases             depending on temperature        solids, liquids, and gases

                                                                                           SC8.2.1.d Compare and           SC12.2.1.c Describe the three
                                                                                           contrast solids, liquids, and   normal states of matter (solid,
                                                                                           gases based on properties       liquid, gas) in terms of energy,
                                                                                           of these states of matter       particle arrangement, particle
                                                                                                                           motion, and strength of bond
                                                                                                                           between molecules

                                                                            5
Adopted 10-6-10
                                           Grade Band Standards
   2. Physical Science
                           K-2   3-5                            6-8                           9-12
Physical and Chemical                               SC8.2.1.e Distinguish
Changes                                             between physical and
                                                    chemical changes (phase
                                                    changes, dissolving,
                                                    burning, rusting)

                                                    SC8.2.1.f Recognize         SC12.2.1.d Recognize a large
                                                    conservation of matter in   number of chemical reactions
                                                    physical and chemical       involve the transfer of either
                                                    changes                     electrons (oxidation/reduction)
                                                                                or hydrogen ions (acid/base)
                                                                                between reacting ions,
                                                                                molecules, or atoms

                                                                                SC12.2.1.e Identify factors
                                                                                affecting rates of chemical
                                                                                reactions (temperature,
                                                                                particle size, surface area)

Atomic Structure                                                                SC12.2.1.f Recognize the
                                                                                charges and relative locations
                                                                                of subatomic particles
                                                                                (neutrons, protons, electrons)

                                                                                SC12.2.1.g Describe
                                                                                properties of atoms, ions, and
                                                                                isotopes

Classification of Matter                            SC8.2.1.g Classify          SC12.2.1.h Describe the
                                                    substances into similar     organization of the periodic
                                                    groups based on physical    table of elements with respect
                                                    properties                  to patterns of physical and
                                                                                chemical properties

                                       6
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                                                 Grade Band Standards
   2. Physical Science
                                          K-2                             3-5                          6-8                               9-12
                               SC2.2.2 Students will        SC5.2.2 Students will         SC8.2.2 Students will           SC12.2.2 Students will
                               compare relative position    identify the influence of     investigate and describe        investigate and describe the
  2. Force and Motion
                               and motion of objects.       forces on motion.             forces and motion.              nature of field forces and their
                                                                                                                          interactions with matter.
Motion                         SC2.2.2.a State location     SC5.2.2.a Describe motion     SC8.2.2.a Describe motion       SC12.2.2.a Describe motion
                               and/or motion relative to    by tracing and measuring      of an object by its position    with respect to displacement
                               another object or its        an object’s position over a   and velocity                    and acceleration
                               surroundings (in front of,   period of time (speed)
                               behind, between, over,
                               under, faster, slower,
                               forward and backward, up
                               and down)

                               SC2.2.2.b Describe how
                               objects move in many
                               different ways (straight,
                               zigzag, round and round,
                               back and forth, and fast
                               and slow)
                 st
Inertia/Newton’s 1 law                                                                    SC8.2.2.b Recognize an          SC12.2.2.b Describe how the
                                                                                                                                                     st
                                                                                          object that is not being        law of inertia (Newton’s 1 law)
                                                                                          subjected to a force will       is evident in a real-world event
                                                                                          continue to move at a
                                                                                          constant speed in a
                                                                                          straight line or stay at rest
                                                                                                        st
                                                                                          (Newton’s 1 law)
                    nd
Forces/Newton’s 2        law                                SC5.2.2.b Describe            SC8.2.2.c Compare the           SC12.2.2.c Make predictions
                                                            changes in motion due to      motion of objects related to    based on relationships among
                                                            outside forces (push, pull,   the effects of balanced and     net force, mass, and
                                                                                                                                                  nd
                                                            gravity)                      unbalanced forces               acceleration (Newton’s 2 law)

                                                                             7
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                        Grade Band Standards
 2. Physical Science
                       K-2                  3-5                            6-8                           9-12
          rd
Newton’s 3 law                                                                            SC12.2.2.d Recognize that all
                                                                                          forces occur in equal and
                                                                                                                    rd
                                                                                          opposite pairs (Newton’s 3 law)

                                                                                          SC12.2.2.e Describe how
                                                                                          Newton’s 3rd law of motion is
                                                                                          evident in a real-world event

Universal Forces             SC5.2.2.c Describe magnetic
                             behavior in terms of attraction
                             and repulsion

                                                               SC8.2.2.d Recognize that   SC12.2.2.f Describe gravity as a
                                                               everything on or around    force that each mass exerts on
                                                               Earth is pulled towards    another mass, which is
                                                               Earth’s center by          proportional to the masses and
                                                               gravitational force        the distance between them

                                                                                          SC12.2.2.g Recognize that an
                                                                                          attractive or repulsive electric
                                                                                          force exists between two charged
                                                                                          particles and that this force is
                                                                                          proportional to the magnitude of
                                                                                          the charges and the distance
                                                                                          between them

                                                        8
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                Grade Band Standards
   2. Physical Science
                         K-2                3-5                           6-8                           9-12
                               SC5.2.3 Students will         SC8.2.3 Students will          SC12.2.3 Students will
                               observe and identify signs    identify and describe how      describe and investigate
                               of energy transfer.           energy systems and matter      energy systems relating to
        3. Energy
                                                             interact.                      the conservation and
                                                                                            interaction of energy and
                                                                                            matter.
Sound/Mechanical Waves         SC5.2.3.a Recognize that      SC8.2.3.a Recognize that       SC12.2.3.a Describe
                               sound is produced from        vibrations set up wave-like    mechanical wave
                               vibrating objects; the        disturbances that spread       properties (speed,
                               sound can be changed by       away from the source           wavelength, frequency,
                               changing the vibration        (sound, seismic, water         amplitude) and how waves
                                                             waves)                         travel through a medium

                                                             SC8.2.3.b Identify that
                                                             waves move at different
                                                             speeds in different
                                                             materials

                                                                                            SC12.2.3.b Recognize that
                                                                                            the energy in waves can
                                                                                            be changed into other
                                                                                            forms of energy

Light                          SC5.2.3.b Recognize that      SC8.2.3.c Recognize that       SC12.2.3.c Recognize that
                               light travels in a straight   light interacts with matter    light can behave as a wave
                               line and can be reflected     by transmission (including     (diffraction and
                               by an object (mirror)         refraction), absorption, or    interference)
                                                             scattering (including
                                                             reflection)

                               SC5.2.3.c Recognize that      SC8.2.3.d Recognize that
                               light can travel through      to see an object, light from
                               certain materials and not     the surface of the object
                               others (transparent,          must enter the eye; the
                               translucent, opaque)          color seen depends on the
                                                             properties of the surface
                                                             and the color of the
                                                             available light sources

                                                9
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                   Grade Band Standards
   2. Physical Science
                         K-2                3-5                            6-8                          9-12
Heat                                                                                        SC12.2.3.d Distinguish
                                                                                            between temperature (a
                                                                                            measure of the average
                                                                                            kinetic energy of atomic or
                                                                                            molecular motion) and heat
                                                                                            (the quantity of thermal
                                                                                            energy that transfers due to
                                                                                            a change in temperature)

                               SC5.2.3.d Identify ways to       SC8.2.3.e Recognize that    SC12.2.3.e Compare and
                               generate heat (friction,         heat moves from warmer      contrast methods of heat
                               burning, incandescent light      objects to cooler objects   transfer and the interaction
                               bulb)                            until both reach the same   of heat with matter via
                                                                temperature                 conduction, convection, and
                                                                                            radiation

                               SC5.2.3.e Identify materials
                               that act as thermal
                               conductors or insulators

Electricity/Magnetism          SC5.2.3.f Recognize that
                               the transfer of electricity in
                               an electrical circuit requires
                               a closed loop

                                                                                            SC12.2.3.f Recognize that
                                                                                            the production of
                                                                                            electromagnetic waves is a
                                                                                            result of changes in the
                                                                                            motion of charges or by a
                                                                                            changing magnetic field

                                                                                            SC12.2.3.g Compare and
                                                                                            contrast segments of the
                                                                                            electromagnetic spectrum
                                                                                            (radio, micro, infrared,
                                                                                            visible, ultraviolet, x-rays,
                                                                                            gamma) based on frequency
                                                                                            and wavelength

                                                  10
Adopted 10-6-10
                                    Grade Band Standards
  2. Physical Science
                        K-2   3-5                          6-8                            9-12
Nuclear                                                                      SC12.2.3.h Recognize that
                                                                             nuclear reactions (fission,
                                                                             fusion, radioactive decay)
                                                                             convert a fraction of the
                                                                             mass of interacting
                                                                             particles into energy, and
                                                                             this amount of energy is
                                                                             much greater than the
                                                                             energy in chemical
                                                                             interactions

Conservation                                   SC8.2.3.f Describe transfer
                                               of energy from electrical
                                               and magnetic sources to
                                               different energy forms
                                               (heat, light, sound,
                                               chemical)

                                               SC8.2.3.g Recognize all       SC12.2.3.i Interpret the
                                               energy is neither created     law of conservation of
                                               nor destroyed                 energy to make predictions
                                                                             for the outcome of an
                                                                             event

Mechanical Energy                                                            SC12.2.3.j Identify that all
                                                                             energy can be considered
                                                                             to be either kinetic,
                                                                             potential, or energy
                                                                             contained by a field (e.g.
                                                                             electromagnetic waves)

Chemical Energy                                                              SC12.2.3.k Identify
                                                                             endothermic and
                                                                             exothermic reactions

                                    11
Adopted 10-6-10
SC K-12.3 Comprehensive Science Standard – Life Science
Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of the Life Sciences to make
connections with the natural and engineered world.
                                                                               Grade Band Standards
     3. Life Science
                                           K-2                        3-5                           6-8                              9-12
                              SC2.3.1 Students will        SC5.3.1 Students will     SC8.3.1 Students will             SC12.3.1 Students will
    1. Structure and          investigate the              investigate and           investigate and describe the      investigate and describe the
   Function of Living         characteristics of living    compare the               structure and function of living  chemical basis of the growth,
         Systems              things.                      characteristics of living organisms.                        development, and
                                                           things.                                                     maintenance of cells.
Characteristics of Life       SC2.3.1.a Differentiate      SC5.3.1.a Compare         SC8.3.1.a Recognize the           SC12.3.1.a Identify the
                              between living and           and contrast              levels of organization in living  complex molecules
                              nonliving things             characteristics of living organisms (cells, tissues,        (carbohydrates, lipids,
                                                           and nonliving things      organs, organ systems,            proteins, nucleic acids) that
                                                                                     organisms)                        make up living organisms

Cellular Composition of                                                              SC8.3.1.b Recognize that all     SC12.3.1.b Identify the form
Organisms                                                                            organisms are composed of        and function of sub-cellular
                                                                                     one or many cells; that these    structures that regulate cellular
                                                                                     cells must grow, divide, and     activities
                                                                                     use energy; and that all cells
                                                                                     function similarly

                                                                                     SC8.3.1.c Recognize              SC12.3.1.c Describe the
                                                                                     specialized cells perform        cellular functions of
                                                                                     specialized functions in         photosynthesis, respiration,
                                                                                     multicellular organisms          cell division, protein synthesis,
                                                                                                                      transport of materials, and
                                                                                                                      energy capture/release

                                                                                     SC8.3.1.d Identify the organs
                                                                                     and functions of the major
                                                                                     systems of the human body
                                                                                     and describe ways that these
                                                                                     systems interact with each
                                                                                     other

                                                                          12
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                                              Grade Band Standards
3. Life Science
                                        K-2                            3-5                          6-8                         9-12
Characteristics of Living   SC2.3.1.b Identify the
Organisms                   basic needs of living things
                            (food, water, air, space,
                            shelter)

                            SC2.3.1.c Identify external    SC5.3.1.b Identify how
                            parts of plants and animals    parts of plants and animals
                                                           function to meet basic
                                                           needs (e.g., leg of an
                                                           insect helps an insect
                                                           move, root of a plant helps
                                                           the plant obtain water)

                            SC2.3.1.d Observe and
                            match plants and animals
                            to their distinct habitats

Behavior                                                                                 SC8.3.1.e Describe how     SC12.3.1.d Describe how an
                                                                                         plants and animals         organism senses changes in
                                                                                         respond to environmental   its internal or external
                                                                                         stimuli                    environment and responds to
                                                                                                                    ensure survival

                                                                             13
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                                        Grade Band Standards
      3. Life Science
                                   K-2                              3-5                           6-8                          9-12
                        SC2.3.2 Students will         SC5.3.2 Students will          SC8.3.2 Students will        SC12.3.2 Students will
                        recognize changes in living   identify variations of         investigate and describe     describe the molecular basis
        2. Heredity
                        things.                       inherited characteristics      the relationship between     of reproduction and heredity.
                                                      and life cycles.               reproduction and heredity.
Inherited Traits        SC2.3.2.a Describe how        SC5.3.2.a Identify inherited   SC8.3.2.a Recognize that     SC12.3.2.a Identify that
                        offspring resemble their      characteristics of plants      hereditary information is    information passed from
                        parents                       and animals                    contained in genes within    parents to offspring is coded
                                                                                     the chromosomes of each      in DNA molecules
                                                                                     cell

                                                                                                                  SC12.3.2.b Describe the
                                                                                                                  basic structure of DNA and
                                                                                                                  its function in genetic
                                                                                                                  inheritance

                                                                                                                  SC12.3.2.c Recognize how
                                                                                                                  mutations could help, harm,
                                                                                                                  or have no effect on
                                                                                                                  individual organisms

Reproduction            SC2.3.2.b Describe how        SC5.3.2.b Identify the life    SC8.3.2.b Compare and        SC12.3.2.d Describe that
                        living things change as       cycle of an organism           contrast sexual and          sexual reproduction results
                        they grow                                                    asexual reproduction         in a largely predictable,
                                                                                                                  variety of possible gene
                                                                                                                  combinations in the offspring
                                                                                                                  of any two parents

                                                                      14
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                      Grade Band Standards
3. Life Science
                  K-2                 3-5                                 6-8                                       9-12
                        SC5.3.3 Students will             SC8.3.3 Students will describe           SC12.3.3 Students will describe,
  3. Flow of
                        describe relationships within     populations and ecosystems.              on a molecular level, the cycling
  Matter and
                        an ecosystem.                                                              of matter and the flow of energy
  Energy in
                                                                                                   between organisms and their
 Ecosystems
                                                                                                   environment.
Flow of Energy          SC5.3.3.a Diagram and             SC8.3.3.a Diagram and explain the        SC12.3.3.a Explain how the
                        explain a simple food chain       flow of energy through a simple          stability of an ecosystem is
                        beginning with the Sun            food web                                 increased by biological diversity

                        SC5.3.3.b Identify the role of    SC8.3.3.b Compare the roles of
                        producers, consumers, and         producers, consumers, and
                        decomposers in an                 decomposers in an ecosystem
                        ecosystem

Ecosystems                                                SC8.3.3.c Recognize that                 SC12.3.3.b Recognize that atoms
                                                          producers transform sunlight into        and molecules cycle among living
                                                          chemical energy through                  and nonliving components of the
                                                          photosynthesis                           biosphere

                        SC5.3.3.c Recognize the           SC8.3.3.d Determine the biotic and       SC12.3.3.c Explain how
                        living and nonliving factors      abiotic factors that impact the          distribution and abundance of
                        that impact the survival of       number of organisms an ecosystem         different organisms in ecosystems
                        organisms in an ecosystem         can support                              are limited by the availability of
                                                                                                   matter and energy and the ability
                                                                                                   of the ecosystem to recycle
                                                                                                   materials

                                                          SC8.3.3.e Recognize a population
                                                          is all the individuals of a species at
                                                          a given place and time

                                                          SC8.3.3.f Identify symbiotic
                                                          relationships among organisms

Impact on               SC5.3.3.d Recognize all           SC8.3.3.g Identify positive and          SC12.3.3.d Analyze factors which
Ecosystems              organisms cause changes,          negative effects of natural and          may influence environmental
                        some beneficial and some          human activity on an ecosystem           quality
                        detrimental, in the
                        environment where they live

                                                         15
Adopted 10-6-10
                                                                        Grade Band Standards
  3. Life Science
                                K-2                          3-5                                6-8                                9-12
                       SC2.3.4 Students will   SC5.3.4 Students will describe   SC8.3.4 Students will identify      SC12.3.4 Students will describe
  4. Biodiversity      recognize changes in    changes in organisms over        characteristics of organisms that   the theory of biological evolution.
                       organisms.              time.                            help them survive.
Biological             SC2.3.4.a Recognize     SC5.3.4.a Describe adaptations   SC8.3.4.a Describe how an           SC12.3.4.a Identify different
Adaptations            seasonal changes in     made by plants or animals to     inherited characteristic enables    types of adaptations necessary
                       animals and plants      survive environmental changes    an organism to improve its          for survival (morphological,
                                                                                survival rate                       physiological, behavioral)

Biological Evolution                                                            SC8.3.4.b Recognize the             SC12.3.4.b Recognize that the
                                                                                extinction of a species is caused   concept of biological evolution is
                                                                                by the inability to adapt to an     a theory which explains the
                                                                                environmental change                consequence of the interactions
                                                                                                                    of: (1) the potential for a species
                                                                                                                    to increase its numbers, (2) the
                                                                                                                    genetic variability of offspring
                                                                                                                    due to mutation and
                                                                                                                    recombination of genes, (3) a
                                                                                                                    finite supply of the resources
                                                                                                                    required for life, and (4) the
                                                                                                                    ensuing selection by the
                                                                                                                    environment of those offspring
                                                                                                                    better able to survive and leave
                                                                                                                    offspring

                                                                                SC8.3.4.c Use anatomical            SC12.3.4.c Explain how natural
                                                                                features of an organism to infer    selection provides a scientific
                                                                                similarities among other            explanation of the fossil record
                                                                                organisms                           and the molecular similarities
                                                                                                                    among the diverse species of
                                                                                                                    living organisms

                                                                                                                    SC12.3.4.d Apply the theory of
                                                                                                                    biological evolution to explain
                                                                                                                    diversity of life over time

                                                                         16
Adopted 10-6-10
SC K-12.4 Comprehensive Science Standard – Earth and Space Sciences
Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of Earth and Space Sciences to
make connections with the natural and engineered world.
      4. Earth and                                                          Grade Band Standards
    Space Sciences                       K-2                           3-5                            6-8                        9-12
                             SC2.4.1 Students will        SC5.4.1 Students will          SC8.4.1 Students will         SC12.4.1 Students will
                             observe and identify         observe and describe           investigate and describe      investigate and describe
    1. Earth in Space
                             objects of the sky.          characteristics, patterns,     Earth and the solar           the known universe.
                                                          and changes in the sky.        system.
Objects in the Sky and       SC2.4.1.a Identify objects   SC5.4.1.a Recognize that       SC8.4.1.a Describe the        SC12.4.1.a Describe the
Universe                     in the sky (the Sun, the     the observed shape of the      components of the solar       formation of the universe
                             Moon, the stars) and when    Moon changes from day to       system (the Sun, planets,     using the Big Bang Theory
                             they are observable          day during a one month         moons, asteroids, comets)
                                                          period

                                                                                                                       SC12.4.1.b Recognize that
                                                                                                                       stars, like the Sun,
                                                                                                                       transform matter into
                                                                                                                       energy by nuclear
                                                                                                                       reactions which leads to
                                                                                                                       the formation of other
                                                                                                                       elements

                                                                                                                       SC12.4.1.c Describe
                                                                                                                       stellar evolution

Motion of Objects in the     SC2.4.1.b Identify objects   SC5.4.1.b Recognize the        SC8.4.1.b Describe the
Solar System                 that appear to move in the   motion of objects in the sky   relationship between
                             sky (the Sun, the Moon,      (the Sun, the Moon, stars)     motion of objects in the
                             stars)                       change over time in            solar system and the
                                                          recognizable patterns          phenomena of day, year,
                                                                                         eclipses, phases of the
                                                                                         Moon and seasons

Gravitational Effects                                                                    SC8.4.1.c Describe the
                                                                                         effects of gravity on Earth
                                                                                         (tides) and the effect of
                                                                                         gravity on objects in the
                                                                                         solar system

                                                                         17
Adopted 10-6-10
  4. Earth and                                                            Grade Band Standards
 Space Sciences                   K-2                           3-5                              6-8                                   9-12
                      SC2.4.2 Students will      SC5.4.2 Students will observe     SC8.4.2 Students will investigate     SC12.4.2 Students will
     2. Earth
                      observe, identify, and     and describe Earth’s materials,   and describe Earth’s structure,       investigate the relationships
    Structures
                      describe characteristics   structure, and processes.         systems, and processes.               among Earth’s structure,
  and Processes
                      of Earth’s materials.                                                                              systems, and processes.
Properties of Earth   SC2.4.2.a Describe Earth   SC5.4.2.a Describe the            SC8.4.2.a Describe the layers of      SC12.4.2.a Recognize how
Materials             materials (sand, soil,     characteristics of rocks,         Earth (core, mantle, crust,           Earth materials move through
                      rocks, water)              minerals, soil, water, and the    atmosphere)                           geochemical cycles (carbon,
                                                 atmosphere                                                              nitrogen, oxygen) resulting in
                                                                                                                         chemical and physical
                                                                                                                         changes in matter

                                                                                   SC8.4.2.b Describe the physical
                                                                                   composition of soil

                                                                                   SC8.4.2.c Describe the mixture of
                                                                                   gases in Earth’s atmosphere and
                                                                                   how the atmosphere’s properties
                                                                                   change at different elevations

                                                                                   SC8.4.2.d Describe evidence of
                                                                                   Earth’s magnetic field

Earth’s Processes                                SC5.4.2.b Identify weathering,    SC8.4.2.e Compare and contrast        SC12.4.2.b Describe how
                                                 erosion, and deposition as        constructive and destructive forces   heat convection in the mantle
                                                 processes that build up or        (deposition, erosion, weathering,     propels the plates comprising
                                                 break down Earth’s surface        plate motion causing uplift,          Earth’s surface across the
                                                                                   volcanoes, earthquakes) that          face of the globe (plate
                                                                                   impact Earth’s surface                tectonics)

                                                                                   SC8.4.2.f Describe the rock cycle

                                                                                   SC8.4.2.g Describe the water
                                                                                   cycle (evaporation, condensation,
                                                                                   precipitation)

Use of Earth          SC2.4.2.b Recognize ways   SC5.4.2.c Identify how Earth      SC8.4.2.h Classify Earth              SC12.4.2.c Evaluate the
Materials             in which individuals and   materials are used (fuels,        materials as renewable or             impact of human activity and
                      families can conserve      building materials, sustaining    nonrenewable                          natural causes on Earth’s
                      Earth’s resources by       plant life)                                                             resources (groundwater,
                      reducing, reusing, and                                                                             rivers, land, fossil fuels)
                      recycling
                                                                          18
Adopted 10-6-10
    4. Earth and                                                    Grade Band Standards
   Space Sciences              K-2                          3-5                             6-8                              9-12
                      SC2.4.3 Students will     SC5.4.3 Students will          SC8.4.3 Students will           SC12.4.3 Students will
                      observe simple patterns   observe and describe the       investigate and describe        investigate and describe the
    3. Energy in
                      of change on Earth.       effects of energy changes      energy in Earth’s systems.      relationships among the
  Earth’s Systems
                                                on Earth.                                                      sources of energy and their
                                                                                                               effects on Earth’s systems.
Energy Sources        SC2.4.3.a Observe that    SC5.4.3.a Describe the         SC8.4.3.a Describe how          SC12.4.3.a Describe how
                      the Sun provides heat     Sun’s warming effect on the    energy from the Sun             radiation, conduction, and
                      and light                 land and water                 influences the atmosphere       convection transfer heat in
                                                                               and provides energy for         Earth’s systems
                                                                               plant growth

                                                                                                               SC12.4.3.b Identify internal and
                                                                                                               external sources of heat energy
                                                                                                               in Earth’s systems

                                                                                                               SC12.4.3.c Compare and
                                                                                                               contrast benefits of renewable
                                                                                                               and nonrenewable energy
                                                                                                               sources

Weather and Climate   SC2.4.3.b Observe and     SC5.4.3.b Observe,             SC8.4.3.b Identify factors
                      describe simple daily     measure, and record            that influence daily and
                      changes in weather        changes in weather             seasonal changes on Earth
                                                (temperature, wind direction   (tilt of the Earth, humidity,
                                                and speed, precipitation)      air pressure, air masses)

                      SC2.4.3.c Describe        SC5.4.3.c Recognize the        SC8.4.3.c Describe              SC12.4.3.d Describe natural
                      simple seasonal           difference between             atmospheric movements           influences (Earth’s rotation,
                      weather indicators and    weather, climate, and          that influence weather and      mountain ranges, oceans,
                      how they impact           seasons                        climate (air masses, jet        differential heating) on global
                      student choices                                          stream)                         climate
                      (activities, clothing)

                                                                      19
Adopted 10-6-10
     4. Earth and                               Grade Band Standards
    Space Sciences       K-2               3-5                             6-8                         9-12
                               SC5.4.4 Students will          SC8.4.4 Students will use    SC12.4.4 Students will
                               describe changes in Earth.     evidence to draw             explain the history and
    4. Earth’s History
                                                              conclusions about changes    evolution of Earth.
                                                              in Earth.
Past/Present Earth             SC5.4.4.a Describe how         SC8.4.4.a Recognize that     SC12.4.4.a Recognize that
                               slow processes (erosion,       Earth processes we see       in any sequence of
                               weathering, deposition) and    today are similar to those   sediments or rocks that
                               rapid processes (landslides,   that occurred in the past    has not been overturned,
                               volcanic eruptions,            (uniformity of processes)    the youngest sediments or
                               earthquakes) change                                         rocks are at the top of the
                               Earth’s surface                                             sequence and the oldest
                                                                                           are at the bottom (law of
                                                                                           superposition)

                                                              SC8.4.4.b Describe how       SC12.4.4.b Interpret
                                                              environmental conditions     Earth’s history by
                                                              have changed through use     observing rock sequences,
                                                              of the fossil record         using fossils to correlate
                                                                                           the sequences at various
                                                                                           locations, and using data
                                                                                           from radioactive dating
                                                                                           methods

                                                                                           SC12.4.4.c Compare and
                                                                                           contrast the physical and
                                                                                           biological differences of
                                                                                           the early Earth with the
                                                                                           planet we live on today

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