Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

1 Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference 2018 Version

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference 2 Cover image: A Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana), La Jolla, California. Courtesy of Richard O. Barry via wikimedia commons, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. Authors: Laura Hartmann USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST Biological Science Technician 2301 Research Blvd. Suite 108 Fort Collins, CO 80526 Phone (970) 490-4476 laura.a.hartmann@aphis.usda.gov Lisa Jackson USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST Biological Scientist 1730 Varsity Dr. Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919) 855-7549 lisa.d.jackson@aphis.usda.gov Daniel Mackesy USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST Biological Science Technician 2301 Research Blvd. Suite 108 Fort Collins, CO 80526 Phone (970) 490-4494 daniel.z.mackesy@aphis.usda.gov Talitha Molet USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST Biological Science Technician 1730 Varsity Dr. Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919) 855-7457 talitha.p.molet@aphis.usda.gov Melinda Sullivan USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST Plant Pathologist 2301 Research Blvd. Suite 108 Fort Collins, CO 80526 Phone (970) 490-4469 melinda.j.sullivan@aphis.usda.gov Reference Document Reviewers: Heather Moylett Biological Science Technician USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST 1730 Varsity Dr., Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 919-855-7428 Heather.moylett@aphis.usda.gov Mark Nakhla Director -CPHST Beltsville Laboratory USDA-APHIS-PPQ -CPHST BARC-East, Bldg-580 Powder Mill Road Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 Phone (301) 313-9211 (office) Mark.K.Nakhla@aphis.usda.gov

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference 3 Individual Pest Datasheet Reviewers: The following individuals have provided feedback, comments, and suggested changes to the pest datasheets. Many of these individuals have provided information on survey and identification methods and supplied images. Their help was instrumental in the completion of the Pine commodity-based survey manual. See each pest datasheet for the specific reviewers of each datasheet. Julieta Brambila Domestic Identifier (Entomology) USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1911 SW 34th Street Gainesville, FL 32608 Phone: (352) 395-4792 Julieta.Brambila@aphis.usda.gov Robert C. Brown Domestic Identifier (Entomology) USDA-APHIS-PPQ 901 W. State St., Smith Hall Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 Phone: (765) 496-9673 Robert.C.Brown@aphis.usda.gov Robert Davis Research Leader, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory USDA-Agricultural Research Service Beltsville, MD, 20705 Phone: (301) 504-5745; (301) 504-6290 robert.davis@ars.usda.gov Todd Gilligan Research Scientist USDA-APHIS-PPQ 2301 Research Blvd. Suite 108 Fort Collins, CO 80526 Phone: (970) 490-4478 Todd.M.Gilligan@aphis.usda.gov Juha (Luke) Kaitera Finnish Forest Research Institute Oulu University of Oulu, Finland juha.kaitera@luke.fi Allessandro Ragazzi Full Professor in Forest Pathology Editor in chief of Micologia Italiana Università degli Studi di Firenze Florence, Italy Tel. 055 275 5858 Cell. 320 7981871 Skype: alessandro_ragazzi alessandro.ragazzi@unifi.it Mark Nakhla Director, CPHST Beltsville Laboratory USDA-APHIS-PPQ -CPHST BARC-East, Bldg-580 Powder Mill Road Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 Phone: (301) 313-9211 (office), (301) 760-8870 (cell) Mark.K.Nakhla@aphis.usda.gov Steve Passoa National Lepidoptera Specialist USDA-APHIS-PPQ The Ohio State University 1315 Kinnear Rd.

Columbus, OH 43212 Phone: (614) 688-4471 Steven.C.Passoa@aphis.usda.gov

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference 4 Draft Log March 2012: 1) Addition of datasheets for Dendrolimus punctatus and Panolis flammea. 2) Updated available NAPPFAST maps and survey information. 3) Addition of Dendrolimus sibiricus datasheet placeholder. Datasheet is under development. 4) Addition of Diprion pini datasheet placeholder. An attractant is not available at this time for D. pini. Diprion pini should not be listed as a survey target for 2012 or 2013. 5) Removal of datasheet for Dendrolimus superans. An attractant is not available at this time for Dendrolimus superans. Dendrolimus superans should not be listed as a survey target for 2012 or 2013.

6) 2012 version posted to the CAPS Resource and Collaboration website. October 2012: 1) Removal of datasheet for Hylurgops palliatus. It is present in four states. It has been added to the 2013 Additional Pests of Concern List. 2) Removal of datasheet for Hylurgus ligniperda. In 2012, PPQ and the National Plant Board concurred on deregulating Hylurgus ligniperda. 3) Removal of datasheet for Sirex noctilio. It is present in several states and is no longer a PPQ Program Pest. It has been added to the 2013 Additional Pests of Concern List. 4) Removal of datasheet for Urocerus gigas gigas. There are issues with the diagnostics of this species.

August 2013: 1) Addition of Diprion pini datasheet. An attractant is now available for D. pini. Diprion pini may be included as a survey target for 2013. 2) Addition of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’ datasheet, a pest on the FY2014 AHP Prioritized Pest List. August 2017: 1) Revision of Reference into new format as Introduction document. 2) Added Ips sexandatus, Monochamus alternatus, Monochamus urussovii, Orthotomicus erosus, Tetropeum castaneum, and Tetropeum fuscum to manual. These are all current CAPS pests in the EWB/BB manual. 3) Removed ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’, Pseudocercospera pini-densiflorae, Monochamus saltuarius, and Monochamus sutor from manual. All scored below the OPEP model threshold to be included in the CAPS Priority Pest List.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Table of Contents 5 Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Table of Contents Authors . 2 Reference Document Reviewers . 2 Individual Pest Datasheet Reviewers . 3 Draft Log . 4 How to Use This Manual . 7 I: Introduction . . 7 Pest Datasheets . . 7 II: Planning a Survey . . 7 III: Ordering Traps and Lures . . 7 IV: Conducting the Survey . . 7 V: Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission . . 7 I: Introduction . 8 Purpose . . 8 Background . . 8 Selection of Target Species . . 9 Table 1. Target Pathogens for Survey . . 9 Table 2. Target Arthropods for Survey . . 10 II. Planning a Survey . 11 Choosing Target Species . . 11 Table 3. Target Pests by Approved Survey Method . . 11 CAPS Approved Methods Webpage . . 11 Pathways . . 12 Hosts and Climate . . 12 Pest Datasheets/CAPS Risk Mapping Catalogue . . 12 Survey Sites/Survey Season . . 13 Trap Types . . 13 Table 4. Pine commodity-based Survey Trap and Lure Combinations . . 16 III. Ordering Traps and Lures . 18 Contact information for trap and lures . . 18 IV. Conducting a Survey . 19 Visual Survey . . 19 Table 5. Pine Commodity-based Visual Survey . . 20 Trapping/Trap Sites . . 20 Trap Placement . . 20 Trap Handling . . 20 Lure Storage . . 21 Lure Changing . . 21 Table 6. Length of Effectiveness for Pine commodity-based Survey Lures . . 22 Checking Traps . . 22 Trapping Season . . 23 V. Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission . 24 Screening Specimens . . 24 Communication of Results . . 27 General References . 28 Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Trap Protocol . 29

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Table of Contents 6 Appendix B: Submitting Bark Beetle Specimens . 29 Appendix C: PPQ Form 391 . 39

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference How to Use This Manual 7 How to Use This Manual I: Introduction The first section of this manual describes the purpose of the Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference. This section provides background information about pine, including production and usage, why pine is important, and where pine is present in the United States. This section also lists the pest species targeted in this survey and their current distribution within the United States. Pest Datasheets Pest datasheets have been developed for each target pest species. Datasheets contain specific information on the biology, ecology, symptoms/signs, hosts, distribution, survey methods, and identification resources for each target pest. Pest datasheets are located as separate links on the CAPS Resource and Collaboration site manuals page under Pine Survey Reference.

Host information (in all Pest Datasheets) In general, host information in pest datasheets is based on host species present in areas where the target is distributed. These hosts may or may not be present in the United States. II: Planning a Survey This section describes how to plan a Pine Commodity-based Survey and includes information on the CAPS-approved survey and identification/diagnostic methods for each of the pine pests. General information is provided on survey sites, survey season, and the approved traps.

States should consider a pathway approach when deciding on which pine pests to include in their respective Pine commodity-based Surveys. Information regarding the hosts and climate of each pest should be considered as well. III: Ordering Traps and Lures This section gives specific information on how to order traps and lures for pine pest surveys. IV: Conducting the Survey This section gives specific information on how to conduct a survey for pine pests. This section lists symptoms and signs to look for when conducting a visual survey. It also provides information on trapping, including: trap placement, trap setup, lure handling, changing, and storage, checking traps, and the length of effectiveness for approved lures.

V: Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission This section gives specific information on how to submit samples for identification.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Introduction 8 I: Introduction Purpose The purpose of the Pine Commodity-based Survey is to detect new infestations of target pine pest species at low population levels. This document provides standardized guidelines for conducting a Pine Commodity-based Survey in the United States and its territories. The target species of the survey were selected by the national committee of the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) Program. Target species are either exotic pests not known to occur in the United States or pests with limited distribution. Surveys are planned and coordinated through each Plant Protection and Quarantine, State Plant Health Director’s office and state cooperators (State Departments of Agriculture). The goals of the Pine Commodity-based Survey are to obtain information about: • The presence, distribution, or absence of target species; • Patterns of distribution throughout the United States; • Possible pathways for introduction of target species. The following elements are pivotal to the success of the Pine Commodity-based Survey: • Interviews, inspection, and trapping activities in and around high-risk areas; • Timely and accurate data reporting; • Public outreach programs that create an awareness of pine pests and encourage reporting from growers and the public.

Background Introduction to Pine Pines (Pinus spp.) are remarkably diverse and abundant in the United States. At least 97 species occur in the country. Some are exotic to North America but most are native. An estimated 54 billion pine trees occur in the contiguous United States on forestland acres. Pines dominate four forest type groups in the western United States: ponderosa pine, western white pine, lodgepole pine, and piñon pine-juniper. In 2012, these cover types accounted for 11%, 0.1%, 7%, and 15%, respectively, of total forestland area in the western United States (Oswalt et al., 2012). In the eastern United States, pines dominate four cover types: white-jack-red pine, longleaf-slash pine, loblolly-shortleaf pine, and oak-pine (mixed cover type). In 2012, these cover types accounted for 2%, 3%, 14%, and 7%, respectively, of total forestland area in the East (Oswalt et al., 2012). No Pinus spp. are listed as federally threatened or endangered, but five species (P.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Introduction 9 banksiana, P. echinata, P. pungens, P. resinosa, and P. virginiana) are considered threatened or endangered in at least one state. Selection of Target Species The target pest species in this survey were selected by the National Committee of the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) Program, in cooperation with the USDA- APHIS-PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST). All target species included are exotic pests to some area(s) of the United States but not necessarily every state. Specific pests, however, should only be surveyed for in states where that particular pest is not known to occur. Tables 1 and 2 outline the targets selected for this survey; their common name, pest type, and current level of distribution within the United States (U.S.) (see Table 1. Target Pathogens for Survey and Table 2. Target Arthropods for Survey).

Table 1. Target Pathogens for Survey Scientific Name Common Name Type of Pest Cronartium flaccidum Scots pine blister rust Fungus Figure 1. Pine density map by county. Map courtesy of USDA-APHIS-PPQ- CPHST.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Introduction 10 Table 2. Target Arthropods for Survey Scientific Name Common Name Type of Pest Dendroctonus micans European spruce beetle Beetle Dendrolimus pini Pine-tree lappet Moth Dendrolimus punctatus Masson pine moth Moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Siberian silk moth Moth Diprion pini Pine sawfly Sawfly Hylobius abietis Large pine weevil Beetle Ips sexdentatus Six-toothed bark beetle Beetle Lymantria mathura Rosy moth Moth Monochamus alternatus Japanese pine sawyer Beetle Monochamus urussovii Black fir sawyer Beetle Orthotomicus erosus Mediterranean pine engraver Beetle Panolis flammea Pine beauty moth Moth Tetropium castaneum Black spruce beetle Beetle Tetropium fuscum Brown spruce longhorned beetle Beetle Thaumetopoea pityocampa Pine processionary moth Moth Tomicus destruens Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Beetle

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 11 II. Planning a Survey Choosing Target Species Pest targets should be added to your detection survey based on their relevance to your particular state or territory. Determining which target species to survey for should be based on 1) the risk of introduction of the target and pathways of introduction; 2) presence of known or potential hosts in your state/territory; 3) climatic suitability of your state/territory for the target; 4) resources available (financial and staff) for survey and identification of the pest (see Table 3. Target Pests by Approved Survey Method); and; 5) the status/importance of a particular pest to your state/territory. Table 3. Target Pests by Approved Survey Method Scientific Name Common Name Approved Survey Method Approved Identification/ Diagnostic Method Cronartium flaccidum Scots pine blister rust Visual Morphological Dendroctonus micans European spruce beetle Visual Morphological Dendrolimus pini Pine-tree lappet Trap & Lure Morphological Dendrolimus punctatus Masson pine moth Trap & Lure Morphological Dendrolimus sibiricus Siberian silk moth Trap & Lure Morphological Diprion pini Pine sawfly Trap & Lure Morphological Hylobius abietis Large pine weevil Trap & Lure Morphological Ips sexdentatus Six-toothed bark beetle Trap and Lure Morphological Lymantria mathura Rosy moth Trap & Lure Morphological Monochamus alternatus Japanese pine sawyer Trap & Lure Morphological Monochamus urussovii Black fir sawyer Trap and Lure Morphological

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 12 Orthotomicus erosus Mediterranean pine engraver Trap and Lure Morphological Panolis flammea Pine beauty moth Trap & Lure Morphological Tetropium castaneum Black spruce beetle Trap and Lure Morphological Tetropium fuscum Brown spruce longhorned beetle Trap and Lure Morphological Thaumetopoea pityocampa Pine processionary moth Trap & Lure Morphological Tomicus destruens Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Trap & Lure Morphological Approved Methods for Pest Surveillance Webpage The Approved Methods for Pest Surveillance webpage (https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/approved-methods) lists the most up-to-date, CAPS- approved methods for survey and identification/diagnostics of CAPS target pests. These pages list approved methods for pests from the Priority Pest List, consisting of pests from 1) commodity- and taxonomic-based surveys and 2) the Pests of Economic and Environmental Importance list. The information on the pages supersedes any survey and identification/diagnostic information found in any other CAPS document. Changes are first made on the Approved Methods for Pest Surveillance pages. CAPS documents are revised to reflect these changes as soon as possible; however, the Approved Methods for Pest Surveillance pages should always be the authoritative source for the most up-to-date, CAPS-approved methods.

Pathways When planning surveys, states are encouraged to use a pathway approach when deciding on target species and locations to survey. It is understood that risk factors can be examined along a “risk continuum” beginning at offshore sites (points of origin) to points of potential establishment (commodity production areas, natural lands), and numerous risk points in between (wholesale distribution centers, nursery sites, transportation corridors, etc.). Hosts and Climate The hosts of the target species as well as the climatic suitability of the targets should be considered when planning a survey.

Pest Datasheets Each pest datasheet within the manual gives specific guidance on the hosts, biology, pathway, and climactic suitability of the target.

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 13 CAPS Risk Mapping Catalogue PPQ’s Science and Technology (S&T) Fort Collins Lab produces a map catalogue to support CAPS and other PPQ surveys. The catalogue focuses on host distribution maps, climate suitability maps, and pest-specific analyses. These mapping products support surveillance planning and resource allocation through a better understanding of pest risk dynamics. The maps are based on newly developed data from two USDA agencies: National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) data for agricultural host distributions and U.S. Forest Service data for forest host distributions. To meet pest- specific needs, the catalogue will include maps showing the combined host density across the United States at a county scale. In addition, seasonal forecasts of climate suitability and pest events will soon become available, allowing programs to plan survey activities months in advance.

Although the catalogue is still under development, S&T is releasing maps as they become available. Survey Sites When choosing a survey site, select a site that contains known or potential hosts and is large enough to hold all of the traps that will be placed there. Whenever possible, trap near the preferred hosts for the target species. Consult the individual pest datasheets for this information. Survey Season Certain pests may be more prevalent during certain seasons or at different times during the year. Pests may be more common on certain plant parts when compared to other plant parts. Please see the specific pest datasheet for each pest to help determine the time of year to survey for each pest/pest type.

Trap Types Several different traps are recommended for the Pine Survey targets. Traps are recommended based on the biology of the pest. Refer to Table 4. Pine commodity-based Survey Trap and Lure Combinations for the trap and lure product names as they appear in the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System. The five trap types recommended for CAPS Pine targets are: • Cross vane panel trap • Large plastic delta traps • Milk carton traps • Multi-funnel traps • Plastic bucket traps • Wing traps Figure 2. Cross vane panel trap (USDA- APHIS-PPQ).

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 14 Cross vane panel trap (Fig. 2) The trap simulates a tree of large diameter and provides a large surface area to maximize trapping. The trap is made from light-weight, corrugated plastic and is water- and weather-resistant. The trap consists of two intersecting panels and a top and bottom made of corrugated plastic board. Cross-vane panel traps should be used with the wet method collection cup. Collection cups should contain about 150 mL of low- toxicity anti-freeze (propylene glycol) such as RV & Marine Antifreeze. Avoid anti-freeze brands that contain ethanol.

Large plastic delta traps (Fig. 3) Large plastic delta traps can be ordered through the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System. Currently, the traps are available in orange, red, or white through the Ordering System. The color of the trap does not affect the efficacy for trapping any of the target species of the Pine Commodity- based Survey. Large plastic delta traps are available with a disposable adhesive liner. The traps are prism-shaped and made of corrugated plastic. Moths enter through openings on the triangular ends and are captured on an adhesive liner. The lures should be stapled to one of the non-sticky panels inside the trap. Multi-funnel (Lindgren) traps (Fig. 4) Multi-funnel traps (also known as Lindgren traps) are made of black plastic funnels, aligned vertically over each other. Multi-funnel traps were originally designed to collect large numbers of scolytines (Lindgren, 1983); however, the traps have also been used to capture cerambycids and other wood borers. Beetles are attracted both visually to the trap (its dark, vertical silhouette resembles that of a tree) (Lindgren, 1983) and by olfactory cues from the lures. Once attracted, beetles fall through the funnels into a collection cup. Multi- funnel traps come in a variety of lengths and are referred to by their number of funnels (4, 8, 12, or 16). The attractants, in the form of lures, are suspended from the trap. Traps use either a wet or dry collection method. The dry method uses an empty collection cup, with a drain hole in bottom, with an insecticide strip. The wet method uses a collection cup with low-toxicity anti-freeze (propylene glycol). Wet collection cup method: The wet collection cup method is the only method approved for use with multi-funnel traps. Wet option traps have been shown to be more effective than Figure 3. Large plastic delta trap (Image courtesy of John Crowe). Figure 4. Multi-funnel (Lindgren) trap (John Crowe).

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 15 traps using the dry option (Miller and Duerr, 2008). Bark beetle and wood borer trap captures can be reduced by 40 to 97% with the dry trapping option (Miller and Duerr, 2008). The water in the wet method traps collects the insects while the low-toxicity antifreeze acts as a preservative for the captured insects. Collection cups should contain about 150 mL of low-toxicity anti-freeze (propylene glycol) such as RV & Marine Antifreeze. Avoid anti-freeze brands that contain ethanol. Refer to Appendix B: How to Submit Bark Beetle Specimens for Identification for instructions on processing samples from wet method traps. Plastic bucket traps (Fig. 5) This trap, also known as the unitrap, can be ord ered through the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System. The trap has a green canopy, yellow funnel, and white bucket and is used with a dry kill strip. This trap (Fig. 4) allows for the collection of large amounts of specimens without damaging their identifying characteristics. See Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Trap Protocol for more information on how to use the trap.

Wing traps (Fig. 6) Wing traps are available in either a plastic or paper version. Plastic and paper traps are both equally effective and the State may decide which trap to use. Wing traps have a disposable adhesive liner. When using a wing trap, the lure (a rubber septum) should be placed inside a lure holder, which is usually included with the trap. The lure holder should be stapled to the underside of the top of the trap on a non-sticky area. This trap can be ordered through the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System.

Review each pest datasheet for additional guidance or trap modifications for the specific species. Figure 6. Wing trap (Image courtesy of John Crowe). Figure 5. Plastic bucket trap. (Image courtesy of Julieta Brambila and Robert Meagher).

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 16 Table 4. Pine commodity-based Survey Trap and Lure Combinations Target Pest Lure Product Name Trap Product Name Dendrolimus pini Dendrolimus pini - Dendrolimus sibiricus Lure Milk Carton trap Dendrolimus punctatus Dendrolimus punctatus Lure 1) Wing Trap Kit, Paper 2) Wing Trap Kit, Plastic Dendrolimus sibiricus Dendrolimus pini - Dendrolimus sibiricus Lure Milk Carton trap Diprion pini Diprion pini Lure Large Plastic Delta Trap Kits (Orange, Red, or White) Hylobius abietis Option 1: Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure Option 2: Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure, Monochamol Lure 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet Ips sexdentatus Ips sp. Lure, 3 Dispenser 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet Lymantria mathura Lymantria mathura Lure 1) Wing Trap Kit, Paper 2) Wing Trap Kit, Plastic Monochamus alternatus Monochamol Lure, Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, and Ethanol Lure 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet 3) Cross Vane Panel Trap, Black Monochamus urussovii Monochamol Lure, Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, and Ethanol Lure 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet 3) Cross Vane Panel Trap, Black Orthotomicus erosus Ips sp. Lure, 3 Dispenser 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet

Pine Survey Reference Planning a Survey 17 Panolis flammea Panolis flammea Lure Plastic Bucket Trap Tetropium castaneum Spruce Blend Lure, Geranyl Acetol Lure, Ethanol Lure Cross Vane Panel Trap, Black Tetropium fuscum Spruce Blend Lure, Geranyl Acetol Lure, Ethanol Lure Cross Vane Panel Trap, Black Thaumetopoea pityocampa Thaumetopoea pityocampa Lure Large Plastic Delta Trap Kits (Orange, Red, or White) Tomicus destruens Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure 1) Multi-funnel Trap, 12 Funnel, Wet 2) Multi-funnel Trap, 8 Funnel, Wet IMPORTANT: When more than one trap option is listed, consult the specific pest datasheet to determine which option is appropriate for your state.

Pine Survey Reference Ordering Traps and Lures 18 III. Ordering Traps and Lures All traps and lures for the Pine commodity-based Survey should be ordered through the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System during the open ordering season. By using the ordering system, PPQ can utilize quality assurance procedures that are not available when ordering directly from manufacturers. Contact information for trap and lures For questions about the IPHIS Survey Supply Ordering System or trap and lure quality issues: Lisa Jackson National Operations Manager (Pest Detection and CAPS Programs) USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Field Operations 1730 Varsity Dr. Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919)-855-7549 Fax (919)-855-7480 Email: lisa.d.jackson@aphis.usda.gov Feridoon Mehdizadegan National Operations Manager, Farm Bill USDA-APHIS-PPQ 920 Main Campus Drive, Ste. 200 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919)-855-7521 Feridoon.Mehdizadegan@aphis.usda.gov For technical trap, lure, and survey methodology questions: Heather Moylett Biological Science Technician USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST 1730 Varsity Dr., Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 919-855-7428 Heather.moylett@aphis.usda.gov

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Conducting a Survey 19 IV. Conducting a Survey Visual Survey Several of the pests targeted in this survey can be detected visually by looking/scouting for characteristic symptoms/damage or signs of a pest and collecting samples of plant tissues in the field. A symptom is an indication of disease or a pest by reaction of the host (e.g., canker, leaf spot, wilt, yellowing). A sign, in contrast, is an indication of a disease or pest from direct observation of a pest or its parts (physical evidence of the pest) (Fig. 7). It is important to note that none of these symptoms/signs, taken singly, are a diagnostic feature for any pest. In the context of the current survey, surveyors should take note of the general condition of the plant and further examine the stems, leaves (both sides), flowers, and fruit for the pests of concern. The surveyors should pay close attention to symptomatic plants first. These would be the plants that have chlorosis (yellowing), necrosis (brown/dead tissue), feeding holes, or a generally unhealthy appearance. If no symptomatic plants are present, the surveyor should choose plants to examine based on convenience. While the surveyor should examine several plants within the site, only one data recording will be necessary for the site. It is recommended to conduct visual surveys multiple times over the survey season. If the surveyor is trapping for insect targets, he or she will need to visit the site multiple times to service the traps and replace lures. Visual surveys may be conducted during these trap- servicing visits as appropriate. There are two pests that have visual survey as a CAPS- approved method (see Table 5. Pine Hosts Commodity-based Visual Survey). Figure 7: Top. Pitch/Resin tubes on a Picea abies tree typical of Dendroctonus micans attack (a symptom). Courtesy of Beat Forster, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Bugwood.org. Bottom. Dendroctonus micans larva (a sign). Courtesy of Fabio Stergulc, Universita di Udine, Bugwood.org).

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Conducting a Survey 20 Table 5. Pine Hosts Commodity-based Visual Survey Scientific Name Symptoms/Damage & Signs to Look For1 Cronartium flaccidum Signs: Spermogonia with spermatial fluid occur on the infected bark; aecia appear on the bark in the early summer; uredinia and hair-like telia appear on the lower leaf surface of the alternate hosts in mid-to- late summer. Symptoms: Causes blister rust in pines, resulting in chlorosis and necrosis of the infected sites, yellowing and premature defoliation of leaves, branch death, bark discoloration, cankers, and deformed growth.

The infected part of the shoot (lesion) is often swollen; resinosis in the lesion; green shoots below the lesion; light greenish to yellowish needles above the lesion. Dendroctonus micans When surveying trees, look for signs of stem or root rot including resin tubes on the trunk or granular resin at the tree base. Resin tubes may vary in color from white or cream to shades of brown or purple. Older infestations may have loose bark with galleries present. Frass and bark packed into a quilted or island appearance is characteristic of this pest. Surveys may yield any stage of D. micans. When checking unprocessed logs, dunnage, crates, or pallets, which contain bark strips, check the cambium and inner bark for galleries and insect life stages.

1 See pest datasheets for more specific pest information. Trapping In general, trapping is a type of survey that involves the use of a trap to catch arthropods of concern in a specific location. Often times, trap efficiency is increased through the use of some type of chemical or physical attractant. These attractants might be a light source, a food source, a pheromone, or host volatile that is attractive to the target species. In the context of the current survey, there are eight insect targets that have an approved trap and lure combination. See Table 4: Pine Insect Trap and Lure Combinations for information on which traps to use with each target species. Trap Sites When choosing a survey site, select a site that is large enough to hold all the traps that will be placed there. For moths, traps with different lure combinations are normally placed 20 meters (66 feet) apart. For bark beetles, traps with different lure combinations are normally placed 30 meters (99 feet) apart.

Trap Placement Many of the target species listed in this manual are polyphagous and could potentially be found in multiple types of environments. For the purpose of the pine manual, surveys

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Conducting a Survey 21 should be targeted in areas with pine hosts. Surveys could occur in commercial pine groves (either in the field or in greenhouses when relevant) or in residential/urban areas where pines are grown or sold (community gardens/garden centers). • Survey sites should have host species of the target species. • When possible, place traps out of direct sunlight. • Make sure traps are not obscured by vegetation. Clip or remove any such vegetation.

For specific information on where to place traps, see the specific pest datasheet as trap placement may vary between species. Lure Handling Care should be taken to avoid contaminating external surfaces of traps with the attractant (lure) or cross-contaminating traps with attractants (lures) of different species (Lance, 2006). For example: • Use latex or latex-substitute gloves when handling lures; • Minimize direct contact with lures; • Do not touch external portions of traps with gloves that have contacted lures; and • At a minimum re-glove after handling lures for one species before handling traps or lures for another.

Lure Storage Inspect lures upon receiving them from the manufacturer. Notify the appropriate National Operations Manager of any lures that are damaged and request replacement lures. Store lures as directed by the manufacturer until used. It is generally acceptable to store lures for different species in the same freezer if they are doubly contained in factory-sealed packages that are, in turn, held separately by species in a secondary closed container such as a glass jar or re-sealable plastic bag (Lance, 2006). Lure Changing The length of effectiveness of lures is usually reported by lure manufacturers assuming temperatures of 30°C (86°F) during the day and 20°C (68°F) at night for a daily average of 25°C (77°F) under laboratory conditions. However, release rates of many lures are dependent on several factors including temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions. Therefore, the length of effectiveness of lures may be reduced in hot and dry climates. In this manual, CAPS has listed a conservative length of effectiveness that should be effective for even the warmest climates in the United States (see Table 6.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Conducting a Survey 22 Length of Effectiveness for Pine commodity-based Survey Lures). However, if you notice reduced non-target captures in your traps while the lure should still be effective, go ahead and change the lure and decrease the number of weeks between lure changes. Table 6. Length of Effectiveness for Pine commodity-based Survey Lures Target Species Lure Product Name Length of Effectiveness Dendrolimus pini Dendrolimus pini - Dendrolimus sibiricus Lure 28 days Dendrolimus punctatus Dendrolimus punctatus Lure 42 days Dendrolimus sibiricus Dendrolimus pini - Dendrolimus sibiricus Lure 42 days Diprion pini Diprion pini Lure 28 days Hylobius abietis Option 1: Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure Option 2: Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure, Monochamol Lure Option 1: 56 days Option 2: 28 days Ips sexdentatus Ips. sp. Lure, 3 Dispenser 56 days Lymantria mathura Lymantria mathura Lure 84 days Monochamus alternatus Monochamol Lure, Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, and Ethanol Lure 28 days, 56 days, 56 days Monochamus urussovii Monochamol Lure, Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, and Ethanol Lure 28 days, 56 days, 56 days Orthotomicus erosus Ips sp. Lure, 3 Dispenser 56 days Panolis flammea Panolis flammea Lure 56 days Tetropium castaneum Spruce Blend Lure, Geranyl Acetol Lure, Ethanol Lure 56 days, 56 days, 56 days Tetropium fuscum Spruce Blend Lure, Geranyl Acetol Lure, Ethanol Lure 56 days, 56 days, 56 days Thaumetopoea pityocampa Thaumetopoea pityocampa Lure 28 days Tomicus destruens Alpha Pinene UHR Lure, Ethanol Lure 56 days Checking Traps • Check traps every two weeks or after bad weather events (rain, strong winds, or snow) which can disturb the sample.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Conducting a Survey 23 • Examine traps for damage. • Remove any debris blocking entrances, including leaves, twigs, spider webs, etc. • Ensure that all lures are still in place. • Remove any suspect specimens from the trap and submit the samples per the sample submission instructions. • Change lures per the length of effectiveness for each species (see Table 6. Length of Effectiveness for Pine commodity-based Survey Lures). Trapping Season The trapping period will be the period of expected flight activity of adult moths. Traps should be placed in the field as soon as adult flight activity is expected to begin and remain throughout the active period. Actual trapping seasons may vary by location and target species. Refer to individual pest datasheets to determine the trapping season for each target. Flight period descriptions in the datasheets are usually based on the flight season in the pest’s native range. The country/region is listed in the datasheet. States should compare the hardiness zones of these regions to the hardiness zones of their state to determine the predicted flight period in their state. Degree Days may also be used, where listed.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission 24 V. Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission Consult the most recent version of the CAPS guidelines for information on how to process and submit survey samples. Please follow the instructions for sample submission and taxonomic support in the “Identification and Diagnostics” section of the guidelines, found here. Screening Specimens Screeners should have had some training in recognition of common native pine pests. Familiarity with the CAPS target species is also helpful. Work with your state or university taxonomists for individual training and consult the screening aids that are available for some groups at: https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/screening-aids. For states without screening ability, there are PPQ domestic identifiers and several other options. If your state would like to take advantage of the arrangements listed below to receive unscreened samples, please contact your PPQ Program Manager for more information prior to the trapping/survey season.

Domestic Identifiers for arthropods: Western United States Xanthe Shirley 412 Minnie Belle Heep 2475 TAMU College Station, TX 77843 979-862-3052 Xanthe.A.Shirley@aphis.usda.gov Eastern United States: Julieta Brambila CAPS Office USDA-APHIS-PPQ 1911 SW 34th Street Gainesville, FL 32608 352-372-3505 ext. 438 Julieta.Brambila@aphis.usda.gov Arthropods: Prescreened suspect samples of CAPS arthropod target species must be sent to the state or university insect taxonomist in your state for identification. If there is no such position, and/or if arrangements are not made with the entities listed in the previous section, as a fall-back procedure, the specimens can be sent to the PPQ Area Identifier that covers the geographic area. Consult The Lists of PPQ Identifiers and PPQ National Specialists for contact information. Check their areas of coverage and notify the identifier prior to sending any specimens.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission 25 If a state or university taxonomist or PPQ area identifier believes the submitted specimen is a species new to the United States or state and/or a CAPS target species, it is necessary to send the preserved specimens to the USDA-ARS Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL) for final confirmation. If an Area Identifier or other taxonomist is uncertain as to the possibility that the specimen is a new or target species, consider sending the specimens first to one of the contacts listed above, as an intermediate step before forwarding to SEL.

For submissions to the SEL, contact the National Identification Services (NIS) Domestic Diagnostics Coordinator (DDC) first, at ppq.domestic.diagnostic.coordinator@aphis.usda.gov , with a copy of a completed PPQ form 391 (see Appendix C or use the fillable form available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/forms/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf). The DDC will then convert the 391 into the electronic ‘Inland Beyond Port” (IBP) format and return it to the submitter. The IBP record should then be mailed to the SEL with the specimen. Do NOT submit the specimens until you have received a PDF of the IBP record(s) back from the DDC. Submissions to the SEL must be marked “Urgent”. If you have any questions, contact the National Field Operations Manager for Pest Detection or the Domestic Diagnostic Coordinator (addresses below): Lisa Jackson National Operations Manager (Pest Detection and CAPS Programs) USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Field Operations 1730 Varsity Dr. Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919)-855-7549 Fax (919)-855-7480 Email: lisa.d.jackson@aphis.usda.gov Steve Bullington Domestic Diagnostics Coordinator USDA, APHIS, PPQ National Identification Services 4700 River Rd., Unit 52, Rm. 4D-04.35 Riverdale, MD 20737 (301) 851-2153 Stephen.W.Bullington@aphis.usda.gov PPQ identifiers processing domestic samples can notify submitters of non-target and native species identifications without entering the samples in the AQAS database; however, any suspects that are forwarded to SEL for final identification must be entered into AQAS prior to sending.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission 26 Send the arthropod specimen(s) to the following address: Location Leader URGENT National Museum of Natural History Systematic Entomology Lab, USDA c/o National Museum of Natural History NHB 168 10th & Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20560 The specimens will be routed by the SEL location leader to the appropriate specialist for final confirmation. Communications of identification results will be through the PPQ NIS domestic diagnostics coordinator in Riverdale, Maryland.

Pathogens: Prescreened suspect samples of non-phytoplasma CAPS pathogen target species must be sent to the state or university taxonomist in your state for identification. If there is no such position, and/or if arrangements are not made with the entities listed in the previous section, as a fall-back procedure, the specimens can be sent to the PPQ Area Identifier that covers the geographic area. Consult The Lists of PPQ Identifiers and PPQ National Specialists for contact information. Check their areas of coverage and notify the identifier prior to sending any specimens.

If a state or university taxonomist or PPQ area identifier believes the submitted specimen is a species new to the United States or state and/or a CAPS target species, it is necessary to send the samples to the CPHST Beltsville Laboratory for final confirmation. When sending to CPHST Beltsville, be sure to include the PPQ form 391 (see Appendix C or use the fillable form available at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/forms/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf) marked “URGENT” with the sample going forward. Notify and send an electronic copy of the 391 to the PPQ National Identification Services (NIS) Domestic Diagnostics Coordinator at ppq.domestic.diagnostic.coordinator@aphis.usda.gov,, with the sample number and date forwarded. If you have any questions, contact the National Field Operations Manager for Pest Detection or the Domestic Diagnostic Coordinator (addresses below); Lisa Jackson National Operations Manager (Pest Detection and CAPS Programs) USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Field Operations 1730 Varsity Dr. Suite 400 Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone (919)-855-7549 Fax (919)-855-7480 lisa.d.jackson@aphis.usda.gov Steve Bullington Domestic Diagnostics Coordinator

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Sample Processing, Sorting, and Submission 27 USDA, APHIS, PPQ National Identification Services 4700 River Rd., Unit 52, Rm. 4D-04.35 Riverdale, MD 20737 (301) 851-2153 Stephen.W.Bullington@aphis.usda.gov PPQ identifiers processing domestic samples can notify submitters of non-target and native species identifications without entering the samples in the AQAS database; however, any suspects that are forwarded to CPHST Beltsville for final ID must be entered in AQAS prior to sending.

Send the specimen(s)/samples to the following address: Sample Diagnostics URGENT USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST BARC-East, Bldg. 580 Powder Mill Road Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 301-504-7100 Group E-mail Address: APHIS- PPQCPHSTBeltsvilleSampleDiagnostics@aphis.usda.gov Communications of identification results will be through the PPQ NIS domestic diagnostics coordinator in Riverdale, Maryland. Communication of Results Native or non-target species identifications will be communicated directly back to the state taxonomist, identifier, or originator of the sample. If the insect/pathogen is confirmed as a CAPS target species or new pest to the United States, the Domestic Diagnostics Coordinator will alert the National Survey Coordinator of the identification. The notification will then go to PPQ Policy Management and Field Operations program managers, and the SPHD and SPRO of the state of origin. One of these individuals will then forward the confirmation to the originator of the sample and other state CAPS personnel. Confirmations of CAPS targets or new species to the United States can then be entered in the NAPIS system.

Pine Survey Reference General References 28 General References Lance, D. 2006. Guidelines for Detection Trapping of Exotic Lymantriid and Lasiocampid Moths. USDA-APHIS-PPQ. Lindgren, B. S. 1983. A multiple funnel trap for scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). The Canadian Entomologist 115: 299-302. Miller, D.R. and D.A. Duerr. 2008. Comparison of arboreal beetle catches in wet and dry collection cups with Lindgren multiple funnel traps. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 107-113. Oswalt, S. N., W. B. Smith, P. D. Miles, and S. A. Pugh. 2012. Forest resources of the United States, 2012. Washington Office, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/gtr/gtr_wo091.pdf

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 29 Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Trap Protocol

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 30

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 31

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 32

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 33

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 34

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix A: Plastic Bucket Protocol 35

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix B: How to Submit Bark Beetle Specimens for Identification from Wet Traps 36 Appendix B: How to Submit Bark Beetle Specimens for Identification from Wet Traps Guidelines for Submitting Wood Borer and Bark Beetle (WBBB) Specimens for identification USDA-APHIS-PPQ CAPS Program The purpose of this document is to outline the proper procedures for preserving, packaging, and shipping WBBB specimens collected in Lindgren multi-funnel traps as part of the USDA-APHIS-PPQ CAPS (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey) Program. The quality of specimens and the associated data is paramount to survey effectiveness. As such, this document will focus on the techniques and practices that ensure that high quality specimens are submitted.

ATTENTION: Submit preserved samples only, do NOT send decayed specimens. Make sure the PPQ form 391 is clearly associated with each sample. General Procedures: 1. Service the traps. 2. Take the samples to the lab and sort to order. 3. Prepare samples for shipment. 1. Service the traps Multi-funnel trap samples are collected at the bottom of the trap in a container with a wet killing agent. For CAPS surveys, the collection container should be filled with a preservative, such as soapy water (a few drops of dish soap in water) or a 50% concentration of the non-toxic antifreeze (propylene glycol) and water. Make sure to replace the solution every time the trap is serviced.

Traps should be serviced every 10-12 days or after a bad weather event such as rain, strong winds, or snow, which can disturb the sample. Leaving samples out for too long may damage them beyond recovery. Prior to going out in the field, pack the following items: water and preservative mix to refill the trap, replacement bait (if needed), a pencil, adhesive label paper, disposable paint filters, a cooler with ice, and zippered bags each containing a paper towel wetted with 70% alcohol. At the site, strain the sample through the paint filter and place it in the zippered bag. A single sample, in this context, includes all contents of the collecting container. Use a pencil to write the label and stick it to the sample bag. It is good practice to double-label: a label inside the bag and an adhesive label on the outside. This minimizes error and ensures data preservation. If a sample is large, sub-divide it to several clearly labeled Disposable paint filters.

Photo by Kira Metz.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix B: How to Submit Bark Beetle Specimens for Identification from Wet Traps 37 bags rather than overfilling. Place samples in the cooler. Make sure samples sit on top of the ice and are not crushed. 2. Take the samples to the lab and sort to order Once the samples are in the lab, place them in the freezer for 24 hours or until you are ready to process them. Rinse the samples off of the paint filter over a sorting tray. Then, using soft tweezers and a magnifying glass or a dissecting microscope, pick out all beetles (order Coleoptera) and wood wasps, such as Sirex noctilio (order Hymenoptera, family Siricidae). Next, place the beetle or wood wasp sample into a glass vial filled with 70-80% ethanol with a label and packaged with form 391 to be sent to an identifier. Make sure the label in the vial contains the collection number matching the associated entry in the 391 data form. Similar to the field practice, one vial is usually used per sample, but if the sample is too big, sub-divide the sample among several vials and label them.

3. Prepare samples for shipment Each sample is packaged with form 391: “Specimens for Determination.” Fully capturing the collection data is critical to a successful survey so the data form must be filled out thoroughly. There is no such thing as too much data. Section 22 is reserved for survey description, in this case WBBB. Section 24 should be left blank to be used by the identifier. When packaging samples for shipment, there are several ways of ensuring that the form remains with the sample. A paper envelope or a zippered bag work well to contain the sample vial with the data form stapled to the bag. Alternatively, rubber bands can be used to secure the form – a method that works better if there are multiple vials per sample. When securing multiple vials in one shipment, make sure to wrap each one in a paper towel and tape so as to contain the sample in case of breakage. The vials should then be packed in a cardboard box or mailing tube large enough to have space for packing material on all sides. Packing material prevents the vials from being shaken or broken. Styrofoam peanuts, plastic foam, bubble wrap, or crumpled newspapers are examples of suitable packing materials. The vials can also be sent in padded envelopes sealed with tape not staples. Mailing tube. Photo by Julieta Brambila. Vial packaging. Photo by Kira Metz.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix B: How to Submit Bark Beetle Specimens for Identification from Wet Traps 38 SURVEY MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES Alcohol Isopropyl alcohol, also known as “rubbing alcohol” or 70% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) to rinse and preserve specimens. Alcohol bottles Neoprene plastic bottles with spouts to dispense alcohol. Make sure the bottles are clearly labeled with the chemical that they contain. Propylene glycol Non-toxic antifreeze. Used as a preservative in Lindgren funnel trap collecting containers. Diluted to 50% concentration with water. An alternative is a few drops of dish soap in water.

Specimen bags Large zippered bags. Used to hold freshly- collected specimens and specimen vials. Paper envelopes can also be used to contain vials during shipment. Filters Disposable cone paint filters are ideal for straining the preservative while catching the smallest of bark beetles. Vials Clean, glass screw-top vials, new or recycled. A variety of vial sizes should be available to accommodate samples of various sizes. Pipettes Plastic or glass droppers or pipettes to transfer alcohol. Tweezers Fine tweezers to move specimens. Soft tweezers should be used to prevent specimen damage.

Sorting trays Used to rinse and sort specimens in the lab. Brushes Fine paint brushes can be used to transfer small specimens. Rubber bands Assorted sizes, to tie vials together. Writing utensils Both standard ink and Sharpie marker inks are somewhat water soluble and run in alcohol. Micron pens have alcohol-proof ink and can be used alongside pencils. These pens come in a variety of tip widths, with very fine tips being preferable for writing and drawing. A sharp pencil is a good alternative to ink. Authorship & Acknowledgements: Appendix B was prepared by Julieta Brambila (2005) and modified by Kira Metz (2010). Charles Brodel, Amanda Hodges, Joseph Beckwith, Robert Brown, and James LaBonte reviewed this work.

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix C: PPQ Form 391 39 Appendix C: PPQ Form 391

Pine Commodity-based Survey Reference Appendix C: PPQ Form 391 40

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