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The Royal Academy of Engineering acknowledges the                                                                             practical solutions. Our story about robotic
generous support of the following organisation for Ingenia:                                                                   vacuum cleaners (‘How does that work?’
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Published by the Royal Academy of Engineering
                                                                                                                              hand, combining different technologies
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Editor-in-Chief                                                                                                               ideas have ensured that this previously sci-fi
Faith Wainwright MBE FREng                                                                                                    idea is now an increasingly popular and useful
Deputy Editor-in-Chief                                                                                                        answer to keeping rooms clean.
Professor David Delpy CBE FREng
                                                                                                                                   Dr Youmna Mouhamad’s quest to
Senior Editorial and Brand Manager
Gemma Hummerston                                                                                                              transform the experience of detangling hair
Editorial Manager                                                                                                             from one of pain to joy (‘The afro comb
Florence Downs                                                                                                                inspired by printing’, page 35) is also a story
Editorial Board                                                                                                               of a passion to solve a problem. To do this,
Professor James Busfield FREng, Ginny Clarke CBE FREng, Professor Yulong Ding FREng,
Kati Gastrow, Michael Kenward OBE, Doug King FREng, Peter Finegold, Dr Paul Miller                                            she dug deep into the latest technologies
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Director, Communications and Engagement                                                                                       an exciting new product, but to also inspire
Jo Trigg
                                                                                                                              others to have confidence in their ideas.
With thanks to
Andy Coulson (proofreader)                                                                                                         Creativity combined with a passion for
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be clear, authoritative and easy for non-specialists to digest. Prospective authors
should submit a one-page outline to the Senior Editorial and Brand Manager, Editorial                                         up the development of drugs and at the
Manager, the Editor-in-Chief or to any member of the Editorial Board.                                                         same time make them much more effective,
The Royal Academy of Engineering acknowledges the assistance given by the                                                     engineers are translating micro-technologies
authors of articles in this issue of Ingenia and of other individuals and organisations
who have made contributions. The information contained in this publication has
                                                                                                                              used in computer chips to be able to emulate
been published in good faith and the opinions expressed are those of the authors,                                             the real behaviour of cells in our bodies
not of the Academy. The Royal Academy of Engineering cannot accept any                                                        (‘Life on a chip’, page 19). Such advances
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                                                                                                                              artificial modelling could lead to the ability
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                                                                                                                              to run tests on a ‘mini-me’ chip before drugs
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                                                                                                                              ever reach a patient.
                                                                                                                                   These exciting solutions are excellent
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Front cover
                    Highly invasive human paediatric brain tumour derived cells.
                    © Valeria Molinari, Louise Howell, Maria Vinci, Katy Taylor and
                    Chris Jones, Institute of Cancer Research
                                                                                                                              Faith Wainwright MBE FREng
                                                                                             Scan QR code to share feedback

ISSN 1472-9768                                                                                  @RAEngNews #IngeniaMag
© Royal Academy of Engineering and the authors


02 IN BRIEF                               06 HOW I GOT HERE                        08 OPINION
   – World’s strongest permanent             Kate Todd-Davis shares how she           Dr Shaun Fitzgerald OBE FREng sets
     magnet innovator wins 2022              gained a first-class degree during       out the ways in which buildings can
     QEPrize                                 her manufacturing apprenticeship.        be COVID-safe and climate friendly.
   – Northeast gigafactory given the
     go ahead
   – Putting ethics at the heart of
   – Brain stimulator implanted in
     patients for the first time
   – We want to hear from you
   – Get involved in engineering

10 SUPERCHARGING                          14 QUICKER TESTING                       19 LIFE ON A CHIP
   GPS PRECISION                             FOR COVID                                Researchers hope that miniaturised
   Accurate GPS positioning in cities        Lab-on-a-chip technology, developed      model organ-on-chips, currently
   can be affected by obstructions such      to help us live healthier, has been      under development, could lead to
   as tall buildings. A new technology       adapted to provide rapid, lab-free       more realistic alternatives to testing
   aims to improve this accuracy and         tests for COVID-19.                      drugs on animals.
   even navigate indoors.

                                                                                   25 AVERTING HIDDEN
                                                                                      Corrosion can cause severe issues
                                                                                      if left undetected in pipelines
                                                                                      and other infrastructure, but it is
                                                                                      frequently hidden from view. A new
                                                                                      tool aims to identify the problem
                                                                                      before damage is caused.

                                          30 PROFILE                               36 HOW DOES THAT WORK?
                                             Professor Trevor Cross FREng is a        Advanced technology in robotic
                                             key player in the development of         vacuum cleaners helps them steer
                                             quantum technology.                      clear of all kinds of obstacles.

                                          35 INNOVATION WATCH
                                             Dr Youmna Mouhamad used her
                                             real-world experience to develop
                                             an innovative comb for detangling
                                             textured hair.

                                                                                               INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022     1


                                                                                                                also used in a wide range of
                                                                                                                other applications, from robots
                                                                                                                to automation systems and
                                                                                                                domestic appliances.
                                                                                                                    This year’s Create the Trophy
                                                                                                                competition winner, announced
                                                                                                                on the same day, was Anshika
                                                                                                                Agarwal, a 17-year-old content
                                                                                                                writer from India. Anshika’s
                                                                                                                design features interwoven
                                                                                                                hexagons, representing the
                                                                                                                global connections created by
                                                                                                                modern technology. Open to
                                                                                                                those aged between 14 and 24
                                                                                                                around the world, competitors
                                                                                                                enter innovative trophy designs
                                                                                                                to be presented to the winners
    The neodymium magnet is critical for clean technologies: it is a key component of the electrical            of the QEPrize.
    generators in wind turbines © Hugo Delauney/Unsplash                                                            Dr Sagawa will be formally
    On 1 February, the 2022 Queen       cobalt and samarium with more        The magnet has a significant       honoured at the QEPrize
    Elizabeth Prize for Engineering     abundant and cheaper iron and        advantage in high-efficiency       presentation ceremony
    (QEPrize) was awarded for the       neodymium. He also introduced        and high-torque density            later this year, where he will
    development of the world’s          boron to improve the magnetic        applications, such as motors and   receive £500,000 and the
    most powerful permanent             properties, which was the            generators for electric vehicles   unique trophy.
    magnet, which has been an           first step in delivering high        and wind turbines. They are  
    integral component of clean         performance to a mass market.
    technologies such as electric           However, the magnet
    vehicles and wind turbines. The     demagnetised at high
    technology underpins everyday       temperatures – a real problem
    life as we know it – and for the    in extremely hot conditions,
    most part, without many of us       such as car engines. To
    even knowing it’s there.            overcome this problem, Dr
        Japan’s Dr Masato Sagawa        Sagawa led the R&D in the
    was awarded the prize for           late 1980s and early 1990s to
    his pioneering work on the          overcome this problem, notably
    discovery, development and          by adding dysprosium to
    global commercialisation of the     improve heat resistance. Thanks
    sintered Neodymium-Iron-Boron       to this work, high-volume
    permanent magnet, also known        manufacturing techniques
    as the neodymium magnet.            were developed, resulting in
        Dr Sagawa’s breakthrough        a new magnet that almost
    innovation was replacing the        doubled the performance of the        The winning design for the 2022 Create the Trophy competition by
    scarce and expensive elements       previous best.                        Anshika Agarwal

2      INGENIA

The UK government has                in Blyth, Northumberland.             wider supply chain. Production is     with almost 200,000 sold
awarded startup Britishvolt, a       Britishvolt says this should create   scheduled to begin in 2024 and        last year across the country.
manufacturer of car batteries, a     around 3,000 highly skilled           to reach full capacity in 2028.       For the UK’s car industry
grant of £100 million that will      jobs in Northumberland, plus               The company has                  to meet the continuing
help fund a full-scale Gigaplant     over 5,000 jobs indirectly in the     also announced several                needs of the transition, local
                                                                           complementary initiatives since       battery manufacturers will be
                                                                           the news of the Gigaplant.            vitally necessary to secure a
                                                                           It is pairing up with mining          manufacturing presence in
                                                                           company Glencore to address           the UK and supply power to
                                                                           a contentious issue: end of life      future vehicles.
                                                                           for electric vehicle batteries. The       High-performance car
                                                                           collaboration aims to set up a        manufacturer Lotus is also getting
                                                                           world-leading recycling centre        in on the action, partnering
                                                                           to recover critical metals needed     with Britishvolt to develop a
                                                                           for the energy transition into the    Lotus electric vehicle. The hope
                                                                           battery supply chain.                 is that as with Formula 1, high
                                                                                Electric vehicles are becoming   performance R&D will ultimately
                                                                           an increasingly important piece       have beneficial trickle-down
A architectural rendering of the Britishvolt electric vehicle battery      of the transition to net zero.        effects for more affordable
plant, due to be built in Northumberland © Britishvolt                     Sales in the UK are booming,          batteries and electric vehicles.

On 24 February, leading              can follow. Countless other
engineers set out plans to           instances show where engineers
embed a more ethical culture         could have better implemented
at the heart of the UK’s             ethics in decision-making,
engineering profession, starting     whether it’s crash test dummies
with a new report and tools          based on male drivers that leave
for higher education students        women more at risk in car
from the Royal Academy of            accidents; or how algorithms
Engineering and the Engineering      and search engines have further
Professors’ Council.                 embedded pre-existing
     Engineers make critical         structural inequalities.
decisions all the time – about           As part of the work, the
everything from the physical         committee has written a report
infrastructure that surrounds        recommending ways to help
us, to the climate, the digital      improve awareness of ethical          12 case studies for undergraduate     new software could misuse
fabric of our lives and how          issues in the profession and help     students to explore scenarios         personal data.
information flows through            engineers to deal with and call       where ethics could relate to their       To read the report and case
it, and much more besides.           out bad practice. It also designed    own everyday working lives,           studies and watch the launch
Where the wrong outcomes are                                               including considering trade-offs      event, please visit
prioritised, catastrophic results                                          in the energy transition to how

                                                                                                                    INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022       3

                                                                                                                 implanted into their brains.
                                                                                                                 These devices, which can ease
                                                                                                                 symptoms, are inserted deep
                                                                                                                 into the brain to stimulate the
                                                                                                                 tissue with electrical signals.
                                                                                                                     MSA is a rare, degenerative
                                                                                                                 neurological disorder that
                                                                                                                 shares many similarities with
                                                                                                                 Parkinson’s disease. The team’s
                                                                                                                 research will explore the role
                                                                                                                 of circadian rhythms, motion
                                                                                                                 and different brain signals in
                                                                                                                 the disease and its treatment.
                                                                                                                 It also aims to identify
                                                                                                                 biomarkers that signify the
                                                                                                                 state of the disease, and how
                                                                                                                 these vary throughout the day/
                                                                                                                 night cycle. Ultimately, the
                                                                                                                 plan is to develop stimulation
                                                                                                                 patterns that optimise
                                                                                                                 symptom management and
                                                                                                                 improve sleep.
                                                                                                                     Along with the trials
                                                                                                                 studying MSA, the team is also
    A group of engineers and             Bioinduction on a clinical trial     Engineering Chair in Emerging      preparing separate trials to
    neuroscientists from the             to implant a brain stimulator in     Technologies, the trial has seen   study how the technology can
    University of Oxford have            patients for the first time.         five patients with multiple        be used for post-stroke chronic
    worked with Bristol-based                Led by Professor Tim             system atrophy (MSA) have the      pain, epilepsy and disorders
    bioelectronics startup               Denison, a Royal Academy of          Picostim™-DyNeuMo pacemaker        of consciousness.

    As Ingenia looks towards the         about. Are there any exciting        stories that cover the
    future and plans to increase         engineers or engineering             creativity, variety and breadth
    its presence online, we want         projects you’d like us to cover?     of engineering, please scan
    you to share your thoughts on        Any areas of engineering that        the QR code (right) and
    the magazine – what you like,        don’t get enough attention?          complete our anonymous
    what you don’t like, what digital       We’d also really like to know     reader survey.
    content you’d like to see, your      how it’s used in schools and             To help us develop insight
    favourite parts of the magazine,     colleges so that we can develop      into how different groups of
    and more.                            content that’s useful for teachers   readers experience Ingenia, it
        Your feedback helps inform       and that will help students make     would be really useful if you
    the continued development of         choices about their future study     could also complete as many
    Ingenia, so we’d like to hear what   and career options.                  of the ‘about you’ questions as
    you think about its content and         So that we can continue to        possible
    what you’re interested in reading    bring you exciting, inspiring            Thank you for your support.

4      INGENIA

                                                                       FOR YOUR INSPIRATION: POWERING OUR
                                                                       SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
                                                                       6.00pm, 18 March
                                                                       Royal Institution, London
                                                                       Join researchers working at the Faraday Institution to find
                                                                       out how new breakthroughs in battery technology will help
                                                                       the world meet global challenges such as climate change, air
                                                                       pollution and sustainable jobs.
9 to 24 April
Edinburgh Science Festival is back: from the 9 to 24 April, venues     THE FUTURE OF LIFE ON EARTH
across the city will host experiences for all ages, from interactive   1.00pm, 9 May
exhibitions to workshops, performances, screenings, and evening        Barnard’s Inn Hall, London, or online
talks and discussions. This year’s theme is ‘Revolutions’ and          Award-winning author, science communicator, and cosmology
will explore multiple senses of the word: the power of circles,        and data science expert Roberto Trotta reflects on what’s in store
lifecycles, and revolutionary technologies and approaches to           for life on our pale blue dot, Earth.
tackling global problems, from health to the climate crisis. 

11 to 20 March
This year’s British Science Week is themed ‘Growth’: look out for
events happening in your area or plan your own activities with
the packs available online. You’ll be guided through making a                                                   © Jason Charters/Unsplash
terrarium, designing an aeroplane or building a gentoo penguins’
nest. An annual poster competition is also open until 15 April for     FOOTBALL: DESIGNING THE
ages 3 to 14.                                                          BEAUTIFUL GAME
                                                                       From 8 April
                                                                       Design Museum, London
                                                                       It’s been estimated that half the world’s population – 3.5 billion
                                                                       people – watched the World Cup in 2018. But what innovations
                                                                       have made football what it is today? How were the world’s
                                                                       most significant stadiums master-planned? What innovative
                                                                       materials are used to make today’s boots? Learn about all this
                                                                       and more and see a pair of Lionel Messi’s very own boots at the
                                                                       Design Museum.
                        © The Ice Stupa Project | Sonam Wangchuk

All podcast providers                                                  NEW SCIENTIST LIVE
The first few episodes of season three of Create the Future are        12 to 14 March
now live. Opening the series is award-winning mechanical               Manchester Central Convention Centre, or online
engineer Sonam Wangchuk, discussing the origins of his famous          Manchester’s Central Convention Centre will welcome over 9,000
Ice Stupa project and ongoing mission to inspire global change         visitors, 40 speakers and 30 exhibitors in person for on-stage talks
in the face of multiple climate crises. Other episodes include the     and hands-on demonstrations. Saturday and Sunday of the event
winner of the 2022 QEPrize, Dr Masato Sagawa, and pioneering           are open to everyone, while Monday is focused on schools and
audio engineer Leslie Gaston-Bird.                                     learners at home.                                 

                                                                                                              INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022     5


     &           KATE TODD-DAVIS

    Apprentice Kate Todd-Davis   WHY DID YOU FIRST BECOME                       both, I knew that I wanted to follow the
                                 INTERESTED IN SCIENCE/                         apprenticeship route.
    followed her passion for     ENGINEERING?                                      I graduated with a first-class honours
    aerospace and automotive     I’ve had an inquisitive mind from a young      degree in manufacturing technology from
                                 age, always questioning how and why            the University of Sheffield’s Advanced
    engineering to Rolls-Royce   things work, but I wasn’t really exposed       Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)
    – and gained a degree in     to engineering until I was in secondary        Training Centre, while gaining invaluable
                                 school. When I was 14, I visited the Santa     industry experience at the Rolls-Royce
    manufacturing technology     Pod Raceway and witnessed the astounding       facility in Washington, UK. I’ve also
    from the University of       speed of the drag cars – I had to understand   completed a Level 2 NVQ in fundamental
                                 how they managed to travel so fast.            engineering and am now working
    Sheffield along the way.     Since then, my passion for aerospace and       towards a Level 4 NVQ in engineering
                                 automotive engineering has grown and I’ve      and advanced manufacturing – both
                                 continued to fuel my curiosity by working      delivered by the Sunderland Engineering
                                 for Rolls-Royce.                               Training Association.

                                 HOW DID YOU GET TO WHERE                       WHAT HAS BEEN YOUR BIGGEST
                                 YOU ARE NOW?                                   ACHIEVEMENT TO DATE?
                                 After studying triple science, maths and       Getting a first in my degree has been my
                                 further maths at GCSE, I studied A levels in   greatest academic achievement so far, and I
                                 maths, physics and chemistry. When I was       was recently awarded ‘Highly Commended
                                 at college, I completed work experience        Degree Apprentice of the Year 2021’
                                 at Caterpillar and was accepted onto the       through the National Apprenticeship Service.
                                 EDF Energy Mentoring Scheme at the             I was also named ‘Apprentice of the Year
                                 Hartlepool Nuclear Power Station. I applied    2021’ and ‘Degree Apprentice of the Year
                                 to Newcastle University to study a master’s    2021’ through the University of Sheffield
                                 degree in design and manufacturing             AMRC Training Centre, where I studied
                                 engineering as well as the Manufacturing       towards my degree.
                                 Engineering Degree Apprenticeship through         I’ve also been involved with the recently
                                 Rolls-Royce. Although I was accepted for       set up women in science and engineering


group onsite. This has been a fantastic        instructions, which are used by the
networking opportunity and has helped me       inspectors and operators on the shop floor.       QUICK-FIRE FACTS
appreciate the challenges my colleagues        I am currently completing a Lean Six Sigma        Age: 21
who are women have faced during their          Green Belt and Level 4 NVQ qualification,         Qualifications: BEng (Hons) in
careers. Hearing their stories has motivated   while volunteering as a North East Young          manufacturing technology, University of
me to be more ambitious and hopefully          Apprentice Ambassador.                            Sheffield AMRC Training Centre
encourage more women to pursue a career                                                          Biggest engineering inspiration:
in engineering through my involvement in       WHAT WOULD BE YOUR ADVICE TO                      Katharine Parsons, an engineer who
local STEM events.                             YOUNG PEOPLE LOOKING TO PURSUE                    advocated for women in the field and
                                               A CAREER IN ENGINEERING?                          co-founded the Women’s Engineering
WHAT IS YOUR FAVOURITE THING                   Anyone, at any age, considering a career          Society in 1919
ABOUT BEING AN ENGINEER?                       in engineering should go for it! It’s such
                                                                                                 Most-used technology: Spotify – music
I love being given the opportunity to          a diverse and captivating industry, and
                                                                                                 helps me to stay focused and motivated
constantly learn, develop and challenge        the opportunities are vast. I would also
current ways of working. Being at Rolls-       encourage considering an apprenticeship.          Three words that describe you: Driven,
Royce has exposed me to a variety of           I think it’s the most logical route to success,   ambitious, inquisitive
experienced and passionate colleagues          as it provides you with both work experience
who have mentored and supported me             and technical knowledge.
to achieve my potential. Seeing their
achievements and progression within the        WHAT’S NEXT FOR YOU?
company has further motivated and inspired     In the next few years, I’d like to be in a
me to maintain a strong work ethic and         full-time position at Rolls-Royce. I want
support my future ambitions.                   to continue my involvement in digital
                                               aspects of engineering as I think this is the
WHAT DOES A TYPICAL DAY INVOLVE                future of the company, with the improved
FOR YOU?                                       process capability and more efficient ways
On a day-to-day basis I spend most of my       of work that will become possible. From
time on CAD/CAM software, updating             an academic perspective, I’d also like to
models and processes and analysing             complete a master’s degree to continue my
data. I also write and update technical        professional development.

                                                                                                              INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022   7


    As the world adapts to living with COVID-19, buildings such as schools, hospitals and
    office blocks should be well ventilated to reduce risk of transmission. But how can we
    achieve this while keeping warm and lowering energy consumption? Dr Shaun Fitzgerald
    OBE FREng, Director of Research in the Centre for Climate Repair at the University of
    Cambridge, says that good ventilation doesn’t mean throwing open all the windows, and
    that existing buildings need to be better regulated and monitored to ensure they can be
    warm, safe and climate friendly.
                                 COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on the world           levels of concentration, reduced likelihood
                                 in so many devastating ways over the last         of mould growth, and reduced risk of
                                 two years. Importantly, researchers have          transmission of other airborne pathogens.
                                 discovered that ventilation of buildings              While it is easier to ventilate buildings
                                 can effectively reduce the risk of SARS-          by opening windows during the spring and
                                 CoV-2 virus transmission. In 2021, Sir Patrick    summer, there are challenges in delivering
                                 Vallance KBE FRS, the government’s Chief          the appropriate amount of ventilation in
                                 Scientific Adviser, commissioned a report         colder weather – especially with a focus on
                                 from the Royal Academy of Engineering on          reducing buildings’ energy consumption
                                 how to reduce the risk of infection indoors,      and keeping warm.
                                 in which experts say the importance of                Heat loss through conduction,
                                 ventilation is too often “neglected” and there    uncontrolled air leakage and radiation
                                 is an “urgent need” to improve it.                are the biggest issues engineers face in
                                     The Infection Resilient Environments report   reducing energy use in buildings. Improving
                                 recommends that multiple occupancy                insulation levels helps to reduce the heat
                                 spaces should be well ventilated to minimise      lost by conduction through the building
                                 the build-up of virus if infectious persons are   fabric. However, action is needed to not
                                 present. Additionally, the benefits of a well-    only improve panels’ insulation, but also the
                                 ventilated space go beyond helping reduce         quality of the areas where they are joined.
                                 the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission; higher       Additionally, sealing gaps in the building
                                 ventilation rates can lead to enhanced            fabric means that when a building is empty,


it will not leak out the warm air from the      the same level of ventilation directly via low   to rise. Therefore, our focus should be on
previous day or occupied period. This helps     level windows. Occupants will therefore close    addressing buildings that don’t meet
keep the building warm and reduces the          them, which should be avoided from a health      current building regulation standards for
need for a heating system to preheat the        perspective now. Monitoring of buildings to      ventilation as these buildings arguably
building before re-occupation. Finally,         check whether adequate levels of fresh air are   present the greatest risk for transmission.
installing coatings on windows or foil-         in fact being provided is extremely variable –   They are also likely to consume the most
backed insulation in the attic space can        buildings with controlled ventilation systems    energy as a result of poor building fabric
help reduce heat loss by radiation.             and CO2 sensors in occupied spaces can           and systems. There is a role for different
     Once the building fabric has been          more easily provide appropriate levels of        controlled ventilation systems ranging from
upgraded to a good level, when the              fresh air. Buildings that have people together   natural ventilation to full heat recovery
building is occupied the space can be           for extended periods of time that rely on        schemes. In addition, high efficiency
well ventilated, even in cold weather,          manual openings are more challenging, as         particulate air (HEPA) filters or ultraviolet
without excessive energy use. This is           was highlighted in a study of an outbreak        light (UVC) systems can help reduce
because natural heat gains within the space     in a restaurant in Wuhan. For example, can       infection risks in locations where good
can often be sufficient to maintain the         restaurant visitors be assured of the level of   ventilation is difficult to achieve. However,
interior at a comfortable 21°C and provide      fresh air at their table? There are health and   the benefits of using other kinds of air
ventilation without extra heating or a heat     safety issues in food preparation in kitchens,   cleaning devices are less clear.
recovery scheme, even when the external         but it is a different situation in the public        The pandemic has revealed flaws in
temperature drops to 5°C. The combined          area. Now that an environment’s air quality      the way in which we design, manage
heat gains from IT equipment, lighting,         and its role in creating safer spaces has been   and operate buildings. Unless they are
solar, and the occupants themselves are         brought into sharper focus, government and       addressed, these could disrupt management
considerable. If the ventilation system is      professional bodies will need to develop         of this and future pandemics, impose
designed to exploit these heat gains by         further regulations and guidance and             high financial and health costs on society,
premixing the incoming cold air with warm       communicate these clearly and consistently.      and constrain our ability to address other
room air, adequate levels of ventilation can    More importantly, architects, engineers, and     challenges such as climate change. Well-
be provided without cold draughts.              building owners and operators must ensure        designed and maintained ventilation
     Unfortunately, many existing buildings     these are applied.                               systems can help overcome the challenges
have poorly maintained ventilation systems.          Finally, engineers must find a balance in   that COVID-19 poses and contribute to the
For example, if a building has opening          winter between reducing the risk of SARS-        transition to zero-carbon buildings. As the
windows, not all the windows may in fact        CoV-2 transmission to an acceptable level        Infection Resilient Environments report notes:
work: many windows at lower levels that         and keeping energy use low. Increased            “government policy on net zero must be
are easily accessed by occupants are better     levels of ventilation reduce the risk of         developed in a way that is consistent with
maintained than those at higher levels.         transmission, but once these are considered      priorities around indoor air quality and
While losing a few opening windows isn’t a      reasonable, the benefits from reducing           making buildings resilient to infection.” It
problem in the spring or autumn, it can be      the risk of transmission decrease for each       is not a choice between COVID-19 resilient
a problem in winter if they are the top ones.   litre per second per person of outdoor           and climate-friendly buildings; it is a case of
Cracking open all the high-level windows        air provided – and energy costs continue         improving buildings to meet both goals.
a small amount provides good levels of
ventilation but without cold draughts – the      BIOGRAPHY
incoming cold fresh air can mix with the         Dr Shaun Fitzgerald OBE FREng is Director of Research in the Centre for Climate
air in the space and be warmed before it         Repair at the University of Cambridge. His academic research on ventilation led to
hits the nearest occupant. This means that       him founding and leading Breathing Buildings from 2006 to 2018. He is a member
                                                 of the SAGE Environmental Modelling Group, one of the authors of the Chartered
radiators should not need to be turned up
                                                 Institution of Building Services Engineers Emerging from Lockdown series, and
to alleviate cold draughts. Without the high-
                                                 currently part of the AIRBODS research team.
level windows, it will be too cold to provide

                                                                                                                 INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022       9

     © Unsplash/NASA

10     INGENIA

                                    Did you know?
                                    • At any given time, at least four GPS satellites are visible in the sky anywhere
                                      on Earth
                                    • GPS positioning is less accurate in cities because the signals are reflected by tall
                                      buildings in ‘urban canyons’
                                    • New technologies could boost accuracy and even help us navigate indoors

                                    Satellite-based positioning technologies have taken over the world
                                    since their inception during the Space Race. Although they can
                                    now pinpoint a location to within a few metres outdoors, they still
                                    suffer from unsolved problems, such as drift near obstructions
                                    like tall buildings, bridges and trees. Now, companies like Focal
                                    Point Positioning (FocalPoint) are using sensor fusion and signal
                                    processing technology to overcome these problems and find new
                                    applications for the technology.

                                    person in need of medical             equipped it with a radio            Global Navigation Satellite
                                    assistance down to a few metres.      emitter to allow people on          Systems (GNSS). The overarching
                                    Air traffic controllers at airports   Earth to track the satellite’s      term GNSS encompasses
                                    can track and monitor inbound         launch and orbit. Scientists        different satellite-based
                                    planes to prevent delays and          knew that the frequency of          positioning, navigation and
                                    collisions. Ships can be carefully    these signals dropped slightly      timing systems used across
                                    guided through the busy English       as the satellite passed the         the globe:
                                    Channel. Conservationists can         receiving station, thanks to the    – GPS, operated by the US
                                    track animals and their migratory     Doppler Effect (which describes     – GLONASS (Global Navigation
                                    patterns, from flocks of swifts to    the difference between the             Satellite System), operated by
It’s hard to imagine life without   herds of bison.                       frequency of a wave when it            the Russian Federation
GPS. Instead of poring over             So how does this technology       leaves a source compared to         – Galileo, operated by the EU
a map and writing down              work, and what possibilities          when it reaches an observer).       – BeiDou Navigation Satellite
directions, we grab a postcode      could open up if it was to            They then realised that this           System (BDS), operated
and plan a journey at the touch     become even better than it            frequency data could be used           by China.
of a button on a smartphone         already is?                           to predict the satellite’s orbit,       All GNSS are, at their core, just
or satnav. We can watch a                                                 and furthermore, that they          atomic clocks in space, ticking.
taxi driver or takeaway as it                                             could use this same principle       The messages we receive from
approaches or watch ourselves       GPS AND GNSS                          to calculate the position of an     the satellites tell us the time
trundle towards an e-scooter        Satellite-based positioning           object on Earth, and so GPS         from these incredibly precise
around the corner. Of course,       was conceived in the days of          was born.                           clocks, along with information
it goes beyond our everyday         the Sputnik I satellite and the           GPS stands for Global           that lets us calculate exactly
conveniences: thanks to GPS,        Space Race. When Sputnik I            Positioning System technology       where the satellites are in space.
paramedics can pinpoint a           was launched, Soviet engineers        and is one of the better-known      By comparing timestamps from

                                                                                                                 INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022      11

     To be able to provide navigation to the nearest few metres,
     extremely precise and stable clocks are needed onboard GNSS
     satellites: atomic clocks. With counters based on the frequency of
     oscillating atoms, they can keep time to within three billionths of
     a second.

 different satellites at different       encounter high GNSS errors to
 locations, we can work out              this day, such as in cities.
 exactly where (and when) we                 Today’s consumer watches
 are, as GNSS receivers don’t just       and smartphones determine
 calculate position to within a          location using more than just
 few metres in good conditions,          GNSS data. They incorporate
 but also calculate time to within       Wi-Fi and cellular positioning, as
 a few nanoseconds too.                  well as using inertial data from
                                         accelerometers and gyroscopes,
                                         which measure directional
 MINIMISING ERROR                        change and orientation as you
 In the late 1990s, civilian GPS         walk, run or drive. They can also
 signals were intentionally              include a digital compass that
 degraded by an inbuilt feature          senses the Earth’s magnetic field.
 called ‘selective availability’. This   Finally, a tiny barometer helps
 was designed to prevent the             to calculate an accurate height
 US’s enemies from using GPS to          measurement. All this data
 their advantage and introduced          can be combined to provide
 errors of 50 metres horizontally        the most accurate position
 and 100 metres vertically. It was       fix available, and to help to
 disabled in 2000 for various            maintain position estimates in
 reasons – primarily because             regions where GNSS signals are
 academics and commercial                blocked, such as indoors. But
 enterprises across the world had        can we also change how GNSS
 developed a variety of methods          works to improve performance
                                                                               Incoming GNSS positioning signals from satellites reflect off tall
 to counter it.                          right at the very core?               buildings in urban canyon environments like Canary Wharf
     With the flick of a switch,                                               © Focal Point Positioning
 civilian GPS accuracy went                                                    called an ‘urban canyon’, as there       from a ride-hailing app, it could
 from 50 metres to 5 metres and          MAXIMISING                            is limited view of the open sky          present real safety challenges if
 the world changed in a way              ACCURACY IN CITIES                    and, as a result, the satellites. This   autonomous vehicles are to rely
 that many people have never             GNSS receivers struggle to            means any GNSS device in the             heavily on GNSS.
 considered. Imagine if your sat         maintain high accuracy in cities      vicinity will be inundated with              However, a solution to
 nav was always wrong by at              because the signals from the          reflected copies of the signal as        these urban GNSS challenges
 least 50 metres? How annoying           satellites can be blocked by          they bounce around between               may be just around the corner.
 would that be for door-delivery         buildings and bounce around           the buildings. A normal receiver         One approach comes from
 services like Deliveroo and             between them, leading to              will detect all available versions       Cambridge-based startup
 Amazon? How dangerous                   incorrect measurements being          of the signals and be unable             FocalPoint. The company
 would it be for the emergency           processed by the GNSS chip.           to tell the difference between           has developed a software-
 services? Precise GPS-based             It is likely that most people         a signal that has arrived on the         based GNSS technology
 technologies that we take for           have experienced confusing or         line-of-sight path, and one with         called Supercorrelation, which
 granted today, such as those            incorrect GNSS fixes while trying     extra delay from reflections. The        performs position calculations
 in autonomous agriculture               to navigate in a built-up area.       result is poor positioning, such         using only the measurements
 systems and low-cost drones,                 Canary Wharf, London’s           that your location may appear            from line-of-sight signals. It
 could not have been developed.          financial district, is an excellent   across the street or further             does this by determining the
 Our fitness trackers would be           example of a difficult GNSS           away from where you actually             arrival angle of signals, allowing
 useless. However, even with             environment: a forest of              are. Although that might cause           it to keep any signals that have
 selective availability disabled,        skyscrapers with highly reflective    havoc with getting to your               travelled in the correct straight-
 there are still places where we         surfaces. It’s what is sometimes      destination or finding a driver          line path from the satellite, while

12     INGENIA

   Improved positioning
   using Supercorrelation
   Canary Wharf, London

       Standard GNSS location from a
       consumer smartphone
       Improved location when combined
       with FocalPoint’s Supercorrelation

Mapping corrections like FocalPoint’s Supercorrelation can significantly improve GNSS positioning where obstructions are present
© Focal Point Positioning
discarding reflected signals                sports, as marathons and official    most accurate metrics for sport-   Centimetre-level accuracy is
that arrive at the user from                championship-status events           fitness applications, where the    already being used in China
other directions. According                 were staged virtually. These         combination of information         for early-warning systems for
to the company, the result                  required runners to upload their     from GNSS and human-motion-        landslides with the BeiDou GNSS
is consistently accurate and                sports watch data to determine       modelling software provides        network. Expanded elsewhere,
reliable fixes, even in the most            medal places. In one case, there     more precise metrics than either   it could make possible further
difficult signal environments.              was a gap of just 0.05 seconds       alone can.                         applications in disaster planning
    Supercorrelation’s approach             between second and third                                                and recovery.
combines sensor fusion, machine
learning and signal processing,
                                            podium places. It is unlikely that
                                            the current consumer-grade
                                                                                 ENABLING                               Looking to more
                                                                                                                    commonplace applications,
developed over several years                GNSS chips in sports watches         AUTONOMY AND                       technologies such as FocalPoint’s
by FocalPoint’s expert team.                are accurate enough for that         INDOOR NAVIGATION                  will enable autonomous vehicles
But FocalPoint isn’t alone in               decision to have been any more       While it’s important to provide    and drones to navigate more
developing a solution to the                confident than the flip of a coin.   high-performance wearable          safely in cities, mountainous areas
urban canyon GPS issue. The                     This is another challenge        technology to athletes so          and forests. We may see last-
company has developed another               FocalPoint has been working          they can use accurate data to      mile delivery robots navigating
approach in collaboration with              towards addressing. The              govern their training, shape       pavements, or apps that help
Google. This is currently used in           company has developed                performance and shave              us navigate to the right train
Android devices and provides                D-Tail, a human-motion-              precious seconds off race times,   platform or supermarket shelf.
mapping corrections based on                modelling software package           precision positioning will have    And of course, we will never
Google’s own 3D models of                   that converts motion patterns        a far greater impact elsewhere.    again get lost in Canary Wharf.
buildings in nearly 4,000 cities            in the accelerometer and
around the world.                           gyroscope data from a                 BIOGRAPHY
                                            smartphone or sports watch            Dr Ramsey Faragher is President, Founder and CTO of
                                            into a 3D reconstruction              FocalPoint. He is a world-leading expert in positioning, sensor
KEEPING ATHLETES                            of motion through space.              fusion and machine-learning for navigation systems. Alongside
TO TIME                                     FocalPoint says it allows accurate    his roles in FocalPoint, he is a Fellow of the Royal Institute of
The COVID-19 lockdown saw                   positioning to be maintained          Navigation and a Bye-Fellow of Queens’ College at the University
GNSS being stretched to its                 as people move in and out of          of Cambridge.
limits in the world of elite                buildings, and provides the

                                                                                                                        INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022   13


     DnaNudge’s consumer genetics technology has been adapted to deliver an award-winning rapid, lab-free test for COVID-19
     © Pixabay/Mahmoud-Ahmed

 Testing for COVID-19 has become routine for almost everyone, from schoolteachers
 and shop workers to actors and dancers. An award-winning test that doesn’t require
 specialist laboratories or trained clinicians to analyse the results is being used in
 UK hospitals and has helped organisations such as the Royal Ballet and the London
 Symphony Orchestra to ensure that their shows can go on safely. Stuart Nathan spoke
 to Professor Christofer Toumazou FREng FRS FMedSci of Imperial College London
 about his rapid, affordable COVID-19 test, based on lab-in-a-cartridge technology,
 that provides results in just over an hour.

14     INGENIA

Did you know?
• An interdisciplinary team has created a simple swab test that analyses individuals’
  genetic profiles
• The test maps people’s unique DNA and nudges them towards healthier food
  shopping choices
• It has now been adapted to accurately detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus from saliva
  samples on-site in just over an hour

If it hadn’t been for a family        on treating the effects of disease   dollars into consumer-friendly       Sykes FRS FMedSci HonFREng,
health crisis, Professor Christofer   rather than preventing its worst     technologies in the telecoms         former Chair and Chief
Toumazou’s career may not             effects from developing.             area, but we’ve invested very        Executive of GlaxoSmithKline,
have gone in the direction that           “Had we known that Marcus        little into consumer health and      had recently been appointed
has now won his team the              had inherited this condition         in using technologies in a way       rector of Imperial College
Royal Academy of Engineering’s        there were things that we            that can help consumers look         London and was keen on
MacRobert Award – the longest-        and the health system could          after their own health.”             interdisciplinary research, which
running award for engineering         have done earlier,” Professor             The lab-on-a-chip concept       was more commonplace in the
innovation in the UK. In              Toumazou explains. “That could       was then in its infancy, but         pharmaceutical industry and had
2021, DnaNudge, created by            have avoided the side-effects        Professor Toumazou realised          proved extremely fruitful. “With
biomedical Professor Toumazou         he experienced because we            that it could have potential for     his backing, I created an Institute
and geneticist Dr Maria Karvela –     didn’t know early enough.            this kind of application; with       of Biomedical Engineering where
CEO and CSO respectively of the       I witnessed first-hand how           his knowledge of design and          medics, engineers, biochemists,
London-based startup – won the        primitive chronic disease            fabrication of silicon wafers he     electrical engineers, and
award for its pioneering genetic      management was in a home             could be well placed to develop      physicists all worked together,”
testing technology, which has         setting. Hospitals often find it     it. While his background was in      says Professor Toumazou.
pivoted and was adapted into          difficult to bring in preventative   electronics and semiconductors,      “That interdisciplinarity and
a rapid, lab-free RT-PCR test for     technologies because it means        he had little knowledge of           collaboration allowed us to
COVID-19 in NHS hospitals.            additional cost to the healthcare    microfluidics – the branch           develop the complete lab-on-a-
     Having working in electronics    system. Although it would be         of fluid dynamics concerned          chip technology.”
for telecommunications,               cheaper in the long run and          with liquid flow through very            The lab-on-a-chip developed
Professor Toumazou embarked           better for patients, it is set up    small channels – and hardly          from a need to decide whether
on this new path because both         to treat disease rather than to      any knowledge of genetics.           to attack the problem by
he and his wife had inherited a       prevent it.”                         Fortunately, only a few years        sequencing or by detection.
single copy of the same faulty                                             earlier the Human Genome             Sequencing required analysing
gene, which in 2007 caused                                                 Project, the international           large stretches of the patient’s
their son, Marcus, to develop         LAB-ON-A-CHIP                        research effort to determine         genome, a lengthy process
severe kidney disease. After          Professor Toumazou started           the DNA sequence of the entire       needing a lot of processing
Marcus suffered organ failure,        thinking about whether his           human genome, had issued its         power. “Sequencing is a very
the Toumazou family spent a           skills in miniaturising complex      first report, so characterising      good medical technology that
great deal of time in London’s        technology could help develop        human genes and finding              we now value so much today,
Great Ormond Street Hospital for      equipment to carry out genetic       practical uses for the information   for example in discovering the
Sick Children, where Professor        testing to detect genes that         was of great interest.               SARS-CoV-2 virus’s genes, but my
Toumazou realised that                could potentially have a serious          The idea required               heart was more in detection than
healthcare related to genetic         effect on people’s future health.    interdisciplinary working for        sequencing,” Professor Toumazou
conditions focused too much           “We had invested billions of         development. Sir Richard             says. “I thought that if we could

                                                                                                                   INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022    15

     Once the NudgeBox has mapped the user’s genetic profile to key nutrition-related health traits, they can use the wrist-worn DnaBand or
     the mobile app to scan food products sold in UK supermarkets to find out whether the nutritional contents are a good match for their
     individual biology
 detect genes with mutations            reagents to detect those SNPs.       extract a sample from a swab         sequences. When the target
 that made people vulnerable to         Although you can collect saliva      and then extracts DNA from           DNA sequences are present
 avoidable health conditions, we        samples easily, you then have        the sample, which is minute.         in the sample, fluorescence is
 would have a powerful tool.”           to extract the DNA and make          Professor Toumazou explains:         released proportionate to the
                                        sure there is enough for the         “Think of DNA molecules as           number of copies of target
                                        reagents to detect the SNP you       very small ‘fish’ and as before,     DNA. This fluorescence is then
 FISHING FOR SNPS                       are looking for.”                    the SNP reagents as ‘bait’,          detected by the NudgeBox, and
 This detection approach led                The chip plugs into a palm-      spotted in each well. Each ‘bait’    a profile in the array of wells is
 DnaNudge’s newly established           sized circular cartridge, which is   will bind to its specific target     created. The first thing it does is
 team to develop a chip similar         then inserted into a ‘NudgeBox’      ‘fish’. However, to detect this      encrypt it so we can throw away
 to devices used to identify            – an appliance a little smaller      ‘fish–bait’ interaction, we need a   the cartridge; we don’t keep
 active ingredients to target           than a shoebox that contains         large number of fish hooked on       DNA information.”
 specific receptors on cells. The       sensors and heating elements.        their unique baits. We use the           DnaNudge used the
 chip contains a micro-array of         Lab technicians normally extract     polymerase chain reaction (PCR)      national guidelines for nutrition
 72 tiny wells, each containing         DNA by pipetting samples into        to do that. When DNA is heated,      published by the Chief Medical
 a chemical reagent that binds          a machine that uses chemical         the two strands separate. You        Officer’s office and ensured that
 to a genetic sequence of               steps to purify the genetic          can then add some short,             these were integrated into the
 interest. The sequences are            material. Over two to three          single strands of synthetic          app. The software, hosted on a
 known as single-nucleotide             years, DnaNudge worked               DNA, which bind to the target        mobile phone, allows consumers
 polymorphisms (SNPs),                  with Cambridge-based The             strand when it cools. Then, the      to check their SNP profile against
 conveniently pronounced ‘snips’.       Technology Partnership (TTP) to      polymerase attaches to the           foods’ nutritional information
     “Think of the SNP reagents         develop a system where every         ‘fish–bait’ construct and adds       using a small wireless barcode
 as being like fishing bait that        step required for extraction and     on other individual building         scanner to get an instant
 only catch one species of fish,”       purification takes place inside      blocks of DNA (called free           read out showing whether a
 Professor Toumazou explains.           the cartridge. “That’s the key       nucleotides) to make a whole         particular item is good or bad
 “We decided that the first health      to decentralisation,” Professor      new double strand. If you repeat     for them. For example, people
 conditions we would target             Toumazou adds, “allowing             this heating–cooling–addition        with a predisposition to type 2
 were obesity, hypertension and         unskilled workers to run this        cycle many times you get more        diabetes must reduce saturated
 type 2 diabetes, which are huge        with no need for chemistry           copies of the target DNA. The        fat and sugar in their diets, while
 public health issues putting a         degrees or understanding of          NudgeBox contains all the            those with a predisposition to
 strain on the NHS. The genetic         medical devices.”                    heating and cooling hardware         hypertension must reduce salt.
 mutations – the SNPs – that                The cartridge has a micro        needed to do this. In less than      “It won’t say ‘you should eat
 leave people vulnerable to             motor in its base – powered by       an hour it extracts the DNA and      a banana instead of a biscuit’,
 them are well known, so we             the NudgeBox – that operates         performs enough PCR cycles to        because we know that kind
 baited some of the wells with          miniaturised equipment to            detect the presence of the target    of advice doesn’t work,” says

16     INGENIA

Alongside its use in NHS hospitals, the test is being in used in care homes across the UK. The test also has multiplex capabilities and can check
for FluA, FluB and respiratory syncytial virus in addition to COVID-19 © 2020
Professor Toumazou. “What it        In January 2020, DnaNudge took        locked down. The government           detecting SNPs in human DNA,
does say is that these biscuits     its technology to the Consumer        started to ask industry for ways      it could detect the virus. “I had
would be better for you than        Electronics Show in Las Vegas,        to help tackle the pandemic.          deliberately tried to avoid the
those others. That’s what we        where it attracted interest from      With the genetic sequence             ‘real’ medical area, but this threw
mean by the ‘nudge’.” Professor     US health retailers. However,         of the SARS-Cov-2 virus               me straight into it,” he explains.
Toumazou is himself predisposed     cases of COVID-19 were already        quickly determined, Professor         “I had discussions with the
to hypertension, and by using       rising dramatically in China,         Toumazou instantly realised           Department of Health and Social
the system discovered that dry-     and just weeks after the team’s       that DnaNudge’s technology            Care, and we agreed we would
roasted peanuts are worse for       return from the US, the UK also       could be useful: instead of           do this at cost”.
him than standard salted peanuts
because of higher salt content in
the flavoured coating.

The technology was launched
commercially in November
2019. DnaNudge partnered with
Waitrose to attract customers
and opened a shop in London’s
Covent Garden to provide the
service, adding a series of tests
to determine which active
ingredients in skincare products
were most likely to benefit the
customer. “To launch the service,
we needed show people that
with just small changes they
could see definite results.
Healthcare and appearance are
both appealing things for people
to latch onto: in a way, we were     Without a laboratory or any manual steps involved, the ‘lab-in-cartridge’ technology can return results
appealing to people’s vanity to      in just over an hour. This rapidity has proved popular in the arts and culture sector, with institutions
get this off the ground,” adds       including London Symphony Orchestra, Glyndebourne Festival and the Royal Opera House – home of the
Professor Toumazou.                  Royal Ballet – all using the tests to support safe rehearsals and performances

                                                                                                                    INGENIA ISSUE 90 MARCH 2022     17

 The first issue was that the virus    Having 72 wells available on the    is human DNA in the sample          and we helped them with
 contains RNA (ribonucleic acid)       analysis chip allows DnaNudge       – and therefore the swab has        material choice, which machines
 rather than DNA, and only DNA         to include all the viral variants   been effective – so if COVID-19     to use, what quality control
 can be amplified by PCR. The          of interest as soon as their        isn’t detected, you know it’s a     was necessary,” says Professor
 DnaNudge team developed               genetic sequence is available       true negative,” says Professor      Toumazou. “It was a challenging
 a technique using reverse             and allows for a primed well to     Toumazou. “This tackled a           process that otherwise could
 transcription PCR to convert RNA      detect human DNA in the saliva      huge problem, as 20% of tests       have taken years.”
 to DNA, using a combination of        sample from a patient. When a       in hospitals were returning             Although challenging,
 freeze-dried reagents. However,       swab is taken, it often doesn’t     false negatives. We did a           Professor Toumazou believes
 this wasn’t very stable and           pick up any genetic material at     huge validation in London           that the engineering effort
 sometimes didn’t work, so the         all, which means it can show        and Oxford hospitals to satisfy     that went into adapting his
 team needed to find a way to          as a false negative on a COVID-     the MHRA [Medicines and             system to detect COVID-19
 heat the RNA as well – in less        19 test. “Our system includes       Healthcare products Regulatory      may have been a blessing in
 than a month.                         a control, to check that there      Agency] and then published          disguise for future diagnostic
                                                                           a paper in The Lancet showing       applications. He thinks that the
                                                                           96% to 97% sensitivity and          technology’s most valuable use
                                                                           100% specificity, meaning we        will be in helping doctors to
                                                                           didn’t miss any positives.”         determine which medicines are
                                                                               The major engineering           likely to be the most effective
                                                                           problem for the project             for patients, enabling them
                                                                           revolved around the                 to prescribe and dose based
                                                                           manufacturability of the            on patients’ metabolism of
                                                                           cartridge. Switching from           particular drugs and addressing
                                                                           consumer testing to COVID-19        antibiotic resistance. “Lots of
                                                                           testing required a large scale-     bacteria have resistant genes
                                                                           up of production. DnaNudge          that must be treated with
                                                                           partnered with a contract           the right antibiotics,” adds
                                                                           manufacturing company Jabil,        Professor Toumazou. “The
                                                                           which makes Hewlett-Packard         current tests take far too long;
                                                                           printer cartridges in Ireland, to   while doctors are waiting for
                                                                           manufacture the cartridges.         results their patients will be on
                                                                           Inkjet printer cartridges have      ineffective drugs. This is known
                                                                           some mechanical similarities        as personalised or precision
                                                                           with the test cartridges – both     medicine, and there is resistance
                                                                           depend on precise handling          from pharmaceutical companies
                                                                           of small amounts of liquid and      as it might impact sales of some
                                                                           must be plugged into another        of their blockbuster antibiotic
                                                                           box to interface with separate      drugs. But I hope things are
                                                                           mechanisms. “They helped us         changing. I’m going back to the
                                                                           understand what they needed,        concept of one chip, one drug.”

                                                                            Professor Christofer Toumazou FREng FRS FMedSci is
                                                                            DnaNudge’s CEO, and Regius Professor of Engineering, Chair in
                                                                            Biomedical Circuit Design, Director of the Centre for Bio-Inspired
                                                                            Technology, and Founder and Chief Scientist for the Institute of
                                                                            Biomedical Engineering at Imperial College London. He is also
                                                                            Co-Founder and Executive Chair of DNA Electronics. In 1994,
     As well as winning the MacRobert Award in 2021, the Royal Academy      Professor Toumazou was the youngest Professor ever to be
     of Engineering also awarded Professor Toumazou with a President’s
     Special Award for Pandemic Service in 2020 © 2020        appointed at Imperial College London, at the age of 33.

18     INGENIA
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