PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie

 
PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
PUBLIC SERVICE
DATA STRATEGY
2019 – 2023

Office of the Government Chief Information Officer
Department of Public Expenditure and Reform
PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

Contents
Ministerial Foreword...................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.     Executive Summary................................................................................................................................................ 2
2.     Introduction............................................................................................................................................................... 4
       2.1          Context and relevant strategies.......................................................................................................... 4
       2.2          Data Management Landscape in the Public Service Today...................................................... 5
3.     Vision ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8
       3.1          Data Ecosystem.......................................................................................................................................... 8
       3.2          Benefits.......................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.     Principles.................................................................................................................................................................... 11
       4.1          Data Transparency.................................................................................................................................... 11
       4.2          Data Reuse................................................................................................................................................... 12
       4.3          Data Governance and Controls........................................................................................................... 13
       4.4          Digital............................................................................................................................................................. 14
       4.5          Data Analytics............................................................................................................................................. 14
       4.6          Data Privacy and Security...................................................................................................................... 14
5.     Strategic Themes..................................................................................................................................................... 16
       5.1          Protection and Legislation..................................................................................................................... 16
       5.2          Governance and Standards................................................................................................................... 17
       5.3          Privacy and Security................................................................................................................................. 17
       5.4          Digital Collection....................................................................................................................................... 19
       5.5          Interoperability.......................................................................................................................................... 19
       5.6          Analytics........................................................................................................................................................ 21
       5.7          Discovery...................................................................................................................................................... 23
       5.8          Trusted Identifiers..................................................................................................................................... 24
       5.9          Base Registries........................................................................................................................................... 25
       5.10 Transparency............................................................................................................................................... 26
       5.11 Capability...................................................................................................................................................... 27
       5.12 Geo-spatial................................................................................................................................................... 28
       5.13 Records Management.............................................................................................................................. 29
6.     Action Summary...................................................................................................................................................... 30
Appendix A: Data Lifecycle.......................................................................................................................................... 32
Appendix B: Glossary...................................................................................................................................................... 34
PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

Foreword
I am delighted to publish the first Data Strategy for the Public Service. Data lies at the heart of
Government, it drives decision making, shapes public policy, and is central to the delivery of public
services. As our society evolves so too does the demand for improved public services. The strategy sets
out a vision, along with a set of actions, on how we can improve our use of data to support a more joined-
up, efficient and effective Government. It aims to put in place a series of measures to improve how data is
governed, managed and re-used in a secure, efficient and transparent manner across the whole of
Government for the benefit of citizens and businesses.

The strategy’s implementation will put Government in a better place to respond to service demands,
providing joined-up and integrated services, reducing administrative burdens, better protection of personal
data, and improving the process of policy formulation and evaluation.

The strategy builds upon the forthcoming Data Sharing and Governance Bill. In order to improve
Government data, its treatment, and its reuse, the Data Sharing and Governance Bill will put in place a
legal framework for the safe and secure sharing of data across Government. This is complimented by a
wide range of governance and transparency measures to ensure that all data sharing is done in an
appropriate manner.

In order to deliver efficient and effective public services, the same data should not have to be collected
over and over again, this is costly and cumbersome for citizens, businesses and public bodies alike. Public
Service bodies should be able to work together for the benefit of citizens and businesses.

In October 2017 Ireland signed up to the Tallinn Declaration on eGovernment, which contains the once-
only principle. The once-only principle outlines that public bodies should collect data once, and only once
from citizens and businesses, and reuse that data as opposed to recollecting it. The benefits of adopting
this approach are numerous, and both the Data Sharing and Governance Bill and this strategy drive Ireland
further along this path.

I am excited about the direction and ambitious nature of this strategy. It aims to bring about real change
and improvements in how we deliver public services. I look forward to seeing the benefits and positive
outcomes that its implementation will deliver.

       Please
       provide
        image
                            Patrick O’Donovan T.D.
                            Minister of State at the Department of Finance and the Department of
                            Public Expenditure and Reform with special responsibility for Public
                            Procurement, Open Government and eGovernment

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PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

       1
    Executive
    Summary
    Data lies at the heart of Government, informs             a well-functioning whole-of-Government
    and drives public policy, is collected and                data ecosystem can emerge to better serve its
    consumed by Public Service bodies (PSBs) and is           citizens and businesses.
    central to the delivery of public services. In order
    to optimise the use of our data throughout its            This strategy describes a data ecosystem,
    lifecycle, and ensure it is appropriately protected,      including associated governance, for the
    a Public Service data strategy is required.               optimisation of data management within
                                                              Government. It sets out a single narrative
    While there are many examples of good                     paving the way to an integrated approach to the
    data management practice throughout the                   improved use of data, particularly across PSB
    Public Service, data is frequently collected              boundaries. This approach will result in benefits
    and managed in an independent manner. This                across both the strategic and operational use of
    approach has commonly been adopted in order               data. Such benefits include:
    to serve specific needs and to comply with
    legislative obligations, though has resulted in a            • More joined-up end-to-end digital services
    somewhat fragmented whole-of-Government                      • Better analytics driven data insights
    data ecosystem. These practices can result in                  leading to improved policy formulation
    increased administrative burdens, reduced data               • Reduced administration by cutting the
    driven policy making, difficulties in introducing              need to provide the same data over and
    joined-up digital services, and reduced                        over again
    Government agility in responding to today’s                  • Improved agility by securely and efficiently
    challenges.                                                    reusing data
                                                                 • Improved protection and transparency of
    By building on the good data management                        the way data is used throughout its lifecycle
    practices already employed by some PSBs,                     • Better services and policy through
    adopting a more consistent and uniform                         improved data quality
    approach to data across Government, and
    enabling the secure reuse of data and services,           The strategy builds upon existing data initiatives

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PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

such as the National Data Infrastructure (NDI),              • Base registries (single authoritative sources
which primarily concerns the identification of                 of data) will enable data to be reused, and
people, businesses and location; and the Data                  reduce the need for citizens and businesses
Sharing and Governance Bill (DSGB), which                      to provide the same information to PSBs
sets out a legal framework for the sharing and                 again and again
governance of data across Government. The                    • Privacy, security and transparency systems
strategy illustrates how these work together,                  and processes empowering people to see
along with appropriate governance, processes                   what data Government holds on them and
and systems, to create a cohesive ecosystem.                   how they are being processed. These will be
                                                               instrumental in fostering trust between the
This strategy first sets out a vision for                      various actors in the ecosystem
data management within Government
                                                             • A structured approach to open data and
and includes a set of guiding principles to
                                                               cross-departmental analytics is central
assist PSBs in aligning with the vision. The
                                                               to the promoting the value of data, the
strategy proceeds to detail a set of strategic
                                                               generation of data-driven insights and
themes and supporting actions that will build
                                                               delivery of evidence based decision making
incrementally to a target state data ecosystem.
The ecosystem is comprised of the following                Informed by exemplar implementations in
primary characteristics.
                                                           Europe, such as Estonia and Denmark, and
                                                           aligning with best-practice recommendations
 • A strong emphasis on supporting data
                                                           from the EU, OECD and the World Bank, the
   controllers in meeting their obligations
                                                           target state data ecosystem envisioned by
   under the GDPR and other legislation while
                                                           this strategy requires a whole-of-government
   safely allowing citizens, businesses and
                                                           approach, where PSBs will cooperate and
   PSBs to get appropriate access to the data
   that Government holds                                   reuse data and services in an effective, secure
 • Standards and good governance processes                 and consistent way using API-led technologies.
   will ensure that data is managed
                                                           The Public Service Data Strategy is a
   appropriately and consistently across all
   PSBs, maintaining trust with Government                 comprehensive multi-year, multi-department
 • Security and data protection measures to                strategy that sets out a series of ambitious
   identify and protect citizen and business               goals and actions to deliver on a target state
   data, for example, privacy-by-design and                data ecosystem for Government. It sets our
   privacy-by-default, will be adopted                     “North Star” to start moving towards
 • Co-ordinated approach, including shared                 incrementally. Although covering four years,
   systems and processes, moving us to                     this strategy sets out some long-term actions
   a consistent method of publishing and                   which will take well beyond the lifetime of this
   collecting data digitally                               strategy to fully realise.
 • Shared platform to support the secure,
   transparent and controlled reuse of data                Delivery of the strategy will be modular and
   across PSBs will be introduced. These                   incremental, with each action delivering its
   technologies will focus on APIs as the                  own value and progressively adding to the data
   primary enabler for data reuse. APIs                    ecosystem. Many of these actions are already
   (Application Programming Interface)                     underway in some form and this strategy seeks
   are a modern best-practice machine-to-                  to build upon what is already in place within
   machine mechanism to facilitate technical               PSBs. Delivery of the strategy will require a
   interoperability, supporting controlled                 sustained investment and commitment across
   service and data access                                 Government.

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PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

       2
    Introduction

    2.1 Context and relevant strategies                         • The Public Service ICT Strategy includes
    Public Service data, as a service-wide cross                  a Data as an Enable strategic pillar calling
    cutting concern, would benefit from being                     for the improved management of data
    examined and dealt with in a unified and                      across the Public Service supporting better
    consistent manner. Across PSB boundaries,                     administration and decision making.
    data sources are often independent and lack
    harmonisation and consistency, frequently                   • The eGovernment Strategy 2017-2020
    making it diffi cult to accurately and reliably               sets out a vision that utilises technology to
    reuse data for new administrative and                         improve citizen and business interactions
    statistical purposes.                                         with Government through better digital
                                                                  and data usage, improved capabilities, and
    Better treatment of data, through                             enhanced governance.
    standardised data management practices,
    advocating data reuse over data collection,                 • The National Statistics Board’s Strategy
    promotion of cross-agency data-sharing                        2015-2020 outlines the importance of
    underpinned by a clear legal basis and driven                 joined-up data for joined-up Government.
    by improved effi ciencies for citizens and                    It describes how the ability to make
    businesses is central to the solution of these                successful national policy decisions and to
    challenges.                                                   be accountable to citizens can be enhanced
                                                                  by the increased availability, breadth and
    A number of recently published Government                     quality of information, evidence and insight.
    strategies call for improvements in the
    management of data as a key enabler to                      • Our Public Service 2020 includes an action
    delivering effi cient and effective public                    to “Optimise the use of data” – outlining how
    services and policy making. These strategies                  data will support better service delivery,
    include:                                                      better decision making, increase the ease of
                                                                  access to services and drive efficiencies.

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PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

The cohesive approach to Public Service data               European exemplars like Denmark, Norway
as outlined in this Strategy aligns well with the          and Estonia have prioritised data initiatives
forthcoming National Digital Strategy, which is            such as adherence to “Once only” and
currently in development. The National Digital             “Privacy by design” principles; focusing on
Strategy will set out a clear long-term vision             good governance and effective legislation
and high-level ambition for how Ireland can                enforcing inter-agency data-sharing; and
best respond to digitisation, which will rely              implementation of key enablers such as
heavily on the effective management of data.               base registries, e-Identifi ers, and a core
                                                           interoperability platform.
The move towards better data management
practices and regulated data-sharing is                    This strategy recognises the signifi cant
also prevalent amongst EU bodies and                       opportunities to be gained by improving the
global organisations advocating a whole-of-                treatment of data held by the Public Service
Government approach:                                       in a holistic manner. It sets out a detailed
                                                           vision, and complementary action points, for
• Principle 7 of the OECD’s 12 principles of               developing an improved and coherent data
  digital Government strategies states that                management ecosystem within Government.
  Governments should develop common
  policies and standards and drive the                     2.2 Data Management Landscape in the
  adoption of national interoperability                    Public Service Today
  frameworks for data exchange.                            Across the Public Service, there are many
                                                           examples of good data management practices
• The EU’s Tallinn declaration of Oct 2017                 being employed in individual PSBs. However, as
  states that we should take steps to create               a whole-of-Government cross cutting concern,
  a culture of re-use, including responsible               data is not being examined and dealt with in a
  and transparent re-use of data within our                unifi ed and consistent manner. Data, in order
  administrations.                                         to comply with legislation, is often maintained
                                                           in silos, where it is collected and stored for
• The EU’s European Interoperability                       the needs of the individual PSBs. There are
  Framework (EIF) outlines the objective                   benefi ts to these practices, as is evident by the
  of “Promoting seamless services                          safe, secure delivery of specifi c public services
  and data flows for European public                        – but it also results in ineffi ciencies such as the
  administrations”. The aim of the EIF is to               potential duplication of data being stored and
  inspire European public administrations in               collected by different PSBs, bespoke bi-lateral
  their efforts to design and deliver seamless             data-sharing agreements between PSBs, and a
  European Public Services to other public                 reduction in data quality.
  administrations, citizens and businesses.
                                                           The overall result is a sub-optimal whole-
• The European Commission’s Digital Agenda,                of-Government ecosystem where data is
  in pursuit of a Digital Single Market, lists 2           governed and managed by the policies of
  key pillars - enhancing interoperability and             individual PSBs, and not easily reused to
  standards, and strengthening online trust                deliver joined up services or assist policy
  and security.                                            making and evaluation. In order to improve the
                                                           various forms of data reuse, a greater degree
• The UN advocates that Governments                        of standardisation in terms of systems, policies
  can contribute to policy integration and                 and practices is required. The good practices
  integrated service delivery by regulating                being employed by PSBs should serve as the
  data sharing and promoting data standards                foundation for building a more co-ordinated,
  that make sharing more effective.                        consistent approach to data management in a
                                                           whole-of-Government manner.

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PUBLIC SERVICE DATA STRATEGY 2019 - 2023 - Office of the Government Chief Information Officer - Data.gov.ie
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

                                                DATA
                                                         PSB A                                                 DATA

     DATA
            PSB F                                                                                              DATA

                                                                                                PSB B          DATA

                                                                                                 PSB C
                                                                                                                    DATA
                  PSB E
                              DATA
                                                                                                             DATA
                           DATA   DATA

                                                         PSB D
                                                  DATA             DATA

                                     Figure 1: As-Is Data Management Landscape in the Public Service Today

    While the above may paint a challenging picture of a largely un-coordinated data management
    landscape in existence today, there are many good examples of outcome driven sharing of data and
    services between PSBs such as:

                  MyGovID, the Government’s citizen identity verification service, being used by many
                  PSBs to access and deliver a growing number of services online

                  The Local Property Tax register reusing data from various internal and external
                  sources

                  Real-time data sharing between a number of PSBs supporting SUSI in efficiently
                  processing student grant applications

                  Education reports providing insight into graduate destinations and earnings using
                  data from the HEA, Revenue and DEASP

                  The Job Seeker Longitudinal Dataset combines income, claims and training data to
                  produce a uniquely detailed view of the Irish labour market for policy creation and
                  evaluation

                  Companies Registration Office providing controlled access to its data via APIs to
                  various PSBs

                  The HSE Healthlink project facilitating the secure transmission of clinical patient
                  information between Hospitals, Health Care Agencies and GPs

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

Equally, there are many examples today where               crucial to successfully linking data, joining
challenges exist for citizens, businesses, and             up government, and delivering integrated
PSBs alike due to inconsistent treatment of                services.
data and the lack of systems integration and
a pan-agency interoperability platform. Such               To further assist in resolving these challenges,
examples include:                                          the Data Sharing and Governance Bill (DSGB)
                                                           seeks to provide a legal basis to enable PSBs -
• Separate online customer registration                    where they already have a legal basis to collect
  systems and processes that are at odds with              data from the citizen or business directly, to
  the once-only principle                                  collect that data from another PSB. This aligns
• Cross-agency customer data matching                      with the once-only principle of collecting data
  issues                                                   once from citizens and businesses, and reusing
• Manual processes due to the lack of real-                data as opposed to recollecting.
  time interfaces
• Re-collection of data already captured by                This Data Strategy sets the NDI and the
  separate agencies slowing down service                   DSGB in the wider context of building a
  delivery.                                                coherent data management ecosystem for
                                                           the Public Service. It seeks to remedy the
Government have taken steps to address                     aforementioned challenges with current
some of these challenges by embarking on                   data initiatives in the Public Service today by
the National Data Infrastructure (NDI),                    bringing about a unified approach to how such
which concerns itself with the consistent and              data initiatives are devised and implemented.
reliable identification of data that relates               To support this cohesion, this data strategy
to a particular location – through the use of              sets out an overarching vision and provides a
an Eircode; person – through the use of a                  set of principles, themes and actions guiding
PPSN; business – through the use of a Unique               the management, governance, architecture,
Business Identifier (UBI). The consistent                  and re-use of data in a secure, open and
identification of these core data assets is                transparent way.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

       3
    Vision

          “To establish a data ecosystem that will improve
          how we govern, manage and re-use data in a secure,
          efficient, and transparent way, for the benefit of
          citizens, businesses and policy makers”.

    Informed by the context already laid out and a              3.1 Data Ecosystem
    strong belief that data is the lifeblood of digital         Delivering on this vision requires PSBs to
    transformation and decision making, the vision              adopt a holistic and cohesive approach to a
    presented in this strategy seeks to improve the             target state data ecosystem replacing the
    treatment of data held by the Public Service                largely un-coordinated data landscape in
    in a secure, open and transparent way for the               existence today.
    benefit of citizens, businesses, and PSBs.
                                                                Figure 2 illustrates a high level view of the
    By taking a whole-of-system approach to                     target state data ecosystem supporting
    data management within the Public Service                   the once-only-principle. Key to achieving
    the vision is to create a coherent ecosystem                this target state is reducing the number of
    where PSBs can confidently exchange data to                 independent copies of data being collected
    support improved service delivery and policy                and maintained by PSBs. Through the
    creation. The target data ecosystem described               establishment of base registries, managed by
    in this strategy ensures that data exchange is              the appropriate PSBs, authoritative sources of
    performed in a legal, transparent and effective             data will be created, facilitating efficient and
    manner.                                                     legal reuse of data across the Public Service.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

                                Trusted Identifiers &
                                                                                      Governance and
                                     Base Registries
                                                                                      Standards

                                                         PSB A
          PSB F
         LOCAL
          DATA
                  BASE
                 REGISTRY
                                                                                                 PSB B
                                                                                                   LOCAL
                                                                                                    DATA

                                                   Interoperability
                                                       Platform

                     PSB E                                                                        PSB C
                        LOCAL                                                                       LOCAL
                         DATA                                                                        DATA

                                                          PSB D
Data Analytics                                           LOCAL
                                                          DATA
                                                                   BASE
                                                                 REGISTRY
                                                                                                            Transparency,
 & Open Data                                                                                                Data Protection
                                                                                                            & Legislation
                                          Privacy & Security

                                                       Figure 2: Target State Data Ecosystem for the Public Service

The implementation of base registries will                       governance and strict controls, the
reduce the need for citizens and businesses to                   interoperability platform will facilitate a
provide the same information to PSBs again                       structured approach to data access, which can
and again, and create the opportunity for PSBs                   be used for cross-departmental data analysis.
to reuse data where appropriate. The reuse of                    This facility is central to the generation of
data in this manner will assist PSBs in adopting                 data-driven insights, qualification of outcomes,
end to end digital approaches to delivering                      and delivery of evidence based decision
joined-up services for the benefit of citizens                   making across Government.
and businesses.
                                                                 Data privacy and transparency are core
To achieve this data ecosystem, and to                           components of our target state data
facilitate the technical interoperability of                     ecosystem, whereby personal data processing
PSBs, an interoperability platform will be                       follows a common set of standards and
established, providing a secure, reliable and                    guidelines. Through the implementation of
consistent way for PSBs to reuse both data                       this strategy people will be able to find out
and services. The interoperability platform                      what personal data Government holds on
will form the backbone of machine to machine                     them, for what reason is it being held, and
inter-Government communications – allowing                       information as to how that data is processed.
PSBs to discover, manage, and deliver data and
services for service delivery.                                   This data ecosystem will be supported by
                                                                 legislation in conjunction with the necessary
It is important to note that data and base                       governance and controls, ensuring a whole-of-
registries will remain with PSBs, while the                      Government approach to data. Components,
interoperability platform will be used to                        features and capabilities of the target
discover what data is available and facilitate its               ecosystem are summarised below.
reuse, preventing duplication of effort, across
PSBs.                                                            • Sharing of personal data will be
                                                                   underpinned by clear and explicit legislation
By making the data available and reusable                          and governance to help foster trust between
in this manner, complimented with good                             citizens and businesses, and Government

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

     • Designated authoritative data stores,                      be encouraged to promote the value of data
       called base registries, will be established to             to support evidence-based policy-making
       promote the once-only principle and reduce               • Trusted identifiers will enable data to be
       PSB data holdings                                          linked across data holdings
     • Transparency will be delivered through                   • Standards and good governance processes
       citizen accessible data-sharing agreements,                will be implemented to ensure that data is
       a Data Portal for citizens to view personal                accessed, collected, stored, and transferred
       data that Government holds, well-                          in a consistent and uniform manner by all
       architected logging solutions, and the                     PSBs
       publication of open datasets
     • An API-led Interoperability Platform                     3.2 Benefits
       based on a Service Oriented Architecture                 As evidenced by the vision statement, while
       (SOA) will be developed to enable PSBs                   the primary beneficiaries of initiatives
       to cooperate, share and reuse data                       proposed in this strategy are citizens
       and services in an effective, secure and                 and businesses, there are also benefits
       consistent way                                           to be realised for individual PSBs and for
     • Driven by a privacy-by-design mind-set,                  Government as a whole. The graphic below
       robust data security solutions and processes             summarises the benefits that this strategy sets
       will be implemented to help foster                       out to achieve through both data analytics,
       trust between the various actors in the                  delivering insight and foresight, and through
       ecosystem                                                operational use of data.
     • A structured approach to data analytics will

             Citizens and Businesses                                      Public Service Bodies
     • Increased transparency & trust                          • Secure reuse of data and services across PSBs

     • Integrated digital service delivery                     • Reduced PSB data holdings

     • Reduced administrative burden                           • Less costly, more timely delivery of services

     • Better data-driven outcomes                             • Improved data management practices

                                                               • Support for evidence based decision making
     • Improved privacy and security
                                                               • Ability to link data across data holdings
     • Engaged & empowered citizens
                                                               • Better data governance/oversight
     • Foster innovation                                         across holdings

     • More efficient service delivery                         • Consistent approach to data management

                  Figure 3: Benefits of the target data ecosystem for Citizens, Businesses and Government

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

   4
Principles
The principles set forth below will help shape the evolution of a target state
data ecosystem based on transparency, accessibility, and reusability, driven
by the application of standards, trusted identifiers and
secure interoperable solutions enabled by effective
governance, and dealing with data protection as a        Transparency
cross cutting concern.

                                                                Privacy                               Reusability
4.1 Data Transparency                                           Security

Principle 1: Data is discoverable by citizens,                                      Data
businesses and the Public Service
Governments are increasingly collecting,
                                                                                  Protection
storing and processing large volumes of
data across the public sector through the                       Analytics                            Governance
provision of public services. In order for
citizens, businesses and PSBs to leverage the
benefits of data, it must be made discoverable,                                       Digital
identifiable and understandable.

Making data and services more easily
                                                                            Figure 4: Data principles at a glance
discoverable will increase knowledge of
data and services held, and in turn facilitate             Principle 2: Data is processed in a transparent
reuse. To support this, where appropriate,                 manner
Government must build and publish catalogues               In order to provide the type of joined-up
that enable interested parties to locate,                  services and information/insight expected,
understand and use the data and associated                 Government not only requires data to be
services.                                                  collected from citizens and businesses but

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

     should where permitted share this data                      Implementing the Once-Only principle, by
     amongst PSBs in a secure and effi cient manner.             ensuring that citizens and businesses supply
     While most users of Government services                     the same information only once, and reducing
     would welcome the introduction of such                      the number of independent copies of data
     improved integration, it raises the question of             held in the Public Service, will promote
     trust with respect to processing of personal                sharing and reuse of data and common
     data.                                                       services to improve service provision and
                                                                 decision making.
     To ensure data is processed in an appropriate
     manner throughout Government, personal                      Through adherence to the once-only principle,
     data must be processed in a way that is                     use of base registries and removal of
     transparent to citizens, providing a window                 redundant or duplicate data sets, PSBs will
     into what data is held, shared and processed                only capture data that has not already been
     across the Public Service.                                  collected by the Public Service. This data will
                                                                 be reused as opposed to recollected where
     Principle 3: Data that can be made public                   there is a legal basis to reuse it.
     should be made public
     Openness and transparency is a key                          Principle 5: Data is accessed and maintained
     Government priority and the Open Data                       via base registries
     Strategy1 contends that opening up                          The European Interoperability Framework
     Government data will empower citizens and                   describes base registries as “reliable sources of
     businesses, foster innovation and reform                    basic information on items such as persons,
     Public Services.                                            companies, vehicles... that are authentic and
                                                                 authoritative”.
     In the spirit of openness and transparency,
     PSBs should catalogue and publish appropriate               Implementing base registries of data that
     datasets where legally permissible, whilst                  are reliable, transparent, timely, and of high
     taking into consideration Government’s                      quality, will establish authoritative single
     obligations to protect the confidentiality of               sources of truth, promote minimisation and
     citizens and businesses.                                    facilitate reuse across PSBs and make it easier
                                                                 to audit data and its usage due to reduced data
     4.2 Data Reuse                                              holdings.
     Principle 4: Data is reusable
     Data must be reusable by all actors in the                  Data that is already collected and stored in a
     ecosystem, in line with legislation, in order to            base registry must be accessed and maintained
     deliver integrated services and insight with                by PSBs via that base registry. This will help
     efficiency to businesses, citizens and policy               reduce administrative burden on businesses
     makers.                                                     and citizens having to resupply data and to
                                                                 reduce independent copies of data being held
     Data reuse must respect data minimisation.                  among PSBs.
     Such reuse must adhere to a policy of
     “assertion over access”, where reuse is in the              Principle 6: Data is accessible through APIs to
     form of making checks or queries on the                     support interoperability
     status of data, only returning true or false                In order to deliver a joined-up Public
     responses. Where data access is required, the               Service, IT systems must facilitate technical
     minimum amount of data is shared and held                   interoperability - having the ability to connect
     for the minimum amount of time required.                    to each other and speak the same language.
                                                                 APIs should be used to facilitate this
                                                                 interoperability. An API (Application
                                                                 Programming Interface) is a modern best-

     1 https://www.per.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/Draft-Open-Data-Strategy-2017-2022.pdf

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

practice machine-to-machine mechanism to                   PSBs must ensure privacy and respect the
facilitate technical interoperability, supporting          confidentiality and integrity of the data by
service and data access.                                   demonstrably processing data in line with
                                                           legislation.
The use of APIs enables PSBs to expose
data and related services in a controlled and              Personal data must be collected for specific,
structured manner, supporting inter and                    explicit and legitimate purposes only, and
intra PSB interoperability. This facilitates               must not be further processed in way that is
the delivery of joined up Public Services,                 incompatible with those purposes. In order
and underpins the principles of reusability,               to demonstrate compliance, PSBs must make
transparency and discoverability. APIs will                relevant audit data available to citizens and
act as a key building block, upon which, the               businesses to view.
envisaged whole-of-Government ecosystem is
built.                                                     The proposed Data-Sharing and Governance
                                                           Bill is designed to protect citizen’s privacy
4.3 Data Governance and Controls                           by establishing a prescriptive framework
Principle 7: Data is demonstrably processed in             in legislation for governance, oversight and
line with legislation                                      transparency of data processing within the
Citizens and businesses must be confident that             Public Service. PSBs will process data in line
their interactions with Government are secure              with this Bill once enacted.
and in compliance with all relevant regulations.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

     Principle 8: Data is effectively governed                  improvements in data quality, timeliness,
     Data must be effectively governed through a                privacy controls, consistency and reduced
     formal system of accountability, designed to               citizen overhead.
     enforce proper management of data assets and
     the performance of data-related functions.                 PSBs must by default, collect data digitally
                                                                at the first point of citizen and business
     Good data governance will be delivered                     engagement, not only with respect to
     through a whole-of-Government set of rules,                transactional Government services but also
     standards, guides, tools, policies, procedures,            for survey responses, statistical analysis, etc.
     roles and responsibilities that guide the overall          Introduction of a modernised and extensible
     management of Government data.                             digital data collection platform for surveys by
                                                                Government will assist PSBs in realising these
     A Data Governance Board will be established                benefits sooner.
     to direct, oversee and drive data governance
     across the Public Service. Through good data                4.5 Data Analytics
     governance, PSBs will ensure that their data               Principle 10: Data is used to support evidence-
     are accurate, consistent, complete, available,             based decision making
     discoverable and secure.                                   Data is the foundation of decision making and
                                                                the basis for accountability. In order to effect
     4.4 Digital                                                good policies and provide useful statistical
     Principle 9: Data is collected and processed               insights, data must be used to support
     digitally                                                  evidence based or informed decision making.
     The benefits of a digital-first approach to                Evidence-based decision making, whether by
     Government services are well documented                    Government, business or the general public,
     but much data is still collected and processed             is reliant on directly available quality data or
     on handwritten and paper based forms or                    insights derived through research.
     standalone electronic systems that do not
     improve downstream processes. PSBs need to                 The vision espoused in this strategy
     adopt a digital-by-default strategy to realise             promotes better treatment of data through

                                                                                              INFORMED
            DATA                   INFORMATION                   KNOWLEDGE                     DECISION
                                                                                               MAKING

                creates                          which generates                          and leads to

                                              Figure 5: Data used to support evidence-based decision making

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

improved data management, governance and                   modification or deletion, regardless of the
architecture, where quality data improves and              intent and a clear approach defined for secure
feeds into evidence based decision making for              handling of this data.
the benefit of citizens, businesses and PSBs.
                                                           By adopting a privacy-by-design mind set,
4.6 Data Privacy and Security                              robust data security solutions and processes
Principle 11: Data is processed in a secure and            will be implemented to help foster trust
private manner                                             between the various actors in the ecosystem.
It is imperative that appropriate security                 By treating privacy as a design concern, rather
measures are implemented to ensure data is                 than a regulatory or compliance burden, this
protected to greatest extent possible. Personal            will ensure that privacy is considered up-front
data must be secured and protected from                    and built into these solutions at design stage,
unauthorized internal or external access,                  to help alleviate privacy concerns and promote
                                                           data protection compliance.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

        5
     Strategic
     Themes
     Realisation of the stated vision will be guided             • Adequate, relevant and limited to what is
     by the principles outlined above and a set                    necessary in relation to the purposes for
     of strategic themes that illustrates how                      which they are processed
     Government will go about achieving this vision.             • Accurate and, where necessary, kept up to
                                                                   date
     Each of the themes described have a strategic
                                                                 • Kept in a form which permits identification
     focus and include a set of defined actions
                                                                   of data subjects for no longer than is
     to signal how we intend to manage, govern,
                                                                   necessary for the purposes for which the
     architect, share and re-use data in a secure,
                                                                   personal data are processed
     efficient and transparent way.
                                                                 • Processed in a manner that ensures
     5.1 Protection and Legislation                                appropriate security of the personal
                                                                   data, including protection against
     The protection of data is a pervasive theme
                                                                   unauthorised or unlawful processing and
     and a cross-cutting concern throughout the
                                                                   against accidental loss, destruction or
     Public Service. All processing of personal data,
                                                                   damage, using appropriate technical or
     is subject to the provisions of the General Data
                                                                   organisational measures
     Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the Data
     Protection Act of 2018. PSBs must adhere to                 In line with these principles and obligations,
     these obligations, which spring from the core               the proposed Data Sharing and Governance
     principles of data protection as listed in Article          Bill makes the following strategic decisions in
     5 of GDPR, summarised below.                                regards the introduction of national legislation
                                                                 to include the following:
     • Processed lawfully, fairly and in a
       transparent manner in relation to the data                • The sharing of personal data between PSBs
       subject                                                     is provided for with a clear and explicit
     • Collected for specified, explicit and                       legislative basis
       legitimate purposes and not further                       • Strategic data management infrastructures
       processed in a manner that is incompatible                  and standards applying to the Public Service
       with those purposes                                         will be underpinned by legislation

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

• Governance controls and processes in                     that the governance and management of
  relation to data management within the                   data is critical to ensuring data quality, as
  Public Service are to be put on a legislative            is the implementation of the necessary
  footing.                                                 infrastructure to allow sharing of data
                                                           between PSBs”.
• Transparency processes and obligations
  relating to personal data processing within
  the Public Service to be put on a legislative            Implementation of this strategy across the
  footing                                                  Public Service will include the introduction of
                                                           a set of standards and guidelines, in line with
  Actions                                                  GDPR Article 40, helping to drive a uniformity
• Complete the Data Sharing and Governance                 of approach to data management for all PSBs.
  Bill and bring it into law                               Adoption and implementation of appropriate
• Create a framework to support PSBs in                    standards and guidelines will support the
  sharing data in line with the Data Sharing               reuse of data, in line with legislation, in
  and Governance Bill                                      order to deliver joined up services, and
• Each PSB that processes personal data will               support analysis for policy formation and
  work with their Data Protection Officer to               evaluation.
  ensure their data processing practices are
  demonstrably in line with data protection                A Data Governance Board will be established
  legislation, including the assessment of                 to formalise a long-term governance structure
  risk associated with such processing as                  for the Public Service, through which the
  appropriate                                              development and implementation of data
                                                           management standards, guidelines and
5.2 Governance and Standards                               activities can be overseen. The board will also
Data governance with the appropriate                       be responsible for promoting the compliance
standards and guidelines is necessary to build             of PSBs with the introduced standards and
a system of accountability combined with                   guidelines.
proper management of data assets. Such
governance and standards include rules,                      Actions
policies, procedures, roles, and guidelines,               • Establish a Data Governance Board to
which combine to create an environment                       oversee and monitor data management
promoting data accuracy, consistency,                        practice within the Public Service with
completeness, availability, transparency and                 appropriate supports
security.                                                  • Define and publish a set of standards and
                                                             guidelines, in line with GDPR Article 40,
It encompasses the people, processes,                        addressing areas of data management
and technology used to ensure that key
information delivered throughout the Public                5.3 Privacy and Security
Service is appropriately defined, used and                 The Data landscape is rapidly evolving with
maintained in order to deliver integrated                  the proliferation of new and different kinds
digital services for citizens and businesses.              of threats emerging. Now, more than ever,
Effective governance and standards also                    governments must take actions to identify
underpins the right data being processed in                and protect the citizen and business data
the right way – a cornerstone of maintaining               which they process.
trust with Government.
                                                           By adopting a privacy-by-design mind-set,
Underlining its importance, the Public Service             PSBs will implement robust data security
ICT strategy encourages PSBs to “recognise                 solutions and processes that will help

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

     foster trust between the various actors                    • Data protection roles
     in the ecosystem. By treating privacy as a                 • User Access and Authentication Controls
     design concern, rather than a regulatory                   • Appropriate virus-checking software and
     or compliance burden, we will ensure that                    firewalls
     privacy is considered up-front and built into              • Backup and recovery policies to counter
     systems at design stage.                                     data loss, data corruption and data
                                                                  encryption
     GDPR establishes “privacy by design” and                   • Intrusion detection systems and procedures
     “privacy by default” in law and requires that              • Logging and audit procedures
     systems take account of privacy and security
     considerations from the outset. While                      Implementing the appropriate controls which
     GDPR doesn’t apply to all types of data, all               govern who can access data is at the heart of
     citizen and business data of a sensitive or                data security and privacy. A consistent and
     confidential nature, should also be subject                robust method for Identity and Access
     to such considerations. Examples of these                  Management (IAM), authenticating users,
     considerations are listed below.                           should be employed across Government for
                                                                access to data. PSBs should use the MyGovID
     • Policies, guidelines and procedures                      service to protect online access to citizen data.
       governing information security, both
       physical and electronic                                  A planned initiative under this strategic theme
     • Privacy-by-design controls, e.g. least                   is the implementation of Digital Postbox, a
       privileges basis.                                        mechanism for secure delivery and storage
     • Data breach procedures                                   of data. The Digital Postbox will over time
     • Risk assessments                                         support citizen access to all Government

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

communications in a single, safe and secure                businesses in a digital manner. Such forms
digital platform, and is designed to serve                 should support pre-population of data where
as an alternative to paper post for reasons                appropriate. Opportunities for a shared
of cost and efficiency. It is expected that PSBs           service approach to the provision of online
will adopt the Digital Postbox as the default              self-service forms should be considered.
communication channel between Government
and citizens, similar to EU exemplars like                 UI/UX plays an important role in ensuring
Denmark.                                                   effective quality data collection at source,
                                                           as does the adoption of a more consistent
  Actions                                                  look and feel across Government services.
• Publish privacy-by-design and security                   To aid PSBs in access to UI/UX skills and
  guidelines for which PSBs must have                      resources, we will seek to establish a UI/
  regard, and apply in the context of public               UX procurement framework. To assist in
  tenders                                                  building a more consistent look and feel for
• PSBs to implement appropriate security                   Government online, a UI/UX style guide will
  and privacy measures to comply with Data                 be considered.
  Protection obligations
• PSBs should ensure that personal data is                   Actions
  protected online at point of access and                  • PSBs to adopt digital data collection as
  collection via the use of MyGovID                          the default method of collection where
• Implement a secure cross-agency Digital                    appropriate, while exploring opportunities
  Postbox solution                                           for a shared service approach
                                                           • Develop a secure platform for online
5.4 Digital Collection                                       surveys that has general applicability to
As we strive to advance both the                             multiple surveys and is capable of scaling to
Government’s digital agenda and introduce                    accommodate very large surveys, including
initiatives to improve the overall treatment of              the Census
data, we must consider strategies to improve               • Establish a UI/UX procurement framework
data collection and storage. In response,                    to assist PSBs in accessing UI/UX skills
this strategy proposes the introduction of a                 and consider establishing a Government
modernised and extensible data collection                    UI/UX style guide for online content. This
platform, along with a concerted move to a                   will help build a more consistent look and
digital-by-default data collection strategy.                 feel to Government online, including data
                                                             collection and input forms
A data collection platform will be established             • Develop a platform for online self-service
for use by PSBs for electronic and online                    forms that meets the needs of PSBs seeking
surveys. The goal is to reduce respondent                    to collect non-complex data as part of an
overhead for citizens and businesses in surveys              administrative process
suitable for online collection while providing
a consistent approach to security and user                 5.5 Interoperability
interface. The platform must be designed for               Delivery of integrated digital Public Services
scalability, incorporating implementation of               requires PSBs to cooperate and reuse data
the Online Census.                                         and services in an effective, structured,
                                                           consistent and transparent way. By embracing
PSBs will continue the move towards digital                an API approach for Government, data and
through online interactions with citizens and              services can be exposed for reuse in a secure,
business. The development of self-service                  consistent manner, leading to the delivery of
forms should be progressed by PSBs ensuring                more joined-up, efficient public services for
that data is collected from citizens and                   citizens and businesses.

                                                                                                             19
OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

               Revenue
                                    API                               API

                                                     User
                                                  Management
                     API
      HSE                                                                              API          Welfare
                   API             Security                        Logging

                                              Interoperability
                                                  Platform
                                  Discovery                       Reporting            API
                     API                                                                           Agriculture
     SUSI

                                                  Transparency

                                                                             API

                                     API                             API

                Passports

                                                                     Figure 6: Interoperability Platform

     The European Interoperability Framework                     • Consistency of approach to technical
     (EIF) is defined as “an agreed approach to                    measures employed to reuse data between
     interoperability for organizations that wish                  PSBs
     to work together towards the joint delivery                 • Supports secure transport and authorised
     of Public Services…”. The EIF promotes                        access to data for reuse
     reusability as a driver for interoperability and            • Promote awareness and facilitate the
     includes elements such as integrated service                  discovery of data and services available for
     delivery; reuse of data and services; catalogues              reuse via an API discovery portal
     describing reusable services; Governance;                   • Provide appropriate management plane
     security and privacy.                                         to allow PSBs to monitor and control how
                                                                   their data is being used and manage the life
     Aligned with the EIF interoperability levels                  cycle of their associated interface end-
     (legal, organisational, semantic and technical),              points
     we propose developing a Data Interoperability               • Support API led service design for PSB data
     Platform that will be architected to promote                  reuse, and become the default method of
     reuse, where PSBs will share common data and                  exposing APIs for PSB data and service
     services in a consistent and uniform manner. It               exchange
     will be designed as an API-led Service Oriented
     Architecture with APIs published to expose                  The diagram above demonstrates how data
     data and services within the Government                     and services will remain with PSBs, the
     ecosystem. The Interoperability Platform                    interoperability platform, via the use of APIs,
     aims to achieve at least the following and will             will be used to discover what data is available
     be guided by the success and learnings from                 and facilitate its reuse, preventing duplication
     similar platforms such as Estonia’s X-Road and              of effort across PSBs.
     Altinn in Norway.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

While there may be limited merit in                        to the generation of data-driven insights,
implementing APIs for some legacy systems,                 qualification of outcomes and delivery of
all new systems should implement APIs by                   evidence based decision making.
default. Furthermore, existing APIs should
be considered for incorporation into the                   The supply side is driven by other aspects
interoperability platform.                                 of this strategy document such as the Data
                                                           Interoperability Platform, the establishment
  Actions                                                  of Base Registers, Data Catalogues, and so
• Incrementally develop an Interoperability                on. The best practice architecture approach
  Platform and supporting guidelines and
                                                           to facilitating the demand for analytics is a
  processes to support interoperability
                                                           data warehouse (or data lake) which allows
                                                           data to be processed without compromising
5.6 Analytics
                                                           operational systems. However, this type of
Analysis of data has enormous potential
                                                           approach is likely to result in concerns from
to improve the precision and outcome of
                                                           citizens and data controllers regarding large
policy formulation and decision making for
                                                           amounts of data being held in a single location
Government. The opportunities for data
                                                           for potential rather than specific processing
analytics are growing both on the supply side
(doing more with the growing volume of data)               purposes.
and the demand side (policy and operational
questions and issues that data can help                    Government proposes to take a more granular
inform).                                                   approach to establishing a platform for data
                                                           analytics that balances better facilitation
The availability of accurate and timely                    of analytics with the obligations of data
Government data, combined with a developed                 controllers by implementing secure virtual
capability to analyse it, controlled by well-              “Data Rooms”, based on similar CSO practices,
defined governance processes are central                   as outlined below.

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OGCIO Department of Public Expenditure and Reform | Public Service Data Strategy 2019 – 2023

     The Public Service Data Strategy is a
     comprehensive multi-year, multi-department
     strategy that sets out a series of ambitious
     goals and actions to deliver on a target state
     data ecosystem for Government.

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