R&D&I MARKET IN POLAND - SUPPOR T FOR RESEAR CH AND DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES - POLISH INVESTMENT AND TRADE AGENCY
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YEARS R&D&I Market in Poland Support for research and development and innovation activity of enterprises warsaw , n ovember 2015
We are effective Over200 completed projects, for which we have obtained over Our consultants have helped large companies obtain over 2 PLN billion PLN 3.8 billion state aid Our clients have received over 204 million We have obtained some of the PLN biggest subsidies in Polish history for enterprises of over for pro-ecological investments 10 years PLN 150 million 3.8 bn PLN 130 million and PLN 116 million Our clients have received over PLN 700 million of tax exemptions pln within the SEZ for companies 1 We have obtained over PLN 270 million for our clients for realisation of shared service No. centres and R&D centres We have provided advisory services to large, advisor medium, and small companies operating in obtaining in areas such as grants for automotive industry IT companies Forbes magazine power engineering pharmaceuticals has twice awarded us the title of the best advisor in obtaining environment protection food processing industry grants for companies in the 2007-2013 EU programming period The 2015 European Fund ranking recognised us 5 times as the most effective 40 advisory firm (leader of R&D&I in Poland) Crido Taxand European Consulting Team is composed of almost experienced specialists, who provide support to large, medium, and small enterprises seeking funding dotacjenainnowacje.taxand.pl – Learn more! YEARS
R&D&I Market in Poland Support for research and development and innovation activity of enterprises wa r saw , n ov e mb e r 2015
Table of Contents 2 R&D&I sector 6 potential Patent and tax 26 environment Support for R&D&I – available 38 programmes Effective preparation 64 of the project Appendix � Basic Definitions 72 � Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) 80 � National Smart Specialisations 81 Project Partners 84 The Authors 86
5 Financing the area of R&D&I is always a huge challenge. To some extent, the market of- fers attractive commercial support here, this being the element of all business activity which is considered the riskiest and most challenging. On the other hand, it is through R&D&I ac- tivities that companies build their market value and competitiveness. It is difficult to talk of a healthy economy if it is not generating an adequate quality and quantity of research projects that allow the development of competitive advantages at the level of knowledge and innovation. Poland has been given a tremendous opportunity to support the whole R&D&I sector with public funding, and above all from European subsidies. But there is still the art of effective transition from the research and science sector to business; while European funds do not have the formula for this, they can co-finance the process. And since public funds are also available to finance this process, all that remains is to try, to take that risk. Along with the co-authors of this Report, I would like to encoura- ge entrepreneurs to take this step, and to show that it is worthwhile. Michał Gwizda Partner, Crido Taxand The index of expenses on research and development is growing, slowly but steadily, driven by the excellent Polish human resources. So is the number of enterprises engaged in rese- arch, development, and innovation. These trends are reflected in the portfolio of investment pro- jects based on known-how business supported by PAIiIZ. Sławomir Majman President of the Management Board, Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency Today, companies need new technologies and product innovations as much as they need the Internet or telephone contact. Investors and entrepreneurs are searching for not just individual solutions and tools but rather for complete ecosystems allowing every cell of the compa- ny to professionally select, finance, and develop new solutions, which will forever change their re- spective fields. The access to research infrastructure and an extensive range of innovation-funding instruments give Polish companies a unique opportunity for dynamic development to strengthen Poland’s position on the economic map of Europe. The present report serves as both an encouragement and reference presenting the opportunities open before us, entrepreneurs, and the areas where we should turn professional. Magdalena Jackowska-Rejman President of the Management Board, techBrainers
R&D&I sector potential
8 R&D&I Market in Poland Innovation of Polish economy E According ach year, the European percentage of people aged between 20 to the European Commission prepares the and 24 with at least a high school educa- Innovation Union Score- tion. The number of people employed in Commission report board (IUS)1 report, which the R&D&I sector is also rising. Over the – innovation Union includes evaluation of the innovation last decade, this number rose on average Scoreboard 2015 of member states and selected non-EU by almost 14% and the greatest dynamics countries based on the value of SII (Sum- were recorded in the sector of enterpris- – Poland falls under mary Innovation Index). According to es (over 126%). the category of the the 2015 report, Poland falls under the The improving conditions for so-called moderate category of the so-called moderate inno- R&D&I operations in Poland are con- vators, just like the year before. firmed by the results of the ranking innovators. SII is based on partial parameters based on the Global Competitiveness corresponding to factors called ena- Index. One of the three groups of indi- blers, firm activities, and outputs. Po- ces recognised in attempts to establish land’s strong points include mainly the the value of this index is innovation and factors falling under the enablers cat- development, which reflects the quali- egory, which covers human resources, ty of the business environment and the research systems, and R&D funding. Po- innovation level of the economy. For land’s top strong point is human resourc- 2014–2015, Poland was ranked 43rd out es – a high number of young scientists, of 144 countries, ahead of such Euro- high percentage of people aged between pean states as Slovakia, Croatia, Italy, 30 and 34 with higher education, and Slovenia, or Hungary.2 Przemysław Hałub serve as the main axis of market competition. There are more and Senior Business Contacts Specialist, more inquiries and suggestions submitted to the Wrocław EIT+ Re- Wrocław research Centre EIT + search Centre, which concern not just analytical services, but rather the work on e.g. new materials or their new application. It is clear that as entrepreneurs feel the breath of domestic and often international There is plenty of discussion concerning the growth of position competition on their back, they know that they can stay and deve- on the market through R&D&I activity, but it should be noted that lop on the market only if they offer new types of services or a new this is a very difficult task, which requires great involvement in not product portfolio. just the technological aspect, but at the management level as well. The most satisfying aspect is the growing cooperation in this When it comes to Poland’s research and development expenditu- scope with Polish companies. However, it should be noted that this res, statistics show that the situation is improving, but there is also is a long process and its important elements are not limited to a go- a lot of work ahead. od research team and available infrastructure, but also include excel- Our day to day relations with industrial partners and clients lent protection of new solutions, sales structures, and the culture show that more and more of them are seeing competitive advan- of the entire organisation. Therefore, only a few (the top few) are tage in new solutions. New products and their development often able to succeed on the market based on know-how and innovation. 1 http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/innovation/policy/innovation-scoreboard/index_en.htm. 2 The Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015. World Economic Forum.
1. R&D&I sector potential 9 2020 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D in % of GDP (GERD) 2014 1.70 0.94 Target value 2013 2012 0.87 0.89 FIG. 1 Poland’s strategic targets until 2020 – expenditure on R&D activities. Cooperation between science and expenditure by 12.5%. It should be not- to bring Poland closer to the expected economy, national/regional smart spe- ed that, in the long-term, the support target value, which will be determined cializations as well as the development for R&D&I is aimed to allow for accom- by considerable support for such oper- and implementation of innovations will plishment of the objectives specified ations from EU funds. s form the foundations of the research & in the strategic documents, including development & innovation (R&D&I) improvement of Poland’s indices as- sector in Poland until the year 2020. sociated with R&D activity. 2014 saw According to the data published by the growth of the index in scope of R&D Central Statistical Office (CSO3), R&D expenditures in relation to GDP value spending in 2014 reached PLN 16.168 to 0.94% from 0.87% in 2013. In the billion, which exceeded the year 2013’s near future, further growth is expected 3 ttp://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/nauka-i-technika-spoleczenstwo-informacyjne/nauka-i-technika/dzialalnosc-badawcza-i-rozwojowa-w-polsce-w-2014-r-,8,4. h html (accessed on 19.10.2015).
10 R&D&I Market in Poland R&D&I activity of entrepreneurs I Poland is t should be noted that in scope of rise. Orientation of public aid is even experiencing the new EU financial perspective for more important because its amount and the years 2014–2020, business en- availability is among the most significant rising R&D&I funding tities will be the main beneficiaries factors stimulating enterprises to launch by entrepreneurs. of the support programmes and their R&D&I activity. role in the growth of Polish knowl- edge-based economy will continue to 2020 Entrepreneurs’ 2014 no data 0.6-0.8 Target value Expenditures on R&D (BERD) in % of GDP 2013 2012 0.38 0.33 FIG. 2 Poland’s strategic targets until 2020 – entrepreneurs’ expenditure on R&D activity.
1. R&D&I sector potential 11 45 40 46% 35 44% 30 25 37% 20 15 10 5 0 2012 2013 2014 FIG. 3 Businesses’ contribution to the Poland is experiencing rising In 2013 Poland was ranked as the ﬁnancing of R&D&I in the years R&D&I funding by entrepreneurs. In 10th EU state in respect of the value of 2007–2014. 2014, 47% of all expenditures made in innovation-related contributions made Poland for R&D activity by the public by the private sector.5 When we com- (government, higher education) and pare the average amount of R&D&I private (enterprises, private non-com- spending (according to Eurostat) with mercial institutions) sector were costs the number of innovative companies, covered by entrepreneurs. In the previ- it shows that the number of proactive ous years, they were at 44% (2013) and R&D&I entities is relatively limited, yet 37% (2012) (Image 1).4 they are sufficiently funded.6 Ryszard Dyrga To us, one of the biggest research and development centres President of the Management Board in Poland, the operations of PIaFIA and NCRD are very important Intel technology Poland Sp. z o.o. and they also contribute plenty to the general change of approach to R&D in our country. We are very glad to see what we have se- en over the past few years – work to adapt legal regulations to the We are very satisfied to see that the expansion of the research and transforming market and macroeconomic conditions, stimulation of development (R&D) sector in Poland is so well perceived and has cooperation among research and development entities, business taken its due spot. This is not just due to the understanding of the sector, academies, and business environment, active support for business sector that research and development effectively lead to commercialisation and transfer of the results into the economy, as the commercialisation of scientific research, production, and imple- well as work on the development of young scientists. We also appre- mentation of new, often unique products and services, and, conse- ciate the growing potential for research and development funding. quently, to competitive advantage, but also thanks to the leading I am convinced that all of the aforementioned activities will roles of the institutions operating in the business environment and entail considerable growth of expenditures for research and deve- government agencies, including Polish Information and Foreign In- lopment, which will raise knowledge, skill, and entail employment of vestment Agency (PIaFIA), National Centre for Research and De- many new people at highly demanding jobs and inflow of investors velopment (NCRD), Pomerania Development Agency, or Invest to let Poland take a high place among the most innovative countries in Pomerania. in Europe and the world. 4 ttp://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/nauka-i-technika-spoleczenstwo-informacyjne/nauka-i-technika/dzialalnosc-badawcza-i-rozwojowa-w-polsce-w-2014-r-,8,4.html h (accessed 19.10.2015). 5 Eurostat Statistics Database. 6 Nieć M., Działalność innowacyjna przedsiębiorstw w Polsce na tle krajów Europy (Innovative Operations of Polish Businesses in Comparison to European Countries). From: Świt innowacyjnego społeczeństwa. Trendy na najbliższe lata (The Dawn of an Innovative Society. Trends for the Upcoming Years). PAED, 2013.
12 R&D&I Market in Poland More and more enterprises are creat- outsourcing centres (BPO), IT out- At this time, there are 532 centres with ing their own R&D departments and sourcing centres (ITO) and research foreign capital, 62 of which were estab- innovative service centres with diverse and development centres (RDC). In lished last year.7 There are also several operating profiles. They include shared less than three years, the innovative dozen centres established by Polish service centres (SSC), business process business sector in Poland grew by 50%. investors. Sector Selected R&D centres Bielsko-Biała (Avio), Rzeszów (Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Sundstrand), Aerospace Warsaw (General Electric EDC) Częstochowa (TRW Automotive), Gliwice (Tenneco), Grójec (Faurecia), Cracow (Delphi), Poznań (Volkswagen), Automotive Rzeszów (BorgWarner), Skawina (Valeo), Tczew (Eaton), Wrocław (WABCO, Remy Automotive) Białystok (QBurst), Gdańsk (Intel), Katowice (Bombardier, Rockwell Autom.), Cracow (Google, ABB, Delphi, IBM, Motorola), Łódź (Bosch - Siemens, Ericpol), Business services Poznań (GlaxoSmithKline, McKinsey&Co, Microsoft, Roche), Szczecin (Tieto), Warsaw (Google, Oracle, Samsung, JDA, Symantec), Wrocław (Siemens, Alstom, Volvo, Qiagen, McKinsey&Co, Irevna) Other sectors, Białystok (Platige Image), Gdańsk (Humax), Katowice (Mentor Graphics), Cracow (ABB,CH2m Hill, Air Liquide including: electronics, machine Global E&C Solutions Poland S.A., Pliva), Łódź (Mabion), Pabianice (Adamed), Poznań (GlaxoSmithKline, industry, nanotechnology, Unilever), Radzymin (Cederroth) Starogard Gdański (Polpharma), Warsaw (General Electric, Top GaN, Adamed), pharmaceuticals, biotechnology Wrocław (3M) Białystok (Transition Technologies), Gdańsk ( Compuware), Gdynia (Thomson Reuters), Katowice (Ontrack), Cracow (Luxoft, Apriso, Sabre, Ericpol), Łódź (TomTom, Samsung, AMG.net, Ericpol, Microsoft), Opole (Future IT and Processing), Poznań (Microsoft, Telcordia) telecommunications Warsaw (SAS Institute, Opera Software), Wrocław (Dolby, Tieto, Capgemini, Opera Software), Zielona Góra (Advanced Digital Broadcast) Source: http://www.paiz.gov.pl/sektory/ (accessed 19.10.2015) Table 1 Selected R&D centres In addition to the relatively high and other institutions is close to the av- established by companies operating availability of capital, another strength erage European level; the cooperation is in specific sectors in Poland. of the Polish R&D&I sector is the co- most-frequently effected with suppliers operation between the various types of (of equipment, materials, components) entities in supporting innovation. The – 23%, or clients and consumers – 14%.8 cooperation between Polish companies Arkadiusz Lupierz move such key competences as development of innovative projects Manager of the Pneumatic System Development Department to their Polish departments. Faurecia Grójec R&D Center S.A. Such corporate policy is an excellent opportunity for Polish engi- neers, who not only contribute to the creation of innovation, but also develop their competences and become key and valued specialists In scope of functionality, material consumption, and miniaturisation, in their professions. innovation is becoming the main criterion of choice of an automoti- It is important that this trend and opportunity be recognised by ve provider, especially in the premium class. Various financial instru- the institutions providing the support, as said institutions can streng- ments available in Poland and qualified engineering staff are intere- then or weaken this process with their catalogue of criteria evaluating sting enough to big international corporations, so that they decide to individual tools. 7 Association of Business Service Leaders (ABSL), Sector of innovative business in Poland, 2015. 8 The Down of Innovative Society. Trends for the coming years. PAED, 2013.
1. R&D&I sector potential 13 Konrad Dróżka In an age of changes under the collective banner of Industry 4.0, Director for Polish Market Affairs Transition Technologies S.A. we believe that we can transform Polish economy together and col- lectively succeed not only locally, but also on the international arena. This is why the current R&D activity of Transition Technologies fo- cused on intelligent products in new, transformed, intelligent facto- For many years, Transition Technologies S.A. has been focusing on ries. We believe that this will be the source of the greatest and most R&D cooperation with science environments and industrial partners. interesting technology-based changes, specifically in scope of the The company also holds the status of a Research and Development realisation of the Internet of Things concept. Centre granted by the Ministry of Economy in 1997. Fig. 4 Selected R&D centres. Starogard Gdynia gdańsk gdański Thomson Intel Polpharma Reuters tczew Białystok Eaton Avio QBurst szczecin Transition Technologies Tieto warszawa poznań General Electric McKinsey (EDC) Volkswagen Oracle GlaxoSmithKline Samsung Unilever Google Microsoft Symantec Roche grójec zielona góra Faurecia Capgemini Advanced Digital Broadcast rzeszów Pratt & Whitney wrocław BorgWarner opole WABCO Hamilton Siemens Future Sundstrand Alstom Processing Volvo Remy Automotive łódź McKinsey częstochowa Bosch-Siemens Tieto TRW Ericpol Automotive kraków Microsoft Delphi ABB IBM gliwice Motorola Tenneco Capgemini katowice Bombardier Rockwell skawina Automotive Mentor Graphics Valeo Source: Prepared on the basis of: http://www.paiz.gov.pl/sektory/ badawczo_rozwojowy (accessed 19.10.2015).
14 R&D&I Market in Poland Influence of public support on R&D&I activity of entrepreneurs T Significant he Innovative Economy Oper- products resulting from supported pro- influence of ational Programme (IE OP) for jects in the total number of implement- the years 2007–2013 has had ed innovative products was between 55% projects implemented considerable influence on the (in the first year after receiving funding) under IE OP is growth of innovative operations of busi- and 71% (in the second year after receiv- recognized also in the ness entities in Poland. As shown in the ing funding). There is also a clear influ- surveys performed by the Polish Agency ence of projects realised in scope of the R&D activity od for Enterprise Development9, most com- IE OP in the R&D activity of enterprises. enterprises. panies invest in process innovations and Compared to the pre-funding period, the the number of implemented product in- number of beneficiaries performing in- novations has risen. In scope of innova- ternal R&D activity rose by 21 pp.10 tive products, the share of implemented Ireneusz Łuczak by the Ministry of Economy in 2009 as it granted our company President of the Management Board EC Engineering Sp. z o.o. the status of a Research and Development Centre. We see sup- port from EU funds as important, especially due to the process of introducing our engineering work into serial production. The upcoming new Union perspective will definitely provide a signi- Since the start of its operations, EC Engineering has been invo- ficant development factor for our company and the entire public lved in research and development projects, which was recognised transport sector. IE OP Measure 4.5. Table 2 Summary of support provided in scope of measure 4.5 IE OP as of late June 2015. Number of concluded agreements 147 (including 137 projects directly associated with R&D activity) Investment expenditures (in PLN billion) 14.8 Including eligible costs (in PLN billion) 11.2 Declared employment 18 193 Source: Ministry of Economy, June 2015. Amount of offered support (in PLN billion) 3.4 9 adura-Lichota P., Innowacyjna przedsiębiorczość w Polsce, odkryty i ukryty potencjał polskiej innowacyjności (Innovative business in Poland, discovered and hidden Z potential of Polish innovation), PAED, 2015. 10 As above.
1. R&D&I sector potential 15 Eligible costs Amount of support Company Project name Location (in PLN million) (in PLN million) 6.7 Creation of a Dolby sound system Dolby Poland Sp. z o.o. Wrocław 16.9 research and development centre Research and development centre 9.9 General Electric Company for new technologies reducing exhaust Warsaw 33.1 Polska Sp. z o.o. emission and exhaust optimisation 6.1 Faurecia Grójec R&D Creation of a car seat component Grójec 15.3 Center S.A. research and development centre 6.4 Creation of a Research and Development Grupa Kęty S.A. Kęty 12.9 Centre at Grupa Kęty S.A. 1.3 Creation of a Research and Development INGLOT Sp. z o.o. Przemyśl 2.6 Centre at INGLOT Sp. z o.o. Source: Ministry of Economy, June 2015. B e s t P r a c t i s e Table 3 Examples of companies which received support for R&D activity Łukasz Bratek under IE OP 4.5. Member of the Management Board, Director of Broadcast Technology Dolby Poland Sp. z o.o. Dolby, the company I represent, decid- ment, we can say that it is a great success, ed to open a Research and Development which has exceeded the initial plans and ex- Centre in Wrocław in 2012. Like usually pectations. The company is currently em- in the case concerning such investments, ploying 80 people and has plans for further the key determinants of the location were development. The engineers play key roles An important instrument of support availability of qualified personnel (in this in both product development and research realised by the Ministry of Economy in case programmers and testers) and costs activity. We hold several patents, which scope of the IE OP was measure 4.5. of research and development operations. would not have been possible without the “Support for investment of considerable Several cities in central and eastern Eu- contributions of our engineers. importance to the economy”, which was rope were taken under consideration and Cooperation with the world of sci- aimed to improve the competitive posi- the differences among them were mini- ence turned out to be a challenge. First of tion of the economy by increasing the mal. In such situations, the advantage of- all, it was very hard to find reasonable as- number of investments with high inno- ten falls to a given state or city because of sociates with scientific degrees on the job vation potential in the following sectors: financial support. market for various reasons. Second, coop- – p roduction – with high added Looking from the perspective of eration with academies involves consider- value or generating a considerable three years from the centre’s establish- able administrative charge. number of new jobs, – innovative services – with special consideration of investments as- sociated with launch of R&D ac- associated with R&D&I (innovative The Union funds allowed for devel- tivity in the company. technologies, establishment of enter- opment of projects carrying a higher The programme was very popular prises by academies, existing R&D cen- risk, which would not have been pos- among the investors. In scope of the tres and enterprises, etc.). sible without the support because they entire measure 4.5 of the IE OP, grant It should be noted that the benefi- would have been too risky, especially for agreements were signed with 142 com- ciaries of the support in scope of this micro and small enterprises. In scope panies, which declared total invest- measure include both foreign compa- of the new financial perspective 2014- ment expenditures of PLN 14.2 billion nies and enterprises with Polish capital. 2020, there is even more funds oriented and eventual establishment of over 18 There is no doubt that the support towards R&D&I activity, which is the thousand new jobs. 96% of all appli- in scope of IE OP stimulated develop- source of the greater competitiveness of cations concerned projects associated ment and encouraged entrepreneurs the enterprises domestically, but most with investment in companies directly to prepare and implement innovations. of all internationally.
16 R&D&I Market in Poland Investments in scope of R&D activ- projects with total declared expendi- create almost 700 new jobs, which ity are also attracted by public support tures of PLN 161.4 million and 1909 constitutes over 30% of the new jobs in scope of Special Economic Zones new jobs, almost all for people with declared in scope of the 19 supported (SEZ). Over the past nine years, SEZ higher education. These projects re- research and development projects. hosted 13 projects investing in research ceived support of PLN 34.4 million. The second biggest group is composed and development activity with total in- Considering the numbers of project of Polish companies, which are planning vestment expenditures surpassing PLN locations, Wrocław turned out to be to realise 5 projects and create over 235 167 million and 450 declared new jobs. the most attractive one for companies new jobs. The most interest in such support was considering R&D projects. The capital When it comes to the sector profiles demonstrated by companies with Polish of Lower Silesia hosted 6 projects ap- of the parent companies realising R&D capital (8 out of the 13 investments). plying for government grants for R&D potential expansion in Poland, the big- Up to this point, the Wałbrzych SEZ projects with 460 target new jobs and gest group is composed by companies obtained the most projects – 4 invest- expenditures exceeding PLN 66.8 mil- of the IT sector with 12 (including kCu- ments with investment expenditures of lion. Cracow was second, followed by ra, F5, SolarWinds) businesses which PLN 111 million and planned eventual Łódź and Warsaw. will create 1050 new jobs for people 205 new jobs. The Łódź, Pomeranian, American companies are the most with higher education. The next big- and Cracow zones obtained 2 R&D eager ones to take advantage of support gest group of applicants was composed projects each. in scope of the programme, as 8 of the of companies operating in production: Over the years 2011–2015, and 19 companies or almost 42% of all ap- chemical (e.g. Ciech), electronics (Sam- in scope of the government support plicants in scope of R&D activity were sung Electronics), automotive (e.g. programme, financial grant proposals American. The American entrepreneurs TRW), or food (Mondelez). were offered to 19 R&D activity growth declared that they would collectively FIG. 5 Examples of investors operating in scope of selected SEZ. sopot olsztyn Słupsk Pomorska SEZ Warmińsko- – Biomag -Mazurska SEZ Słupska SEZ Kostrzyn Kostrzyńsko- Słubicka SEZ – Gryfilab – Nafta Polska Łódź Łódzka SEZ – Mabion Legnica Legnicka SEZ Kamienna góra starachowice Kamiennogórska SEZ Starachowice SEZ for Medium Business tarnobrzeg Tarnobrzeska SEZ EURO-PARK wałbrzych WISŁOSAN Wałbrzyska SEZ „Invest Park” – Webco Katowice Mielec – OGI – Advatnech Katowicka SEZ Mielecka SEZ EURO PARK Kraków MIELEC Krakow Source: PIAFIA calculations based on data of the Ministry of Technology Park Economy, 2015. – Selvita
1. R&D&I sector potential 17 B e s t P r a c t i s e The first company to obtain support for realisation of a R&D project in scope – modernisation of the software for the base station based on of the government support programme the FlexiBTS platform, – solutions for the new generation operating support system required for full control of mobile networks. In association with the project, the centre’s employ- The first company to obtain support in scope of the government ment, which covered 1975 jobs in the year of application programme for the R&D project based on the expansion of the (2011), was planned to grow by 200 more jobs. At present time, the existing Centre of Technology in Wrocław was Nokia Siemens Ne- company is employing 3000 people in Wrocław alone. tworks (currently Nokia). The project assumed expansion of opera- tions through development of innovative solutions in scope of the following: Bartosz Ciepluch Member of the Management Board Director of the Nokia Networks European Programming and Engineering Centre in Wrocław Nokia Solutions and Networks Sp. z o.o. Nokia Solutions and Networks Sp. z o.o. is the leader of the market reporting. Support from the Polish Information and Foreign Invest- of providers of services, equipment and software used to create and ment Agency (PIaFIA) is also important as it assists entrepreneurs at maintain telecommunications networks by mobile operators. Every every investment stage. other mobile connection in the world is made with our technical so- The list of positive conditions includes extensive cooperation lutions. For the past 15 years, the company has been performing re- with Polish academies, which work with the company to provide edu- search and development (R&D) in Poland at its own R&D centres cation and obtain information. Nokia’s employees host technical lectu- (Wrocław and Cracow). It holds the status of a research and deve- res and organise periodical training courses. Academies respond with lopment centre and its IT laboratories in Wrocław are the biggest and well-prepared graduates who can start work right after graduation. most modern such facilities in Europe. The Wrocław-Cracow centre, which currently employs approximately 3300 people, is the biggest Negative external conditions IT R&D centre in Poland and hosts work on the newest technologies We believe that the tax relief associated with deductions to the inno- (5G, LTE, SRAN). The revenue from R&D activity reached PLN vation fund for enterprises holding status of a Research and Deve- 500 million in 2014. lopment Centre is negative. Current interpretation of the regulations fails to recognise the expenses of this fund as tax-deductible. Only Positive external conditions contributions to this fund can be recognised as such. Therefore, the Enterprises operating in R&D can receive great support from EU tax preference is low, because it only allows for earlier cost settlement. structural funds in scope of the Intelligent Development Operatio- Simultaneously, the entrepreneur is subject to annually file reports to nal Programme. There are programmes for establishment or expan- the Ministry of Economy and keep separate records covering the in- sion of R&D centres and for realisation and implementation of R&D. novation fund. There are also programmes for R&D in scope of demonstration and In conclusion, the tools of support should constitute additio- pilot installations and establishment of scientific and industrial consor- nal advantage for the entities performing research and develop- tia (for R&D operations). ment to reduce the actual costs of said R&D. EU structural funds The Polish government is offering support for foreign inve- and government grants are excellent forms of public assistance stments in R&D in form of grants at 35 new jobs and investment for R&D operations. Meanwhile, the fiscal support instruments expenditures over PLN 1 million. Even though the level of support must be redefined. Entrepreneurs performing R&D should rece- does not exceed 10% of the investment, advantages include simpli- ive support as they drive the innovation producing economic and fied administration procedures of both grant applications and result social benefits.
18 R&D&I Market in Poland Survey of the activity of Polish R&D departments T he path to innovative suc- and implementation of new products. The main R&D opera- cess requires a company The obtained results were compared tions performed in to continuously seek new with the data concerning the situation solutions with various in Europe obtained from analyses of Polish companies in- tools. A survey of Polish R&D depart- available reports and interviews with clude development and ments was performed in August of 2015 experts. commercial release of to learn the needs of and challenges The survey was used to prepare faced by the B&R departments of small, a report covering the organisation of new products (indicat- medium, and big companies.11 research and development operations ed by of the surveyed The survey covered over 60 in- in Polish companies, its comparison entities), patent protec- dividual inter views with top-level to other European countries, and the managers of innovative companies mechanisms and tools which the man- tion for inventions, and operating in Poland with structures agers of the R&D departments would development of employ- responsible for research, development, like to see in their companies. ee initiatives. FIG. 6 Scope of undertaken R&D activities. 80% 70% 50% 30% 30% Incubator / Scientific research Intrapreneurship Patent protection for Development and accelerator – project – technology – development of inventions commercial release recruitment and development within employee initiatives of new products selection the company 11 Own research: Techbrainers, 2015.
1. R&D&I sector potential 19 The main R&D operations per- concerning technology scouting is The report also notes the lack of formed in Polish companies include noteworthy. effect control: the only effectiveness development and commercial release Most respondents have a negative measure used by the respondents con- of new products (indicated by 80% of opinion concerning the effects of cerning the performed operations is the the surveyed entities), patent protection their structures. In their opinion, the use of the granted budget; 55% failed for inventions (70%), and development most difficult challenges and problems to indicate any KPI (key performance of employee initiatives (50%). 30% indi- include project selection, external pro- indicators). However, 30% noted that cated scientific research and technol- ject recruitment, creation of interdis- there are plans to introduce measures ogy development within the company ciplinary teams, and establishment of such as share in revenue from released and project acceleration and incuba- relations between R&D and business products and average time for commer- tion. A complete lack of indications planning. cial release from concept creation. FIG. 7 Evaluation of current operations. External project Poland recruitment Project selection Europe Project planning and management Idea generation R&D process quality maintenance Motivation of specialists Creation of interdisciplinary teams Coordination of R&D and marketing Transfer of technology into production Cooperation between R&D and finances Association between R&D and business planning No action Initial effort Competences Application Distribution of Continuous responsibility improvement
20 R&D&I Market in Poland At present time, R&D business en- to generate new income and conquer institutions. A clear majority believes tities have no specific role in the reali- new markets. Therefore, R&D opera- that the key partners are startups (70%), sation of the company’s strategy – this tions are perceived as the business mo- companies operating in complementa- problem was noted by 70% of the re- tor required for further development. ry sectors (65%), and Polish academies spondents. Nevertheless, 90% noted Furthermore, the managers are aware (60%). s that the management of their com- that innovation-based development panies sees R&D as an opportunity requires cooperation with external FIG. 8 Importance of the ecosystem in r&d operations. 70% 65% believe that cooperation with companies operating believe that cooperation with external startups is beneficial in complementary sectors 60% is beneficial 30% believe that international believe that cooperation 30% cooperation with Polish academies is beneficial is beneficial believe that cooperation with foreign academies is beneficial no one listed cooperation with NGOs
1. R&D&I sector potential 21 Innovation ecosystem T Clusters and he scientific potential of clusters generate solutions for numer- networks of the Polish R&D&I sector is ous social and economic problems and composed of 963 scientif- challenges. cooperation have the ic entities (as of 2014).12 In As the catalyser of cluster organisa- potential to become scope of the parametrical evaluation per- tions, the public sector receives a very innovative instruments formed in 2014, 42 of them were graded effective tool for implementation of eco- A+13, which means that they held the nomic programmes and a partner for in the growth of R&D in top potential for scientific and creative the realisation of development policies. Poland. accomplishments. In scope of research Knowledge comes from universities, clusters generate infrastructures, the direction of changes academic environments, and research is determined by the Polish Roadmap of institutions, which provide innovation solutions for Research Infrastructure (PRRI) prepared and, in return, receive a perspective of numerous social and by the Ministry of Science and Higher the technological needs of business. economic problems Education14, which received 53 projects Money comes from business, which in 2014, 20 more than in 2011 (before is always the foundation and motor of and challenges. the update). More projects means higher cluster organisations. This is obviously potential of scientific entities to perform an oversimplification, but the operating research, including that in cooperation mechanism of clusters is indeed locked with enterprises. in this triangle of mutual relations. There is a big group connecting sci- The essence of clusters is also de- ence and research entities with enter- picted well by the term “coopetition”, a prises composed of business-related combination of cooperation and com- institutions (BRI). BRI support oper- petition. This word describes a rather ations undertaken by entrepreneurs in unique condition, which sees the nat- scope of research and development and ural competition of business entities implementation of innovative solutions. combined with their cooperation, which Business-related institutions include is obviously limited to selected areas. technological parks, technological in- The companies associated within the cubators, business incubators, technol- cluster continue to compete with each ogy transfer centres, business angle net- other, but they can all simultaneously works, local and regional credit funds. seek space for benefits from trust and In 2012, the network of such centres cooperation. Examples include collec- covered over 800 entities.15 tive purchasing, development of logistic Clusters and networks of coop- infrastructure, and building staff by de- eration have the potential to become veloping vocational education adapted innovative instruments in the growth for the needs of the companies associ- of R&D in Poland. By concentrating a ated in the clusters. group of competing and cooperating Advantages for companies result- companies operating in similar indus- ing from effective cluster operations tries, academic centres, BRI, and public include the following: administration entities in small space, 12 ttps://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2014_07/475a73e93ea6148d2d71ab18d24c4a1e.pdf (accessed on 19.10.2015). h 13 Announcement of the minister of science and higher education dated 4th July 2014 on scientific categories assigned to scientific entities. 14 https://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2014_08/caf36c2da9fef183c32ce8772ec5b426.pdf (accessed on 18.10.2014). 15 A . Bąkowski, M. Mażewska (ed.), Ośrodki innowacji i przedsiębiorczości w Polsce. Raport 2012 r. (Centres of Innovation and Business in Poland. 2012 Report), PAED, Warsaw 2012.
22 R&D&I Market in Poland FIG. 9 Clustering. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION MUTUAL UNION PROJECTS ADJUSTED TO BUSINESS NEEDS INTEGRATION CREATION OF ADDED VALUE – c ost reduction by establishment sector, and life science, but only a few preceding the establishment of a clus- of purchase groups, of them have the potential for further ter are often omitted in the Polish social – i mplementation of solutions for development. There is a similar situa- and economic reality, which may result the profession, tion in many other European regions, from the high standards specified in the – g eneration of additional income where the financial support system (in cluster excellence, i.e. the standards for from creation of mutual regional the case of Masovia, grant support from the methodology of cluster establish- brands, EU structural funds) has artificially gen- ment and management. According to –m ore effective application for erated activeness of environments with the cluster excellence methodology, the Union funds through estab- no actual potential to build strong clus- preparations alone can take up to eight lishment of healthy and stable ter organisations. months and the number of potential partnerships, According to effective method- members should be at least 100. –p referential access to research ology, the first of many steps preced- The only effective path leading infrastructure. ing the decision to establish a cluster to quick improvement of operating And how do cluster organisa- should be the so-called mapping, i.e. standards of cluster organisations is to tions work in Poland? The Masovian establishment of the number of en- introduce the strongest entities into Voivodeship is currently home to sev- tities potentially interested in enter- the system of development policy im- eral dozen cluster initiatives, which ing the cluster, operating in scope of plementation. Thankfully, such assign- operate mainly in IT, the automotive a common chain of values. Analyses ments have already started in Poland,
1. R&D&I sector potential 23 INTERNATIONALISATION MUTUAL SOLUTION OF MUTUAL PROBLEMS DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCT, MUTUAL PROMOTION PROCESS, AND MARKETING INNOVATION examples of which include the appear- 1. Aviation Valley Cluster, represented 6. Eastern Construction Cluster, rep- ing elements of the key cluster system by the “Dolina Lotnicza” Association resented by the Polish Consulting on a national level, but also on a region- of Aviation Entrepreneurs, Association, al one. 2. Interizon Cluster, represented by the 7. West Pomeranian Chemical Cluster The National Key Cluster (NKC) Interizon Foundation, “Zielona Chemia”, represented by the status is granted to clusters with special 3. Metal Processing Cluster, represent- West Pomeranian Chemical Cluster importance to the economy and with ed by the Innovation and Develop- “Zielona Chemia” Association. s high international competitiveness. ment Promotion Centre, NKC clusters are entitled to preferen- 4. Masovian ICT Cluster, represented tial treatment when pursuing grants for by the “Wiedza” Association of So- ventures from EU funds, specifically in cial and Economic Development, scope of R&D&I, as well as support for 5. Polish Aluminium Cluster, repre- international operations (internation- sented by City Consulting Insti- alisation). The following National Key tute Sp. z.o.o., Clusters have been established thus far:
24 R&D&I Market in Poland Key directions of changes in the period 2014–2020 T Due to the he Polish document deter- areas were established domestically (see establishment of mining the priority oper- attachment no. 1). The intelligent spe- ations in scope of R&D&I cialisations of individual voivodeships the NSS and RIS is the Strategy for Inno- are specified in scope of the Regional catalogue, a few vation and Efficiency of the Economy Innovation Strategies (RIS) (see at- selected industries are “Dynamic Poland 2020” (SIEE).16 The tachment no. 4). operating directions assumed in the Due to the establishment of the NSS projected to strategy include mainly stimulation of and RIS catalogue, a few selected in- experience intensive the private sector to invest in R&D&I, dustries are projected to experience in- development, which support for transfer of knowledge be- tensive development, which will receive tween R&D&I and the economy (promo- the biggest stream of funds, especially will receive the biggest tion of cooperation), and networking of when it comes to R&D&I operations. As stream of funds, domestic scientific entities with entities a rule, only innovative projects fitting especially when it abroad. The executive programme to the within the scope of domestic or region- Strategy for Innovation and Efficiency of al smart specialisations receive support comes to R&D&I the Economy is the Programme for De- or are treated preferentially concerning operations. velopment of Enterprises until 202017, funding access (e.g. additional evalua- which also indicates that certain steps tion points). should be taken to improve the flow of The trend to focus the support on information between the sectors of sci- selected fields is also reflected in the ence and industry, raise interest in mu- creation of sector programmes. They tual cooperation, and create an appro- include financing programmes for priate system of encouragements from R&D&I activities in selected industries. the state to stimulate the development They are not, however, established by a of said cooperation. sole decision of a financing institution, The National Smart Specialisa- but rather emerge as a result of grass- tion (NSS) is an attachment to the Pro- root initiatives taken by representatives gramme for Development of Enterpris- of a given sector (who do not participate es. The concept of NSS was established in programme financing). Until now, by the EU and results from the strategic the National Centre for Research & approach to economic development Development (NCRD) operated sector through oriented support for R&D&I. programmes for the medical industry The areas of smart specialisations of (Innomed) and the aerospace sector (In- countries and regions are subjects nolot). The catalogue can be extended with the top development potential in in the foreseeable future. the given country/region, which can The importance of cooperation be- potentially constitute its biggest com- tween enterprises and scientific enti- petitive advantage. Originally, their de- ties is growing. The collective ventures velopment should produce the greatest of the representatives of both of these added value and actual economic ef- environments receive preferential treat- fects. 19 intelligent NSS in five subject ment in scope of support from public 16 Document passed with the resolution of the Council of Ministers dated 15th January 2013. http://www.mg.gov.pl/files/upload/17492/Strategia.pdf. 17 Document passed with the resolution of the Council of Ministers dated 8th April 2014. http://www.mg.gov.pl/Wspieranie+przedsiebiorczosci/ Polityki+przedsiebiorczosci+i+innowacyjnosci/Program+Rozwoju+Przedsiebiorstw.
1. R&D&I sector potential 25 B e s t P r a c t i s e funds. The scope of the 2014–2020 op- erational programmes saw the raise of PhD Pierre Orlewski potential for grants of scientific centres OPEN INNOVATION MANAGER EMEA REGION in scope of consortia and partnerships GOODYEAR INNOVATION CENTRE IN LUXEMBOURG with companies. The programme doc- uments also pay close attention to the development of clusters, which are one of the forms of cooperation between Who are the people able to effectively re examples mentioned frequently in the science and business, especially the de- acquire technologies from the outside and context of open innovation include Pepsi- velopment of Key National Clusters. locate them in their companies? Dr Pierre Co and Lipton (currently Unilever) brands, There is also extensive support Orlewski, manager of open innovations for which contributed business and technolo- available for entrepreneurs planning to the EMEA region at the Goodyear Innova- gical knowledge concerning appropriately implement R&D results into their ac- tion Centre in Luxembourg, an unquestio- bottled beverages and tea and its proper- tivities. This support is mainly for the ned authority in the field of open innova- ties. The fruit of this cooperation is a pro- sector of small and medium enterpris- tion, multiplies examples of companies duct we all know from store shelves – Lip- es, which, on the date of the application, which successfully apply the open innova- ton Ice Tea. A new product was created, hold the R&D results necessary for the tion philosophy. One of them is Procter & as well as a new competence and profits investment phase. Gamble. 40% of its new products were de- for both players. The growth of the Polish R&D&I veloped in scope of external alliances. Mo- sector also means greater presence of Polish Companies on foreign mar- kets. Innovative products and services often serve as the core for establish- knowledge and experience which can- or financial) are not enough to stay on ment of international cooperation net- not be developed within the company the wave of new technologies. works of innovative entities. Some of or it is unprofitable to do so. Accord- Open innovation is the ability to ad- the forms of support for companies in ing to the open innovation philoso- equately enrich an organisation’s poten- scope of operational programmes in- phy, new products and solutions are tial with innovative external solutions clude preparation to enter internation- created with conscious abandonment and appropriate management of inter- al markets, development of plans and of unlimited authority over the rights nal solutions. The professionalization strategies, and promotional campaigns. to the whole solution and preserva- of this area in Poland and in Europe is Considering the ever-increasing tion of only the necessary intellectual becoming more and more valued – not emphasis on the international compet- copyrights in scope of business ac- only by enterprises, but also by their itiveness of Polish enterprises, we may tivity. Creation performed “together” managers, employees, and clients. It also expect a growth of the importance makes sense, because the rapid glob- allows for development of a competi- of industrial property rights, especially al progress of science and technology tive advantage and new business mod- under the EPO and PCT, which allow makes simultaneous development of els and identification of new consumer applicants to obtain patent protection internal knowledge in numerous are- groups. s outside the territory of Poland. as too expensive and time-consuming. A significant trend of this finan- When the pressure of competition cial perspective is the open innovation rises and impatience of consumers philosophy, which assumes building a forces the commercial release of new competitive advantage based on the products, own resources (intellectual
Patent and tax environment
28 R&D&I Market in Poland T here are two areas of law of R&D results. The other is tax law with of particular importance to its various mechanisms of preferential research and development treatment of R&D activity that may pro- activities. The first one is vide particularly attractive incentives for a system of intellectual property rights, entities engaged in such pursuit. which provides appropriate protection Patent statistics L Patent statistics, egal protection of research European Patent Office (EPO) with its and development results is seat in Munich carries out a full patent as one of the most provided through the cata- procedure, including decisions to grant important measures of logue of intellectual prop- the so-called European patents. Howev- innovativeness, indica- erty rights, which include in particular er, in order for the European patent to patent protection for technical solutions become effective in a given EPC mem- te that Poland has satisfying the conditions of patentable ber state, an additional validation pro- improved its position inventions. The various patent indices cedure should be performed before the in the recent years. are among the basic measures of the giv- national patent office (including transla- en economy innovativeness. tion of the patent documents). Follow- Concerning patent indices relative ing the validation, the European patent to Poland, it should be noted that over granted by the EPO becomes a part of 11 years ago, on 1st March 2004, Poland the domestic legal regime. entered the European Patent Organi- Basic patent indices include total sation and became bound with the Eu- number of patent applications filed to ropean Patent Convention (EPC). EPC the national patent office. currently includes 38 countries: all EU Chart 1 presents this number for Member States and countries such as the Polish Patent Office (PPO) between Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, as well 2002 and 2014, divided by domestic and as Turkey. Pursuant to the EPC, the foreign entities.
2. Patent and tax environment 29 Patent applications to the PPO 9 000 8 000 7740 7 000 6593 6 000 6608 6209 5 000 4657 4123 4411 4 000 3430 3941 3786 3140 domestic 3 000 2812 entities 2753 2778 2 000 1 000 155 foreign 0 entities 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 FIG. 1 Total number of patent The drop of domestic patent appli- the number of patent applications filed applications filed to the Polish cations in the years 2005–2006 was the by domestic entities has pretty much Patent Office. direct result of Poland’s 2004 entry into doubled over the 10-year period. the EPC. The option of obtaining pat- Under the current legal order 1 , ent protection in Poland through vali- patents are subject to national legal dation of the European patent granted regimes and provide monopoly for use by the EPO systematically reduced the of the inventions in the given country number of applications filed to the PPO (since European patents still require by foreign entities. Before the entry to national validation). Domestic patent the EPC, such applications composed protection in a single country (e.g. Po- approximately 60–70% of all domestic land) is effective for inventions of only applications whereas there were only local importance. Those with high eco- 155 such applications (less than 4%) in nomic importance require much great- 2014. Simultaneously, the number of er territorial protection, which may be applications filed to the PPO by domes- obtained through an application for the tic entities started to rise since 2005, European patent filed to the EPO or and there were 3,786 inventions filed to international PCT2 application, which the PPO in 2014. This trend may have ultimately can provide for protection been adjusted over the past two years, in 148 countries worldwide (includ- but this does not change the fact that ing USA, Japan, China, etc.). For this 1 I n the near future it is expected that the so-called European patent with unitary will enter into effect, the protection of which will unitarily cover all countries which enter the appropriate regulation. 2 Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The PCT procedure is divided into two phases: international and subsequent national phase. The entity interested in the potential pa- tent protection in PCT member states may file an international PCT application (as a single application). Within the international phase of the procedure the applicant receives the International Search Report which helps to determine the level of probability whether the invention satisfies the patentabililty conditions. After due time, the applicant must decide whether to enter into the national phase in individual countries, where the patent procedure continues in all designated countries in accor- dance with local requirements. The patent grant decision falls is at the sole discretion of a national patent office and from the beginning of the national phase the PCT application is basically treated as a domestic application. It is worth noting that the national PCT phase may lead to grant of the European patent; where this procedure is usually referred to as the “Euro-PCT” route.
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