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                                   SERVICE                                                    September 2020 Volume 97, No. 7

                Focus on Addressing Race, Diversity & Inclusion

                       24                                             33                                   40
           Inclusion Helps                                Living Up to the                     The Making of a
           Drive Diversity                                 American Idea                   Real American Diplomat
    State’s new initiatives create space               Besides the moral imperative,        A senior member of the Foreign
      for difficult conversations and               there are compelling reasons to have    Service who immigrated to the
        incorporate accountability.                   a Foreign Service that looks like     United States as a child reflects
          By Mirembe Nantongo                       America. Here are some suggestions              on her journey.
                                                            for how to get there.                   By Julie Chung

                       30                                  B y P e t e r F. R o m e r o

      Creating a Culture of                                                                                44
       Inclusion at State
                                                                      35                       It’s Not Just About
       To establish diversity at State,                Diversity at State:                 Intake: A New Approach
      it is essential to make inclusion             A Dream Deferred and a                  to Advancing Diversity
      count—in every promotion, job                 Collective Responsibility                After 30 years, another round
          prospect and assignment.                  Two fellowship programs are heralded   of the same measures will not do.
          By Gina Abercrombie-                        for bringing people of color into     It’s time to define the problems
               Winstanley                             the Foreign Service, but the new           and seek new solutions.
                                                    employees’ advancement is inhibited          By Pa t r i ce J o h n so n
                                                           by institutional barriers.
                                                      By Ana Escrogima, Lia Miller
                                                        and Christina Tilghman
                                                                                            From the FSJ Archive:
                                                                                               Diversity in the
                                                                                               Foreign Service

    Cover Story: The U.N. at 75
                               51                                                              Bringing Order Out
          U.N. Relevance Depends                                                               of Crisis: Behind the
            on U.S. Leadership                                                                Scenes of a Task Force
                   B y J e f f r e y Fe l t m a n                                                   By Chris Meade,
                                                                                           Holly Adamson, Merlyn Schultz
                              57                                                              a n d Fa n y C o l o n d e H a y e s

    Ralph J. Bunche, U.N. Architect
                  By James Dandridge

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                     5
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                                                                                                 10      Letters
                    7                                             92                             14      Talking Points
         President’s Views                                Reflections
         Change Has Come,                           History of a Handshake:                      80      In Memory
          More is Coming                           Ground-Level PD in Belarus
            By Eric Rubin                                  By George Krol                        85      Books

                    9                                             94
       Letter from the Editor                               Local Lens
              It’s Time                                    Annecy, France
         By Shawn Dorman                                  By Brian Aggeler

                   21                                                                            88      Real Estate
         Speaking Out
                                                                                                 89      Index to Advertisers
      Why “27 Years and Out”
        Should Be Retired                                                                        90      Classifieds
             B y Te d C r a i g


    67 AFSA Hosts Town Hall Series                 74 This Is Not Your Father’s DACOR
        on COVID-19, Diversity
    68 State VP Voice—Diversity and
                                                    76 AFSA Lauds Supreme Court Decision
                                                         on Workplace Discrimination
        Inclusion: The Time to Act Is Now           76 AFSA Welcomes New Members
    69 USAID VP Voice—The (GAO) Report                  of the U.S. Foreign Service
        Is In on Diversity at USAID                 77 Seminar: How the SECURE and
    70 FCS VP Voice—You Can’t Really                    CARES Acts Affect Retirement
        Ever Go Back, Only Forward …                77	AFSA Governing Board Meeting
    71 AFSA Congratulates Kennan                        Resolutions
        Award Winners                               78 FSI Releases New Guided
    72 F
        SJ Wins Two TRENDY Awards                       Journal for FS Children
        for Publishing Excellence                   79 Tomoko Morinaga Joins
    72 How LWOP Affects Your                             AFSA as Membership
        AFSA Membership                                   Operations Coordinator
    73 AFSA Seeks Your Help
        with Outreach Efforts

On the Cover—Cover art by Alexandra Bowman, inspired by the concept “Diversity is being invited to the party, inclusion is being asked to
dance.” That evocative phrase is introduced by Deputy Assistant Secretary Mirembe Nantongo in her lead article, and originally comes from
diversity advocate Verna Myers. Find more of Bowman’s work on Instagram @alexbowman.

6                                                                                                  SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
RACISM FACING - American ...

Change Has Come, More Is Coming

           his is a time of seismic change
                                                   We are still not the Service we are supposed to be.
           for the world, our country, our
           profession and our institutions.
           The global wildfire-like spread of      to be, one that looks like the country we            The separation of families due to post
the novel coronavirus and the economic             represent. We’re more diverse than we            departures related to the pandemic, and
and social shocks that it brought have led         were decades ago, to be sure, but progress       the fact that many are still stuck in place
to unprecedented challenges. There is no           has slowed dramatically, and in some             due to travel restrictions, has brought
doubt our country could have responded             respects we have gone backward.                  a slew of difficult decisions. Overseas
better to the crisis. And while it was                 Second, because we have not lived up         schools, which are so important to
widely understood that our society had             to our rhetoric. The numbers speak for           making accompanied tours possible for
failed to address fundamental issues of            themselves, and the recent GAO reports           families with children, are in some cases
racial and economic fairness, the wave of          are particularly revealing. AFSA recently        facing challenges to their survival. Issues
protest that followed the killing of George        polled our membership on issues related          related to COVID-19 testing, quarantine
Floyd caught many Americans off guard.             to racism and diversity. The responses           and authorized departure continue to
    This is the first of two back-to-back          underline how common it is for minor-            demand creative solutions and the pro-
issues of The Foreign Service Journal              ity members of the Service to experience         tection of our members and their families.
dedicated to issues of diversity, inclusion        blatant or subtle racism and discrimina-             This brings us to the larger reality: The
and discrimination in our Service. The             tion, and how unrepresentative many of           Foreign Service Act of 1980 is 40 years old
passing of Representative John Lewis               our overseas posts and domestic bureaus          this year. It is our foundational legisla-
(D-Ga.) reminds us—as he himself often             are in terms of looking like America.            tion, and I believe it is fundamentally
did—that while we have come a long                     Of course, the effects of the coronavi-      sound and should be largely preserved.
way since the days of Jim Crow and legal           rus crisis on our Service are real and dra-      But the Foreign Service cannot be frozen
segregation, we have a long way to go to           matic. AFSA is working hard to support           in amber. We are dealing with major
become a truly fair and inclusive society.         our members as they deal with the dis-           changes in America’s role in the world,
The ongoing debates over Confederate               location that 2020 has brought. We have          significant generational changes regard-
flags and monuments also remind us that            won important victories on issues that           ing attitudes and expectations, and the
we have not succeeded in achieving a               are critical to our members in navigating        need to rethink and improve how we
common national understanding of the               this crisis, and we are very glad that our       recruit, hire and retain talent. We also
Civil War and its causes, nor of the years         agencies are bringing on new members of          need a hard focus on workplace culture
and decades that followed the Union                the Service through online training and          and its importance in fostering respect,
victory.                                           orientation.                                     inclusion and morale.
                              Why do we need           The months ahead will bring more                 We want to hear your views on what
                          to focus on diversity    challenges and painful compromises. The          needs to be done to improve and modern-
                          in the Foreign Ser-      loss of consular fees due to the impact          ize our Service. Please share your thoughts
                          vice today? First of     of coronavirus will affect State’s ability       with us at member@afsa.org. Thank you
                          all, because we are      to hire new officers. These fees pay the         for your commitment and dedication to
                          still not the Service    salaries of many entry-level officers, who       our country and to our shared mission at
                          we are supposed          serve in consular assignments first.             this very challenging time. n

                        Ambassador Eric Rubin is the president of the American Foreign Service Association.

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                                   7
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8                                                                                                                SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
RACISM FACING - American ...

It’s Time

          his month’s focus—addressing         being invited to the party, while inclusion   association did not always lead on the
          race, diversity and inclusion—       is being asked to dance.                      issue, it is aiming to play a productive
          has been on the calendar since           This concept, originally introduced by    role today in raising and advocating
          the end of last year when we set     diversity advocate Verna Myers, inspired      recommendations emerging from the
2021 themes. It is not a new topic, nor a      the wonderful cover art. We commis-           Foreign Service community—through
new problem; but this moment in our            sioned Black American artist Alexandra        AFSA surveys and meetings and through
country’s history may offer a real oppor-      Bowman to bring the vision to life. We        the affinity groups (who will weigh in
tunity for change that is new.                 trust you will agree that she did.            next month on these pages).
    The police killing of George Floyd             In “Creating a Culture of Inclu-              Our cover stories honor the 75th
and all that followed has led to the airing    sion at State,” Ambassador (ret.) Gina        anniversary of the establishment of the
of the Black experience in American            Abercrombie-Winstanley puts forward           United Nations. Ambassador (ret.) Jeffrey
diplomacy in a way not widely seen             specific recommendations on building          Feltman shares his insider experience
before. As Americans are facing racism         accountability into the system to ensure      as U.N. Under-Secretary-General for
and taking stock of how our society and        that promoting inclusion is everyone’s        Political Affairs, explaining why “U.N.
institutions are doing when it comes to        responsibility. And Ambassador (ret.)         Relevance Depends on U.S. Leadership.”
equality and inclusion (not so well), so       Peter F. Romero suggests specific ways        Ambassador (ret.) James Dandridge
too is the Foreign Service.                    the Foreign Service can truly look like       brings us a story from the organization’s
    For this Journal focus, we have            and represent America.                        beginnings in “Ralph J. Bunche, U.N.
brought together powerful voices for               In “Diversity at State: A Dream           Architect.”
positive change from various vantage           Deferred and a Collective Responsibil-            And following our focus on pandemic
points, and we hope their insights and         ity,” FSOs Ana Escrogima, Lia Miller          diplomacy last month, we present a first-
recommendations will contribute to the         and Christina Tilghman offer an honest        hand account from the 2020 Repatria-
measures, policies, and even the cultural      assessment of how well the Pickering and      tion Task Force that brought home more
shifts required to create a Foreign Service    Rangel Fellowships have done in advanc-       than 100,000 Americans. Chris Meade,
that can live up to American ideals of         ing diversity at State, and what should       Holly Adamson, Merlyn Schultz and
equality and inclusion.                        change.                                       Fany Colon de Hayes—all with the State
    Leading the discussion, Deputy                 Senior FSO Julie Chung shares her         Department Operations Center’s Office
Assistant Secretary Mirembe Nantongo           deeply personal story in “The Making of a     of Crisis Management and Strategy—tell
presents an inspiring look at why and          Real American Diplomat.”                      us about “Bringing Order Out of Crisis:
how diversity (about people) and inclu-            In a critical look at barriers to         Behind the Scenes of a Task Force.”
sion (about culture) matter and what the       advancement for people of color in the            The FSJ strives to shine a light on
State Department is doing to deal with         Foreign Service, FSO Patrice Johnson          the realities, diverse perspectives and
                     both. She begins by       tells us “It’s Not Just About Intake: A New   real recommendations on how to move
                     painting a powerful       Approach to Advancing Diversity.”             diplomacy forward. Given the ground-
                     image of diversity vs.        And we dove into the FSJ Archive to       swell of attention to diversity and
                     inclusion—diversity is    resurface a selection of articles on diver-   inclusion—and the opportunity of this
                                               sity in the Foreign Service going back to     moment—we shifted our October focus
                      Shawn Dorman is the      1963.                                         to continue this conversation, which
                      editor of The Foreign        AFSA’s legacy on advancing diversity      we invite you to join by writing to us at
                      Service Journal.         is mixed, and while it is fair to say the     journal@afsa.org. n  ­

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                        9
RACISM FACING - American ...

Remembering                                    with Tex from 1974 to 1977 in my first             At the time of the massacre’s 10th
Joseph Diatta                                  assignment as an FSO. I was working in         anniversary (July 11, 2005), I was an
    I was saddened to learn of the recent      the European Affairs Bureau, and Tex           FSO serving at U.S. Consulate General
death of Joseph Diatta, a former ambas-        was on detail to the Environmental Pro-        Casablanca. Not even the horrors of Abu
sador from Niger to the United States          tection Agency.                                Ghraib upset my Moroccan colleagues
and a colleague at the Foreign Service            I also got to know his family during        more than the Srebrenica massacre.
Institute’s Foreign Affairs Counter Threat     those years, and I am forever grateful to          While watching the Al-Arabiya news
(FACT) course.                                 have shared in the generous spirit and         channel’s coverage of the 10th anniver-
    As a facilitator with the FACT course,     warmheartedness that later led them to         sary of the massacre, the Moroccans,
I had the privilege of working with Amb.       their courageous actions in Argentina. I       noticeably upset and even enraged,
Diatta for nearly five years. He demon-        worried about them in those years, but         asked me whether the West would ever
strated a quiet dignity, pro-                                     I was not surprised by      accept them, Muslim natives of the first
vided a realistic encounter                                       what they felt com-         country to recognize the United States
for students, and drew on                                         pelled to do.               in 1777.
his personal experiences                                              Separately, I doubt-        After all, the Bosniacs were them-
when teaching the impor-                                          less would have joined      selves considered the most Westernized
tance of cultural sensitivity,                                     AFSA anyway; but           Muslims. Yet, subjected to the Serbs’
mutual respect and active                                          when I met Tex (on         ethnic cleansing campaign, they were
listening.                                                         the last day of A-100      victims of the worst massacre in Europe
    Having served as ambas-                                        orientation), he said      since the end of World War II, while Sre-
sador to the United States                                         to me: “You’re an FSO;     brenica was ostensibly under U.N. blue
and having been one of                                             you have to belong to      helmet protection. (U.N. “safe haven”
the chief architects of the                                         AFSA.” That settled it.   must be the oxymoron of the 1990s!)
1995 peace agreement that                                              I was an FSO for           My Moroccan co-workers simply
reconciled the Tuareg armed                                      only five years, but I       could not fathom how the United States
rebellion in Niger, Amb. Diatta brought a      have happily been an AFSA member for           and the West, well aware of the brutal
unique perspective to the FACT program.        more than 45 years.                            reputations of Ratko Mladic and Radovan
    In observing his interaction with             I hope that members of the Foreign          Karadzic, could let this happen.
students, I was struck by the importance       Service community who never had the                The subsequent radicalization of some
he placed on nurturing relationships,          good fortune to know Tex personally will       Bosniacs, like the Chechens before them,
increasing rapport and promoting com-          nevertheless find inspiration in him to        should not have surprised anyone—and
munication. He understood, better than         nurture their own integrity, professional-     certainly not members of our profes-
most, that open communication might            ism and humanity.                              sion—remotely aware of what was done
at some point save a Foreign Service offi-        Edwina Campbell                             to them by the Serbs and the Russians,
cer’s life or the lives of their colleagues.      Former FSO                                  respectively.
Joseph Diatta will be missed.                     Fort Worth, Texas                               Although the July-August FSJ under-
    Michael Maxey                                                                             standably focused on COVID-19 and
    USAID FSO, retired                         Remembering the                                the widespread public outcry in the
    Fairfax, Virginia                          Srebrenica Massacre                            United States and elsewhere over George
                                                  It has been 25 years since Bosnian          Floyd’s murder and police brutality, it
Endowing the                                   Serbs murdered more than 8,000 fellow          was disappointing that the Journal did
Tex Harris Award                               Bosnians who were Muslim. Despite all          not also feature a remembrance essay on
   In May, I sent a contribution to AFSA       our professions since the Holocaust of         Srebrenica and the international commu-
to help establish a permanent endow-           “Never Again,” wanton genocidal killing        nity’s failure to stop the Bosnian Serbs’
ment for the Tex Harris Award.                 of noncombatants had occurred once             onslaught.
   I had the privilege of working closely      more in Europe.                                    After all, several FSOs, notably area

10                                                                                                SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
experts George Kenney and Marshall             19, draconian lockdowns and terrible           Mr. Moore suggests and adopts many
Freeman Harris, resigned in protest of         health care situations.                        additional technologies and policies to
our government’s inaction.                        It is nice to acknowledge all the hard      modernize. Let the challenges created
   It is incumbent on us to reflect            work that was done in the wake of the          by COVID-19 be a catalyst for positive
periodically on what was done to the           COVID-19 pandemic, but it would also           change.
Bosniacs, Darfuris, Kurds, Rohingyas,          be nice to allow a tip of the hat for what        Daniel Walsh
Chechens, Palestinians and other vic-          happens after everyone is evacuated.              FSO
timized peoples when confounded by                Thanks to AFSA and the FSJ for all             Auckland, New Zealand
their intransigence and anger.                 you do.
   George W. Aldridge                             Ubah Khasimuddin                            An Art Based on Science
   FSO, retired                                   Office Management Specialist                    Andrew Moore’s June Speaking
   Arlington, Texas                               U.S. Embassy New Delhi                      Out on lessons from Silicon Valley is a
                                                                                              refreshing call for a Foreign Service life
Keeping Embassies                              Responding to Lessons                          in which diplomats spend most of their
Running                                        from Silicon Valley                            time serving America, rather than navi-
    I read the July-August Journal on the          Andrew Moore’s June Speaking Out,          gating bureaucratic mazes to manage
FS response to the COVID-19 pandemic           “Lessons from Silicon Valley: Practical        their service. Many diplomats likely saw
with interest. It seems that throughout        Suggestions for a Modern Workplace,”           themselves in his all-too-relatable war
the world, at all                                          was timely and exactly what        story of a nine-month saga to get a $50
posts, everyone was                                        the State Department needs         reimbursement.
consistent in their                                         to hear at this time.                 Yet, while I’m sure most in the State
effort to repatri-                                              The COVID-19 pandemic         Department agree that we should
ate Americans back                                          has forced the department         “modernize diplomacy” and “make it the
home—if it were                                             to deploy technological           first tool of foreign policy,” some would
possible, we should                                         and policy changes to cope        unfortunately be quick to explain why
all get one big group                                       with unprecedented global         each specific innovation Moore proposes
Eagle Award.                                                 challenges. Technological        for doing so (e.g., the use of advanced
    However, one                                             changes that had been in         analytics in decision memos) “could
thing I’ve noticed that                                      development were deployed        never be done here.”
is markedly missing                                          rapidly with positive results.       Those in State’s ranks who cling to
in almost all State                                              Sensible policy changes      “the way things have always been” often
Department commu-                                            like teacher language score      justify their reticence to innovation by
nication, and in the Journal, is appre-        evaluations at FSI and interview waivers       saying “diplomacy is an art, not a sci-
ciation and/or stories about those of          for H2A applicants demon-                                              ence” and pointing
us who stayed behind, those of us who          strate that it is time to review                                       to a past golden age
didn’t take authorized departure but           why certain policies are in                                            of diplomacy (that
remained at post.                              place. If they can be changed                                          never really existed)
    We are the warriors ensuring that          in the face of crisis, are they                                       to which we should
the embassies continue to run and that         necessary at normal times,                                            instead return.
there is an American presence (and             or are they in place because                                              However, this
American Citizen Services) in far-flung        “we’ve always done it this                                           hagiography ignores
locations, even during this pandemic.          way”?                                                                the history of reform
    We forfeited being in the United               As an entry-level officer                                       at State. Far from
States and near our loved ones, instead        with a background in                                                artists remaking the
serving our country on the front lines,        tech, I hope the depart-                                            world, past efforts to
often in countries with raging COVID-          ment makes the changes                                              bolster diplomacy

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                            11
have gone hand in hand with a push to        bread-and-butter language and area
     make it more rational, specialized and       expertise.
     professional.                                    As major transnational threats
         Consider, for example, Wilbur            like artificial intelligence, pandemic
     Carr, the father of the Foreign Service.     disease and climate security continue
     Working in the Progressive Era to end        to dominate the international political
     State’s unfortunate distinction as the       landscape, diplomacy will also need
     last bastion of the spoils system (see       to become more of a specialist craft,
     Fareed Zakaria’s From Wealth to Power:       embracing subject-matter expertise.
     The Unusual Origins of America’s World           Today, as in days past, the art of
     Role), Carr largely authored the Foreign     diplomacy is to embrace the science. n
     Service Act of 1924 (known as the                Ryan Dukeman
     Rogers Act). The legislation fused the           Ph.D. student, Princeton University
     diplomatic and consular services, and              & former State Department
     created the first merit-based hiring and           Center for Analytics consultant
     promotion requirements in the depart-             Princeton, N.J.
     ment’s history.
         These changes brought in new FSOs
     who (among other fields) understood
     the then-burgeoning science of public
     administration, replacing old patron-
     age hires who did little more than push
         Later, the Foreign Service Act of 1946
     created a corps of reservists, diplomats
     based primarily in Washington who
     could be called to overseas service if
     needed. In post–WWII practice, however,
     most employees remained stateside, and
     later became the expert Civil Service
     foreign affairs officers we know today.
         This provision recognized the
     distinct duties for diplomats serving
     overseas and at home—information
     collection and representation vs. policy
     analysis—and further specialized the                Share your
     diplomatic corps to take advantage of
     the unique skill sets of each.
                                                       thoughts about
         These and other reforms, opposed            this month’s issue.
     by many traditionalists at the time, were
     premised on the belief that diplomacy
     should increasingly professionalize itself          Submit letters
     and benefit from the advances of the day.           to the editor:
         Today, that means recognizing that
     cutting-edge information sciences are
     a complement, not a substitute, for

12                                                    SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL

State Struggles to                             but dropped to 14 percent of the Senior       or lower ranks, but just 32 percent of the
Promote Diversity                              Foreign Service.                              Senior Foreign Service.

I  n June 17 testimony, “Additional Steps
   Are Needed to Identify Barriers to
Workforce Diversity,” the Government
                                                  As of early June, only three of the
                                               State Department’s 189 ambassadors
                                               were Black American career diplomats,
                                                                                                 “Although State has implemented
                                                                                             several plans, activities and initiatives
                                                                                             to improve diversity and representation
Accountability Office presented State          and only four were Hispanic.                  throughout the ranks of its workforce,”
Department data from Fiscal Year 2002 to          GAO also found that the overall            GAO concludes, “longstanding diversity
FY2018 showing that promotion rates for        proportion of female full-time career         issues—for example, underrepresentation
ethnic and racial minorities are consider-     employees at State decreased slightly,        of racial or ethnic minorities and women
ably lower than for whites.                    from 44 to 43 percent, between 2002 and       in the senior ranks—persist at the agency.
    The testimony, delivered by GAO            2018. While the proportion of women in            “Until State takes steps to explore such
Director of International Affairs and          the Foreign Service increased from 33 to      issues, it could be missing opportuni-
Trade Jason Bair to the House Foreign          35 percent during that period, it fell from   ties to investigate, identify and remove
Affairs Committee’s Subcommittee on            61 to 54 percent in the Civil Service.        barriers that impede members of some
Investigations and Oversight, was based           The proportion of women became             demographic groups from realizing their
on the comprehensive report it had             even smaller at the higher ranks of the       full potential.”
issued in January (GAO-20-237).                Foreign Service, according to the 2018
    At the end of 2018, State had 22,806       numbers, GAO reported. Women made
full-time, permanent career employees,         up 68 percent of the workforce at FS-6
an increase of nearly 40 percent over
2002, GAO found. The number of full-
time employees in the Civil Service rose       Site of the Month
by nearly 40 percent, from 6,831 in 2002       Black Diplomacy: Chris Richardson
to 9,546 in 2018. The number of full-time      Interviews Prof. Michael Krenn (YouTube)
employees in the Foreign Service rose
36 percent from 9,739 in 2002 to 13,260
in 2018.
    The overall proportion of racial or eth-
                                                 I  n this YouTube video, former For-
                                                    eign Service Officer Chris Rich-
                                                 ardson interviews Professor Michael
nic minorities in the State Department’s         Krenn about race relations in the
full-time career workforce grew from 28          State Department.
to 32 percent from 2002 to 2018. In the             Prof. Krenn, the author of Black
Foreign Service, that number increased           Diplomacy: African Americans and            in the department since 1949, the
from 17 to 24 percent, and in the Civil          the State Department, 1945-1969             struggles of the first Black diplomats
Service, it fell from 44 to 43 percent.          (M.E. Sharpe, 1999), teaches history        and what Krenn believes is needed to
    The proportion of African Americans          at Appalachian State University. The        reform State.
in the Foreign Service increased from            book discusses integration of the               Chris Richardson—whose
6 to 7 percent during that period, while         State Department after 1945, as well        op-ed, “The State Department Was
the percentage of African Americans in           as the appointments of Black ambas-         Designed to Keep African Americans
the Civil Service decreased from 34 to 26        sadors to African and other develop-        Out,” appeared in the June 23 New
percent.                                         ing nations.                                York Times—is currently the general
    According to the United States Census           In the interview, Richardson and         counsel and chief operating officer
Bureau, 13.4 percent of Americans were           Krenn conduct a decade-by-decade            for BDV Solutions, an immigration
Black as of July 2019.                           analysis of State and its issues with       consulting firm.
    GAO found that all minorities                race. The two also review various con-          Watch the video at https://bit.ly/
made up 30 percent of Foreign Service            gressional investigations about race        black-diplomacy.
employees at the FS-6 rank and lower,

14                                                                                               SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
Harassment at
Border Crossings                                Contemporary Quote
I  n the wake of discussions sparked
   by the blog posts from former State
Department Consular Fellow Tianna
                                                        Right now, there are two fellowship programs that hire people of
                                                        color and give them positions within the Foreign Service. I’d say
                                                that the State Department needs to increase fellowship programs like this.
Spears, the American Academy of Diplo-          They need to increase hiring of people of color, promoting entry-level
macy sent a letter on July 13 to Secretary      officers and mid-level officers so that they actually have the opportu-
of State Mike Pompeo regarding harass-          nity, sit at the table and make decisions within these rooms and within
                                                the embassies and consulates. So the entire State Department has to look
ment of minority diplomats at U.S. border
                                                within and see what they can do to make the culture safer, healthier for
crossings. The letter was signed by Ambas-      people of color that come in and give their lives and their careers
sadors (ret.) Thomas Pickering, AAD             and their families to its mission.
chairman, and Ronald Neumann, AAD
president. Excerpts from the letter follow.                      —Former Foreign Service Consular Fellow Tianna Spears, when asked how
    “We are writing to address one acute             the State Department could reimagine recruitment and bolster retention of diverse staff
issue: the deeply troubling pattern in                                        and diplomats in a July 13 interview with PRI’s “The World.”
the mistreatment of Black, Hispanic and
other minority officers crossing U.S. bor-
der/entry points. By their own testimony,           “We would like to suggest some              Department. Further progress toward
many State Department officers have             steps to address and hopefully halt the         this objective will require sustained effort
endured regular and persistent discrimi-        mistreatment of Black and other minority        at the most senior levels to ensure that
nation and harassment by U.S. Customs           staff, indeed all State Department staff, by    all Department officers get the respect
and Border Patrol officers.                     law enforcement at border entry posts:          and dignity from U.S. law enforcement
    “Problems include CBP officers not              “• A Department-wide review, ordered        officials, which every American is entitled
accepting standard diplomatic docu-             by you, regarding the specific incidents        to at the border and international entry
ments; placing Black and Hispanic offi-         reported by officers and consideration of       points, especially while on official duty.”
cers in secondary examination without           measures that can be taken within State
cause; and repeated hostile questioning         both to intervene immediately in such           Top State Official
and delays. This is made even more glar-        cases and ensure equal treatment at the         Resigns Over Trump
ing when they travel with Caucasian col-        border of all staff in Mexico and world-        Response to Racial
leagues who pass through with the same          wide;                                           Issues
documentation. …
    “Mistreatment of State Department
personnel by U.S. CBP is not new. We have
                                                    “• A review of the issue at a senior
                                                level with the Department of Homeland
                                                Security, specifically the U.S. Customs
                                                                                                T     he State Department’s highest-level
                                                                                                      Black official, and the only Black
                                                                                                assistant secretary of State, resigned on
learned that such incidents have often dis-     and Border Protection, to ensure such           June 18 over President Donald Trump’s
rupted the official travel of Black, Hispanic   practices cease; and                            handling of racial tensions.
and other officers. While in the past, some         “• Make clear to all Department                 Mary Elizabeth Taylor was the first
incidents came to the attention of Depart-      employees that you regard such mistreat-        Black woman to hold the position of
ment leadership, the continued reports,         ment as unacceptable, that you expect           assistant secretary of State for legislative
including from our most senior members,         reported cases to be addressed overseas         affairs. At age 30, she was also the young-
suggest that such mistreatment lives on         and domestically, as appropriate, and           est. A Republican political appointee, she
and too often goes unaddressed.                 that you will follow up regularly with the      previously served as an aide to Senate
    “We hope you concur that any percep-        Director General and relevant senior            Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.).
tion of tacit acceptance of such practices      officials at State and other agencies.              “Moments of upheaval can change you,
or indifference to the reports by Depart-           “The American Academy of Diplomacy          shift the trajectory of your life, and mold
ment officials or other Federal officials is    strongly supports a diverse, inclusive,         your character. The President’s comments
unacceptable and warrants action.               well-resourced and high-impact State            and actions surrounding racial injustice

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                             15
and Black Ameri-                                                  to travel to their onward assignments,          employee safety—have not been met. …
cans cut sharply                                                  another factor in school attendance.            [F]ive of the seven indicators on the Diplo-
against my core                                                       Some FSOs who were allowed to travel        macy Strong dashboard show clearly that
values and convic-                                                to new posts found the experience bewil-        the Washington metro area should not be
tions,” Taylor wrote                           STATE DEPARTMENT   dering. Some countries required new             moving to this next stage.”
in her resignation                                                arrivals to quarantine for up to 14 days,
letter to Secretary of                                            forcing FSOs to perform the embassy             Packing the USAGM
State Mike Pompeo.
“I must follow the       Mary Elizabeth
dictates of my con- Taylor
                                                                  check-in process virtually. And for some,
                                                                  the usual excitement of arriving at a new
                                                                  post was tempered by not being able to
                                                                                                                  O      n June 4, days after the FSJ reported
                                                                                                                         on unprecedented White House
                                                                                                                  attacks on the Voice of America, the Sen-
science and resign as Assistant Secretary of                      meet embassy colleagues in person or            ate confirmed documentary filmmaker
State for Legislative Affairs.”                                   explore the city.                               Michael Pack as chief executive officer
                                                                      Many who have been on global autho-         of the Broadcasting Board of Governors,
COVID-19 Challenges                                               rized departure were unsure when they           which oversees the U.S. Agency for Global
Continue for Foreign                                              would be allowed to return to their posts,      Media.
Service                                                           or whether they should curtail. And many            USAGM encompasses VOA, Radio

A     s COVID-19 cases increased dra-
      matically in the United States in
June and July, the Foreign Service sought
                                                                  who have stayed at post wondered if it
                                                                  was safe to take a vacation and what to do
                                                                  with their accrued R&R leave.
                                                                                                                  Free Europe/Radio Liberty, the Office of
                                                                                                                  Cuba Broadcasting (Television and Radio
                                                                                                                  Martí), Radio Free Asia and the Middle
to adjust to numerous challenges brought                              While COVID-19 cases dropped                East Broadcasting Networks.
on by the pandemic.                                               dramatically in some countries in Europe            Pack’s June 2018 nomination was so
    One of the foremost issues on Foreign                         and Asia, other parts of the world—such         controversial that it took more than a
Service families’ minds was whether their                         as the Middle East and the Americas—            year to pass through the Senate Foreign
children would be able to attend school                           became hotspots.                                Relations Committee, and still had not
in person this fall, and how that would                               More than 500 FSOs signed a July 27         reached the Senate floor at the end of May
affect parents’ ability to work.                                  letter to Under Secretary of Management         2020. But after heavy administration pres-
    In the Washington, D.C., area, for                            Brian Bulatao, asking the State Depart-         sure, Pack was confirmed even though
example, Arlington Public Schools Super-                          ment to delay its move to the second            he remains under investigation by the
intendent Francisco Duran proposed a                              phase of its reopening plan. In Phase 2,        District of Columbia attorney general for
virtual-only start to the school year, with                       up to 80 percent of staff members would         allegedly channeling money from a non-
the goal of beginning in-school instruc-                          return to the office.                           profit group he oversees to his for-profit
tion for some students in the Virginia                                The letter asked the under secretary        film production company.
district in October.                                              to “provide definitive guidance to all              Shortly after he was appointed, VOA
    The District of Columbia on July 30                           bureaus and overseas [m]issions direct-         Director Amanda Bennett and Deputy
announced an all-virtual start to the                             ing them to allow all telework-ready            Director Sandy Sugawara, both civil
school year through at least Nov. 6.                              employees to continue to telework full-         servants, resigned on June 15. Two days
    Overseas, many parents also faced                             time, without retribution, until all local      later, on his first official day in office, Pack
difficult school choices, depending on                            school districts have discontinued virtual      fired two more network heads: Bay Fang,
the severity of the pandemic in their                             options and public transportation is            president of Radio Free Asia, and Emilio
host countries. On the popular Facebook                           available and safe.”                            Vazquez, acting director of the Office of
group Trailing Houses, some parents                                   AFSA also sent a July 27 letter to Secre-   Cuba Broadcasting.
shared homeschooling resources to                                 tary of State Mike Pompeo about the issue,          Next, Libby Liu—a George H.W. Bush
supplement virtual education.                                     and in a July 29 statement to its members,      appointee and former head of RFA now
    In the foreign affairs agencies, many                         said: “AFSA believes that the criteria set      directing a special program, the Open
members of the Foreign Service still did                          out by the department—data, conditions          Technology Fund, aimed at developing
not know when they would be permitted                             on the ground in specific locations, and        digital tools to penetrate the so-called

16                                                                                                                     SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
Protecting FSOs Abroad                                    HEARD ON THE HILL           and can play a role also in coordinating
  This year is a stark reminder of how we                                               broader overseas U.S. engagement.
  must do everything we can to support the                                                 —Chairman Sen. Jim Risch (R-Idaho) at the
  safety of our Foreign Service officers work-                                            Senate Foreign Relations Hearing, “COVID-19
  ing abroad at 260-plus installations.                                                               and U.S. International Pandemic
         —Rep. Hal Rogers (R-Ky.) at the State,                                              Preparedness, Prevention, and Response:
     Foreign Operations and Related Programs                                                         Additional Perspectives,” June 30.
       (SFOPS) Full Appropriations Committee
                                Markup, July 9.                                         Diversity at State
                                                                                       People who bring diversity to the State

  Diplomacy’s Bedrock                                                                  Department will help us more than oth-
  I am very, very appreciative of your dedication to …                     ers because we’ll have a Foreign Service that reflects
  protecting our career personnel at the State Department                  America, but it will also undercut the propaganda of
  and USAID and international institutions, these people                   our enemies, who say that America is a place of discrimi-
  who are the bedrock of our nation’s diplomatic efforts.                  nation and caste. And obviously, nothing defeats that
                —Rep. David Price (D-N.C.) to Appropriations               argument more than people at a high level in our State
                   Chairwoman Rep. Nita Lowey at the SFOPS                 Department serving abroad in illustrating the opposite.
               Full Appropriations Committee Markup, July 9.                              —Rep. Brad Sherman (D-Calif.) at the House
                                                                             Foreign Affairs Committee’s Oversight and Investigations
  State’s Role During Pandemic                                                     Subcommittee Hearing, “Diversity and Diplomacy:
  The State Department has an incredibly important role                         Why an Inclusive State Department Would Strengthen
  in building diplomatic support for pandemic readiness                                                    U.S. Foreign Policy,” June 17.

Great Chinese Firewall—was sacked              than Alexandre, senior counsel for Liberty       lems that have surfaced in the media” and
before she could resign.                       Counsel, an organization dedicated to            warning that, while he hoped to “confer
    Pack also dismissed RFE/RL President       “religious freedom” that once threatened         extensively with you—the talented and
Jamie Fly and MBN President Alberto            legal action against a Jacksonville, Florida,    dedicated men and women of USAGM …
Fernandez, both staunch Republicans            library for holding a Harry Potter event,        current circumstances will limit the kind
appointed by Trump, and both esteemed          on the grounds that this constituted pro-        of outreach and contact we have for a
throughout USAGM.                              motion of witchcraft.                            while longer.”
    Pack froze all spending and replaced all                                                        USAGM then issued a press release,
members of the organizations’ biparti-                                                          quoted by Martha Bayles in The American
san governing boards—which included                                                             Interest. “Pack’s message was met with an
seasoned, knowledgeable individuals                                                             overwhelmingly positive response by staff
like Ambassadors (ret.) Ryan Crocker and                                                        and grantees, who personally reached
Karen Kornbluh—with himself and five                                                            out and candidly congratulated him,” the
other individuals.                                Even as heads were rolling, Pack sent         release stated in part.
    Among them are Rachel Semmel, who          an email to USAGM employees assuring                 As Bayles trenchantly observes, “It is
has used her position as spokesperson          them: “I am fully committed to honoring          remarkable how closely this resembles an
for the Office of Management and Budget        VOA’s charter, the missions of the grant-        official Chinese Communist Party com-
to provide caustic responses to questions      ees and the independence of our heroic           muniqué, translated into stilted, unnatu-
about Trump’s disputed decision to with-       journalists around the world.”                   ral English by a person with absolutely no
hold military aid from Ukraine; Bethany           But the message concluded on a                ear for the way people actually talk.”
Kozma, who has brought her anti-abor-          chillier note, as Pack announced his                 Meanwhile, Pack has refused
tion-rights activism to USAID; and Jona-       intention “to examine some of the prob-          calls to sign off on J-1 visa extensions

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                            17
50 Years Ago

     Radio Is Alive and Well

     R    adio informs, interprets, teaches, persuades
          and entertains, all for a penny’s worth of battery
     electricity a day. It hurdles the barriers of censorship
                                                                                              States Government, is the largest and
                                                                                              most comprehensive of the various
                                                                                              American broadcasters. It airs 830
     and illiteracy. Many in the world are illiterate, but few                                hours a week in 35 languages—well
     are deaf.                                                                                behind Radio Moscow, Radio Peking
         There are about 850 million radio sets in the world                                  and even the national radio of the
     today. One out of three can pick up short wave. If the                                    United Arab Republic.
     present trend continues, over one billion radio sets will be         Radio Moscow and its sister station, “Radio Peace and
     in use by 1980, perhaps 300 million of them capable of           Progress,” must be viewed as the single biggest world
     receiving short wave.                                            broadcaster with 1,920 hours a week going out in 82
         All major and many small nations broadcast interna-          languages. Radio Peking follows with nearly 1,500 hours
     tionally.                                                        in 38 languages, and UAR Radio has 1,040 hours in 29
         The total air time of all American broadcasters              languages.
     (government and private) transmitting to foreign audi-               With all this international broadcasting going on, it is
     ences—2,240 hours a week—exceeds that of all other               easy to see that the airwaves are jammed and the com-
     nations. This astounding total includes the output of            petition for the limited number of available frequencies
     American radio stations like Radio Free Europe, Radio            is fierce. In fact, the most striking recent development
     Liberty and RIAS, which program exclusively for audi-            in international broadcasting—regular satellite radio
     ences in Eastern Europe and the USSR, and also the               transmissions are still in the future—has been the rapid
     world-wide American Forces Radio Network, which                  increase in the number and power of both medium and
     broadcasts only in English.                                      short wave transmitters in the world.
         The Voice of America, a part of the United States                 —FSIO Richard G. Cushing, excerpted from his article of
     Information Agency and the official radio of the United                               the same title in the September 1970 FSJ.

for foreign nationals working for VOA in      tional broadcasters are an important part      for every American diplomat, to recognize
Washington. Not only would this deprive       of the face we present to the world. Thanks    how our founders understood unalienable
the agency of a wealth of talent and          to congressional negligence, presidential      rights,” Secretary Pompeo said in a speech
expertise, but it may leave scores of pro-    malice and general indifference, that face     at the National Constitution Center there.
fessionals who have dedicated their lives     has just gotten uglier.”                       “Foremost among these rights are prop-
to furthering American ideals with no                                                        erty rights and religious liberty.”
choice but to return to the very regimes      Pompeo Unveils                                     Secretary Pompeo created the advi-
on which they have been reporting.            Unalienable Rights                             sory commission in July 2019 to provide
    Writing in June in The Atlantic, Anne     Report                                         “advice on human rights grounded in our
Applebaum observes: “In a world where
airwaves are flooded with authoritarian
disinformation, the effectiveness of Amer-
                                              A    rguing against a “proliferation” of
                                                   human rights and claiming that
                                              “more rights does not necessarily mean
                                                                                             nation’s founding principles and the prin-
                                                                                             ciples of the 1948 Universal Declaration
                                                                                             of Human Rights,” according to the State
ican messaging depends on the perceived       more justice,” Secretary of State Mike Pom-    Department website. It was greeted with
credibility and independence of the mes-      peo unveiled a draft report of recommen-       skepticism from parts of the human rights
sengers. Anything that resembles ‘Trump       dations from his Commission on Unalien-        community from the outset.
TV’ or even just old-fashioned propa-         able Rights on July 16 in Philadelphia.            Release of the report initiated a two-
ganda will have neither. America’s interna-      “It’s important for every American, and     week public comment period.

18                                                                                               SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
The commission’s report included a              The Times “wants you to believe that
prefatory note highlighting the recent          our country was founded for human
racial upheaval in America, and the stark       bondage,” he said. “They want you to
need to improve on human rights in the          believe that America’s institutions con-
United States.                                  tinue to reflect the country’s acceptance                  AFSPA
    “As the Commission’s work on this           of slavery at our founding. They want
Report was nearing its completion, social       you to believe that Marxist ideology that        Episcopal Church Schools
convulsions shook the United States,            America is only the oppressors and the                   of Virginia
testifying to the nation’s unfinished work      oppressed. The Chinese Communist                 www.episcopalschoolsva.org
in overcoming the evil effects of its long      Party must be gleeful when they see The
history of racial injustice,” the note reads.   New York Times spout this ideology.”                Clements Worldwide
    “The many questions roiling the                 On July 20, a group of more than 30         clements.com/missionsabroad
nation about police brutality, civic unrest     religious leaders (including Catholic,
and America’s commitment to human               evangelical, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh and               Corporate Apartment
rights at home make all the more urgent         Buddhist leaders) released a statement
a point we had already stressed in the          in response to the commission report,
Introduction and elsewhere in this              stating in part: “We know from Secretary
                                                                                                      Federal Employee
Report: The credibility of U.S. advocacy        Pompeo’s repeated comments … that he                 Protection Systems
for human rights abroad depends on the          will seek to use the Commission’s report             fedsprotection.com
nation’s vigilance in assuring that all its     to justify marginalizing certain rights, thus
own citizens enjoy fundamental human            diminishing human rights advocacy and              Georgetown University,
rights. With the eyes of the world upon         stifling demands for accountability for                Walsh School of
her, America must show the same honest          those whose rights have been violated. …             Foreign Service, ISD
self-examination and efforts at improve-            “Such politicization of human rights—       casestudies.isd.georgetown.edu
ment that she expects of others. Ameri-         and of freedom of religion in particular—
ca’s dedication to unalienable rights—the       is dangerous, particularly now when the           Property Specialists, Inc.
rights all human beings share—demands           forces of authoritarianism are on the rise        propertyspecialistsinc.com
no less.”                                       globally. …
                                                                                                Richey Property Management
    A coalition of four groups sued Sec-            “We urge members of the commission
retary Pompeo on March 6 for allegedly          to consider the risks of complicity in such
unlawfully creating the commission in           an effort and use this comment period             Washington Management
violation of the Federal Advisory Com-          to ensure that the final version of the                  Services
mittee Act. And human rights groups             commission’s report firmly upholds the                  wmsdc.com
have criticized the commission for              universality and indivisibility of rights as
considering LGBT+ rights and women’s            set forth in the Universal Declaration of            WJD Management
reproductive rights (including abortion)        Human Rights.”                                         wjdpm.com
to be among those they see as outside of
“natural,” unalienable rights.                  No Good Deed
    In his speech in Philadelphia, Secre-       Goes Unpunished
tary Pompeo denounced “rioters pulling
down statues [who] see nothing wrong
with desecrating monuments to those
                                                T    he July 22 New York Times reports
                                                     that in February 2018 Robert Wood
                                                Johnson IV, President Trump’s ambas-
who fought for our unalienable rights,”         sador to the Court of St. James’s, unsuc-
and disparaged The New York Times’ 1619         cessfully pressured U.K. officials to steer
Project about the history of slavery in the     the British Open golf tournament to the
United States.                                  Trump Turnberry resort in Scotland.

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | SEPTEMBER 2020                                                                                   19
He did so despite the advice of his            Neither the State Department nor the      Turkish cleric whom Turkish officials
deputy chief of mission, Foreign Service        embassy has addressed the accusations        accuse of orchestrating a failed coup
Officer Lewis A. Lukens, that such a            directly, but the department said Mr.        against Erdogan’s government in 2016.
request would constitute an unethical use       Johnson had led the embassy “honorably       Gulen, who lives in Pennsylvania, has
of the presidency for private gain. A few       and professionally.” It issued a statement   denied backing the coup attempt.
months after Lukens notified the State          declaring, “We stand by Ambassador               We first reported on Mr. Topuz’s
Department of the incident, Amb. John-          Johnson and look forward to him con-         plight in our December 2018 issue, which
son ousted Lukens, seven months before          tinuing to ensure our special relationship   focused on Locally Employed staff, in an
his tour was to end, effectively torpedoing     with the U.K. is strong.”                    article titled “When Doing Your Job Lands
his diplomatic career.                                                                       You in Jail.”
    Among other things, Johnson was             A Discouraging                                   Secretary of State Mike Pompeo called
reportedly furious that at two British          “New Era”                                    the accusations against Topuz “baseless,”
universities his DCM had given a speech
in which he shared a positive anecdote
about President Barack Obama’s 2013 visit
                                                I  n a case that has stoked tensions
                                                   between Ankara and Washington
                                                since 2017, a Turkish court sentenced
                                                                                             stating that the charges “misrepresent
                                                                                             both the scope and nature of the impor-
                                                                                             tant work undertaken by our local staff on
to Senegal, where Lukens was the ambas-         Metin Topuz, an employee of Consulate        behalf of the U.S. government and in the
sador at the time, according to a December      General Istanbul who had spent 20 years      promotion of our bilateral relationship.”
2019 GQ article by Julia Ioffe, “Trump Is       working for the U.S. Drug Enforcement            “This conviction undermines confi-
Waging War on America’s Diplomats.”             Administration, to nearly nine years in      dence in Turkey’s institutions and the
    The Times article also noted com-           prison on June 11.                           critical trust at the foundation of Turkish-
plaints that the ambassador compliments             A post on the Twitter account of U.S.    American relations,” Pompeo declared.
the appearances of female embassy               Embassy Ankara noted that U.S. officials     “We reiterate our call on the Turkish
employees during staff meetings. CNN            have “observed every hearing in the trial    government to resolve his case in a just
reported July 22 that Johnson made racist       of Metin Topuz in Istanbul, and we are       manner.”
generalizations about Black men.                deeply disappointed in today’s decision.”        On June 15, Ambassador Eric Rubin,
    At least some of the complaints                 The sentence was handed down just        president of the American Foreign
about Johnson’s management style were           three days after a phone call between        Service Association, issued the following
raised with the department’s Office of          Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan       statement: “I share Secretary Pompeo’s
the Inspector General last fall, when a         and President Donald Trump. Erdogan          concern over the conviction of U.S. Con-
team of investigators began a routine           later said during a television interview     sulate General Istanbul Locally Employed
review of diplomatic operations in              that “a new era” could begin in Turkey’s     staff member Metin Topuz. AFSA joins
London.                                         relationship with the United States.         the entire Foreign Service community in
    Their findings were submitted in Feb-           Turkish authorities had arrested         hoping that this conviction will be over-
ruary, and the complaints about Johnson         the 20-year veteran of the consulate in      turned quickly.
are expected to be included, according to       September 2017 and charged him with              “AFSA stands in support of our tens
one of the investigators. It is not clear why   membership in a terrorist organization,      of thousands of Locally Employed staff
the review has not been made public, but        among other counts.                          members, without whom the daily busi-
it has been designated classified, which is         The arrest set off a tit-for-tat spat    ness of American diplomacy would be
unusual.                                        between the United States and Turkey,        impossible,” Rubin continued. “Their
    On Aug. 5, Lukens spoke about the           which included reciprocal travel restric-    contributions are myriad, and they make
incident on “The Rachel Maddow Show,”           tions. In March 2020, Turkish prosecutors    our foreign policy and global engagement
confirming that he had advised Amb.             reduced the charges, dropping accusa-        stronger and more successful.” n
Johnson twice that pushing the British          tions of espionage and attempting to
government to use Trump’s golf course           overthrow the government.                        This edition of Talking Points was com-
was “unethical, probably illegal,” but that         Topuz was convicted of aiding a move-    piled by Cameron Woodworth and Steven
the ambassador went ahead anyway.               ment led by Fethullah Gulen, an exiled       Alan Honley.

20                                                                                               SEPTEMBER 2020 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL
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