RESEARCH BULLETIN ON POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION TRAINING - December 2018 - DHET

 
RESEARCH BULLETIN ON POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION TRAINING - December 2018 - DHET
December 2018

  RESEARCH BULLETIN
          ON
POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION
          &
       TRAINING
NUMBER 7
Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

 RESEARCH BULLETIN
         ON
    POST-SCHOOL
EDUCATION & TRAINING:
       Number 7

          i
Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

Department of Higher Education and Training

123 Francis Baard Street

Pretoria

South Africa

Private Bag X174

Pretoria

0001

Tel: 0800 87 22 22

Published by the Department of Higher Education and Training

©Department of Higher Education and Training, 2018

The ideas, opinions, conclusions and policy recommendations expressed in this report are strictly those of
the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Department of Higher Education and Training
(DHET). The DHET will not be liable for any content or syntax errors, or for the accuracy of the information
contained in this report.

This publication may be used in part or as a whole, provided that the Department is acknowledged as the
source of information. Kindly therefore, cite the work as follows:

Department of Higher education and Training (DHET). (2018). Research Bulletin on Post-School Education
& Training: Number 7. Pretoria: DHET.

978-1-77018-844-0

This report is available on the Department’s website: www.dhet.gov.za

Enquiries:

The Director: Policy, Research and Evaluation

Tel: +27 (0) 12 312 5297

Email: dhetresearch@dhet.gov.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

Message from Director-General

It is my pleasure to once again present to you the annual Department of Higher Education and
Training Research Bulletin on Post-School Education and Training (PSET). This year marks
the seventh edition of the Research Bulletin, an achievement of which the Department is most
proud. The purpose of the annual Research Bulletin is to share examples of the latest research
on PSET, which covers universities, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
colleges, Community Education and Training colleges, Sector Education and Training
Authorities (SETAs), and Qualifications and Quality Assurance Bodies. The previous six
editions of the Research Bulletin can be found on the Department’s website at
www.dhet.gov.za. The response to this year’s call for contributions to the Research Bulletin
has surpassed our expectations, with more submissions received than ever before. It is
evident that the Research Bulletin is of value to the PSET research community, attracting an
increasing number of readers and contributors with every edition produced. This illustrates the
extent to which research on PSET is gaining momentum, signalling improved perceptions of
the value of research in driving change within the sector. This edition of the Research Bulletin
showcases leading research that our stakeholders have identified as being critical to the
improvement of the sector. In sharing research findings in this format, the Research Bulletin
provides an overview of the issues that are currently being explored. The Research Bulletin
serves to draw the creators and users of post-school research closer to one another to inform
policy and practice. I extend my thanks and appreciation to each and every contributor of this
year’s Research Bulletin. It is only through your support that we have something of value to
share with the research community. And it is through your efforts in the sector, that we are
able to gain insights into underlying challenges in the PSET sector, as well as opportunities
that can be taken forward, to improve the sector for the current and future citizens of the
country. Thank you for making a difference and for being part of the change for a transformed
PSET system.

Mr G F Qonde
Director-General: Department of Higher Education and Training

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

Editorial Statement

The Research Bulletin on Post-School Education and Training (PSET) is published annually
by the Department of Higher Education and Training as a service to the education research
community and all stakeholders and participants in lifelong learning. It is a browser-based
application, comprising abstracts, summaries, and excerpts of completed/current research
and evaluations; book reviews; summaries of event proceedings; reflections on research
practice; and statistics on post-school learning, most of which have web links to full research
articles and reports. The Research Bulletin promotes good quality research. It is therefore not
primarily a journal of opinion but is open to all well-argued and substantiated views, for which
the authors alone will have responsibility. Contributions are expected to be brief and plain
language is encouraged so that excessive use of jargon can be avoided. Contributions to the
Research Bulletin are welcome from all researchers engaged in key research on PSET. The
Department’s Editorial Committee reviews all contributions made towards the Research
Bulletin and assesses their relevance to research on PSET, before finalising which
contributions should be included. The final decision to accept a contribution rests with the
Editorial Committee. Research contributions can be sent to dhetresearch@dhet.gov.za.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

                                                          CONTENTS

Message from Director-General ........................................................................................ iii

Editorial Statement ............................................................................................................ iv

RESEARCH ARTICLES & REPORTS.................................................................................. 1

  1. Apprentice to Artisan: Trials and Tribulations of Apprentices in a Dual System
       Apprenticeship Programme in South Africa (Darryn von Maltitz) ................................... 2

  2. Educational Pathways and Opportunities (Genevieve Simpson) ................................... 4

  3. Occupations in High Demand in South Africa (Vijay Reddy, Michael Rogan, Bongiwe
       Mncwango, and Sybil Chabane) ................................................................................... 5

  4. The Changing Landscape of Private Higher Education (Denyse Webbstock) ............... 7

  5. WIL and RPL at TVET Colleges (Joyce Nduna) ............................................................ 9

  6. The Transformative Power of Technology in Higher Education (Stephen Akandwanaho,
       Muni Kooblal, Zane Ramnundlall and Krishna Govender) ........................................... 11

  7. South African Steering Mechanisms for Mutual Recognition of Qualifications:
       Enhancing Student Articulation and Mobility Globally through NQFs (Shirley Lloyd) ... 13

  8. ETDP SETA TVET Sub-Sector Report for the 2019/20 Sector Skills Plan (Presha
       Ramsarup) .................................................................................................................. 15

  9. Students’ Development in Reading and Response: A Way of First Additional
       Language Learning (Manthekeleng Agnes Linake) ..................................................... 17

  10. Challenges of Accessing Skills Development Opportunities for People with Physical
       Disabilities in South Africa: An HWSETA Reflection (Mxolisi Moyakhe and Sipho
       Buthelezi) .................................................................................................................... 18

  11. Searching for Personal Significance: A Foundational Element of a Learning
       Architecture (Cliff Brunette and Rica Viljoen) .............................................................. 20

  12. Literature Used by Master’s Students of a Private Higher Education Institution
       (Adriaan Swanepoel) .................................................................................................. 21

  13. Student Experiences of Training Offered by HWSETA Accredited Training Providers
       (Bulelwa Plaatjie and Dineo Mokheseng) .................................................................... 23

  14. Exploring Beginner Teachers’ Sources of Knowledge for Teaching Literature in ESL
       Classrooms (Nhlanhla Mpofu and Lizette DeJager) .................................................... 24

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

 15. ECD SSP 2019-2020 Update (Rosemary Wildsmith-Cromarty) .................................. 26

 16. The Economics of Hairdressing (Tsiliso Tamasane) ................................................... 28

 17. Understanding Perceptions towards Stipends in HWSETA Work-Based Training
      Programmes: A Reflection from HWSETA Stakeholders (Mpho Phago and Sipho
      Buthelezi) .................................................................................................................... 30

 18. A Proposed Learner Support Model for Basic Training in the South African Police
      Service (Daléne Schoeman) ....................................................................................... 32

 19. Analysing the Credibility of Local Government Workplace Skills Development Planning
      (Dovhani Thakhathi) .................................................................................................... 34

 20. Authentic Summative Assessment: The Next Steps (Marco MacFarlane) ................... 36

 21. The National Skills Fund and Green Skills: Towards a Generative Mechanism
      Approach (Gideon George Sauls) ............................................................................... 38

 22. Together Moving Post-School Education and Training Forward: 2017/2018 Department
      of Higher Education and Training Interns (Qaqamba Matha) ...................................... 40

EVALUATION REPORTS................................................................................................... 42

  1. Evaluation of the NSDS III 2011-2016 (Olwethu Nyewe) ........................................... 43

  2. An Evaluation of the HWSETA Internship Programme (Menziwokuhle Mthethwa and
       Bulelwa Plaatjie) ........................................................................................................ 45

  3. Evaluating the Performance of the Learnership Programme Strategy for the
       Unemployed: 2011/12 to 2015/16 (Daphney Mogopudi and Bulelwa Plaatjie) ........... 47

  4. Evaluation of the HWSETA Accelerated Artisanship Programme in Partnership with
       SSACI (Menziwokuhle Mthethwa and Bulelwa Plaatjie) ............................................. 49

CURRENT & PLANNED RESEARCH & EVALUATIONS .................................................. 51

  1. Tracing the Outcomes of SETA-Funded Learnerships, Apprenticeships and
       Internships (Michael Rogan) ...................................................................................... 52

  2. ‘Beyond access’: Multidimensional Factors Shaping University Preparation and First-
       Year Experiences (Adesuwa Vanessa Agbedahin and Faith Mkwananzi) .................. 53

  3. Understanding the Expanded Socio-Economic Value of Work-Based Learning through
       a Cost Benefit Analysis Evaluation (Glenda Raven)................................................... 55

  4. Rhodes Research to Support M&E in a SETA Environment (Eureta Rosenberg) ...... 57

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

   5. Traceability Studies on AgriSETA Learning Programmes for a Period of Three Years
        Post Training (Nokuthula Sibia and Frikkie Fouche) .................................................. 59

   6. Water Sector Skills Supply-Demand Forecasting in Local Government (Ashwin
        Seetal) ....................................................................................................................... 60

   7. Research Programmes on LMI and TVET (Rakal Govender) .................................... 62

EVENTS ............................................................................................................................. 64

   1. 2018 SAAEA Conference: “Local context in Global Context: Encouraging Diversity in
        Assessment” (Celia Booyse) ...................................................................................... 65

   2. Re-envision Vocational Education and Training as a Solution to Unemployment:
        Takeaways from the 2016 African Scholars Forum (Kolawole Samuel Adeyemo) ..... 67

   3. What Kind of Mathematics Does South Africa Need? (Marco MacFarlane) ............... 69

   4. Research Seminar on Knowledge, Curriculum, and Preparation for Work (Refiloe
        Mohlakoana and Rakal Govender) ............................................................................ 71

   5. 2018 Department of Higher Education and Training Research Colloquium: Radically
        Transforming Technical and Vocational Education and Training Colleges through
        Research (Beverly Nompumelelo Skosana and Rakal Govender) ............................. 73

RESEARCH PRACTICE ..................................................................................................... 75

   1. SAQA’s ‘Articulation’ Research and Work (Heidi Bolton) ........................................... 76

   2. The New Age of BIG DATA (Nthabeleng Lepota) ...................................................... 78

STATISTICS ....................................................................................................................... 80

   1. VitalStats: Public Higher Education, 2016 (Denyse Webbstock and Genevieve
        Simpson) ................................................................................................................... 81

   2. Statistics on PSET in South Africa: 2017 (Nthabiseng Tema) .................................... 83

                                                                   vii
RESEARCH
ARTICLES & REPORTS

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

1. Apprentice to Artisan: Trials and Tribulations of Apprentices in a Dual System
     Apprenticeship Programme in South Africa (Darryn von Maltitz)

Significant measures to promote vocational education have been taken in an attempt to
position it as an equal alternative to academic education. The problem, however, is that in
many countries neither young people nor their parents perceive vocational education as
having the same value as academic education (Allais, Marock, & Molebatsi, 2014).1

South Africa, a country in which vocational education is extremely stigmatised, is reforming its
apprenticeship system (which is a significant dimension of vocational education), and has set
itself a target of qualifying 24 000 new artisans by 2020 (DHET 2015).2 Technical and
Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges are viewed as key vehicles through which
large numbers of artisans can be trained. However, employers do not have trust in the quality
and capacity of public TVET colleges and have taken responsibility for training artisans
through their own in-house training facilities and private training providers (National Treasury
n.d.).3 The result is that TVET colleges have been side-lined in the supply chain for artisan
development.

It is against this background that the South African government is piloting a dual system
apprenticeship project, which aims to: a) improve the quality of artisan training at public TVET
colleges; b) build employer trust in the quality of the public artisan training system; and c)
position TVET education as an attractive option for young people.

This research is focused on apprentices training to become electricians through a dual
apprenticeship model. The dual system integrates classroom theory with on-the-job instruction
thus ensuring that learning is integrated and regularly reinforced.

Through semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire, this study brings the voices of 95
electrical apprentices to bear in order to develop a much deeper, richer and nuanced
understanding of how apprentices experience the artisan development system. It seeks to
understand what motivates young people to enrol at a TVET college, and what apprentices’

1
  Allais, S., Marock, C., & Molebatsi, P. (2014). The Development of Occupational Standards in English-Speaking Countries. Johannesburg:
University of the Witwatersrand. Research Education and Labour Centre.
2
  DHET. (2015). Annual Performance Plan. DHET. Retrieved from
ww.dhet.gov.za/Strategic%20Plans/Annual%20Perfomance%20Plans/Department%20of%20Higher%20Education%20and%20Training%20
Annual%20Performance%20Plan%202015-16.pdf.
3
  National Treasury. (n.d.). Artisans. Retrieved 3 September 2016, from https://www.gtac.gov.za/PER_Documents/Artisans%20PER.PDF.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

experiences, perceptions and expectations are of dual system apprenticeships. The study
provides insights into the merits and challenges of dual system apprenticeships within the
South African context.

Key findings emerging from the research are that: a) the model is expensive and inefficient
(the apprentices are already well qualified and all are in possession of a technical qualification
in the electrical trade – If the South African government is to entrench the dual-apprenticeship
system in the country, it will need to find ways of reducing the time it takes to qualify as an
electrician, as well as the associated cost); and b) the programme should be demand-led by
employers rather than being a government-led supply programme (this has implications for
the outcome of the programme).

The full paper is available on:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/5kzyvgob3nnt3sb/Apprentice%20to%20Artisan%20FULL%20PA
PER.pdf?dl=0

It will also be available on the University of Witwatersrand website by 2019.

      Ms Darryn von Maltitz is a Project Manager at the Swiss South African Cooperation
       Initiative (SSACI): Darryn@ssaci.org.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

2. Educational Pathways and Opportunities (Genevieve Simpson)

Each year, with the release of the outcomes of the Grade 12 exams, there is extensive
coverage of the matric pass rate, and much debate around the quality of the National Senior
Certificate (NSC) and the extent to which it prepares students for university study. Currently,
there are approximately 600 000 learners preparing to write their NSC exams.4 However, the
reality is that only a small portion will be accommodated in the university sector.

Recent student protests around university fees have further increased the focus on the
university sector. These protests have highlighted the funding challenges that both universities
and university students face. However, these protests have not focused on the fact that a large
percentage of school leavers are not accommodated in the university sector, or are not eligible
for university study, and that alternative post-school education opportunities are severely
limited.

Currently, approximately 170 000 first-time entry learners gain access to universities, annually.
This shows that there are only opportunities for a small portion of the approximately 600 000
learners who write the NSC each year. The challenge South Africa faces is to provide sufficient
and relevant educational opportunities to accommodate all these learners.

This Council on Higher Education (CHE) monitoring brief (BrieflySpeaking 2) considers the
extent of the challenge that South Africa faces in providing sufficient, and sufficiently varied,
educational opportunities to school leavers and the youth in general. This document is
available on:

http://www.che.ac.za/media_and_publications/monitoring-and-evaluation/brieflyspeaking-2-
educational-pathways

        Dr Genevieve Simpson is the Senior Manager for Research in the Monitoring and
         Evaluation (M&E) Directorate at the Council on Higher Education (CHE):
         Simpson.G@che.ac.za

4In 2014, 532 860 wrote the NSC Matric, but in 2015 this increased to 644 536 as a result of progressed learners. In 2016 it declined to
610 178 (excluding part-time learners), from: Department of Basic Education (DBE). (2017). National Senior Certificate Examination report,
2016. Pretoria: DBE. In 2017, 534 484 full-time learners wrote the NSC, from: DBE. (2018). National Senior Certificate 2017, Highlights Report.
Pretoria: DBE.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

3. Occupations in High Demand in South Africa (Vijay Reddy, Michael Rogan, Bongiwe
      Mncwango, and Sybil Chabane)

A team of researchers from the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) have recently
completed a technical report which investigates which occupations are in high demand in the
South African labour market. The report served as a basis for the Department of Higher
Education and Training (DHET) gazetted list of Occupations in High Demand (OIHD) for 2018.
The project was part of the Labour Market Intelligence Partnership (LMIP) which sought to
support the Department in establishing a credible institutional mechanism for skills planning.

Numerous reports have cited skills shortages in the country as bottlenecks in both the
production of goods as well as in the provisioning of services. For government, and more
specifically, the Post-School Education and Training (PSET) system, to respond effectively to
the skills needs of the country, it is important to first understand the nature and extent of skills
needs. Only then can specific interventions be adopted to address skills shortages.

In the past, different modalities have been used to estimate the skills needed to inform skills
development. Amongst these, are two key instruments: (1) the Annual Report on Skills Supply
and Demand in South Africa which was produced by the HSRC in 20175; and (2) the biennial
list of OIHD. Using a novel methodology adopted after a review of a number of international
approaches (including those used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD); the United Kingdom Migration Advisory Committee (MAC); and the
Australian National Institute of Labour Studies (NILS)), the design of the 2018 OIHD project
methodology employed a hybrid approach where both top-down (statistical) and bottom-up
(qualitative) evidence were considered in identifying occupations in high demand.

The report includes a list of 129 occupations at the 4-digit occupation group, and 369 6-digit
occupations which are currently in high demand or are expected to be in demand in the future.
The list of occupations identified through this process fits well within the existing literature on
occupational shortages as well as with future growth initiatives. The South African 2018 list
identifies, inter alia, finance managers, business managers, Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) managers and construction project managers in the highest group of
occupations in demand. Medical professionals, including medical laboratory technicians and
health care assistants are also in the top group of occupations as identified through the OIHD

5
    http://www.hsrc.ac.za/uploads/pageContent/7429/LMIP_SkillsSupplyandDemand_Sept2016.pdf.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

research. In terms of engineering, the results suggest that civil engineers, mining engineers,
industrial engineers as well as several types of engineering professionals and technologists
are in the top group of occupations in high demand.

The OIHD list is an important resource for the planning processes of DHET with respect to the
PSET systems, particularly in relation to enrolment planning, resource allocation, career
advice, and qualification development. Other stakeholders will also find this list important for
strategic decision making regarding skills development and immigration processes.

The full technical report is available on:

http://www.lmip.org.za/sites/default/files/documentfiles//HSRC%20LMIP%20OIHD%20Repor
t%20WEB.pdf

The gazette is available on:

http://www.dhet.gov.za/Information%20Systems%20Coordination/GAZETTE.pdf

      Dr Vijay Reddy is a Distinguished Research Specialist in the Education and Skills
       Development Unit at Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC):
       vreddy@hsrc.ac.za
      Prof Michael Rogan is an Associate Professor in the Neil Aggett Labour Studies
       Unit (NALSU) within the Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) at
       Rhodes University: m.rogan@ru.ac.za
      Ms Bongiwe Mncwango is a Research Manager in the Education and Skills
       Development Unit at Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC):
       bmncwango@hsrc.ac.za
      Ms Sybil Chabane is the Executive Director of Second Stage Consulting (PTY) Ltd
       sybil.chabane@2ndstageconsulting.com

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

4. The Changing Landscape of Private Higher Education (Denyse Webbstock)

While many public universities in South Africa (such as the University of Cape Town and the
University of KwaZulu Natal) started as private institutions, it has really only been in the post-
apartheid era that private higher education institutions have become a prominent feature of
the higher education landscape.6 In comparison with other higher education systems such as
in Brazil, or other parts of Africa such as Kenya, the private higher education sector in South
Africa is small, as compared to the public sector, comprising roughly 10% of total enrolments
in higher education.

The sector is not homogenous in three different respects – the nature of the institutions, in
size, and in terms of the fields in which the institutions offer qualifications. In terms of the
nature of the institutions, the sector ranges from those providers that operate on a non-profit
basis to those that are enterprise-driven. There are some that charge low fees, while others
charge fees that are higher for the same courses than at the public institutions.

The sector has periodically changed size and shape according to various factors. In the
immediate post-apartheid period, there was a sudden influx of foreign providers, such that by
1999 there were some 300 providers, sometimes offering programmes on a franchise basis
with parent institutions elsewhere.7 With the introduction of regulation in 2002, this number
was substantially reduced, and over the last ten years or so, the features of the private higher
education sector have been more or less constant. There have been on average 110-120
registered institutions operating at any one time in this period, with the vast majority of them
being small, single campus institutions offering courses in particular niche areas, and only a
few large, multi-campus or multi-brand establishments.

With the recent entry of many new players in the South Africa private higher education market,
both local and international, the landscape in terms of size and shape is changing rapidly. This
Council on Higher Education (CHE) monitoring brief (BrieflySpeaking 5) provides an overview
of five current trends and suggests potential future developments in private higher education.

6 For accounts of the history of higher education in South Africa, see Kruss, G. (2006). Distinct pathways: tracing the origins
and history of private higher education in South Africa. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3 (3): 261-279; Mabizela, M.
(2008). A Historical Overview of the Development of Private Higher Education in South Africa. Unpublished Colloquium
Paper.
7 Sehoole, C. (2012). A Decade of Regulating Private Higher Education in South Africa. International Higher Education, 66:

19-20.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

This document is available on:

http://www.che.ac.za/media_and_publications/monitoring-and-evaluation/brieflyspeaking-5-
private-higher-education

     Dr Denyse Webbstock is the Director of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) at the
      Council on Higher Education (CHE): Webbstock.D@che.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

5. WIL and RPL at TVET Colleges (Joyce Nduna)

Within the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) context, Work Integrated
Learning (WIL) has been identified as a pedagogical approach for enhancing student
employability. According to Schmidt (1999) 8, employability skills that should be enhanced
through WIL include solving complex multi-disciplinary problems, working successfully in
teams, exhibiting effective oral and written communication skills and practising good
interpersonal skills. It is generally accepted that, if WIL is well-planned and implemented
effectively and efficiently, students’ employability skills are enhanced and students become
work ready upon graduation.

The planning and implementation of WIL is a complicated process as it involves curricular,
pedagogical and assessment considerations that differ from those of general programmes. It
is therefore necessary to develop WIL-related staff qualifications that are of high quality and
credible. Such credibility can only be guaranteed if all relevant stakeholders are included in
the planning, implementation and evaluation processes.

The strength of WIL lies in its relevance to the National Development Plan (NDP) as it
addresses employment issues and enhances employability skills. WIL has the potential to
bring different stakeholders together to debate issues and craft possible solutions worldwide.
There are also existing national structures such as the South African Technology Network
(SATN) WIL Task team, Quality Councils and Sector Education and Training Authorities
(SETAs) that are interested in turning around the current situation through WIL. The support
for WIL is therefore tremendous. There is also an existing legislative framework that
encourages best WIL and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) practice and development of
WIL components for staff qualifications.

Although different interest groups share the same vision of enhancing student employability
in the Post-School Education and Training (PSET) system, sometimes they tend to work in
silos and develop programmes and projects in isolation. This tendency could be attributed to
a lack of coordination at systematic level. The potential danger is that quality and curriculum
transformation could be compromised. Research indicates that an integrated approach that
allows for greater participation of a wide variety of interest groups is key for the success of

8Schmidt, S. J. (1999). Using Writing to Develop Critical Thinking Skills. North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal, 43(4):
31-38.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

any intervention. Such participation encourages communication, constructive feedback and
collective action that in turn ensure quality, effectiveness and efficiency.

It is against this background that this research adopted an inclusive and participatory approach
that encouraged participation and active involvement of a wide variety of interest groups to
produce employable graduates who can contribute to socio-economic development through
staff development and improvement of WIL and RPL practice. WIL research that “leads to
action” and contributes to the NDP through an inclusive approach and partnerships should be
encouraged and supported.

The full report is available on:

http://www.etdpseta.org.za/education/report-wil-rpl-in-tvet-colleges

     Professor Joyce Nduna is an ETDP SETA Research Chair on the Work Integrated
      Learning (WIL) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) at the Cape Peninsula
      University of Technology (CPUT): ndunaj@cput.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

6. The Transformative Power of Technology in Higher Education (Stephen
    Akandwanaho, Muni Kooblal, Zane Ramnundlall and Krishna Govender)

Given the overwhelming focus on attaining learning outcomes as a measure for authentic and
holistic learning, educators are increasingly finding new approaches that engender an
enabling environment for impactful and immersive learning, so as to accelerate student
achievement and realisation of desired learning outcomes. Moreover, the traditional
pedagogical structures, methods and practices have been disrupted by the explosive
technological advancements in the last few decades. As a result, the educational landscape
has dramatically changed in the face of emerging technologies. Traditional educational
practices have always struggled to translate student learning outcomes into expected
knowledge, skills and competencies. Consequently, the pendulum of teaching has swung
towards student-centred learning where the student takes on co-creation pedagogical roles,
such as creating new content, curriculum design, teaching through peer-to-peer instruction
and the jigsaw learning technique, evaluation of the learning process, and collaboration and
incubation of new ideas, among others.

Technology provides an enabling environment for this desired learning style, in addition to
disrupting traditional didactic pedagogy. It also creates opportunities for autonomous learning
which gives meaning to “my time-my pace-my space’’ by allowing for learning autonomy and
independence, which are essential ingredients of the student-centred learning paradigm. The
traditional mode of instruction seemed successful and appropriate mainly because only one
‘actor’ was empowered and highly active, primarily due to the absence of appropriate teaching
and learning tools that could mediate. The situation has changed drastically over the past
decade, since the ‘stage’ has been redefined and redesigned, owing to egalitarian access to
information through technology. This implies that knowledge is not instructed, but constructed
by all parties involved in the learning process. With the advent of Artificial Intelligence and
machine learning, learning is optimised and personalised for individual students. One of the
significant inherent limitations of traditional instructional approaches is the inability to adapt to
the student’s individual learning needs and styles, aside from adapting to the contents of the
course.

This article discusses how technology is used to overcome the teaching and learning
limitations. It delineates how curriculum can be aligned to the Fourth Industrial Revolution to
produce graduates that are ready for the disrupted world of work, given the Department of
Higher Education’s urgent imperative to orient curriculum to the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

The full article is available on:
https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1IDDgaItbtsLClcG4wRJetxFQ7TBbgJWY?usp=sharing

       Dr Stephen Akandwanaho is Dean of Faculty of Artificial Intelligence (IA) and
        Security at Richfield Graduate Institute of Technology: StephenA@richfield.ac.za
       Dr Muni Kooblal is the Chief Academic Officer at Richfield Graduate Institute of
       Technology: KooblalM@richfiled.ac.za
      Mr Zane Ramnundlall is the Chief Information Officer at Richfield Graduate Institute
       of Technology: zr@richfield.ac.za
       Prof Krishna Govender is the Dean of AAA School of Advertising at Richfield
       Graduate Institute of Technology: GovenderK@richfield.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

7. South African Steering Mechanisms for Mutual Recognition of Qualifications:
     Enhancing Student Articulation and Mobility Globally through NQFs (Shirley Lloyd)

The development and growth in bi-lateral, regional and global Mutual Recognition of
Qualifications (MRQs) agreements is a relatively new area in the developmental trajectory of
National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). Some of these include the establishment of a
Southern African Development Community (SADC) Regional NQF in 2011; the establishment
of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) in 2007; and the development of the Addis
Convention in 2014, (replacing the Arusha Convention of 1981). All of these initiatives seek to
enhance and enable trust between the regional and global partners, and focus on MRQs,
particularly since harmonisation and referencing mechanisms for qualifications, globally, are
emerging as key drivers for purposes of increased access, mobility, credit accumulation and
transfer, and articulation for lifelong learning and skills development across the globe. The
initiative of the European Training Foundation (ETF) to develop basic level descriptors for a
global framework, to simplify and enable, inter alia, global mobility of lifelong learners, and to
develop and register quality qualifications, are among the benefits. The Ernst & Young report
on the University of the Future (2012)9 identifies drivers of change for higher education, being
the “massive” increase in the availability of “knowledge” online; the mass expansion of access
to university education; the transformative effect of digital technologies and global mobility.
South Africa has responded to all of this by developing enabling and credible steering
mechanisms to support and enhance the mutual recognition of qualifications and global
mobility. Some of these include the development of a Policy Framework for the
Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Africa; the establishment of the Mutual
Recognition of Qualifications Committee; the publication of the Minister’s Articulation and
Recognition of Prior Learning Policies; the Level Descriptor Policy of the South African
Qualifications Authority (SAQA) (2012)10, MRQ bilateral agreements with countries such as
China, Russia, Germany, and France; and the pending ratification of the Addis Convention;
and the development of ECertification by SAQA. All of these measures seek to provide an
agile, trustworthy, credible and increasingly digitised platform to grow our international
footprint.

The methodology used in this paper, is mainly a desk-top review of current legislation and
policies in South Africa, with specific reference to higher education; and consideration of some
relevant literature. It is not an exhaustive study by any means, but seeks to highlight the agility

9 Ernst and Young (EY). (2012). University of the Future. Johannesburg: EY.
10 South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). (2012). Level Descriptors for the South African National Qualifications Framework.

Pretoria: SAQA.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

of the legislative and policy framework which is part of South Africa’s response to global
networks, digitisation, and MRQs across countries. In short, these are but some of the benefits
of MRQs. With South Africa having a globally-respected NQF system, we are well-placed to
be one of the leading countries in developing and implementing modern systems of
cooperation, collaboration and communication in the world of NQFs.

The full paper is available on:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/gvqogfoh0nfg5z7/South%20African%20Steering%20Mechanism
s%20for%20Mutual%20Recognition%20of%20Qualifications_Enhancing%20student%20arti
culation%20and%20mobility%20globally%20through%20NQFs.docx?dl=0

      Dr Shirley Lloyd is the Director of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
       Directorate in the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET):
       Lloyd.S@dhet.gov.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

8. ETDP SETA TVET Sub-Sector Report for the 2019/20 Sector Skills Plan (Presha
   Ramsarup)

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (TVET) subsector in informing the development of the Education and Training
Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority (ETDP SETA) 2019 - 2020
Sector Skills Plan (SSP).

This report builds on the previous SSP by reviewing and comparing more recent available
data, and incorporating any new developments, and progress made with earlier strategies.
Information has been obtained from available literature as well as through consultation with
key role players.

In relation to the above, some of the findings with regards to progress in the subsector, as
relevant to ETDP SETA priorities, are outlined below:

      Institutional Transformation: TVET college staff profiles still show some race and
       gender bias, with women and black Africans underrepresented at the higher
       appointment levels.
      Quality Programme to Meet Changing Needs: The development of qualification
       programmes for TVET lecturers is progressing, and universities are moving towards the
       delivery of these programmes.
      Adequate Supply of Teachers in Specialisations and Geographical Locations: The lack
       of data gathered on lecturer specialisations in their prior qualifications prevents a more
       detailed analysis of the further qualifications or specialisations that are needed.
      Increasing the use of Technology to Enhance Teaching and Learning: There is a
       continued emphasis on the use of Information Technology (IT) as a core part of
       teaching and learning.
      Professionalisation of the Workforce: There is a draft TVET Lecturer Development
       Strategy where a skills audit of the sector is intended. It foresees a more flexible re-
       categorisation of lecturing staff that is better tailored to the wide range of types of
       programmes offered by the sector, and better aligned to staff currently employed.
      Alignment with National Strategies and Plans: Government is committed to increased
       access of TVET provision and improving its quality. In support of this, workplace
       internship and placement opportunities are to be made available.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

       Partnerships: Partnerships are particularly relevant for TVET colleges where
        programmes range across most industrial sectors, and with the increasing emphasis
        on workplace based learning for both students and lecturers. The ETDP SETA is well
        positioned to assist colleges in establishing partnerships that contribute positively to
        their role in national skills development.
       Findings on hard to fill vacancies and scarce skills were also noted.

Based on the findings above, the ETDP SETA has identified the following skills development
priorities informed by sector based and national priorities and PIVOTAL interventions.

       Ensuring Quality Teaching and Learning in TVET Colleges by: Improving the
        performance of lecturers in TVET colleges.
       Ensuring effective and efficient service delivery in colleges by: Improving
        administration, management, leadership, governance as well as research capacity to
        support teaching and training professionals. This includes training in relevant
        programmes for national and regional officials as well as managers in colleges.
       Supporting transformation of the Post-School and Education and Training (PSET)
        sector by: Ensuring increased access, success and progression within TVET colleges.
        Key to transformation of the PSET sector is developing and supporting youth
        development programmes aimed at ensuring that youth employability and
        empowerment is achieved in order to reduce unemployment and address issues of
        poverty and inequality.

The full report is available on:

http://www.etdpseta.org.za/education/tvet-sub-sector-report-2019-20-ssp

       Dr Presha Ramsarup is an Education, Training and Development Practitioner
        (ETDP) Research Chair on Technical and Vocational Education and Training in the
        Centre for Researching Education and Labour (REAL) at the University of
        Witwatersrand: (Wits) presha.ramsarup@wits.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

9. Students’ Development in Reading and Response: A Way of First Additional
      Language Learning (Manthekeleng Agnes Linake)

The aim of the study was to investigate reading in English First Additional Language (FAL) in
South African universities. The objectives included enabling students to learn reading in order
to promote their reading to such a level that they can continue reading to learn and not learning
to read only.

The researcher was interested in exploring broader trends in reading strategies, instructions
and training for students with the intention of contributing possible strategies to address the
training of students for their role as literacy instructors in English as well as in multilingual
education in South Africa.

It was an interpretive study based on a case study design that covered four years.

The findings showed that language learning could be easier if it is considered as a social
practice with academic purpose. The study concluded that students prefer to be taught in
English although most see it as a barrier to learning.

The full paper is available on:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/s8gq9plcmwifj22/STUDENTS%20DEVELOPMENT%20IN%20R
EADING%20AND%20RESPONSE_A%20WAY%20OF%20FIRST%20ADDITIONAL%20LA
NGUAGE%20LEARNING.docx?dl=0

       Dr Manthekeleng Agnes Linake is a Senior Lecturer the University of Fort Hare:
        mkganedi@ufh.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

10. Challenges of Accessing Skills Development Opportunities for People with Physical
    Disabilities in South Africa: An HWSETA Reflection (Mxolisi Moyakhe and Sipho
    Buthelezi)

People with physical disabilities lack access in many areas where they can participate and
contribute meaningfully to society. Accessing skills development opportunities are amongst a
number of challenges facing people with physical disabilities. Although policies exist, the
question of access to skills development opportunities remains a concern because
implementation has not been a success.

The objective of the study was to identify challenges experienced by people with physical
disabilities in accessing skills development opportunities and to reflect on the Health and
Welfare Sector Education and Training Authority’s (HWSETA’s) interventions in this regard.

The study was conducted using a mixed method approach of both qualitative and quantitative
techniques. The collection of data was done through in-depth semi-structured telephonic
interviews. It was also imperative to compile semi-structured questionnaires given the number
of participants recruited for the study. Data analysis was done through content analysis and
statistical presentation of findings.

The findings confirm that many people with disabilities do not have equal access to education
and employment opportunities. They do not receive the disability-related services that they
require; hence they experience exclusion from everyday life activities. The study also points
to the gaps and deficiencies in the management of policy concerning physical disability.
Amongst the identified deficiencies is the faulty conception, communication, and monitoring of
policy for effective implementation.

The study recommends more engagement with educational institutions, the corporate world,
and members of society, to ensure that a reasonable level of awareness on disability is
created. The study proposes various ways in which people with disabilities can be pulled into
the economic mainstream and labour market. These include incentives and upskilling or re-
skilling through learnerships, internships, and work integrated learning etc. In addition to
advocacy for adding more financial resources, there is a great need for a thorough skills audit
for people with disabilities. It should be on the basis of such a study that specific vocational
training programmes should be implemented to empower people with disabilities. In this way,

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

there will be an alignment of their skills and the needs of the labour market. Furthermore, there
is a need for organisational profiling to trace performance against set targets. Thus,
recruitment and training of disabled people must be a priority and an integral part of the
broader training and development of staff.

The full research report is available on:

http://www.hwseta.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/08th-Nov-research-report-
Challenges-of-access-facing-PWD.pdf

     Mr Mxolisi Moyakhe was a Researcher at the Health and Welfare Sector Education
      and Training Authority (HWSETA): siphob@hwseta.org.za
     Dr Sipho Buthelezi is a Research Manager at the Health and Welfare Sector
      Education and Training Authority (HWSETA): siphob@hwseta.org.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

11. Searching for Personal Significance: A Foundational Element of a Learning
   Architecture (Cliff Brunette and Rica Viljoen)

In today’s fast-paced, commercially-orientated world of work it is easy to lose some of what
we, as humans, are.

The demand to produce more, in less time, is an ever-changing expectation that each
employee must be able to cope with. Yet, what we teach employees during training
programmes is to cope with more content, more rules and more conformity.

Most training programmes today are focused on compliance and administrative efficiency,
rather than learning. In this article the authors are turning their search to an often elusive
missing ingredient. If it becomes part of the focus of the training effort, this ingredient can
assist the employee to be better in many more procedural aspects and also teach them how
to better deal with the volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of today’s corporate
world.

That ingredient is personal significance.

The full document is available on:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327301705_Searching_for_Personal_Significance
_A_foundational_element_of_a_learning_architecture

        Mr Cliff Brunette is the Learning Experience Specialist at Cornerstone Performance
         Solutions: cliffb@performancesolutions.co.za
        Dr Rica Viljoen is Adjunct Faculty of the Reading University's Henley Business
         School and Managing Director of Mandala Consulting:
         rica@mandalaconsulting.co.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

12. Literature Used by Master’s Students of a Private Higher Education Institution
   (Adriaan Swanepoel)

An opportune time to investigate the use of research literature by postgraduate students is
soon after the introduction of a new degree programme at a higher education institution. The
results of such a study can assist research supervisors, trainers and policy makers to identify
collective deficiencies in students’ knowledge and skills in the use of research literature, and
to make timely changes to research policy and training.

A candidate for this type of study is the Southern Business School (SBS) in Krugersdorp,
which, in 2014 added two new degrees to its offering: a Master of Management (MMAN) and
Master of Policing Practice (MPP). The first of these master’s students graduated in 2016.
Since the introduction of the two master’s degree programmes, the SBS has not yet done
research on issues such as the type of literature its master’s students used to write
dissertations, and whether MMAN and MPP students use literature differently, based on their
respective disciplines.

In 2017 the SBS granted the author of this report permission to conduct a study to compile an
aggregate portrait of the way MMAN and MPP students use sources in their mini-dissertations.
A quantitative approach was used to collect, analyse, rank and compare quantitative
bibliographic data from 57 electronic copies of master’s theses, submitted in 2016 and 2017.
No sample was taken.

The study determined not only the main types of literature used by master’s students of the
SBS, but also identified more than 80 different types of literature (condensed into 34
categories), used in a period of two years. The study also identified 610 different journals used
in the same period, as well as the 10 journals that appeared most in reference lists of MMAN
and MPP students. Four of the 10 journals were South African journals, including the most
frequently referenced journal, the South African Journal of Human Resource Management.
Based only on journal use, it can also be concluded that master’s students of the SBS used
journals from a wide variety of countries and they did not focus mainly on sources of an Anglo-
American orientation. The study also determined and ranked the age distribution of books
used by MMAN and MPP students.

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

Although this study supports the findings of other studies, that the majority of publications were
used within the first 10 years after publication. It is a concern that MMAN and MPP students
used more than 900 publications that were published more than 10 years prior to their own
research. This study also discovered that MMAN and MPP students used literature differently,
based on their respective disciplines. The most prominent differences were that MPP students
used notably more books but fewer journals than MMAN students, and MPP students tended
to use older publications than MMAN students.

Although it was not the intention of this study to investigate the quality of references, it cannot
be ignored that many of the reference lists compiled by MMAN and MMP students were not
in compliance with generally accepted referencing rules and principles. Examples ranged from
style and punctuation errors to incomplete, inaccurate and even unrecognisable references.
The trends and comparisons revealed by this study will give the SBS a rare opportunity to get
a broader perspective of how its master’s students as a group, or a subgroup, use research
literature. The results will also assist academic supervisors, trainers and policy makers of the
SBS to identify collective deficiencies in students’ knowledge and skills in the use of research
literature, and to make timely changes to their research policy and training.

The full study is available on:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327222145_Literature_used_by_master's_student
s_of_a_private_higher_education_institution

      Dr Adriaan Swanepoel is a Part-Time Research Supervisor at the Southern
       Business School in Krugersdorp: aswanepoel@sbs.ac.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

13. Student Experiences of Training Offered by HWSETA Accredited Training Providers
    (Bulelwa Plaatjie and Dineo Mokheseng)

The Health and Welfare Sector Education Training Authority (HWSETA) conducts an annual
survey on learners undergoing training through HWSETA-accredited Skills Development
Providers (SDPs). The purpose of this 2017 survey was to get the views and training
experiences of learners, which will assist in improving the quality of learning offered by
providers.

The data for the study was collected through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured
data questionnaire which had mainly quantitative questions and a few qualitative ones. 589
learners from 25 institutions took part in the survey.

Learners were mostly positive about the training received, the quality of workplace mentorship
and other aspects of their training. However, the survey also showed areas which can be
improved upon. A sizeable proportion of the learners expressed dissatisfaction and concerns
about the delay in receiving assessment results, sufficiency of training aids, post-training
employment prospects, administration, and timely dissemination of certificates. The need for
clear communication, improved course content, and financial support were also highlighted.

The full report is available on:

http://www.hwseta.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Student-experience-of-training-
offered-by-training-providers-accredited-by-the-HWSETA_final_report.pdf

      Ms Bulelwa Plaatjie is the Acting Executive Manager: Research Information
       Monitoring and Evaluation at the Health and Welfare Sector Education and
       Training Authority (HWSETA): bulelwap@hwseta.org.za
      Ms Dineo Mokheseng is a Monitoring and Evaluation Officer at the Health and
       Welfare Sector Education and Training Authority (HWSETA):
       dineom@hwseta.org.za

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Research Bulletin on Post-School Education & Training: Number 7

14. Exploring Beginner Teachers’ Sources of Knowledge for Teaching Literature in ESL
   Classrooms (Nhlanhla Mpofu and Lizette DeJager)

The purpose of this study was to identify beginner teachers’ sources of knowledge for teaching
literature in the English Second Language (ESL) classroom. Teacher knowledge research in
ESL has tended to overlook the existence of English Literature as a stand-alone subject.

This study does not dispute the place of literature in language learning, but contends that the
knowledge base for teachers of the subject English Language differs from that of teachers for
the subject English Literature. From the available studies on teacher knowledge, two
epistemological positions, namely theoretical and experiential, exist to explain the sources of
teaching knowledge. Both these positions are used in this study to understand the exchange
between theoretical principles and teacher expertise in the way that these two types of inputs
interact and refine each other in ESL teaching.

A qualitative case study was carried out to determine the sources of beginner teachers’
knowledge. The findings highlighted that beginner teachers source their teaching knowledge
from the theory of education, the nature of the subject, and the problematic areas encountered
in teaching English literature. Although acknowledging theoretical and experiential knowledge
as sources of their teaching practices, the beginner teachers in this study indicated that their
construction developed from past, present and anticipated classroom experiences. That is,
teaching knowledge construction draws from multiple sources that included previous
educational experiences, present English literature experiences and anticipated classroom
experiences.

The study acknowledges the strong relationship between theoretical knowledge in teaching
and the role of teachers in the construction of their teaching knowledge from classroom-based
experiences. These findings emphasise teaching knowledge as emanating from personal,
practical, reactional and contextual experiences which has implications for teacher preparation
programmes. The initial teacher training institutions might use the information from this study
to better prepare pre-service teachers by exposing them to multiple contexts which have the
potential to develop their professional practices.

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