Royal New Zealand Navy International Naval Review
Royal New Zealand Navy International Naval Review
1 issue 205 NoVEMBER 2016 Royal New Zealand Navy International Naval Review Celebrating our 75th Anniversary #KiwiNavy75th I nznavy75.co.nz
2 Sponsor acknowledgement The Royal New Zealand Navy gratefully acknowledges the support of its family of sponsors. PRESENTING PARTNER, OPERATION NEPTUNE GOLD SPONSORS SILVER SPONSORS TM PLATINUM SPONSORS NAVY 75th ANNIVERSARY SPONSORS
3 YOURS AYE DIRECTORY Published to inform, inspire and entertain serving and former members of the RNZN, their families and friends and the wider Navy community.
Navy Today is the official magazine of the Royal New Zealand Navy. Published by Defence Public Affairs, Wellington. Navy Today is now in its twentieth year of publication. Views expressed in Navy Today are not necessarily those of the RNZN or the NZDF. Contributions are welcomed, including stories, photographs and letters. Please submit stories and letters by email in Microsoft Word or the body of an email. Articles up to 500 words welcomed, longer if required by the subject. Please consult the editor about long articles. Digital photos submitted by email also welcomed, at least 500kb preferred.
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To join or leave our mailing list, please contact: E: firstname.lastname@example.org 1 issue 205 NoVEMBER 2016 Royal New Zealand Navy International Naval Review Celebrating our 75th Anniversary #KiwiNavy75th i NzNavy75.co.Nz 26 our 75TH year 04 messages 10 our history 14 our fleet 08 visiting countries 18 programme 20 list of ships 30 our future 34 partnership cover image: HMNZS OTAGO (front) and HMNZS TE KAHA. contents NAVY TODAY ISSUE 205 2016 Haere Mai and welcome to the November Edition of Navy Today. The prime focus of the edition is to feature the International Naval Review. During this year we have honoured the people that have served in our Naval Forces over the past decades; we have celebrated the country’s commitment to their navy; and, we look forward to a maritime century full of challenge and opportunity.
This month we are honoured and privileged to host Her Excellency the Governor General, The Right Honourable Dame Patsy Reddy, GNZM, QSO as she reviews the fleet of the RNZN and the ships of our visitors, friends and allies. We are fortunate to enjoy the support of the Minister of Defence, the Hon Gerry Brownlee who will join us for much of the celebrations. To our friends who have travelled here over sea many miles, to the visiting Chiefs of Navy’s and their representatives, to those who participate in the Naval review with Aircraft, Ships, bands and support by their presence – we say welcome and thank you.
We hope that your stay is enjoyable and you take home great memories of Aotearoa – New Zealand. Finally, to the Navy; regular, reservists and civilians – you are building the future of the navy with your efforts in the Southern Ocean, South West Pacific, in RIMPAC, South East Asia, on the water, under and over the water. Your efforts during the INR will enhance our reputation with the People of New Zealand, our friends and allies, our family and Whanau. Kia tu kaha, Kia tu Maia, kia tu Heramana e!
Welcome to you all – we hope you enjoy the International Naval Review. Chief of Navy Rear Admiral John Martin
4 MESSAGES The Governor-General of New Zealand Special message from Kia ora tatou I am delighted to send a message of congratulations to the Royal New Zealand Navy as it nears the conclusion of the NEPTUNE 75th anniversary programme. I look forward to joining other New Zealanders to witness the grand finale, the International Naval Review on 19 November. This year, New Zealanders have had occasion to be reminded of the times when our sailors and ships have fought in the service of our country – and to mourn those who died in battle, in particular the crew of HMS Neptune.
We have remembered how the Navy was on hand to support their fellow citizens following the 1931 Napier earthquake and, 80 years later, after the Canterbury earthquake. We have recalled the occasions when our RNZN personnel have gone to the aid of our Pacific neighbours, providing humanitarian relief following natural disasters, or supporting sustainable fisheries management. As New Zealand’s third female Governor-General, I am particularly pleased to know that our Navy was one of the first to have women serve on ships at sea, 30 years ago – and to know that they now make up 23.5 percent of the Navy.
It’s also pleasing to see increasing representation of the diverse cultures in 21st century New Zealand. Congratulations to our Navy personnel, past and present, for 75 years of honourable and loyal service, and I look forward to sharing your celebrations in November.
I wish you all fair winds and following seas. The Right Honourable Dame Patsy Reddy, GNZM, QSO Governor-General of New Zealand Below: Dame Patsy Reddy and Guard Commander Lieutenant Commander Kerry Tutty, during her swearing-in ceremony. Celebrating our 75th Anniversary
5 MESSAGES The Minister of Defence The Chief of Navy Special message from Special message from N ew Zealand’s isolation means we are a maritime nation. Our Exclusive Economic Zone is the fourth largest in the world and with this maritime domain comes significant responsibility. For example, our Search and Rescue zone covers 11 per cent of the planet, and 99 per cent of our trade still travels by sea.
We therefore place a great importance on freedom of navigation and maintaining open trading routes. The Royal New Zealand Navy may only have received its Royal Warrant in 1941, but the Navy has been instrumental in protecting these maritime freedoms for much longer than that. This started at the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, and has continued through to the modern and versatile Navy we have today. And while the reasons we have a Navy are broadly the same, the types of situations, emergencies and conflicts the Navy must be able to respond to have changed over time. This is why the Navy of today is more integrated into the New Zealand Defence Force than ever before, and our sailors, soldiers and airmen spend significant amounts of time preparing to maintain security and safety in our region.
I know the Navy is well prepared for the challenges of the future and will continue to play a vital role in defending the interests of our nation. I’m looking forward to the Navy’s 75th commemorations and remembering those who have served our nation at sea. I’m proud of the Navy that we have today, and I would like to thank the men and women who serve our nation with courage, commitment and comradeship. Our nation is grateful. Thank you for your service. Hon Gerry Brownlee Minister of Defence O ur Navy is officially 75 years old and it’s been an eventful 75 years at that. Our Navy and our people have done extraordinary things; are doing extraordinary things or will continue to do them in the future.
It’s been a busy 75 years. A period that underscores the wisdom of the people of New Zealand who established our Navy and set it to task; initially during the dark days of the Second World War, to counter the threat of invasion and counter the mine threat in our waters, patrol the hostile waters of the Solomon Islands and eventually assist in successfully concluding the War. Only a decade or so later our ships were patrolling the waters of the Korean Peninsula. And while the limelight is so often turned towards witnessing nuclear testing, or more recently conducting antiterrorism operations, keeping international waters free from piracy, or racing to the aid of people affected by disaster, it’s the mundane that has shaped our Navy.
Over the years we just got on with surveying our coastline, resupplying our offshore islands, training thousands of young New Zealanders and preparing them for rewarding careers. The next 75 years, even the next 10 years, promises to be busy for your Navy and our challenge in our 75th year is to take our solid foundations and use this moment to create a Navy for the future. Our leaders are well prepared for the task and have already started transforming our Navy so that it can operate the ships that will enter service through the decades to come.
Our ships of tomorrow must be capable of operating in the vastly different world we expect. A world where small interest groups have the power to disrupt stability and trade, where sea levels continue to rise and pressure and competition for resources will intensify. These pressures mean we must provide to the Government and the people of New Zealand credible, sustainable options at all times. Naturally, they expect us to achieve great things in some of the harshest environments known to mankind, they expect us to be an exemplary training institution and they expect us to enable other Government departments to be able to achieve their mission.
These expectations won’t change in the years ahead, but how we meet them will.
Technology is providing us with a fantastic opportunity to achieve more than we ever have before. Therefore ensuring we bring the right technology into service is a key component to building New Zealand’s future Navy. We also need to make sure we have the right people on board, and as the demographics of New Zealand change, so must the demographics of the Navy. We must remain truly representative of the people we serve. Finally we will build on the already close integration with the Army and Air Force, to become better team-mates with other government agencies and our international security partners.
Because if there is one thing that history shows us, it’s that by working together we can achieve more.
Therefore, it is important that in our 75th year, we pause to take stock of our history. Remember those who have served our Navy and gave their lives for the freedoms we enjoy. And that we cast our mind to the future to ensure our Navy is as relevant and valued tomorrow as it has been throughout history. Rear Admiral John Martin Chief of Navy Defence Minister Gerry Brownlee.
6 SPECIAL EVENTS WHAT’S ON AT THE CLOUD F rom November 18 to 20, The Cloud on Queen’s Wharf will be the exhibition centrepiece of the International Naval Review, telling “Our Story” to the public and visiting sailors.
Visitors to The Cloud can expect a multi-media experience from the word go. The exhibitors have made the most of the wealth of historic imagery from the Royal New Zealand Navy’s Collections Unit, combined with modern photography and documentary video. A “history tunnel” will tell our story from the 1940s onwards, with large storyboards and imagery, plus video screens. At the end a 6m by 3m LED screen will showcase the Navy’s contemporary duties, and show our mission and purpose today. Interactive exhibits include a Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boat (RHIB) set up so that members of the public can pose with Navy equipment in the seats, against a large photo of a sea backdrop with HMNZS WELLINGTON in the background.
Special events and moments at The Cloud on Queen’s Wharf. Right: Faces from the past (and their cats), captured by Navy photographer Tudor Collins. Right: A RHIB with a sea poster background will be set up in The Cloud for photo poses. THE ROYAL MARINES BAND SERVICE A highlight of the “Thousand-Sailor” street parade on Friday November 18 will be a Band of Her Majesty’s Royal Marines, from the United Kingdom. Royal Marines Band Service members have to prove themselves in basic military training first. After that, becoming a band member involves up to two years and eight months of immersion in musical performance, theory and rehearsal - and more rehearsal.
The band plays at the highest level, for royalty, and are recognised world-wide for their professionalism and talent. Highlights of their year would include the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, in front of over 200,000 people. There are at present five Royal Marine Bands and a Corps of Drums. Look out for the distinctive band in Division 3 of the march, which features the contingents from visiting ships. Above: The Royal Marines Band Service. PHOTO CREDIT: Navy News (UK) A P-3K2 Orion from 5 Squadron RNZAF. There will be Orions from other countries participating as well.
The Kawasaki P-1 patrol aircraft from the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force.
7 SPECIAL EVENTS FLYPAST While the formality of the International Naval Review gets underway, cast your eyes skyward on Saturday November 19. On the harbour, the Governor-General, Dame Patsy Reddy, will conduct the formal review on board a RNZN vessel as she passes alongside a line of moored visiting ships. But the variety of aircraft and helicopters involved in the International Naval Review aren’t about to miss out, and aircraft spotters are in for a treat. A steady run of aircraft, in intervals, will do a flypast above the ships.
EXERCISES WITH OUR PARTNERS It’s not just about dress whites and open days when Navies come together.
Prior to the fleet entry on November 17 most of the ships involved in the INR will participate in two exercises, MAHI TANGAROA 16 and NGATAHI, in the Hauraki Gulf. MAHI TANGAROA 16, which involves the ADMM-Plus (ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus) countries, falls within one of the six areas of practical cooperation being pursued by the ASEAN and its eight Dialogue Partners – maritime security. This multilateral maritime security exercise aims to enhance maritime cooperation amongst regional partners. It also seeks to further develop interoperability with maritime security partners, strengthen relationships with them and provide an opportunity to build relationships with other countries / navies.
It demonstrates the NZDF’s commitment to enhance cooperation throughout the Pacific and Asian region. NGATAHI, running parallel, is tailored training designed to test and enhance the maritime warfare competencies of participating countries.
the INR Celebrating our 75th Anniversary DIVINE SERVICE On Sunday November 20 at 2pm a Divine Service will be hosted at the Holy Trinity Cathedral for Flag Officers and designates from all nations. An estimated 500 naval personnel and VIPs will be attending. Above: Sailors at the Navy’s birthday church service last month in St Paul’s Church, Wellington. Above: Te Mana Bridge. Auckland’s Holy Trinity Cathedral.
8 VISITING COUNTRIES 11 13 15 12 20 17 8 14 3 19 16 10 1 AUSTRALIA Our most important and enduring defence partnership with Australia is a legacy grounded in blood, from the birth of the Anzac soldier on the fields of Gallipoli, Belgium and France in WWI.
Today, as we honour the Anzac Centenary, Defence chiefs of both countries engage on the highest levels of mutual interest in defence. Both countries are members of the Five Powers Defence Arrangements. Ships frequently visit each country, and engage in joint military exercises. 2 BRITAIN Britain will not be sending a vessel to the INR, but their Chief of Naval Staff and First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Philip Jones, is a Distinguished Visitor for our International Naval Review. The Royal Navy is also committing the famous Royal Marines Band Service to the “thousand sailor march” down Queen St on Friday November 18.
3 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Our strong defence relationship is mainly based around training. We take part in joint military training exercises, and New Zealand provides training assistance under the Mutual Assistance Programme (MAP), which also gives our troops opportunities to train in Brunei’s jungle. 4 CANADA New Zealand and Canada cooperate closely in all aspects of defence relations, drawing on a history of shared success in wartime and peace. Canada and New Zealand have worked together on numerous international security operations, including Timor-Leste, Bosnia and Afghanistan. New Zealand and Canadian sailors have regular exchanges aboard ships.
Both our frigates will go to Lockheed Martin Canada, from next year, for a systems upgrade.
5 CHILE New Zealand has a strong relationship with Chile as Pacific neighbours. New Zealand, Chile, Singapore and Brunei joined in a free trade agreement, the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, over 10 years ago, and are likely to continue this with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Both Chile and New Zealand work together on fisheries issues in the Pacific, both have interests in Antarctica, and both have mutual interests in tsumani warning systems. In 1996 a Naval Cooperation Agreement was established to facilitate the exchange of information between both countries’ navies.
6 CHINA New Zealand has worked with the People’s Liberation Army Navy Task Force in joint exercises that include Australia and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) partners, such as Exercise Tropic Twilight in the Cook Islands. In 2015 New Zealand broke new ground in brokering a Five Year Engagement Plan between the NZDF and the People’s Liberation Army. Chinese ships last visited New Zealand in October 2013, when the destroyer QINGDAO, frigate LINYI and supply vessel HONGZEHU were hosted in Auckland.
7 FRANCE New Zealand and France share strong mutual interests in the Pacific region, including cooperation on maritime surveillance, joint defence exercises, disaster relief and development, and the closer integration of the French Pacific territories within the region. We have a Status of Forces Agreement, signed in May 2014. This supports our strong ongoing defence cooperation in the Pacific. 8 GERMANY Germany and New Zealand have a close relationship largely based on trade, commerce and cultural exchange. It is a $1 billion market for New Zealand exports, particularly in venison and sheep meat.
9 INDIA New Zealand enjoys a good relationship with India. Both countries enjoy mutual ship visits and staff college exchanges, and both our Anzac frigates have been visitors in recent years, notably TE KAHA on her way back home from anti-piracy operations. In 2011 the Prime Ministers of both countries made strong statements about strengthening bilateral defence cooperation. 10 Indonesia A country straddling the equator comprising more than 13,670 islands (6000 inhabited) can make good use of a large Navy. Indonesia has a fleet strength of 165 vessels and 65,000 personnel, including 20,000 Marines, according to Jane’s Fighting Ships 2016.
Concerns over human rights records in East Timor affected defence cooperation in the mid-1990s. Reforms since then have resulted in a modest level of defence cooperation, focused on education, non-combat training and cooperation in humanitarian operations, as well as navy-to-navy engagement. Celebrating our 75th Anniversary Visiting Countries 18
9 VISITING COUNTRIES 11 JAPAN Our Pacific Naval relationship with Japan goes back to 1882, when Japanese ships began making goodwill visits, up until the 1930s. In modern times Japan and New Zealand have had numerous port exchanges.
Today, New Zealand has a “strategic cooperative partnership” with Japan that includes the signing of a Memorandum of Intent on Defence Cooperation in 2013. 12 MALAYSIA We have a close and significant relationship with Malaysia including strong ties in trade, education and security, notably with comembership in the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Our two countries have a history of friendly and constructive links based on a shared membership of the Commonwealth, the Colombo Plan and shared security interests as part of the Asia-Pacific region. 13 PACIFIC ISLANDS New Zealand and Australia’s strategic presence in the Pacific is enhanced through close ties with its Pacific neighbours.
The international community expects both countries to take the lead on security and stability in the Pacific. Small island nations are reliant on New Zealand and Australia for trade, resources, aid and assistance. The Royal New Zealand Navy’s major input is providing the platforms for Pacific nations to undertake maritime security in their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), and open ocean fishing compliance with existing international treaties. 14 PAPUA NEW GUINEA New Zealand has a strong defence relationship with Papua New Guinea through leader engagement, training and exercises, and supports the Papua New Guinea Defence Force in becoming a strong national institution that contributes to its society.
15 REPUBLIC OF KOREA New Zealand’s political, economic and security links with Korea date back to the Korean War (1950-53) during which 6,000 New Zealanders served and 45 lost their lives. New Zealand continues to support efforts to bring peace and security to the Korean Peninsula and frequently engages with Korea on military exercises, ship visits, defence talks and exchanges. South Korea has a large Navy, a suitable advertisement for its substantial defence and shipbuilding capability, which includes the word’s largest shipbuilding company, Hyundai Heavy Industries. New Zealand’s latest naval tanker will be built there.
16 SINGAPORE The Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) and our Navy regularly conduct professional exchanges, visits and multilateral exercises, as part of the Five Power Defence Arrangements (United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and New Zealand) and the Western Pacific Naval Symposium (21 member states). Last month the Five Powers came together for Exercise BERSAMA LIMA, in the South China Sea area. 17 THAILAND New Zealand and Thailand cooperate on police issues and regional defence issues, engaging on forums such as the ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus. 18 TIMOR-LESTE New Zealand made a significant historic defence and security contribution to Timor-Leste’s establishment as a new nation from 1999 to 2002, and following the internal conflict of 2006.
Today, our military and police are less involved and the focus has turned to supporting Timor-Leste’s growth into a stable, democratic and prosperous nation.
19 VIETNAM Vietnam and New Zealand have a bilateral defence cooperation Memorandum of Understanding, signed in 2013, which includes mutual cooperation on maritime security in the region and receiving of RNZN ships to Vietnam. 20 UNITED STATES The history that lies behind the first US ship to visit New Zealand in 33 years is inescapable. In the seventies, public opinion in New Zealand was turning against nuclear power, seen visibly with protests against submarines USS PINTADO in 1978, USS HADDO in 1979, USS TRUXTUN and USS LONG BEACH in 1976, and notably USS TEXAS in 1983. When David Lange’s Labour Government swept into power with an anti-nuclear ticket in 1984, there was little room for manoeuvre.
The government turned down a visit from USS BUCHANAN in 1985, resulting in the severing of intelligence and military ties with New Zealand.
Fast-forward 33 years. New Zealand and America have reinstated virtually all aspects of their defence relationship. Chief of Navy RADM John Martin told USNI News, during the International Seapower Symposium in the United States in September, that “the nuclear ship issue was behind us”. He says the visit is a “great step forward in navy-to-navy relations” and he hoped the visits would become a regular activity.
10 T his year marks the 75th Anniversary of the foundation of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN). It was on 1 October 1941, when His Majesty King George VI approved the designation “Royal New Zealand Navy” for the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy.
Since then, the history of our Navy’s service to our nation is a proud one. It honours the men and women who faced extraordinary situations in peace and war with courage, commitment, and a spirit of comradeship that is so very evident in our modern Navy of today.
A Tragic Beginning With the foundation of our navy coinciding with the Second World War, the change from the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy to the RNZN made little difference operationally at the time, though New Zealand vessels now became His Majesty’s New Zealand Ship (HMNZS), rather than His Majesty’s Ship (HMS). As with the First World War, New Zealand’s contribution to the war effort was not confined to its own naval vessels. It also included the provision of large numbers of men to serve in the Royal Navy. The worst disaster involving New Zealand naval personnel occurred on 18 December 1941 when HMS NEPTUNE, which was being prepared to join the RNZN, sank after hitting a mine off Tripoli in the Mediterranean Sea.
Despite rescue attempts, all but one of the 764 Ship’s Company were lost. Amongst them were 150 New Zealanders. It remains the greatest single loss of life in New Zealand naval operations history. The wreck of the NEPTUNE has been located and those New Zealanders who perished are remembered on the HMNZS PHILOMEL Memorial Wall inside the Devonport Naval Base in Auckland.
World War II in the Pacific Following Japan’s onslaught through the Pacific in 1941-42, the New Zealand cruisers ACHILLES and LEANDER were integrated into US Navy’s South Pacific Command. Following the initial US-led counteroffensive at Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942, the cruisers were used to escort American troopships. They soon became involved in fighting in and around the Solomons Islands, and were damaged and had to be withdrawn for repairs. Afterwards, New Zealand’s naval effort in the Solomon Islands campaign was limited to minesweepers and motor launches. In December 1942 four minesweeper trawlers were deployed to Guadalcanal to conduct anti-submarine operations.
Working from a base on Tulagi, on 29 January 1943, KIWI and MOA destroyed the Japanese submarine I-1 off Guadalcanal. KIWI had to return to New Zealand for repairs after ramming the submarine, and was replaced by the converted coastal vessel GALE. In April 1943, MOA was sunk by a bomb in Tulagi harbour, with the loss of five lives. In March 1944 twelve Fairmile launches were sent to the Solomons Islands and remained in service in the region until the end of the war. The US South Pacific Command initially set up its headquarters in Auckland. The subsequent influx of American forces into New Zealand ignited major construction and redevelopment of the naval base in Devonport.
At the same time, the increased demand for men to crew warships led to the creation of the Women’s Royal New Zealand Naval Service (WRNZNS) in 1942. The WRNZNS eventually reached a peak of 519 women and made substantial contributions to naval intelligence and signalling services. They also completed driver, command centre OUR NAVAL HISTORY Celebrating our 75th Anniversary Log At some point during their training, most sailors will have an intimate relationship with the log. “Stand by. Pick. Up. The. Log,” will be the order given by the Physical Training Instructor. Trainees respond by picking up the log in stages while shouting, “Down 2 3.
Up 2 3. Lift”.
On “lift” the log is raised above the trainees’ heads. The log is then transferred from shoulder to shoulder; timing and teamwork is essential. Trainees also run in step with the log on their shoulders. Keeping in step is the only way not to get a bruise on your shoulder or chin. Wavy Navy On 1 October 1941, the Kiwi Navy waved goodbye to its former self and said hello to its new incarnation, the Royal New Zealand Navy. Before then the Service had been an arm of Britain’s Royal Navy. Simultaneously, the Royal New Zealand Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNZNVR) was established – or the Wavy Navy, as some called it.
The nickname came from the undulating lace on the sleeve of officers’ jackets. Between 1951 and 52, this design changed to straight lines of lace with an “R” for “Reserves”.
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ROYAL NEW ZEALAND NAVY, 1941–2016 75 Years 75 Objects
11 watchkeeper, and other shore-based roles, through until the WRNZNS were disbanded after the war. By the end of 1944 the Royal Navy had returned to the Pacific. The cruisers ACHILLES and GAMBIA (which replaced LEANDER in 1943) and the corvette ARBUTUS, served as part of the British Pacific Fleet that served alongside US forces until the Japanese were defeated in 1945. Many New Zealand naval aviators also flew off British aircraft carriers during this campaign. GAMBIA, which remains the largest warship to have served with the RNZN, was also present in Tokyo Bay when Japan formally surrendered aboard USS MISSOURI.
The strength of the RNZN and Volunteer Reserves peaked at 10,500 men and women in July 1945. Many of these served on ships in the Pacific, while others served with the Royal Navy in other parts of the world. A total of 524 Officers and Ratings were killed in naval service during the Second World War, and 65 became Prisoners of War. Post-War Operations The immediate post war period was one of rapid demobilisation as the RNZN returned to peacetime levels. Like all of New Zealand’s armed services, the Navy faced difficulties in having to drastically reduce its numbers and to reshape its post-war force.
New cruisers BELLONA and BLACK PRINCE replaced ACHILLES and GAMBIA, but problems with pay in 1947 led to a mutiny and the subsequent dismissal of 200 ratings. This crisis in manpower led to the reintroduction of the WRNZNS to free up men for sea service.
In 1948, the Frigate Era began when New Zealand took advantage of so much wartime surplus equipment available and acquired six wartime Loch-class antisubmarine frigates to supplement a force still based around the two cruisers. This was followed by the acquisition of the survey vessel LACHLAN in 1949. Middle East commitment and the Korean War At the end of the 1940s, the onset of the Cold War saw a shift in New Zealand’s strategic interests. Much of this was centred on preparing to fulfil the so-called Middle East pledge, which was a promise to provide forces immediately for the defence of Egypt in the event of war with the Soviet Union.
The government promised to send all surplus naval capacity to the region. Readiness was enhanced by the exchange of frigates with the Royal Navy’s Mediterranean Fleet in 1950. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, however, saw an immediate naval commitment into North Asia that stretched RNZN resources to its limits.
Two frigates, PUKAKI and TUTIRA, deployed immediately and reached Korea in early August 1950. They began by escorting ships between Japan and the South Korean port of Pusan. In midSeptember 1950 they were also involved in escorting troopships to Incheon. The subsequent landing of United Nation forces transformed the war, and lead to the rapid liberation of South Korea. All six frigates undertook tours of duty through until July 1954. In all approximately 1300 RNZN personnel served in the Korean War. Two men lost their lives, including one during a shore raid made by ROTOITI on North Korea in August 1951.
New Zealand’s commitment in Korea led it to joining with Australia and United States in the ANZUS pact. It was the first time New Zealand had entered a defence relationship without Britain. Showing a growing sense of independence in 1956, the government refused Britain permission to test its thermonuclear weapons OUR NAVAL HISTORY Creating Trust This image depicts HMNZS WAIKATO’s Commanding Officer Commander David Ledson and the ship’s cultural group ashore at Bougainville in 1990. They were there along with the frigate HMNZS WELLINGTON and the tanker HMNZS ENDEAVOUR on a peace mission.
There had been a long period of conflict between the Bougainville Liberation Army and Papua New Guinea National Forces. There was initially tension when WAIKATO arrived at Bougainville. Commander Ledson, decided to go ashore unarmed. After the ship’s cultural group presented a haka, the ice was broken. Land and Sea New Zealand naval personnel have deployed in Cambodia, the former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan and East Timor. For many naval officers much of their naval careers have been spent in a land environment, working with multinational agencies. The Disruptive Pattern Material (or DPM) slides use the design from the old Army Green camouflage uniform.
The Desert Disruptive Pattern Material (or DDPM) are designed after the desert camouflage uniform. And of course, the black background with gold stripes are what officers wear on their traditional blue or white Navy uniforms. 75 Years 75 Objects
12 OUR NAVAL HISTORY Celebrating our 75th Anniversary Navy’s Mystery Tours After assisting at Christmas Island in 1957, New Zealand again sent ships to nuclear tests in the Pacific fifteen years later. This time, however, the country was protesting against French atmospheric nuclear testing at Mururoa Atoll. Labour Prime Minister Norman Kirk sent HMNZS CANTERBURY and OTAGO to oppose the tests. This flag, made by Peter Mitchell and donated by Michael Bell, is marked “Norm’s Mystery Tours.” It was flown by HMNZS CANTERBURY as she sailed out of Auckland on her way to Mururoa and again when she returned to Auckland.
Norm” referred to the Prime Minister Norman Kirk.
in the Kermadec Islands, and also would not allow the cruiser ROYALIST to serve with the Royal Navy’s Mediterranean Fleet during the Suez Crisis. Focus shifts to South East Asia By the mid-1950s New Zealand’s strategic interests were firmly focussed on Southeast Asia. The region became the focus of our naval efforts through until the early 1970s. In 1955 New Zealand agreed to supply forces in peacetime for the British Commonwealth Strategic Reserve, which would provide the initial response to any attack on the region by China. As a result, one RNZN frigate was stationed in Singapore at all times.
Although intended to meet a ‘hot war’ situation, the reserve forces quickly became involved in the Malayan Emergency. RNZN frigates conducted anti-piracy and fisheries protection patrols off the Malayan coast through until March 1961. During this time they also provided support to land forces, and were at times called upon to bombard communist positions.
By the start of the 1960s, the RNZN required new warships for its fleet. In 1962 the Rothesay-class frigates OTAGO and TARANAKI were commissioned and were the first all-new major surface combatants to serve with the RNZN. A Leander-class frigate HMNZS WAIKATO—which was the first RNZN ship designed to embark a helicopter—was also acquired in 1966 to replace the RNZN’s last cruiser ROYALIST. In 1962 the RNZN again became involved in Southeast Asian conflict. Indonesia used a series of raids, commerce interdiction and minor skirmishes (known as ‘Konfrontasi’ (Confrontation)), to confront Great Britain and to intimidate the newly formed Federation of Malaysia.
ROYALIST, TARANAKI, and OTAGO and the minesweepers, HICKLETON and STANTON all completed patrols in the area at various stages during the Confrontation (1962-66). In June 1966, the RNZN fired its guns in anger when HICKLETON engaged armed Indonesian infiltrators.
The NZ government chose not to commit any RNZN warships to the Vietnam War. Most of the 26 RNZN personnel who served in Vietnam did so as part of a joint services medical unit, which operated in the Binh Dinh province from 1967 until 1971. Frigate Operations and Support at Home In 1973 the frigate OTAGO was sent to Mururoa Atoll to protest against the atmospheric testing of French nuclear weapons. OTAGO observed the first test and was replaced on station by the new Leander -class frigate CANTERBURY (commissioned in 1971). In the early 1980s both OTAGO and TARANAKI were replaced by WELLINGTON and SOUTHLAND giving the RNZN an all-Leander-class four-frigate force.
In 1982, during the Falklands War, the RNZN took over patrols in the Indian Ocean to free up Royal Navy vessels for service in the South Atlantic. The government’s decision to break the ANZUS Treaty in 1985 greatly affected the RNZN’s long standing training programme with the United States Navy. At the time CANTERBURY was training with the US Navy in North America and was ordered to withdraw immediately. In 1985 the RNZN Operational Dive Team helped in the salvage of the RAINBOW WARRIOR, after it was sunk in Auckland Harbour by French government operatives. They also provided assistance to help with the salvage of the Russian cruise liner, MIKHAIL Above: Fraser Colman MP on HMNZS OTAGO at Mururoa.
13 OUR NAVAL HISTORY These objects, and others like them, can be seen at the National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy as part of their 75 Years, 75 Objects exhibition. LERMONTOV, which sunk in the Marlborough Sounds in 1986. In 1988, MANAWANUI, a new diving support tender with modern equipment, was commissioned into RNZN. MANAWANUI, and the Navy’s Littoral Support Group (which includes Operational Dive, Mine clearance, and Maritime Survey Units) remain key elements of RNZN to this day. In 1988 the RNZN’s first ever replenishment tanker, named ENDEAVOUR III, was commissioned into service.
It was the first time a tanker had been operated as part of New Zealand naval forces since 1925, and it greatly enhanced the Navy’s ability to sustain its frigate operations away from New Zealand. Despite these capability upgrades, the end of the Cold War in 1989 found the RNZN with a fleet in which most of its frigates were nearing obsolescence.
To counter this problem the government committed in the early 1990’s to purchasing two new Anzac-class frigates. They were built in Australia, named TE KAHA and TE MANA, and entered into service in 1997 and 1999 respectively. In 1997 the frigates’ capabilities were further enhanced when the RNZN’s aging Wasp helicopters, which had served in the RNZN since 1966, were replaced by modern Kaman Seasprite helicopters. That same year the Navy’s hydrographic survey capability was also updated, when MONOWAI was replaced by RESOLUTION.
Women in the Navy The 1990’s also saw the full integration of women into the RNZN.
The WRNZNS was disbanded in 1977 in order to meet new legislation, but by 1979 women were trained alongside men and were being employed in shore-based roles. Women first served at sea in 1986 on board MONOWAI, as part of an enduring programme to transition women into seagoing operations. By 1993 all branches of the Navy, except diving, were open to women, and in 1995 the first women served at sea in frigates. By the end of the decade any remaining restrictions had been abolished, allowing women to serve in the diving branch and in all combat and peacekeeping operations.
Increasing involvement in Peacekeeping Operations The 1990s was a period where the participation of the RNZN in peacekeeping operations greatly increased. RNZN personnel took part in land-based United Nations (UN) operations in the former Yugoslavia, and small craft operations on rivers in Cambodia. That same year the RNZN would also play a key role in the attempt to make peace on Bougainville. The tanker ENDEAVOUR, supported by the frigates CANTERBURY and WAIKATO, was used as a neutral meeting site for negotiations between the Papua New Guinean government and local rebels. RNZN ships and shore-based personnel would continue to assist with truce monitoring and peace-making initiatives in Bougainville throughout the decade.
In 1999, TE KAHA, CANTERBURY, and ENDEAVOUR were rushed to East Timor to provide naval support during the early stages of the country’s bloody separation from Indonesia. RNZN personnel then served ashore in coming years, as part of the multinational force that helped establish and then monitor peace in the country during its early years of independence.
In 1995 WELLINGTON took part in UN-endorsed multi-national operations to enforce sanctions against Iraq in the Arabian Gulf. This deployment was followed by CANTERBURY in 1996 and 1999, and was the first of many RNZN deployments into the Middle East region over the next twenty years. Since 2000 both Anzac-class frigates have completed numerous maritime security and counter-piracy operations in the Straits of Hormuz, Gulf of Oman and Horn of Africa areas of the region. Wakey Wakey Wakey These are the not so subtle tones of the Bosun’s Mate, who rouses the ship’s company each morning. It is the first so-called ‘pipe’ of each day, accompanied by the sound played on the bosun’s call.
Today there are speakers throughout the ship, but announcements are still referred to as “pipes”. The Loveable Rat This is Lieutenant Finnegan Rat, a loveable crew member whose hijinks in the service are legendary. Finnegan has been the victim of kidnappings from HMNZS WAIKATO, on which he is stationed. He has served in the Persian Gulf with HMNZS TE MANA, and was kidnapped in Fukuoka, Japan, by the Wardroom (officers’ mess) in HMNZS ENDEAVOUR.
How he got to be on HMNZS TE KAHA remains a mystery, although there is speculation that he suffered disorientation after shore leave. 75 Years 75 Objects
14 OUR FLEET TE MANA & TE KAHA Length: 118m Beam: 15m Displacement: 3,600 tonnes Speed: 27+ knots Armament: Main Gun: 5-inch fully automatic lightweight gun Missiles: Eight cell Vertical Launch System which houses the NATO Seasparrow Mk 41 air defence missile CWIS: PHALANX Close In Weapons System Torpedos: Two Mk32 Mod 5 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes Helicopter: One Kaman Super Seasprite SH-2G(I) with a combination of torpedos, depth charges, Penguin air-to-air missiles and M60 machine gun Small arms: Numerous, ranging from .50-calibre machine guns and mini-Typhoon automatic weapons to 9mm pistols OUR FLEET FRIGATES TE MANA & TE KAHA New Zealand Our two frigates, TE MANA and TE KAHA, are two of 10 Anzac-class frigates constructed for New Zealand and Australia.
Ours came into service in 1997 and 1999, a change of scene from New Zealand’s traditional four-frigate force. They are our main fighting ships, protecting New Zealand, our exports, maritime resources and those of our allies. They are capable of prolonged independent missions, and have proved themselves multiple times in different oceans. There tasks include global security, anti-piracy, counter-terrorism, interception and boarding, disaster relief and search and rescue. In June last year TE KAHA seized almost 260 kilograms of heroin worth NZ$235 million during a search of a dhow in the Indian Ocean.
Celebrating our 75th Anniversary
15 15 OUR FLEET CANTERBURY is our Navy’s Multi-Role Vessel (MRV). Entering service in 2007, the 131m-long ship is based on a Dutch roll-on roll-off passenger ferry, modified for naval use. She has been notable as a disaster relief ship, including close to home in Christchurch. She happened to be berthed in Lyttelton when the second Christchurch earthquake struck in February 2011. She also assisted Vanuatu after Cyclone Pam in 2015. CANTERBURY is also the sealift capability for the NZ Defence Force Joint Amphibious Task Force. She can deploy personnel, vehicles and equipment using landing craft, helicopters or ramps.
She has a self-contained hospital with surgical capability. Because of her ability to store two Navy Seasprites in the hanger, and four NH90s below, naval commentators have compared CANTERBURY to a mini carrier. CANTERBURY Length: 131m Beam: 23m Displacement: 9,000 tonnes Speed: 20 knots Range: 6000 plus nautical miles Crew: 78 (core crew), 10 (flight), 4 (Government) 7 (Army ship’s staff), 24 (trainees), 243 (embarked force). Armament: 25mm Bushmaster naval cannon. Two .50 calibre machine guns. Two helicopters spots on flight deck and hangar storage for up to four. ENDEAVOUR is our Navy’s fleet replenishment tanker.
With over 5,000 tonnes of fuel on board, its primary role is to refuel ships at sea, allowing our warships and other vessels to stay at sea for long missions and exercises. It can also refuel vessels of other Navies, and “hot” refuel helicopters from her aviation fuel tank while the helicopter hovers above the flight deck. Her deck, built with the smaller Westland Wasp in mind, is now too small for the larger Naval helicopters typically used.
ENDEAVOUR will be replaced in 2020 by the Maritime Sustainment Capability Project, a 24,000 tonne naval tanker. ENDEAVOUR Length: 138 m Beam: 18 m Displacement: 7,300 tonnes Speed: 14 knots Range: 10,000 nautical miles Crew: 50 Armament: Numerous small arms ranging from Steyr rifles to 9 mm pistols ENDEAVOUR New Zealand CANTERBURY New Zealand
16 OUR FLEET HELICOPTER RESOURCE The Navy operates 10 Kaman SH-2G(I) Seasprite helicopters, which have been delivered in intervals from early 2015. 6 Squadron, their home base, have operated earlier versions of the Seasprite from Whenuapai since the 1990s.
The operation and service of 6 Squadron is a hybrid of Navy and Air Force. Navy crew the Seasprites, while the Air Force trains the pilots and maintains the helicopters. Seasprites are operated from TE KAHA, TE MANA, CANTERBURY, OTAGO and WELLINGTON, and will be able to operate from the ENDEAVOUR replacement and new Littoral Operations vessel. This year was the first time Seasprites were properly embarked for missions with the OPVs, the first being Operation HAVRE, to support scientific work in the Kermedec Islands.
Their roles include surveillance, reconnaissance, transport and vertical replenishment, but also combative. At RIMPAC 2016 a Seasprite SH-2G(I) joined forces with frigate TE KAHA and a P-3K2 Orion to drop torpedoes on a simulated underwater target. It can also fire Maverick and Penguin anti-ship missiles. OTAGO & WELLINGTON Length: 85m Beam: 14m Displacement: 1,900 tonnes Speed: 22 knots Range: 6,000 nautical miles Crew: 42 (core crew) Armament: One 25mm Typhoon Naval gun and two .50 calibre machine guns OFFSHORE PATROL VESSELS (OPV) OTAGO & WELLINGTON New Zealand OTAGO and WELLINGTON are the Navy’s patrol “workhorses”, meant for operation from just south of the equator to the Antarctic – although WELLINGTON has crossed the equator once.
They were delivered to the Navy as part of Project Protector in 2007 and 2008.
The two Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPVs) have been prominent this winter with Operation Calypso, patrolling the south-west Pacific and boarding fishing boats to ensure compliance. The RNZN does this in support of Pacific Islands that want to protect their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) but lack the capability of ocean-going patrols lasting for weeks. The presence of OPVs in the Pacific, as well as working to protect the livelihoods of New Zealand’s Pacific Island partners, provides training for the islands’ own fisheries officers. The OPVs, which are ice-strengthened, might be called for a long stint in the Southern Ocean, among icebergs, to ensure compliance under the Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.
Their versatility also allows the Navy to undertake scientific duties and support Department of Conservation activities on New Zealand’s islands. This year OTAGO embarked a Seasprite SH-2G(I) for the first time, aiding the work considerably. Celebrating our 75th Anniversary
17 OUR FLEET DIVING SUPPORT VESSEL Nearly 40 years old, HMNZS MANAWANUI is the Royal New Zealand Navy’s busy diving support vessel, holding the Operational Diving Team, the Mine Countermeasures team and the Maritime Survey team. Built in 1979 as a North Sea oil tender, she is designed for good sea-keeping and has a range of 5,000 nautical miles, allowing her to reach the South Pacific or South East Asia.
MANAWANUI was in the news this year as she helped recover WWII unexploded munitions in the waters around the Solomon Islands. She is also prominent in disaster relief and supporting police, fisheries, Customs and the Department of Conservation. In 2020 she will be replaced by the Littoral Operations Sustainment Capability ship. INSHORE PATROL VESSELS (IPV) HAWEA, ROTOITI, TAUPO & PUKAKI New Zealand The Navy’s four Lake-class Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs), HAWEA, ROTOITI, TAUPO and PUKAKI were rolled out in 2007 and 2008, replacing seven sturdy but small Inshore Patrol Craft. Designed and built by Whangarei’s Tenix Shipbuilding New Zealand Ltd, the IPVs conduct maritime surveillance in support of civil agencies along our coasts.
They have the added benefit of providing command opportunities for young officers. It was, sadly, the last major contract for Tenix NZ, which closed at the end of 2008.
HAWEA, ROTOITI, TAUPO & PUKAKI Length: 55m Beam: 9m Displacement: 340 tonnes Speed: 25 knots Range: 3,000 nautical miles Crew: 24 Armament: Numerous small arms ranging from .50 calibre machine guns to 9 mm pistols MANAWANUI Length: 43m Beam: 9.5m Displacement: 991 tonnes Speed: 11 knots Range: 5,000 nautical miles Crew: 24 Armament: Numerous small arms ranging from .50 calibre machine guns to 9 mm pistols MANAWANUI New Zealand