Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Sleep and Sleeping Well Dr Linda Schachter Sleep & Respiratory Physician

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

What are YOUR key questions or problems on sleep ?

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Overview 1. Sleep basics 2. Sleep deprivation 3. Trouble sleeping 4. Getting good sleep

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter


Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Why do we need sleep ?
Sleep is a dynamic behavior. Not simply the absence of waking, sleep is a special activity of the brain, controlled by elaborate and precise mechanisms. – Rest and Recharge – Aid memory and learning – Hormone secretion – Maintain normal immune function – Healing and repair of tissues – Maintain optimal emotional and social functioning while awake

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Sleep Stages

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

7 Rollercoaster of sleep

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Differing types of sleep across the ages

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Circadian rhythms Our circadian rhythm tell us when we are sleepy and when we sleep best

Sleep and Sleeping Well - Dr Linda Schachter

Melatonin rise delayed with puberty
Adolescent monkeys also delay melatonin rise with puberty
Blue computer screens suppress melatonin ‘Orange’ substitute:
‘Nightshift’ Iphone iOS 9.3
F lux program for PCs

When we sleep also determined by ...

Sleep drive Stress/ hyperarousal


How much sleep do we need?
The amount that allows us to be wide awake, alert and energetic throughout the day
The average sleep need for an adult is about 8-9 hours (range 4-10 hours)
The specific value varies considerably from person to person and may be a genetically determined attribute.
Amount required decreases over life cycle

Lack of sleep - causes – Lifestyle
Late bed time
Sporting commitments
Phone / computer
Children – Health
Sleep disorders – snoring, sleep apnoea, insomnia, restless legs
Medication – Psychological - depression / anxiety / stress – Environmental - noise / light / travel – Shift work

The statistics...
4 in 10 Australian adults – 7.4 million frequently suffer from inadequate sleep – 1.1 million – sleep disorders like insomnia & sleep apnoea – 2.5 million with health problems that affect sleep – 3.8 million routinely fail to get enough sleep

Likely if vStill tired when wakes in the morning vsleeping less than 9 hours a night v sleeping in on the weekends v still groggy on way to school v sleepy after lunch

Partial sleep deprivation (effects on school work) – Hard to think – Hard to concentrate – Poor complex problem solving – Poor memory – Poor visual and spatial abilities – Less creativity Get a good sleep to help learning Get a good sleep before exams

Partial sleep deprivation (emotional effects) – More mood swings – More chance of depression – Easily irritated – Less able to handle stress – More quickly aggressive Get a good sleep to be in control emotionally

Partial sleep deprivation (physical effects) – Less immunity – Increases likelihood of weight gain – More physical injuries in sport Get a good sleep to stay well


Many different reasons Trouble: q Going to sleep q Staying asleep q Waking too early OR Feeling unrefreshed

Poor sleep is often more to do with what happens when awake than when trying to sleep

Anxiety / Stress and sleep – Heightened cortical and peripheral arousal (cf sleep - restorative state of diminished cortical arousal) – Problems with sleep initiation, maintenance and structure – Sleep that is restless and unsatisfying – Fatigue and irritability (may be due to sleep loss)

Anxiety / Stress
Biggest cause of poor sleep
Your thoughts can stress you Are your thoughts realistic?
Share stressful thoughts
What relaxes you? Try to do it everyday

Am I awake or asleep?
Easy to mix up
Mind keeps going in sleep
More aware of mind if stressed
Anxiety slows time
Most poor sleepers get more sleep than they think Even dozing in bed is good


Healthy Sleep Habits
Sleep schedule
Sleeping environment
Pre-bed routine
Bed is for sleep
Go to bed when tired
Avoid stimulants
Daytime exercise

Sleep environment - Bedroom – Comfortable mattress / pillow – Cool - Don’t overheat with heavy bedclothes – Quiet - Reduce noise – No disturbances e.g.

pets – Dark – Feel secure (night light?) – No clock if clock watch – Leave curtains open if needed – Consider app of white noise or rain More electronic devices in bedrooms = less sleep

Daytime / Lifestyle – Routine sleep/wake times – Avoid sleeping in (no more than one hour extra on weekends) – Morning bright light – Long naps can be a problem – Exercise – Moderate alcohol, if any – No Nicotine – Have a ‘worry time’ ...complete a ‘constructive worry sheet’

Pre bedtime routine - Evening
Have one hour ‘wind-down time’ before bed
e.g. music, bath, TV, magazine, chatting or novel – not school-work and not computers
Breathing exercises (Breathe2Relax app)
Mindfulness (Smiling Mind / headspace app)
No caffeine after 4pm
No late heavy meal
Avoid late major exercise
Don’t fall asleep before bedtime, not even for a minute
Avoid close screens

Bedtime routine § Get ready for bed in good time § Consider warm milk drink or herbal tea § Think positively about getting into your snug, calm bed Wait for a wave of sleepiness before trying to sleep

In bed § Turn off the mobile phone § Feet not too hot or too cold § Attitude is important § Think ‘feel good’ statements § Slow down your breathing § Exercise the imagination...create a story § Calm music may be Ok Can’t make yourself fall asleep Make your ‘worry time’ earlier in the day Bed is not the place to think about school work If wide awake and frustrated get out of bed and do something else for while

Don’t give up persistent... don’t expect perfection
The more relaxed you are about moving between sleep, wake and dozing the better your sleep will become

In conclusion... – Sleep is as important as food and water – Sleep deprivation / sleep issues are prevalent and affect mood, memory, health & weight – Everyone can improve their sleep – If getting enough sleep and still tired, important to see your doctor

For more information about sleep Click on Information Library/Fact Sheets A - Z Examples: qAnxiety and sleep qDepression and sleep qGood Sleep Habits qInsomnia qNapping qSnoring qUnderstanding and Helping Poor Sleep

Consider seeing a doctor...
Have trouble getting to sleep or wake up frequently during the night for a period of several weeks
Waking up tired despite getting enough sleep
Fall asleep at inappropriate times even after a night of adequate sleep
Have nightmares or night terrors (the experience of awakening in a terrified state without recollection of a dream) that interrupt your sleep
Have been told by someone that you stop breathing during sleep, especially if you have morning headaches or fall asleep easily during the day

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