Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 0 Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey Dr. Parth Modi, M.D., MPH Matt Clayton, Health Commissioner

Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 1 Introduction The City of Springdale in Hamilton County, Ohio covers 4.96 square miles and has 11,223 residents. The Community Health Assessment (CHA) will be used by the Springdale Health Department to identify the major disorders, disabilities, infectious disease, and chronic disorders prevalent in the community. The CHA will also be used as an evaluation tool for the current and future health programs.

According to the Public Health Accreditation Board, a community health assessment is a systematic examination of the health status indicators for a given population that is used to identify key problems and assets in a community. The ultimate goal of a community health assessment is to develop strategies to address the community’s health needs and identified issues (Turnock, 2012).

Methods The Springdale Health Department obtained reportable communicable disease data (relevant to the health of the community) through our local community health partners (hospitals, clinics, medical offices, urgent care centers, etc.). The list of reportable diseases is determined by the Ohio Department of Health and must be reported through the Ohio Disease Reporting System (ODRS). This information is listed in Appendix 1. The Springdale Health Department began the search for Springdale specific health data by contacting local nongovernmental organizations that compile health data. Unfortunately, the health data was not available specifically for the City of Springdale, rather for the region.

The local nongovernment organizations referred the Springdale Health Department to the state government operated websites for health data collection.

Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 2 The Springdale Health Department reviewed local health data from the state government websites. We found regional health data for Hamilton County on the Ohio Department of Health's website. Data specific to Springdale wasn't readily available. In an effort to obtain Springdale specific health data, the Springdale Health Department contacted the healthcare centers frequently used by residents of the City of Springdale, including Mercy Hospital in Fairfield and Bethesda North Hospital in Montgomery. This course of action was discussed and approved by the City of Springdale, the Springdale Health Department, and the Springdale Community Health Assessment Steering Committee.

Unfortunately, we had limited success obtaining data due to the small size of the community relative to the larger (regional) population served by these health care centers. While the Springdale specific data we sought wasn't readily available, the health care centers suggested the Springdale Health Department review data on the state government operated websites.

In order to obtain Springdale specific health data, the Springdale Health Department designed a twenty question survey to collect data from the community. This survey was placed on the Survey Monkey website and was promoted through social media and through our outreach with community partners. Process The limited Springdale specific health data available to the Springdale Health Department prior to the Community Health Assessment indicated the most commonly occurring health conditions in Springdale appeared to be aligned with those of the region. Therefore, the twenty question survey for the Springdale Community Health Assessment was designed based upon the most common health conditions in the region (Hamilton County).

The CHA survey was reviewed by the City of Springdale, the CHA Steering Committee, the Springdale Health Department, and was approved for public participation. Appendix 2 shows the survey questions.

Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 3 The CHA survey was bilingual (English and Spanish) and contained direct questions with yes, no and detailed information answers. The CHA sample was selected by the convenience sample method. The Community Health Survey was provided online through the Survey Monkey website. The Springdale Health Department provided a social media message via Facebook with a link to the survey and a link on the Springdale Health Department's webpage. Further, announcements about the Springdale CHA Survey were placed on bulletin boards in City of Springdale buildings as well as in the Springdale Newsletter.

The CHA survey was also offered in print. Visitors to the Springdale Municipal Building and City of Springdale sponsored events were provided with an opportunity to take the survey. The Springdale Health Department sampled 96 participants of roughly 11,200 constituents. The margin of error for the Springdale CHA was ten percent with a ninety five percent confidence interval. In addition to the sampling methods outlined above, print surveys were distributed to the tax department and at Springdale community events. Appendix 3 shows the timeline of the advertisement and locations of survey distribution.

The Survey Monkey website was used to obtain the survey results. Results of the print surveys were uploaded to the Survey Monkey website; effectively, the results of online responses and print responses were combined. Apart from the use of the survey as a tool for community health assessment, the survey will be used as a tool for the evaluation of the Springdale Health Department programs.

Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 4 Results Prevalent Heath Conditions in Springdale
  • High blood pressure 37 survey participants 26.6%
  • Respiratory conditions 21 survey participants 15.1%
  • Diabetes 17 survey participants 12.23%
  • Cancer 12 survey partcipants 8.6%
  • Sexually transmitted diseases 7 survey participants 5.0%
  • Heart disease 7 survey participants 5.0%
  • Low blood pressure 3 survey participants 2.16%
  • Kidney disease 2 survey participants 1.4%
  • Heart attack 1 survey participant 0.7%
  • HIV/ AIDS 1 survey participant 0.7%
  • 2014-2015 STD Data as reported through the Ohio Disease Reporting System
  • Chlamydia 157 cases
  • Gonorrhea 38 cases
  • Syphilis 2 cases
  • HIV 3 cases
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 5 Tobacco Use
  • Cigarettes 9 survey participants 6.5%
  • Smokeless tobacco (snuff, hookah, etc) 4 survey partcipants 2.8%
  • Electronic nicotine delivery (E. cigarettes) 4 survey partcipants 2.8%
  • Believe electronic cigarettes are harmless 60 survey participants 43.2%
  • Using electronic cigarettes for tobacco cessation 3 survey partcipants 2.2%
  • There are many carcinogens involved with the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes).
  • Recreational Use of Alcohol
  • Alcoholic beverages- 77 participants stated that they are using alcohol beverages, which is 55.40 percentages of the participants. Recreational Use of Drugs
  • Any other illicit drugsonly one participant stated yes to use of the illicit drug, which represents 0.72 percentages of total participants.
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 6 Demographics
  • Sex
  • Male 66 (47.48%)
  • Female 73 (52.52%)
  • Total Particpants 139 (100%)
  • Age Range of Participants Number of Survey Participants Percentage
  • 18 - 24 years of age 12 participants 8.6%
  • 25 - 34 years of age 24 participants 17.3%
  • 35 - 44 years of age 22 participants 15.8%
  • 45 - 54 years of age 22 participants 15.8%
  • 55 - 64 years of age 19 participants 13.7%
  • 65 to 74 years of age 23 participants 16.6%
  • 75 years of age and older 17 participants 12.2%
  • Total Participants 139 participants 100.0%
  • Ethnicity
  • Caucasian 100 survey participants 72.0%
  • Hispanic 19 survey participants 13.7%
  • African American 15 survey participants 10.8%
  • Asian or Pacific Islander 1 survey participant 0.7%
  • Native American/ Alaskan 1 survey participant 0.7%
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 7
  • Other 2 survey participants 1.4%
  • Prefer not to answer 1 survey participant 0.7%
  • Total participants 139 participants 100.0%
  • This demographic information is consistent with the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data for Springdale, Ohio Limitations
  • Forty participants failed to provide data on age, race and sex. Those responses were not counted in the survey results.
  • Numerous community members expressed apprehension about the survey due to privacy concerns.
  • Importance
  • In the absence of a Springdale, Ohio specific data source, the survey results were compared to Hamilton County, Ohio health data. Disease incidence rates from this data yielded:
  • Most common forms of cancer in Hamilton County, Ohio:
  • - lung cancer 59.4%
  • - breast cancer 26.3%
  • - prostate cancer 26.1%
  • - colorectal cancer 18.0%
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 8
  • Leading causes of death in Hamilton County, Ohio:
  • - high blood pressure
  • - diabetes
  • - respiratory disease
  • Prevalent health conditions in Hamilton County, Ohio:
  • - Diabetes
  • - high blood pressure
  • - respiratory disease
  • - cancer (Ameyaw et al., 2015, p. 38). Appendix 4 shows the graphical representation of the survey results. Appendix 1 Communication Appendix 2 Survey Questions Appendix 3 Timeline and Location Appendix 4 Survey results

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 9 References Ameyaw, P., Bonsall, B., Davis, T., Edwards, A., Grynsztejn, M., McCoy, A., & Palko, E.

(2015). Springdale, Ohio Community Assessment. Springdale, OH. Turnock, B. J. (2012). Public health: What it is and how it works. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 10 Springdale, Ohio Community Assessment 2015 Pamela, Ameyaw, Brittney Bonsall, Tamara Davis, Alison Edwards, Melanie Grynsztejn, Aaron McCoy, Erin Palko, Allison Zentarski Xavier University School of Nursing October 29, 2015

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 11 I. Community Overview A. General Description Located in Hamilton County, just north of Cincinnati, is the city of Springdale, Ohio. Occupying 4.96 square miles, Springdale is home to 11,223 residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). B. History Founded in 1806 by John Baldwin, the post-revolutionary village was given the name ‘Springfield’, and has since developed into the city of Springdale.

Originally an urban center with homes close together and businesses within walking distance, Springdale has evolved into a suburban community situated along two well-traveled interstates (City of Springdale, 2006).

C. Boundaries Springdale is easily accessible from Interstate-275 and Interstate-75. The northern and eastern boundaries of the city are clearly established, while the southern and western boundaries exist in more of a staggered pattern, as seen in Figure 1 below. The northern border is Crescentville Road, and the eastern border is Chesterdale Road. Figure 1. Springdale, Ohio Boundaries Source: Google Maps D. Past and current cultural makeup

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 12 Historically, Springdale has been predominantly Caucasian in makeup.

Recently, a shift has occurred resulting from an influx of Hispanic persons (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). Details regarding the current cultural makeup of Springdale are discussed in Population Characteristics. E. Asset Mapping Individual assets include: Cameron Park, Chamberlin Park, Hilda-Ross Memorial Park, Oak Hill Cemetery, Old St. Mary’s Cemetery, Tri-County Golf Ranch, and Underwood Park (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Springdale, Ohio Individual Assets Note: Created using ZeeMaps

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 13 Organizational assets include: Springdale Community Center, The Healing Center, and Tri-County Soul Ministries Food Pantry (Figure 3). Figure 3. Springdale, Ohio Organizational Assets Note: Created using ZeeMaps

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 14 Institutional assets include: Baldwin Grove, Bowen Center for Women’s Health, Brookdale, Doctor’s Urgent Care Springdale, Health Span, Maple Knoll Village, Mercy Health Cincinnati Sports Medicine and Orthopedic Center, Mercy Health Occupational Urgent Care, Planned Parenthood: Jean K.

Spritz Center, The Meadows, and UC Health Primary Care (Figure 4). Figure 4. Springdale, Ohio Institutional Assets Note: Created using ZeeMaps F. Key Findings The community of Springdale, Ohio has shifted and grown since its establishment in 1806. Originally a close-knit village, Springdale has evolved into a bustling suburban community. Recent years have brought an influx of Latino and Hispanic persons, resulting in a diversified population. Several valuable assets exist within the community. These assets can be divided into three categories: individual assets, organizational assets, and institutional assets.

Of these assets, the Springdale Community Center and the Healing Center are of utmost value.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 15 II. Population Characteristics A. Total Population Results from the 2010 Census (Table 1) estimate the total population of Springdale to be 11,223. The population of Springdale increased by 660 persons between 2000 and 2010, while the number of Hamilton County residents decreased by 42,929. Table 1. Ohio Population Data from 2010 Census Springdale Hamilton County Ohio Census 2010 Total Population 11,223 802,374 11,536,504 Population Density (per square mile of land area) 2,262.7 1,976.7 277.3 Population change (2000-2010) 660 (42,929) 183,364 Note: Data from 2000-2010.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 B. Population changes including recent immigrant groups Table 2 shows the breakdown of Springdale residents by race, as reported by the U.S. Census in 2000 and 2010. Data shows a decrease in Caucasian population. It should be noted that this is the only category to experience a negative change in the last 10 years. The positive change in total population over the 10-year period can be attributed to a significant increase in Hispanic peoples. Although the Hispanic population increased in Ohio and Hamilton County, the percentage increase was substantially higher in the City of Springdale (Figure 5).

Table 2. Census 2000-2010 Springdale, Ohio Population Breakdown by Race RACE Springdale, OH 10563 2000 Census Number 2010 Census Number Change Total Population 10,563 11,223 660 One race 10,369 10,892 523 Two or more races 194 331 137 Race alone or in combination with one or more other races White 7,379 6,428 (951)

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 16 Black or African American 2,811 3,551 740 American Indian or Alaska Native 63 101 38 Asian 305 385 80 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 12 60 48 Some other race 203 1,060 857 HISPANIC OR LATINO Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 384 1,965 1,581 Not Hispanic or Latino 10,179 9,258 (921) Note: Data from 2000-2010. Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 17 Figure 5. Percent Change in Hispanic Population—Census 2000/2010 Note: Data from 2000-2010.

Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 C. Mobility of the population o Information unavailable D. Population Demographics Age/Sex Figure 6 depicts the breakdown of Springdale residents by age and sex. All values are as reported by the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau. It is interesting to note that the ratio of men to women changes dramatically beyond the age of 60.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 18 Figure 6. Census 2010 Population Data for Springdale, OH by Age/Sex Note: Data from 2010. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Income Table 3. Income Data for Springdale, Ohio in 2013 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars Springdale, OH Estimate Percent Total households 3,988 100.0 Less than $10,000 363 9.1 $10,000 to $14,999 192 4.8 $15,000 to $24,999 551 13.8 $25,000 to $34,999 325 8.1 $35,000 to $49,999 596 14.9 $50,000 to $74,999 800 20.1 $75,000 to $99,999 475 11.9 $100,000 to $149,999 538 13.5 $150,000 to $199,999 86 2.2

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 19 $200,000 or more 62 1.6 Median household income (dollars) 49,222 Mean household income (dollars) 59,147 Families 2,350 100.0 Less than $10,000 218 9.3 $10,000 to $14,999 28 1.2 $15,000 to $24,999 339 14.4 $25,000 to $34,999 146 6.2 $35,000 to $49,999 330 14.0 $50,000 to $74,999 514 21.9 $75,000 to $99,999 274 11.7 $100,000 to $149,999 353 15.0 $150,000 to $199,999 86 3.7 $200,000 or more 62 2.6 Median family income (dollars) 52,227 Mean family income (dollars) 66,553 Per capita income (dollars) 22,381 Nonfamily households 1,638 Median nonfamily income (dollars) 38,125 Mean nonfamily income (dollars) 46,511

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 20 Median earnings for workers (dollars) 26,292 Median earnings for male full-time, year-round workers (dollars) 42,408 Median earnings for female full-time, year-round workers (dollars) 39,500 Note: Data from 2009-2013. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013; 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Figure 7. Springdale, Ohio Demographic Income Note: Data from 2009-2013. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 21 Educational Attainment Table 4. Educational Attainment of Springdale Population by Age/Sex Male Female Estimate Estimate Population 18 to 24 years 648 429 Less than high school graduate 14.7% 32.6% High school graduate (includes equivalency) 60.5% 19.1% Some college or associate’s degree 21.1% 46.6% Bachelor’s degree or higher 3.7% 1.6% Population 25 years and over 3,399 3,582 Less than 9th grade 12.3% 10.1% 9th to 12th grade, no diploma 4.1% 5.2% High school graduate (includes equivalency) 20.0% 24.8% Some college, no degree 22.3% 27.7% Associate’s degree 7.5% 8.9% Bachelor’s degree 24.9% 14.7% Graduate or professional degree 8.9% 8.7% Percent high school graduate or higher 83.6% 84.8%

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 22 Percent bachelor’s degree or higher 33.8% 23.3% Note: Data from 2010. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010 Figure 8. Educational Attainment of Springdale Residents by Age Note: Data from 2010. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010 As illustrated by Table 5, data suggests a strong correlation between educational attainment and income for Springdale residents. It is interesting to note that although there are more males than females that obtain graduate or professional degrees, the females that do reach this level make significantly more than their male counterparts.

In all other cases of educational attainment, males receive higher earning than females.

Table 5. Poverty Rate for the Population 25 Years and Older for Whom Poverty Status is Determined by Educational Attainment Level Springdale, OH Total Male Female Estimate Estimate Estimate Less than high school graduate 49.0% 45.5% 52.6% High school graduate (includes equivalency) 17.7% 14.7% 20.1%

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 23 Some college or associates degree 8.9% 10.8% 7.4% Bachelor’s degree or higher 10.6% 15.5% 3.9% MEDIAN EARNINGS IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2013 INFLATIONADJUSTED DOLLARS) Population 25 years and over with earnings 32,150 34,619 30,321 Less than high school graduate 17,292 23,277 8,846 High school graduate (includes equivalency) 22,265 24,741 17,738 Some college or associate’s degree 32,500 38,295 31,216 Bachelor’s degree 50,833 55,683 40,847 Graduate or professional degree 49,130 47,554 59,375 Note: Data from 2009-2013.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013 E. Occupational Information The city of Springdale has diversity in the occupations of its residents. The table below includes information on the prominent occupations in Springdale, OH, by gender and occupational earnings. All values are estimates made by the US Census Bureau in 2013. Springdale’s largest occupation category is service, which includes fire fighters, police, personal care workers, groundskeepers, healthcare support

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 24 occupations, and food preparation. Sales and office occupations also employ a large number of Springdale residents. The highest grossing occupational category is computers, engineering, and sciences, and the lowest grossing occupational category is service. Males make more earnings than females in five of the seven occupational categories, with females making more than males in the remaining two. The largest gender income discrepancy is in healthcare and technical occupations, where females make 24,564 more US dollars than males in the same category.

Table 6. Categories of Occupations in Springdale, Ohio Category of Occupation Springdale OH Total Percent Male in Occupation Percent Female in Occupation Median Earnings (in US dollars) Median Male Earnings (in US dollars) Median Female Earnings (in US dollars Management/Business 435 65.1 34.9 44,063 43,259 48,750 Computers, Engineering, and Science 438 91.3 8.7 65,313 65,511 64,028 Education, Legal, Media, and Arts 520 36.2 63.8 31,250 33,818 22,206 Healthcare Practitioner and Technical 316 13.9 86.1 40,000 30,769 55,333 Service 948 56.6 43.4 12,763 15,951 11,107 Sales and Office Occupations 1,055 40.0 60.0 31,339 46,090 25,982 Natural Resources, Construction, and Maintenance 376 100.0 0.0 26,182 26,182 N/A Production, Transportation, and Material Moving Occupations 723 78.8 21.2 32,107 32,500 31,776 Note: Data from 2009-2013.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013 Generally speaking, the people of the City of Springdale, Ohio made the same or less money in each occupational category than those in the State of Ohio as a whole, with the exception of the computers, engineering, and sciences categories, the sales category, and the production, transportation, and material moving occupations. The difference in these three

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 25 categories from the Ohio median earnings is very small. This is why it is stated above that the people of Springdale made the same or less than the Ohio medians in all categories. Gender differences in gross earnings are more evident when looking at the state of Ohio as compared to the City of Springdale, as males made more than females in every category studied. Table 7. Ohio Occupational Information by Category Category of Occupation State of Ohio Total Percent Male in Occupation Percent Female in Occupation Median Earnings (in US dollars) Median Male Earnings (in US dollars) Median Female Earnings (in US dollars Management/Business 717,110 56.3 43.7 56,650 67,756 47,294 Computers, Engineering, and Science 246,235 75.7 24.3 63,901 66,641 54,812 Education, Legal, Media, and Arts 515,340 34.3 65.7 39,893 47,344 36,134 Healthcare Practitioner and Technical 332,349 22.3 77.7 49,416 71,246 45,678 Service 942,008 40.2 59.8 15,592 19,353 14,059 Sales and Office Occupations 1,291,770 35.7 64.3 27,099 35,129 24,493 Natural Resources, Construction, and Maintenance 409,801 95.8 4.2 37,147 37,690 23,338 Production, Transportation, and Material Moving Occupations 811,773 76.9 23.1 30,853 33,572 22,601 Note: Data from 2009-2013.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013 F. Poverty in Springdale, Ohio The greatest degrees of individuals below the poverty line in Springdale, Ohio occur with the female gender, the white race or Hispanic/Latino heritage, those who are unemployed, and those who have no high school diploma. While education is crucial to rising above the poverty line, it is clear that it is not the sole factor in combating poverty, as 17.7 percent of high school graduates fell below the poverty line, and close to 10 percent of college attendees and graduates of bachelor or higher

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 26 degrees still fell below the poverty line.

There is also a discrepancy in gender, with far more women falling below the poverty line than men, and a greater percentage of young people classified as impoverished than older individuals. Table 8. Poverty in Springdale, OH Subject Area Springdale OH Total Below Poverty Level Percent Below Poverty Level Age Under 18 3,049 1,107 36.3 Aged 18-64 6,096 1,339 22.0 Age Over 65 1,758 121 6.9 Sex Male 5,336 993 18.6 Sex Female 5,567 1,574 28.3 White Race 6,825 1,755 25.7 Black Race 3,130 464 14.8 Asian/Pacific Islander Race 405 66 16.3 Some Other Race 452 282 62.4 Hispanic/Latino Race 2,275 1,524 67.0 Unemployed 2,790 799 28.6 Part Time Employment in last 12 mo 2,161 568 26.3 Full time Employment in last 12 mo 3,195 177 5.5 No High School Degree 1,061 520 49.0 High School Graduate 1,502 266 17.7 Some College 2,255 200 8.9 Bachelor’s Degree or Higher 1,959 207 10.6 Note: Data from 2009-2013.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009-2013 Delving further into the issue of poverty in Springdale, Ohio we will consider other factors, such as family structure, number of children, number of workers in the family, and the

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 27 assistance families receive from the government. Table 9 reveals some clear trends about Springdale’s poverty: first, the greater the number of children in a household, the greater the chance of being below the FPL; and second, the more workers in the household, the less the chance of being below the FPL. The most startling example of this is in households with three or more working family members. These families, regardless of whether they were married or single families, had zero percent poverty across the board. Hispanic/Latino families have to deal with poverty more than other ethnic groups, and Asian families reported zero percent of families below the FPL.

Table 9. Springdale and the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) Subject Area Springdale OH Total Number of Families Number of Families Below the FPL (%) Married Couple Families Married Couple Families Below the FPL (%) Female Householder, No Husband Present Female Householder, No Husband Present Below the FPL (%) White 1,440 19.2 1,122 15.5 191 29.8 Black 731 12.4 310 11.0 339 16.8 Asian 70 0.0 70 0.0 0 N/A Some Other Race 100 50.0 100 50.0 0 N/A Hispanic/Latino 344 74.4 252 74.2 23 100.0 Household with Children Under 18 yrs old 1,358 29.3 808 31.1 371 27.2 No Children in the Household 992 2.0 803 0.9 159 8.2 1 or 2 Children in the Household 900 19.3 446 6.1 314 32.2 3 or 4 Children in the Household 393 47.1 297 62.3 57 0.0 5 or More Children in the Household 65 60.0 65 60.0 0 N/A No Workers in the Family 323 6.2 282 2.5 26 50.0 1 Worker in the Family 855 35.2 466 33.0 260 38.8

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 28 2 Workers in the Family 883 11.0 696 13.9 147 0.0 3 or More Workers in the Family 289 0.0 167 0.0 97 0.0 Note: Data from 2009-2013. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013 Figures 9 and 10 illustrate the impacts of more children and more workers in the family on poverty ranking. Welfare comes into play, particularly in the case of single families with increased numbers of children, and in families with no workers.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 29 Figure 9. Percent of Springdale, OH Families Below FPL by Number of Children Source: US Census Bureau, 2013

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 30 Figure 10. Percent of Springdale, Ohio Families Below the FPL by Number of Workers in the Household. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 31 G. Cost of Living Price Index for Cincinnati, Ohio (Table 10) has increased throughout 2014, but has dropped marginally in the first half of 2015. Data is not available for the second half of 2015. Cost of Living in Springdale (Table 11) is 89.6 percent of the national average cost of living, making Springdale more affordable than the average city in the US.

Cost of living is calculated based on references to the national cost of living (set at 100 percent). Table 10. Cost of Living Index in Springdale, OH Data Category 1st Half 2014 2nd Half 2014 1st Half 2015 Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers 12 Month Change (%) 2.2 1.5 -0.4 Consumer Price Index for all Wage Earners 12 Month Change (%) 2.1 1.3 -1.0 Note: Data from 2014-2015. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015 Table 11. Cost of Living Index in Springdale, OH compared to the US overall. Cost of Living Index in Springdale OH Cost of Living Index in US (Overall) 89.6 100.0 Note: Data from 2015.

Source: City-data.com/city/springdale-ohio H. Key Findings The most current data suggests a population shift resulting from an increase in Hispanic individuals, specifically those in their second decade of life. A strong correlation exists between educational attainment and income. With the influx of the Hispanic population, it is unclear how future data will trend. III. Environmental Factors A. General Description The city of Springdale is home to a large amount of residential communities, specifically apartment complexes and retirement communities. There are also a number of businesses and shopping centers in the area, including Tri-County retail district, with over 4 million square feet of retail space.

Springdale families have access to an 82,000 square foot Community Center that includes a gymnasium, senior lounge, and computer lab. The Community Center also hosts a variety of community events throughout the year. There is no hospital within Springdale, but the area is located near Mercy Fairfield hospital with over 700 physician affiliations. The Air Quality Index in Springdale is 106,

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 32 which is significantly worse than the U.S. average of 74 (City-data.com, 2015). B. Housing: conditions, owner/renter occupied, etc. As of 2014, there were 4,617 households in Springdale. The average household size is 2.35 people. Of the total household units available in Springdale, 94.7 percent were occupied as of 2014. According to the Springdale city website, the rental ordinance requires all owners of single family rental dwellings to pay a $50 fee annually, and each housing unit is to undergo an initial inspection as well as subsequent inspections upon changes of occupancy.

Table 12. Housing in Springdale, Ohio Households: 2014 Households 4,617 Average Household Size 2.35 Hhld Growth 2000-2010 3.8% Hhld Growth 2014B-2019 1.7% Housing Units: 2014B Occupied Units 4,617 % Occupied Units 94.7% % Vacant Housing Units 5.2% Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html Figure 11. Household Data in Springdale, Ohio Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 33 Property Values Figure 12. Property Values in Springdale, Ohio. Note: Property Values in Springdale (City-data, 2015) Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html C.

Access to healthy food sources (distance/ transportation, cost, quality) There are a number of grocery stores in the areas surrounding Springdale, but less within the immediate vicinity. There is no information available for the amount of grocery stores in Springdale, but within Hamilton County there are a total of 155 (citydata, 2015). The nearest Kroger is located on West Kemper Road in Forest Park. The following are the three largest grocery stores located directly in Springdale: Table 13. Grocery Stores located in Springdale, OH Grocery Store Location La Union 316 Northland Blvd Hernandez Business Concepts 11510 Springfield Pike Ray’s Food Market 11444 Springfield Pike

  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 34 Note: Top three closest to central Springdale area, retrieved from Google maps Source: (maps.google.com) D. Sanitation: Water supply, sewage, and trash/garbage
  • Water supply is provided by Greater Cincinnati Water Works. Sewage is managed through the same provider.
  • Curbside trash pickup is offered weekly. The city of Springdale is in contract with Rumpke to provide this service at no additional cost to homeowners. Figure 13. Curbside Collection Route Source: http://www.springdale.org/trash-recycling-services.aspx E. Safety / Protection: Police, fire, safety, crime stats, etc.
  • There are 2.95 police officers per 1000 residents, compared to a national average of 2.45 per 1000.
  • There have been zero murders reported in Springdale since 2011.
  • As of October 14, 2015 there is only one registered sex offender in Springdale
  • The fire department was founded in 1939 (springdale.org)
  • Fire and EMS units: 3-4 firefighters on Engine 90, 3-4 firefighters on tower 90, 2 firefighters/paramedics on Medic 90, one shift supervisor.
  • Two additional EMS units (Medic 290 and 390) are staffed as needed (springdale.org)
  • Total of 104 fire calls in 2014
  • 426 Rescue/EMS calls in 2014
  • City-data.com crime index in 2013: 358.7, down from 547.9 in 2001 Source: (http://www.springdale.org/uploads/2014%20Fire%20Statistics.PDF)
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 35 Figure 14. Crimes by Type in Springdale, 2013 Source: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Springdale-Ohio.html F. Transportation
  • Fare to ride Metro bus is $1.75 within the City of Cincinnati, $2.65 within Hamilton County. This means that a ride to work on the Metro could cost more than $5 for one day.
  • 30 day Metro passes are available but are not necessarily affordable; passes range from $70-$170 depending on zone
  • 1 day unlimited pass is $4.50 for Zone 1, $6.30 for Zone 2. Zone 1 only includes the City of Cincinnati; Zone 2 includes all of Hamilton County.

Source: go-metro.com, 2015 There are eight lines that run to and from the Springdale area, into various surrounding areas in the greater Cincinnati area. Table 14. Metro Bus Lines in Springdale, Ohio Line 8

  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 36 Location TriCounty Mall Winton at Kemper Winton at Farragut Winton at Hempstead Winton at Spring Grove Central Parkway at Linn Gov’t Square Area B Knowton’s Corner at Spring Grove Source: http://www.go-metro.com/riding-metro/communities-served G. Leading industry
  • Manufacturing
  • Healthcare
  • Administrative and support
  • Waste management services
  • Construction
  • Retail trade
  • Accommodation and food services
  • Finance and insurance
  • Groceries and related products merchant wholesalers ➢ Common industries:
  • Healthcare
  • Educational services
  • Finance and insurance
  • Professional, scientific, and technical services.
  • Accommodation and food services,
  • Transportation equipment
  • Chemicals Examples of top industries: Avon, John Morrell Manufacturing, Sugar Creek Packing, Progress Business Park.
  • ➢ Leading occupation:
  • Production occupations
  • Computer and mathematical occupations
  • Office and administrative support occupations
  • Construction and extraction occupations
  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations
  • Management occupations
  • Material moving occupations H. Employment
  • 4,811 employed people in Springdale and 410 unemployed. (city-data, 2015)
  • Leading employment sectors for Springdale include corporate, subsidiary and regional managing offices, and offices of physicians.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 37 Figure 15.

Unemployment by Year in Springdale, 2014 (city-data, 2015) Source: http://www.city-data.com/work/work-Springdale-Ohio.html I. Safety issues for workers The City of Springdale, through the health inspection and building department, ensure a safe and sanitary environment for the workers in the community through enforcement of city and state laws. Regulations include property maintenance code, tree preservation codes, rental permit program, and flood control. The Health Department ensures safety for workers by promoting health education programs and disease prevention. Other inspection programs include work place smoking complaint investigations to ensure that all work places in Springdale are smoke free, and school environmental safety.

J. Recreational Facilities: Gyms, playgrounds, etc.

  • Parks in Springdale include: 182 acres of parkland distributed between Springdale neighborhood parks. Most of these parks have playgrounds, soccer fields, picnic tables, water fountains, and grills.
  • Cameron Park
  • Hilda-Ross Memorial Park
  • Beacon hill park
  • Chamberlain park
  • Glenview park
  • Underwood park
  • Planet Fitness
  • Dave & Busters
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 38
  • Community Center (Figure 16): Has several indoor and outdoor amenities, including a fitness center, indoor walking track, gymnasiums, game rooms, exercise studio, senior lounge and computer lab. Figure 16. Community Center in Springdale, Ohio Source: www.springdale.org K. Shopping Facilities: Type, proximity.
  • Cassinelli Square Shopping Center ▪ 137 E Kemper Rd, Cincinnati, OH, 45246 ▪ Tenants: House Emporium, Uniform Advantage, Finer Diamonds/Gold, Battery Giants, Fridays, Gig lots, Havertys, Mattress Firm, Party city, Uniform World
  • Tri-County Towne Center ▪ 11711 Princeton Pike, Suite 301 ▪ Tenants: Jared – Galleria of Jewelry, Woodcraft, Towne Center Management Office, The UPS Store, Sprint, Salon Concepts, Office Depot, McDonald's, Mattress Warehouse, Luke's Sewing Center, LaRosa's Pizza, Hobby Lobby, Harbor Freight Tools, Hancock Fabrics, First Watch Restaurant, Firehouse Subs, Eyemart Express, Destination XL, Cricket Communications, Callos Resource, Blue Ash Chili, Blue Agave Mexican Grill, AT&T Wireless, Asch Dental.
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 39
  • Tri-Centre Shopping Center ▪ Princeton Pike, Cincinnati, OH 45246 ▪ Tenants: Sherwin-Williams, Chipotle, Marcos Pizza, Jimmy Johns, Randstan, Regency Beauty institute, Enterprise, Jada Buffet.
  • Springdale Town Center Mall Shopping Center
  • Springdale, Oh 45246
  • Tenants: ALT smoke, Bakery, Subway, Jackson Hewitt, Priority Health, Foot and Ankle, Nina’s Florist, Miracle Ear, Gak. Pet Styling.
  • Tri-County Shopping Center
  • 11700 Princeton Pike Cincinnati, OH 45246
  • Stores and Services: 150.
  • Tenants: Aeropostale, Amy’s Hallmark, the Amazing Store, AT&T Authorized Retailer Time Warner Cable, Macy’s, Dillard’s, Bath and Body Works, BJ’s Restaurants, Camille La Vie, Body Jewel, Champs Sports, Auntie Ann’s, Amy’s Hallmark, etc.
  • Anchor Tenants: Macy’s, Dillard’s, Ethan Allen and Sears.
  • Crescentville Square Shopping Center
  • 12185 Princeton Pike Cincinnati, OH 45246
  • Tenants: Nadi Hair Spa.
  • Old Gate Plaza Shopping Center
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Planned parenthood, Tico Tax/Insurance, S. Salon and Spa, Family Discount Furniture, Delicias Supermarket, Mia Familia-Restaurant and Bar.
  • Tri-County Crossing Shopping Center
  • E. Kemper Road, Springdale, OH 45246
  • Tenants: Best Buy and Barnes and Noble.
  • Wimbleton Plaza Shopping Center
  • 11766 Springfield Pike Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Outback, Daily Nails, DQ Daily Queens, Supreme Great Lakes, Quest Diagnostics, Hoxworth Blood Center, Loft, Select Staffing,
  • Springdale Plaza
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Michael’s, T.J Max, Bed Bath and Beyond, Citi Trends, Tuesday Morning, Catherine’s, Panera Bread, Great Clips, DSW Shoes.
  • Kemper Pond Plaza
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Kemper pond Dental, Wing Eye Care, Panda Wok, Escapades Beauty and Barber salon, Labor Ready, Cartridge World, IHOP.
  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 40
  • Springdale Beltway Center
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Dave and Busters, Golf Galaxy, Morris Home Center, Ashley Furniture, Sky Zone, Full Throttle Indoor Karting.
  • Tri –County Commons
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Guitar Center, Sam’s Club, HH Greg, Golf Exchange, David’s Bridal. Furniture Fair, Home and Sleep.
  • Tri County Market Place
  • Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Tenants: Party City, Planet Fitness, Pet Smart, Play It Again Sports, Chase Bank.

BUSINESS CENTERS IN SPRINGDALE Figure17.

Shopping centers in Springdale Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html

  • SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 41 L. Places of worship: Particular denominations, utilization, involvement in the community, etc.
  • Atonement Lutheran Church 305 Cameron Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Springdale Church of the Nazarene 11177 Springfield Pike Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Macedonia Living Word Fellowship 353 W. Kemper Rd. Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Springdale Presbyterian Church 425 W. Kemper Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • First Baptist Church of Springdale 11494 Walnut Street Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Temple Baptist Church 11965 Kenn Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Forest Dale Church of Christ 604 W. Kemper Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Vineyard Community Church 11345 Century Circle East Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Soul-Winning Church of God 425 W. Kemper Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • Calvary Pentecostal Church 11970 Kenn Road Springdale, Ohio 45246
  • New Life Outreach Ministries 1391 E. Crescentville Rd. Springdale, Ohio 45246 Religion adherents: Catholics 25.6%, Evangelical Protestants 11.6%, Mainline Protestants 9.5%, Black Protestants 2.6%, Orthodox 0.5%, None 47.5% And Others 2.7%. Figure 18. Religion by Adherents in Springdale, 2010 (city-data, 2015) Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html Most of these churches are part of the Springdale Offering Support (SOS) group: They are a group of representatives from local agencies, churches, organizations and concerned citizens in the Springdale area. Their mission is to coordinate community resources and unite individuals and families with elements of help and assistance within Springdale and surrounding areas.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 42 M. Schools: Type, number, condition, Nurses in schools, School-based health clinic, free lunches, etc. ➢ Colleges/Universities in Springdale: ▪ Beckfield College-Tri-County o Full-time enrollment: 454 o Location: 225 Pictoria Drive o Private, for-profit o Website: www.beckfield.edu) ▪ Regency Beauty Institute-Tri-County o Full Time enrollment: 46 o Location: 11489 Princeton Pike o Private, for-profit o `Website: www.regency.edu) ➢ Public Schools In Springdale Belong To Princeton City School District. This district is centered in Sharonville, Ohio and has 5,379 students attending 11 schools in grades PK and K through12.

The district has an annual budget of $97,908,000, spending an average of $18,349 per student. Sixty-five percent of students in this district are eligible for free or reduced price lunches.

Springdale public/private schools serve the educational needs of the Springdale community from preschool to mostly 5th grade. Springdale students attend Princeton Junior and Senior High Schools to further their education after grade school. ➢ Public primary/middle schools in Springdale ➢ Springdale Elementary School o Students: 460 o Location: 350 W Kemper Rd, Cincinnati, Ohio o Grades: PK – 05 o School nurse: Mrs. Karen Hucke o Students on free and reduced lunch assistance: 54.3% ▪ Heritage Hill Elementary School o Students: 529 o Location: 11961 Chesterdale Rd, Cincinnati, Ohio o Grades: PK – 05 o School Nurse: Karen Hucke and Judy Olivan are the Heritage Hill Elementary school nurses.

o Students on free and reduced lunch assistance: 99.2% ➢ Private elementary/middle school in Springdale ▪ Maple Knoll Child Center o Students: 42 o Location: 11100 Springfield Pike o Grades: PK – KG ▪ http://www.city-data.com/zips/45246

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 43 N. Key Findings Overall, Springdale is a mainly residential and business area. It is home to a large community center, which is a valuable resource for members of the community. Crime is relatively low in the area, especially violent crimes and homicides. There are several childcare centers, schools, churches, and retirement communities, making Springdale a favorable community for those of all generations.

IV. Health Information A. Vital Statistics No information was discoverable for the city of Springdale specific to vital statistics; therefore the statistics used were at the County level. Infant mortality rate is the number of children less than one year of age who died divided by the number of live births per 1000 live births. In 2011, Hamilton county had 11,077 live births with 122 of them resulting in infant mortality. In 2012, Hamilton County had a slight improvement with 66 infant deaths compared to 7,182 live births. Hamilton County has an infant mortality rate of 9.9 while Cincinnati as a whole has a rate of 12.4.

These values are significantly higher than the Healthy People 2020 goal of 6.0 and are also greater than the United States average of 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. A study by Cradle Cincinnati (2015) suggests that infant mortality rates in Cincinnati are significantly impacted by factors such as obesity in pregnancy, inadequately spaced pregnancies, and substance abuse during pregnancy. Additionally, preterm births have as much as a 66 percent impact on the increased infant mortality rates.

Table 17. Number of Infant Deaths and Births in Hamilton County from 2014-2015 by Month Month 2014 2015 Infant Deaths Live Births Infant Deaths Live Births January 7 893 10 938 February 1 854 5 796 March 7 880 15 913 April 10 832 1 923 May 9 909 7 923 June 11 964 8 926 July 9 1008 12 957 August 11 899 11 938 September 10 960 October 9 980 November 3 875 December 10 903 Total 97 10957 69 7314

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 44 Note: This table lists the number of infant deaths compared to live births per month for the past two years. Based on the statistics given, Hamilton County is on track this year to exceed the number of infant deaths from 2014.

Source: Hamilton County Public Health Cradle Cincinnati. (2015). Hamilton county: maternal and infant health monthly surveillance report. Retrieved from http://www.hamiltoncountyhealth.org/files/files/Reports/August_imr_2015.pdf . Table 18. Infant Mortality on the County Level, State Level, National Level, and Healthy People 2020 Level (Values per 1,000 Live Births) from 2008-2012 Infant Mortality Measure Hamilton County State of Ohio United States Healthy People 2020 Infant deaths within the first 28 days of life 7.5 5.2 4.6 4.1 Infant Deaths between 28 days-1 year 3.2 2.6 2.3 2 Infant mortality rate 10.2 7.7 6.8 6 Neonatal mortality rate 7.4 5.2 6 Post-neonatal mortality rate 2.9 2.5 6 Infant mortality rate for blacks 13.3 6 Infant mortality rate for whites 6.59 6 Note: Perhaps the most interesting fact seen in Table 18 is the infant mortality rate for blacks versus whites.

The infant mortality rate for blacks is nearly twice that of the infant mortality rate for whites. Both values exceed the Healthy People 2020 goal.

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat. Table 19. Prematurity rates on the county level, state level, national level, and Healthy People 2020 level (expressed in percentages) from 2006-2012 Prematurity Measure Hamilton County State of Ohio United States Healthy People 2020 < 32 weeks gestation 2.6% 2.3% 2.0% 1.8% 32-33 weeks gestation 1.9% 1.6% 1.6% 1.4%

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 45 34-36 weeks gestation 9.6% 8.6% 8.9% 8.1% Preterm births, total 14.1% 12.6% 12.5% 11.4% Low birth weight deliveries 10.1% 8.6% 8.2% 7.8% Very low birth weight deliveries 2.1% 1.6% 1.5% 1.4% Source: City of Springdale, Ohio.

(2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1. Table 20. Average maternal ages on the county level, state level, and national level (per 1,000 female mothers) from 2006-2012 Natality Measure Hamilton County State of Ohio United States Teen pregnancy rate (ages 15-19) 60.6 55.3 Teen birth rate 41.3 36.0 41.2 Births to unmarried women aged 18-54: 49.7% in Hamilton County, 41.3% in the state of Ohio and 38.2% nationwide.

Births to women under 18 years of age: 3.4% in Hamilton County, 3.0% in the state of Ohio, and 3.4% nationwide. Births to married women aged 40-54: 2.2% in Hamilton County, 2.1% in the state of Ohio, and 2.7% nationwide. In Hamilton County, the average percentage of pregnancies that were spaced less than 18 months apart in the year 2015 is 33.0%, which is more than the Healthy People 2020 goal of 29.8%. Research has shown that optimal spacing between pregnancies can lead to better outcomes for both mom and baby in the short-term and long-term.

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015).

Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.

SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017 46 B. Disease incidence and prevalence Table 21. Incidence and prevalence of certain diseases on the county level, state level, national level, and HealthyPeople 2020 level (values are per 100,000 individuals) Disease Hamilton County State of Ohio United States Healthy People 2020 Goal Breast cancer 26.3 24.8 23 20.7 Colorectal cancer 18 18.1 16.7 14.5 Lung cancer 59.4 57.1 50.6 45.5 Prostate cancer 26.1 23.8 23.6 21.8 Diabetes mellitus 8300 8900 Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.

Table 22. Prevalence of deadly diseases in Hamilton county compared to neighboring areas (values per 100,000 individuals) from 2010 County/Area Heart Disease Cancer Chronic Respiratory Disease Stroke Unintentional Injury Alzheimer’s Disease Hamilton 1570 1656 436 467 303 314 Butler 604 667 203 130 148 102 Warren 287 318 104 86 71 82 Clermont 292 367 106 94 96 48 State of Ohio 26072 25030 6705 5735 5030 4105 Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat.

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