Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017

 
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                0

          Springdale Health Department

2016 Community Health Assessment Survey

                         Dr. Parth Modi, M.D., MPH

                     Matt Clayton, Health Commissioner
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                             1

Introduction

                 The City of Springdale in Hamilton County, Ohio covers 4.96 square miles and

has 11,223 residents. The Community Health Assessment (CHA) will be used by the Springdale

Health Department to identify the major disorders, disabilities, infectious disease, and chronic

disorders prevalent in the community. The CHA will also be used as an evaluation tool for the

current and future health programs. According to the Public Health Accreditation Board, a

community health assessment is a systematic examination of the health status indicators for a

given population that is used to identify key problems and assets in a community. The ultimate

goal of a community health assessment is to develop strategies to address the community’s

health needs and identified issues (Turnock, 2012).

Methods

         The Springdale Health Department obtained reportable communicable disease data

(relevant to the health of the community) through our local community health partners (hospitals,

clinics, medical offices, urgent care centers, etc.). The list of reportable diseases is determined

by the Ohio Department of Health and must be reported through the Ohio Disease Reporting

System (ODRS). This information is listed in Appendix 1.

       The Springdale Health Department began the search for Springdale specific health data

by contacting local nongovernmental organizations that compile health data. Unfortunately, the

health data was not available specifically for the City of Springdale, rather for the region. The

local nongovernment organizations referred the Springdale Health Department to the state

government operated websites for health data collection.
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                         2

       The Springdale Health Department reviewed local health data from the state government

websites. We found regional health data for Hamilton County on the Ohio Department of

Health's website. Data specific to Springdale wasn't readily available.

       In an effort to obtain Springdale specific health data, the Springdale Health Department

contacted the healthcare centers frequently used by residents of the City of Springdale, including

Mercy Hospital in Fairfield and Bethesda North Hospital in Montgomery. This course of action

was discussed and approved by the City of Springdale, the Springdale Health Department, and

the Springdale Community Health Assessment Steering Committee. Unfortunately, we had

limited success obtaining data due to the small size of the community relative to the larger

(regional) population served by these health care centers. While the Springdale specific data we

sought wasn't readily available, the health care centers suggested the Springdale Health

Department review data on the state government operated websites.

       In order to obtain Springdale specific health data, the Springdale Health Department

designed a twenty question survey to collect data from the community. This survey was placed

on the Survey Monkey website and was promoted through social media and through our outreach

with community partners.

Process

       The limited Springdale specific health data available to the Springdale Health

Department prior to the Community Health Assessment indicated the most commonly occurring

health conditions in Springdale appeared to be aligned with those of the region. Therefore, the

twenty question survey for the Springdale Community Health Assessment was designed based

upon the most common health conditions in the region (Hamilton County). The CHA survey

was reviewed by the City of Springdale, the CHA Steering Committee, the Springdale Health

Department, and was approved for public participation. Appendix 2 shows the survey questions.
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          3

          The CHA survey was bilingual (English and Spanish) and contained direct questions

with yes, no and detailed information answers. The CHA sample was selected by the

convenience sample method. The Community Health Survey was provided online through the

Survey Monkey website. The Springdale Health Department provided a social media message

via Facebook with a link to the survey and a link on the Springdale Health Department's

webpage. Further, announcements about the Springdale CHA Survey were placed on bulletin

boards in City of Springdale buildings as well as in the Springdale Newsletter. The CHA survey

was also offered in print. Visitors to the Springdale Municipal Building and City of Springdale

sponsored events were provided with an opportunity to take the survey.

         The Springdale Health Department sampled 96 participants of roughly 11,200

constituents. The margin of error for the Springdale CHA was ten percent with a ninety five

percent confidence interval. In addition to the sampling methods outlined above, print surveys

were distributed to the tax department and at Springdale community events. Appendix 3 shows

the timeline of the advertisement and locations of survey distribution.

       The Survey Monkey website was used to obtain the survey results. Results of the print

surveys were uploaded to the Survey Monkey website; effectively, the results of online responses

and print responses were combined. Apart from the use of the survey as a tool for community

health assessment, the survey will be used as a tool for the evaluation of the Springdale Health

Department programs.
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                        4

                                            Results

                            Prevalent Heath Conditions in Springdale

  •   High blood pressure                   37 survey participants     26.6%

  •   Respiratory conditions                21 survey participants     15.1%

  •   Diabetes                              17 survey participants     12.23%

  •   Cancer                                12 survey partcipants      8.6%

  •   Sexually transmitted diseases         7 survey participants      5.0%

  •   Heart disease                         7 survey participants      5.0%

  •   Low blood pressure                    3 survey participants      2.16%

  •   Kidney disease                        2 survey participants      1.4%

  •   Heart attack                          1 survey participant       0.7%

  •   HIV/ AIDS                             1 survey participant       0.7%

  •   2014-2015 STD Data as reported through the Ohio Disease Reporting System

  •   Chlamydia                   157 cases

  •   Gonorrhea                   38 cases

  •   Syphilis                    2 cases

  •   HIV                         3 cases
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                           5

Tobacco Use

   •   Cigarettes                                            9 survey participants          6.5%

   •   Smokeless tobacco (snuff, hookah, etc)                4 survey partcipants           2.8%

   •   Electronic nicotine delivery (E. cigarettes)          4 survey partcipants           2.8%

   •   Believe electronic cigarettes are harmless            60 survey participants         43.2%

   •   Using electronic cigarettes for tobacco cessation 3 survey partcipants               2.2%

   •   There are many carcinogens involved with the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems

       (e-cigarettes).

   Recreational Use of Alcohol

   •   Alcoholic beverages- 77 participants stated that they are using alcohol beverages, which

       is 55.40 percentages of the participants.

   Recreational Use of Drugs

   •   Any other illicit drugs- only one participant stated yes to use of the illicit drug, which

       represents 0.72 percentages of total participants.
Springdale Health Department 2016 Community Health Assessment Survey - SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                 6

Demographics

  •   Sex

  •   Male                    66    (47.48%)

  •   Female                  73    (52.52%)

  •   Total Particpants       139   (100%)

  •   Age Range of Participants              Number of Survey Participants   Percentage

  •   18 - 24 years of age                   12 participants                 8.6%

  •   25 - 34 years of age                   24 participants                 17.3%

  •   35 - 44 years of age                   22 participants                 15.8%

  •   45 - 54 years of age                   22 participants                 15.8%

  •   55 - 64 years of age                   19 participants                 13.7%

  •   65 to 74 years of age                  23 participants                 16.6%

  •   75 years of age and older              17 participants                 12.2%

  •   Total Participants                     139 participants                100.0%

  •   Ethnicity

  •   Caucasian                              100 survey participants         72.0%

  •   Hispanic                               19 survey participants          13.7%

  •   African American                       15 survey participants          10.8%

  •   Asian or Pacific Islander              1 survey participant            0.7%

  •   Native American/ Alaskan               1 survey participant            0.7%
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                         7

   •   Other                                2 survey participants                 1.4%

   •   Prefer not to answer                 1 survey participant                  0.7%

   •   Total participants                   139 participants                      100.0%

   •   This demographic information is consistent with the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data for

       Springdale, Ohio

Limitations

   •   Forty participants failed to provide data on age, race and sex. Those responses were not

       counted in the survey results.

   •   Numerous community members expressed apprehension about the survey due to privacy

       concerns.

Importance

   •   In the absence of a Springdale, Ohio specific data source, the survey results were

       compared to Hamilton County, Ohio health data. Disease incidence rates from this data

       yielded:

   •              Most common forms of cancer in Hamilton County, Ohio:

   •           - lung cancer                59.4%

   •           - breast cancer              26.3%

   •           - prostate cancer            26.1%

   •           - colorectal cancer          18.0%
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                              8

   •          Leading causes of death in Hamilton County, Ohio:

   •          - high blood pressure

   •          - diabetes

   •          - respiratory disease

   •          Prevalent health conditions in Hamilton County, Ohio:

   •          - Diabetes

   •          - high blood pressure

   •          - respiratory disease

   •          - cancer

 (Ameyaw et al., 2015, p. 38).

Appendix 4 shows the graphical representation of the survey results.

                                           Appendix 1

                                         Communication

                                           Appendix 2

                                        Survey Questions

                                           Appendix 3

                                      Timeline and Location

                                           Appendix 4

                                         Survey results
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                                         References

Ameyaw, P., Bonsall, B., Davis, T., Edwards, A., Grynsztejn, M., McCoy, A., & Palko, E.

      (2015). Springdale, Ohio Community Assessment. Springdale, OH.
  Turnock, B. J. (2012). Public health: What it is and how it works. Burlington, MA: Jones &
                                       Bartlett Learning.
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                  Springdale, Ohio Community Assessment 2015

         Pamela, Ameyaw, Brittney Bonsall, Tamara Davis, Alison Edwards,

          Melanie Grynsztejn, Aaron McCoy, Erin Palko, Allison Zentarski

                                Xavier University

                                School of Nursing

                                October 29, 2015
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                       11

  I.   Community Overview

       A. General Description
             Located in Hamilton County, just north of Cincinnati, is the city of Springdale,
          Ohio. Occupying 4.96 square miles, Springdale is home to 11,223 residents (U.S.
          Census Bureau, 2010).

       B. History
              Founded in 1806 by John Baldwin, the post-revolutionary village was given the
          name ‘Springfield’, and has since developed into the city of Springdale. Originally an
          urban center with homes close together and businesses within walking distance,
          Springdale has evolved into a suburban community situated along two well-traveled
          interstates (City of Springdale, 2006).

       C. Boundaries
             Springdale is easily accessible from Interstate-275 and Interstate-75. The northern
          and eastern boundaries of the city are clearly established, while the southern and
          western boundaries exist in more of a staggered pattern, as seen in Figure 1 below.
          The northern border is Crescentville Road, and the eastern border is Chesterdale
          Road.

Figure 1. Springdale, Ohio Boundaries

Source: Google Maps
       D. Past and current cultural makeup
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                   12

                Historically, Springdale has been predominantly Caucasian in makeup. Recently,
            a shift has occurred resulting from an influx of Hispanic persons (U.S. Census
            Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). Details regarding the current cultural
            makeup of Springdale are discussed in Population Characteristics.

        E. Asset Mapping
              Individual assets include: Cameron Park, Chamberlin Park, Hilda-Ross Memorial
           Park, Oak Hill Cemetery, Old St. Mary’s Cemetery, Tri-County Golf Ranch, and
           Underwood Park (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Springdale, Ohio Individual Assets

Note: Created using ZeeMaps
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               Organizational assets include: Springdale Community Center, The Healing
            Center, and Tri-County Soul Ministries Food Pantry (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Springdale, Ohio Organizational Assets

Note: Created using ZeeMaps
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               Institutional assets include: Baldwin Grove, Bowen Center for Women’s Health,
            Brookdale, Doctor’s Urgent Care Springdale, Health Span, Maple Knoll Village,
            Mercy Health Cincinnati Sports Medicine and Orthopedic Center, Mercy Health
            Occupational Urgent Care, Planned Parenthood: Jean K. Spritz Center, The
            Meadows, and UC Health Primary Care (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Springdale, Ohio Institutional Assets

Note: Created using ZeeMaps

        F. Key Findings
               The community of Springdale, Ohio has shifted and grown since its establishment
           in 1806. Originally a close-knit village, Springdale has evolved into a bustling
           suburban community. Recent years have brought an influx of Latino and Hispanic
           persons, resulting in a diversified population. Several valuable assets exist within the
           community. These assets can be divided into three categories: individual assets,
           organizational assets, and institutional assets. Of these assets, the Springdale
           Community Center and the Healing Center are of utmost value.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      15

 II.    Population Characteristics

        A. Total Population
               Results from the 2010 Census (Table 1) estimate the total population of
           Springdale to be 11,223. The population of Springdale increased by 660 persons
           between 2000 and 2010, while the number of Hamilton County residents decreased
           by 42,929.

Table 1. Ohio Population Data from 2010 Census
                                 Springdale             Hamilton County           Ohio

 Census 2010 Total                  11,223                   802,374           11,536,504
 Population

 Population Density                2,262.7                   1,976.7             277.3
 (per square mile of
 land area)

 Population change                   660                     (42,929)           183,364
 (2000-2010)
Note: Data from 2000-2010.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010

        B. Population changes including recent immigrant groups
                Table 2 shows the breakdown of Springdale residents by race, as reported by the
           U.S. Census in 2000 and 2010. Data shows a decrease in Caucasian population. It
           should be noted that this is the only category to experience a negative change in the
           last 10 years. The positive change in total population over the 10-year period can be
           attributed to a significant increase in Hispanic peoples. Although the Hispanic
           population increased in Ohio and Hamilton County, the percentage increase was
           substantially higher in the City of Springdale (Figure 5).

Table 2. Census 2000-2010 Springdale, Ohio Population Breakdown by Race
                                                       Springdale, OH 10563
          RACE
                             2000 Census Number         2010 Census Number          Change
 Total Population                    10,563                    11,223                 660
   One race                          10,369                    10,892                 523
 Two or more races                     194                       331                  137
   Race alone or in
   combination with
   one or more other
   races

   White                              7,379                     6,428                (951)
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   Black or African                   2,811                   3,551   740
   American
   American Indian or                   63                    101      38
   Alaska Native
   Asian                               305                    385      80
   Native Hawaiian                      12                     60      48
   and Other Pacific
   Islander

 Some other race                       203                    1,060   857
   HISPANIC OR
   LATINO
     Hispanic or                       384                    1,965   1,581
     Latino (of any
     race)

     Not Hispanic or                 10,179                   9,258   (921)
     Latino
Note: Data from 2000-2010.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                        17

Figure 5. Percent Change in Hispanic Population—Census 2000/2010

Note: Data from 2000-2010.
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000; U.S. Census Bureau, 2010

        C. Mobility of the population
             o Information unavailable

        D. Population Demographics

            Age/Sex
                Figure 6 depicts the breakdown of Springdale residents by age and sex. All values
            are as reported by the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau. It is interesting to note that the ratio
            of men to women changes dramatically beyond the age of 60.
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Figure 6. Census 2010 Population Data for Springdale, OH by Age/Sex

Note: Data from 2010.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010

        Income

Table 3. Income Data for Springdale, Ohio in 2013 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars
                                                       Springdale, OH

                                           Estimate                        Percent
 Total households                           3,988                              100.0
    Less than $10,000                        363                                9.1
    $10,000 to $14,999                       192                                4.8
    $15,000 to $24,999                       551                               13.8
    $25,000 to $34,999                       325                                8.1
    $35,000 to $49,999                       596                               14.9
    $50,000 to $74,999                       800                               20.1
    $75,000 to $99,999                       475                               11.9
    $100,000 to $149,999                     538                               13.5
    $150,000 to $199,999                      86                                2.2
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017           19

  $200,000 or more              62           1.6
  Median household income      49,222
  (dollars)
  Mean household income        59,147
  (dollars)

Families                       2,350        100.0
  Less than $10,000             218          9.3
  $10,000 to $14,999            28           1.2
  $15,000 to $24,999            339         14.4
  $25,000 to $34,999            146          6.2
  $35,000 to $49,999            330         14.0
  $50,000 to $74,999            514         21.9
  $75,000 to $99,999            274         11.7
  $100,000 to $149,999          353         15.0
  $150,000 to $199,999          86           3.7
  $200,000 or more              62           2.6
  Median family income         52,227
  (dollars)
  Mean family income           66,553
  (dollars)

  Per capita income            22,381
  (dollars)

Nonfamily households           1,638
  Median nonfamily income      38,125
  (dollars)
  Mean nonfamily income        46,511
  (dollars)
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 Median earnings for                             26,292
 workers (dollars)
 Median earnings for male                        42,408
 full-time, year-round
 workers (dollars)

 Median earnings for female                      39,500
 full-time, year-round
 workers (dollars)
Note: Data from 2009-2013.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013; 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates

Figure 7. Springdale, Ohio Demographic Income

Note: Data from 2009-2013.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013
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       Educational Attainment

Table 4. Educational Attainment of Springdale Population by Age/Sex
                                      Male                            Female

                                    Estimate                          Estimate
 Population 18 to 24                   648                              429
 years
 Less than high school                14.7%                            32.6%
 graduate
 High school graduate                 60.5%                            19.1%
 (includes
 equivalency)

 Some college or                      21.1%                            46.6%
 associate’s degree
 Bachelor’s degree or                 3.7%                             1.6%
 higher

 Population 25 years                  3,399                            3,582
 and over
  Less than 9th grade                 12.3%                            10.1%
  9th to 12th grade, no               4.1%                             5.2%
  diploma
  High school                         20.0%                            24.8%
  graduate (includes
  equivalency)

  Some college, no                    22.3%                            27.7%
  degree
  Associate’s degree                  7.5%                             8.9%
  Bachelor’s degree                   24.9%                            14.7%
  Graduate or                         8.9%                             8.7%
  professional degree

 Percent high school                  83.6%                            84.8%
 graduate or higher
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 Percent bachelor’s                         33.8%                            23.3%
 degree or higher
Note: Data from 2010.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010

Figure 8. Educational Attainment of Springdale Residents by Age

Note: Data from 2010.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010

        As illustrated by Table 5, data suggests a strong correlation between educational
attainment and income for Springdale residents. It is interesting to note that although there are
more males than females that obtain graduate or professional degrees, the females that do reach
this level make significantly more than their male counterparts. In all other cases of educational
attainment, males receive higher earning than females.

Table 5. Poverty Rate for the Population 25 Years and Older for Whom Poverty Status is
         Determined by Educational Attainment Level
                          Springdale, OH

                          Total                     Male                    Female
                          Estimate                  Estimate                Estimate
Less than high school              49.0%                   45.5%                     52.6%
graduate
High school graduate               17.7%                   14.7%                     20.1%
(includes
equivalency)
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Some college or                    8.9%                   10.8%                     7.4%
associates degree
Bachelor’s degree or               10.6%                  15.5%                     3.9%
higher

MEDIAN
EARNINGS IN THE
PAST 12 MONTHS
(IN 2013
INFLATION-
ADJUSTED
DOLLARS)

Population 25 years               32,150                  34,619                    30,321
and over with
earnings

Less than high school             17,292                  23,277                    8,846
graduate
High school graduate              22,265                  24,741                    17,738
(includes
equivalency)

Some college or                   32,500                  38,295                    31,216
associate’s degree
Bachelor’s degree                 50,833                  55,683                    40,847
Graduate or                       49,130                  47,554                    59,375
professional degree

Note: Data from 2009-2013.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013

       E. Occupational Information
              The city of Springdale has diversity in the occupations of its residents. The table
          below includes information on the prominent occupations in Springdale, OH, by
          gender and occupational earnings. All values are estimates made by the US Census
          Bureau in 2013. Springdale’s largest occupation category is service, which includes
          fire fighters, police, personal care workers, groundskeepers, healthcare support
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               occupations, and food preparation. Sales and office occupations also employ a large
               number of Springdale residents. The highest grossing occupational category is
               computers, engineering, and sciences, and the lowest grossing occupational category
               is service. Males make more earnings than females in five of the seven occupational
               categories, with females making more than males in the remaining two. The largest
               gender income discrepancy is in healthcare and technical occupations, where females
               make 24,564 more US dollars than males in the same category.

    Table 6. Categories of Occupations in Springdale, Ohio
Category of Occupation Total        Percent       Percent  Median   Median               Median Female
Springdale OH                       Male in      Female in Earnings   Male               Earnings (in US
                                  Occupation Occupation     (in US Earnings                  dollars
                                                           dollars)  (in US
                                                                    dollars)

Management/Business          435         65.1        34.9        44,063      43,259           48,750

Computers,                   438         91.3         8.7        65,313      65,511           64,028
Engineering, and
Science

Education, Legal,            520         36.2        63.8        31,250      33,818           22,206
Media, and Arts

Healthcare Practitioner      316         13.9        86.1        40,000      30,769           55,333
and Technical

Service                      948         56.6        43.4        12,763      15,951           11,107
Sales and Office            1,055        40.0        60.0        31,339      46,090           25,982
Occupations

Natural Resources,           376        100.0         0.0        26,182      26,182            N/A
Construction, and
Maintenance

Production,                  723         78.8        21.2        32,107      32,500           31,776
Transportation, and
Material Moving
Occupations
    Note: Data from 2009-2013.
    Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013

           Generally speaking, the people of the City of Springdale, Ohio made the same or less
    money in each occupational category than those in the State of Ohio as a whole, with the
    exception of the computers, engineering, and sciences categories, the sales category, and the
    production, transportation, and material moving occupations. The difference in these three
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    categories from the Ohio median earnings is very small. This is why it is stated above that the
    people of Springdale made the same or less than the Ohio medians in all categories. Gender
    differences in gross earnings are more evident when looking at the state of Ohio as compared to
    the City of Springdale, as males made more than females in every category studied.

     Table 7. Ohio Occupational Information by Category
Category of Occupation      Total      Percent       Percent  Median   Median                  Median
State of Ohio                          Male in      Female in Earnings   Male                  Female
                                      Occupation Occupation    (in US Earnings               Earnings (in
                                                              dollars)  (in US                US dollars
                                                                       dollars)

Management/Business         717,110             56.3     43.7        56,650      67,756         47,294

Computers,                  246,235             75.7     24.3        63,901      66,641         54,812
Engineering, and
Science

Education, Legal,           515,340             34.3     65.7        39,893      47,344         36,134
Media, and Arts

Healthcare Practitioner     332,349             22.3     77.7        49,416      71,246         45,678
and Technical

Service                     942,008             40.2     59.8        15,592      19,353         14,059
Sales and Office           1,291,770            35.7     64.3        27,099      35,129         24,493
Occupations

Natural Resources,          409,801             95.8      4.2        37,147      37,690         23,338
Construction, and
Maintenance

Production,                 811,773             76.9     23.1        30,853      33,572         22,601
Transportation, and
Material Moving
Occupations
    Note: Data from 2009-2013.
    Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013

           F. Poverty in Springdale, Ohio
                  The greatest degrees of individuals below the poverty line in Springdale, Ohio
              occur with the female gender, the white race or Hispanic/Latino heritage, those who
              are unemployed, and those who have no high school diploma. While education is
              crucial to rising above the poverty line, it is clear that it is not the sole factor in
              combating poverty, as 17.7 percent of high school graduates fell below the poverty
              line, and close to 10 percent of college attendees and graduates of bachelor or higher
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                               26

            degrees still fell below the poverty line. There is also a discrepancy in gender, with
            far more women falling below the poverty line than men, and a greater percentage of
            young people classified as impoverished than older individuals.

Table 8. Poverty in Springdale, OH
 Subject Area                    Total                  Below Poverty Level             Percent Below
 Springdale OH                                                                          Poverty Level
 Age Under 18                         3,049                      1,107                      36.3
 Aged 18-64                           6,096                      1,339                      22.0
 Age Over 65                          1,758                       121                        6.9
 Sex Male                             5,336                       993                       18.6
 Sex Female                           5,567                      1,574                      28.3
 White Race                           6,825                      1,755                      25.7
 Black Race                           3,130                       464                       14.8
 Asian/Pacific                         405                         66                       16.3
 Islander Race
 Some Other Race                       452                        282                       62.4

 Hispanic/Latino                      2,275                      1,524                      67.0
 Race
 Unemployed                           2,790                       799                       28.6
 Part Time                            2,161                       568                       26.3
 Employment in last
 12 mo
 Full time                            3,195                       177                        5.5
 Employment in last
 12 mo
 No High School                       1,061                       520                       49.0
 Degree
 High School                          1,502                       266                       17.7
 Graduate
 Some College                         2,255                       200                        8.9
 Bachelor’s Degree or                 1,959                       207                       10.6
 Higher
Note: Data from 2009-2013.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009-2013

        Delving further into the issue of poverty in Springdale, Ohio we will consider other
factors, such as family structure, number of children, number of workers in the family, and the
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                       27

assistance families receive from the government. Table 9 reveals some clear trends about
Springdale’s poverty: first, the greater the number of children in a household, the greater the
chance of being below the FPL; and second, the more workers in the household, the less the
chance of being below the FPL. The most startling example of this is in households with three or
more working family members. These families, regardless of whether they were married or
single families, had zero percent poverty across the board. Hispanic/Latino families have to deal
with poverty more than other ethnic groups, and Asian families reported zero percent of families
below the FPL.

 Table 9. Springdale and the Federal Poverty Level (FPL)
Subject Area            Total     Number Married Married       Female      Female
Springdale OH          Number         of      Couple Couple Householder, Householder,
                           of     Families Families Families No Husband No Husband
                       Families Below                    Below Present     Present
                                  the FPL              the FPL            Below the
                                     (%)                  (%)             FPL (%)

White                   1,440       19.2      1,122       15.5          191              29.8
Black                    731        12.4       310        11.0          339              16.8
Asian                    70         0.0         70         0.0            0              N/A
Some Other Race          100        50.0       100        50.0            0              N/A
Hispanic/Latino          344        74.4       252        74.2           23             100.0
Household with          1,358       29.3       808        31.1          371              27.2
Children Under 18
yrs old

No Children in the       992        2.0        803         0.9          159              8.2
Household

1 or 2 Children in       900        19.3       446         6.1          314              32.2
the Household

3 or 4 Children in       393        47.1       297        62.3           57              0.0
the Household

5 or More Children       65         60.0        65        60.0            0              N/A
in the Household

No Workers in the        323        6.2        282         2.5           26              50.0
Family

1 Worker in the          855        35.2       466        33.0          260              38.8
Family
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                     28

2 Workers in the          883         11.0     696       13.9          147              0.0
Family

3 or More Workers         289         0.0      167        0.0           97              0.0
in the Family
Note: Data from 2009-2013.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2013

       Figures 9 and 10 illustrate the impacts of more children and more workers in the family
on poverty ranking. Welfare comes into play, particularly in the case of single families with
increased numbers of children, and in families with no workers.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                      29

Figure 9. Percent of Springdale, OH Families Below FPL by Number of Children

Source: US Census Bureau, 2013
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                   30

Figure 10. Percent of Springdale, Ohio Families Below the FPL by Number of Workers in the
       Household.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2013
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          31

        G. Cost of Living

             Price Index for Cincinnati, Ohio (Table 10) has increased throughout 2014, but has
        dropped marginally in the first half of 2015. Data is not available for the second half of
        2015. Cost of Living in Springdale (Table 11) is 89.6 percent of the national average cost
        of living, making Springdale more affordable than the average city in the US. Cost of
        living is calculated based on references to the national cost of living (set at 100 percent).

Table 10. Cost of Living Index in Springdale, OH
 Data Category           1st Half 2014          2nd Half 2014                1st Half 2015
 Consumer Price              2.2                   1.5                       -0.4
 Index for Urban
 Consumers 12
 Month Change (%)

 Consumer Price              2.1                   1.3                       -1.0
 Index for all Wage
 Earners 12 Month
 Change (%)
Note: Data from 2014-2015.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015

Table 11. Cost of Living Index in Springdale, OH compared to the US overall.
 Cost of Living Index in Springdale OH          Cost of Living Index in US (Overall)
                          89.6                                           100.0
Note: Data from 2015.
Source: City-data.com/city/springdale-ohio

        H. Key Findings
               The most current data suggests a population shift resulting from an increase in
           Hispanic individuals, specifically those in their second decade of life. A strong
           correlation exists between educational attainment and income. With the influx of the
           Hispanic population, it is unclear how future data will trend.

III.    Environmental Factors

        A. General Description
            The city of Springdale is home to a large amount of residential communities,
        specifically apartment complexes and retirement communities. There are also a number
        of businesses and shopping centers in the area, including Tri-County retail district, with
        over 4 million square feet of retail space. Springdale families have access to an 82,000
        square foot Community Center that includes a gymnasium, senior lounge, and computer
        lab. The Community Center also hosts a variety of community events throughout the
        year. There is no hospital within Springdale, but the area is located near Mercy Fairfield
        hospital with over 700 physician affiliations. The Air Quality Index in Springdale is 106,
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                     32

        which is significantly worse than the U.S. average of 74 (City-data.com, 2015).

        B. Housing: conditions, owner/renter occupied, etc.
            As of 2014, there were 4,617 households in Springdale. The average household size is
        2.35 people. Of the total household units available in Springdale, 94.7 percent were
        occupied as of 2014. According to the Springdale city website, the rental ordinance
        requires all owners of single family rental dwellings to pay a $50 fee annually, and each
        housing unit is to undergo an initial inspection as well as subsequent inspections upon
        changes of occupancy.

Table 12. Housing in Springdale, Ohio
Households: 2014

Households                                                             4,617

Average Household Size                                                  2.35

  Hhld Growth 2000-2010                                                3.8%

  Hhld Growth 2014B-2019                                               1.7%

Housing Units: 2014B

Occupied Units                                                         4,617

  % Occupied Units                                                     94.7%

  % Vacant Housing Units                                               5.2%
Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html

Figure 11. Household Data in Springdale, Ohio

Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          33

            Property Values

Figure 12. Property Values in Springdale, Ohio.

Note: Property Values in Springdale (City-data, 2015)
Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html
        C. Access to healthy food sources (distance/ transportation, cost, quality)
            There are a number of grocery stores in the areas surrounding Springdale, but less
        within the immediate vicinity. There is no information available for the amount of
        grocery stores in Springdale, but within Hamilton County there are a total of 155 (city-
        data, 2015). The nearest Kroger is located on West Kemper Road in Forest Park. The
        following are the three largest grocery stores located directly in Springdale:

Table 13. Grocery Stores located in Springdale, OH
Grocery Store                                   Location

La Union                                              316 Northland Blvd

Hernandez Business Concepts                           11510 Springfield Pike

Ray’s Food Market                                     11444 Springfield Pike
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                     34

Note: Top three closest to central Springdale area, retrieved from Google maps
Source: (maps.google.com)

        D. Sanitation: Water supply, sewage, and trash/garbage
           • Water supply is provided by Greater Cincinnati Water Works. Sewage is managed
              through the same provider.
           • Curbside trash pickup is offered weekly. The city of Springdale is in contract with
              Rumpke to provide this service at no additional cost to homeowners.

Figure 13. Curbside Collection Route

Source: http://www.springdale.org/trash-recycling-services.aspx

        E. Safety / Protection: Police, fire, safety, crime stats, etc.
          • There are 2.95 police officers per 1000 residents, compared to a national average of
            2.45 per 1000.
          • There have been zero murders reported in Springdale since 2011.
          • As of October 14, 2015 there is only one registered sex offender in Springdale
          • The fire department was founded in 1939 (springdale.org)
          • Fire and EMS units: 3-4 firefighters on Engine 90, 3-4 firefighters on tower 90, 2
            firefighters/paramedics on Medic 90, one shift supervisor.
          • Two additional EMS units (Medic 290 and 390) are staffed as needed
            (springdale.org)
          • Total of 104 fire calls in 2014
          • 426 Rescue/EMS calls in 2014
          • City-data.com crime index in 2013: 358.7, down from 547.9 in 2001
        Source: (http://www.springdale.org/uploads/2014%20Fire%20Statistics.PDF)
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                         35

   Figure 14. Crimes by Type in Springdale, 2013

   Source: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Springdale-Ohio.html

           F. Transportation
             • Fare to ride Metro bus is $1.75 within the City of Cincinnati, $2.65 within Hamilton
               County. This means that a ride to work on the Metro could cost more than $5 for one
               day.
             • 30 day Metro passes are available but are not necessarily affordable; passes range
               from $70-$170 depending on zone
            • 1 day unlimited pass is $4.50 for Zone 1, $6.30 for Zone 2. Zone 1 only includes the
               City of Cincinnati; Zone 2 includes all of Hamilton County.
            Source: go-metro.com, 2015

          There are eight lines that run to and from the Springdale area, into various surrounding
   areas in the greater Cincinnati area.

   Table 14. Metro Bus Lines in Springdale, Ohio
Line            1         2          3           4                     5   6          7              8
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      36

Location       Tri-      Winton     Winton       Winton at      Winton   Central    Gov’t    Knowton’s
              County       at          at        Hempstead        at     Parkway    Square   Corner at
               Mall      Kemper     Farragut                    Spring    at Linn   Area B    Spring
                                                                Grove                          Grove
  Source: http://www.go-metro.com/riding-metro/communities-served

           G. Leading industry
              • Manufacturing
              • Healthcare
              • Administrative and support
              • Waste management services
              • Construction
              • Retail trade
              • Accommodation and food services
              • Finance and insurance
              • Groceries and related products merchant wholesalers

           ➢ Common industries:

               •   Healthcare
               •   Educational services
               •   Finance and insurance
               •   Professional, scientific, and technical services.
               •   Accommodation and food services,
               •   Transportation equipment
               •   Chemicals

         Examples of top industries: Avon, John Morrell Manufacturing, Sugar Creek Packing,
     Progress Business Park.

           ➢ Leading occupation:

               •   Production occupations
               •   Computer and mathematical occupations
               •   Office and administrative support occupations
               •   Construction and extraction occupations
               •   Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations
               •   Management occupations
               •   Material moving occupations

           H. Employment
               • 4,811 employed people in Springdale and 410 unemployed. (city-data, 2015)
               • Leading employment sectors for Springdale include corporate, subsidiary and
                  regional managing offices, and offices of physicians.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                     37

   Figure 15. Unemployment by Year in Springdale, 2014 (city-data, 2015)

   Source: http://www.city-data.com/work/work-Springdale-Ohio.html

      I. Safety issues for workers
          The City of Springdale, through the health inspection and building department, ensure
      a safe and sanitary environment for the workers in the community through enforcement
      of city and state laws. Regulations include property maintenance code, tree preservation
      codes, rental permit program, and flood control. The Health Department ensures safety
      for workers by promoting health education programs and disease prevention. Other
      inspection programs include work place smoking complaint investigations to ensure that
      all work places in Springdale are smoke free, and school environmental safety.

      J. Recreational Facilities: Gyms, playgrounds, etc.
        • Parks in Springdale include: 182 acres of parkland distributed between Springdale
          neighborhood parks. Most of these parks have playgrounds, soccer fields, picnic
          tables, water fountains, and grills.
             •Cameron Park
             •Hilda-Ross Memorial Park
             •Beacon hill park
             •Chamberlain park
             • Glenview park
             • Underwood park
             • Planet Fitness
             • Dave & Busters
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                 38

      •   Community Center (Figure 16): Has several indoor and outdoor amenities, including
          a fitness center, indoor walking track, gymnasiums, game rooms, exercise studio,
          senior lounge and computer lab.

Figure 16. Community Center in Springdale, Ohio

          Source: www.springdale.org

   K. Shopping Facilities: Type, proximity.
      • Cassinelli Square Shopping Center
           ▪ 137 E Kemper Rd, Cincinnati, OH, 45246
           ▪ Tenants: House Emporium, Uniform Advantage, Finer Diamonds/Gold,
              Battery Giants, Fridays, Gig lots, Havertys, Mattress Firm, Party city, Uniform
              World

      •   Tri-County Towne Center
             ▪ 11711 Princeton Pike, Suite 301
             ▪ Tenants: Jared – Galleria of Jewelry, Woodcraft, Towne Center Management
                Office, The UPS Store, Sprint, Salon Concepts, Office Depot, McDonald's,
                Mattress Warehouse, Luke's Sewing Center, LaRosa's Pizza, Hobby Lobby,
                Harbor Freight Tools, Hancock Fabrics, First Watch Restaurant, Firehouse
                Subs, Eyemart Express, Destination XL, Cricket Communications, Callos
                Resource, Blue Ash Chili, Blue Agave Mexican Grill, AT&T Wireless, Asch
                Dental.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                 39

     •   Tri-Centre Shopping Center
            ▪ Princeton Pike, Cincinnati, OH 45246
            ▪ Tenants: Sherwin-Williams, Chipotle, Marcos Pizza, Jimmy Johns, Randstan,
               Regency Beauty institute, Enterprise, Jada Buffet.

     •   Springdale Town Center Mall Shopping Center
           • Springdale, Oh 45246
           • Tenants: ALT smoke, Bakery, Subway, Jackson Hewitt, Priority Health, Foot
               and Ankle, Nina’s Florist, Miracle Ear, Gak. Pet Styling.

     •   Tri-County Shopping Center
            • 11700 Princeton Pike Cincinnati, OH 45246
            • Stores and Services: 150.
            • Tenants: Aeropostale, Amy’s Hallmark, the Amazing Store, AT&T Authorized
               Retailer Time Warner Cable, Macy’s, Dillard’s, Bath and Body Works, BJ’s
               Restaurants, Camille La Vie, Body Jewel, Champs Sports, Auntie Ann’s,
               Amy’s Hallmark, etc.
            • Anchor Tenants: Macy’s, Dillard’s, Ethan Allen and Sears.

     •   Crescentville Square Shopping Center
           • 12185 Princeton Pike Cincinnati, OH 45246
           • Tenants: Nadi Hair Spa.

     •   Old Gate Plaza Shopping Center
           • Springdale, Ohio 45246
           • Tenants: Planned parenthood, Tico Tax/Insurance, S. Salon and Spa, Family
              Discount Furniture, Delicias Supermarket, Mia Familia-Restaurant and Bar.

     •   Tri-County Crossing Shopping Center
            • E. Kemper Road, Springdale, OH 45246
            • Tenants: Best Buy and Barnes and Noble.

     •   Wimbleton Plaza Shopping Center
           • 11766 Springfield Pike Springdale, Ohio 45246
           • Tenants: Outback, Daily Nails, DQ Daily Queens, Supreme Great Lakes, Quest
             Diagnostics, Hoxworth Blood Center, Loft, Select Staffing,

     •   Springdale Plaza
           • Springdale, Ohio 45246
           • Tenants: Michael’s, T.J Max, Bed Bath and Beyond, Citi Trends, Tuesday
               Morning, Catherine’s, Panera Bread, Great Clips, DSW Shoes.

     •   Kemper Pond Plaza
           • Springdale, Ohio 45246
           • Tenants: Kemper pond Dental, Wing Eye Care, Panda Wok, Escapades Beauty
             and Barber salon, Labor Ready, Cartridge World, IHOP.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      40

        •   Springdale Beltway Center
              • Springdale, Ohio 45246
              • Tenants: Dave and Busters, Golf Galaxy, Morris Home Center, Ashley
                  Furniture, Sky Zone, Full Throttle Indoor Karting.

        •   Tri –County Commons
               • Springdale, Ohio 45246
               • Tenants: Guitar Center, Sam’s Club, HH Greg, Golf Exchange, David’s Bridal.
                  Furniture Fair, Home and Sleep.

        •   Tri County Market Place
               • Springdale, Ohio 45246
               • Tenants: Party City, Planet Fitness, Pet Smart, Play It Again Sports, Chase
                  Bank.

BUSINESS CENTERS IN SPRINGDALE

Figure17. Shopping centers in Springdale

Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                            41

    L. Places of worship: Particular denominations, utilization, involvement in the
       community, etc.

     •   Atonement Lutheran Church                           •   Springdale Church of the Nazarene
         305 Cameron Road                                        11177 Springfield Pike
         Springdale, Ohio 45246                                  Springdale, Ohio 45246

     •   Macedonia Living Word Fellowship                    •   Springdale Presbyterian Church
         353 W. Kemper Rd.                                       425 W. Kemper Road
         Springdale, Ohio 45246                                  Springdale, Ohio 45246

     •   First Baptist Church of Springdale                  •   Temple Baptist Church
         11494 Walnut Street                                     11965 Kenn Road
         Springdale, Ohio 45246                                  Springdale, Ohio 45246

     •   Forest Dale Church of Christ                        •   Vineyard Community Church
         604 W. Kemper Road                                      11345 Century Circle East
         Springdale, Ohio 45246                                  Springdale, Ohio 45246

     •   Soul-Winning Church of God                          •   Calvary Pentecostal Church
         425 W. Kemper Road                                      11970 Kenn Road
         Springdale, Ohio 45246                                  Springdale, Ohio 45246

     •   New Life Outreach Ministries
         1391 E. Crescentville Rd.
         Springdale, Ohio 45246

Religion adherents: Catholics 25.6%, Evangelical Protestants 11.6%, Mainline Protestants 9.5%,
  Black Protestants 2.6%, Orthodox 0.5%, None 47.5% And Others 2.7%.

Figure 18. Religion by Adherents in Springdale, 2010 (city-data, 2015)

Source: http://www.city-data.com/city/Springdale-Ohio.html

   Most of these churches are part of the Springdale Offering Support (SOS) group: They are a
group of representatives from local agencies, churches, organizations and concerned citizens in
the Springdale area. Their mission is to coordinate community resources and unite individuals
and families with elements of help and assistance within Springdale and surrounding areas.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      42

  M. Schools: Type, number, condition, Nurses in schools, School-based health clinic,
     free lunches, etc.

   ➢ Colleges/Universities in Springdale:
    ▪ Beckfield College-Tri-County
        o Full-time enrollment: 454
        o Location: 225 Pictoria Drive
        o Private, for-profit
        o Website: www.beckfield.edu)

        ▪    Regency Beauty Institute-Tri-County
                o Full Time enrollment: 46
                o Location: 11489 Princeton Pike
                o Private, for-profit
                o `Website: www.regency.edu)

   ➢ Public Schools In Springdale Belong To Princeton City School District. This district is
     centered in Sharonville, Ohio and has 5,379 students attending 11 schools in grades PK
     and K through12. The district has an annual budget of $97,908,000, spending an average
     of $18,349 per student. Sixty-five percent of students in this district are eligible for free
     or reduced price lunches.
            Springdale public/private schools serve the educational needs of the Springdale
     community from preschool to mostly 5th grade. Springdale students attend Princeton
     Junior and Senior High Schools to further their education after grade school.

   ➢ Public primary/middle schools in Springdale

   ➢ Springdale Elementary School
        o Students: 460
        o Location: 350 W Kemper Rd, Cincinnati, Ohio
        o Grades: PK – 05
        o School nurse: Mrs. Karen Hucke
        o Students on free and reduced lunch assistance: 54.3%

    ▪       Heritage Hill Elementary School
               o Students: 529
               o Location: 11961 Chesterdale Rd, Cincinnati, Ohio
               o Grades: PK – 05
               o School Nurse: Karen Hucke and Judy Olivan are the Heritage Hill Elementary
                   school nurses.
               o Students on free and reduced lunch assistance: 99.2%

   ➢ Private elementary/middle school in Springdale
        ▪ Maple Knoll Child Center
                o Students: 42
                o Location: 11100 Springfield Pike
                o Grades: PK – KG

             ▪   http://www.city-data.com/zips/45246
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      43

       N. Key Findings
           Overall, Springdale is a mainly residential and business area. It is home to a large
       community center, which is a valuable resource for members of the community. Crime is
       relatively low in the area, especially violent crimes and homicides. There are several
       childcare centers, schools, churches, and retirement communities, making Springdale a
       favorable community for those of all generations.

IV.    Health Information

    A. Vital Statistics
         No information was discoverable for the city of Springdale specific to vital statistics;
therefore the statistics used were at the County level. Infant mortality rate is the number of
children less than one year of age who died divided by the number of live births per 1000 live
births. In 2011, Hamilton county had 11,077 live births with 122 of them resulting in infant
mortality. In 2012, Hamilton County had a slight improvement with 66 infant deaths compared
to 7,182 live births. Hamilton County has an infant mortality rate of 9.9 while Cincinnati as a
whole has a rate of 12.4. These values are significantly higher than the Healthy People 2020 goal
of 6.0 and are also greater than the United States average of 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live
births. A study by Cradle Cincinnati (2015) suggests that infant mortality rates in Cincinnati are
significantly impacted by factors such as obesity in pregnancy, inadequately spaced pregnancies,
and substance abuse during pregnancy. Additionally, preterm births have as much as a 66
percent impact on the increased infant mortality rates.

Table 17. Number of Infant Deaths and Births in Hamilton County from 2014-2015 by Month
Month             2014                                   2015
                  Infant Deaths      Live Births         Infant Deaths    Live Births
January           7                  893                 10               938
February          1                  854                 5                796
March             7                  880                 15               913
April             10                 832                 1                923
May               9                  909                 7                923
June              11                 964                 8                926
July              9                  1008                12               957
August            11                 899                 11               938
September         10                 960
October           9                  980
November          3                  875
December          10                 903
Total             97                 10957               69               7314
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          44

Note: This table lists the number of infant deaths compared to live births per month for the past
two years. Based on the statistics given, Hamilton County is on track this year to exceed the
number of infant deaths from 2014.

Source: Hamilton County Public Health Cradle Cincinnati. (2015). Hamilton county: maternal
and infant health monthly surveillance report. Retrieved from
http://www.hamiltoncountyhealth.org/files/files/Reports/August_imr_2015.pdf.

Table 18. Infant Mortality on the County Level, State Level, National Level, and Healthy People
    2020 Level (Values per 1,000 Live Births) from 2008-2012
Infant             Hamilton            State of Ohio      United States        Healthy People
Mortality          County                                                      2020
Measure
Infant deaths      7.5                 5.2                4.6                  4.1
within the first
28 days of life
Infant Deaths      3.2                 2.6                2.3                  2
between 28
days-1 year
Infant mortality 10.2                  7.7                6.8                  6
rate
Neonatal           7.4                 5.2                                     6
mortality rate
Post-neonatal      2.9                 2.5                                     6
mortality rate
Infant mortality 13.3                                                          6
rate for blacks
Infant mortality 6.59                                                          6
rate for whites

Note: Perhaps the most interesting fact seen in Table 18 is the infant mortality rate for blacks
versus whites. The infant mortality rate for blacks is nearly twice that of the infant mortality rate
for whites. Both values exceed the Healthy People 2020 goal.

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat.

Table 19. Prematurity rates on the county level, state level, national level, and Healthy People
    2020 level (expressed in percentages) from 2006-2012
Prematurity       Hamilton           State of Ohio       United States       Healthy People
Measure           County                                                     2020
< 32 weeks        2.6%               2.3%                2.0%                1.8%
gestation
32-33 weeks       1.9%               1.6%                1.6%                1.4%
gestation
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                         45

34-36 weeks       9.6%               8.6%                8.9%             8.1%
gestation
Preterm           14.1%              12.6%               12.5%            11.4%
births, total
Low birth         10.1%              8.6%                8.2%             7.8%
weight
deliveries
Very low birth    2.1%               1.6%                1.5%             1.4%
weight
deliveries

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.

Table 20. Average maternal ages on the county level, state level, and national level (per 1,000
female mothers) from 2006-2012

Natality Measure         Hamilton County          State of Ohio            United States

Teen pregnancy rate      60.6                     55.3
(ages 15-19)

Teen birth rate          41.3                     36.0                     41.2

Births to unmarried women aged 18-54: 49.7% in Hamilton County, 41.3% in the state of Ohio
and 38.2% nationwide.

Births to women under 18 years of age: 3.4% in Hamilton County, 3.0% in the state of Ohio, and
3.4% nationwide.

Births to married women aged 40-54: 2.2% in Hamilton County, 2.1% in the state of Ohio, and
2.7% nationwide.

In Hamilton County, the average percentage of pregnancies that were spaced less than 18 months
apart in the year 2015 is 33.0%, which is more than the Healthy People 2020 goal of 29.8%.
Research has shown that optimal spacing between pregnancies can lead to better outcomes for
both mom and baby in the short-term and long-term.

Source:
City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                           46

   B. Disease incidence and prevalence

Table 21. Incidence and prevalence of certain diseases on the county level, state level, national
   level, and HealthyPeople 2020 level (values are per 100,000 individuals)
Disease            Hamilton County State of Ohio           United States        Healthy People
                                                                                2020 Goal
Breast cancer      26.3                24.8                23                   20.7
Colorectal         18                  18.1                16.7                 14.5
cancer
Lung cancer        59.4                57.1                50.6                 45.5
Prostate cancer 26.1                   23.8                23.6                 21.8
Diabetes           8300                8900
mellitus

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.

Table 22. Prevalence of deadly diseases in Hamilton county compared to neighboring areas
   (values per 100,000 individuals) from 2010
County/Area Heart          Cancer Chronic            Stroke Unintentional Alzheimer’s
                Disease               Respiratory            Injury           Disease
                                      Disease

Hamilton         1570       1656       436             467       303               314
Butler           604        667        203             130       148               102
Warren           287        318        104             86        71                82
Clermont         292        367        106             94        96                48
State of Ohio    26072      25030      6705            5735      5030              4105

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                       47

   C. Leading causes of death

Table 23. Death rates of certain diseases on the county level, state level, national level, and
Healthy People 2020 level (values are per 100,000 individuals) from 2006-2012
Cause of Death     Hamilton             State of Ohio      United States        HealthyPeople2020
                   County                                                       Goal
Breast Cancer      33.4                 31.2               23.5                 20.7
Colorectal         20.7                 20.9               17.2                 No data
cancer
Lung cancer        65.3                 64.5               51.4                 No data
Cancer deaths      216.4                217.5              180.8                161.4
(total)
Diabetes           33.5                 31.5
mellitus
Coronary heart 136.9                    163.1              136.1                103.4
disease
Stroke             58.6                 51.9               44.9                 34.8
Chronic kidney 18.1                     16.3               No data              No data
disease
Chronic lower      53.9                 56.3               No data              No data
respiratory
disease
Deaths by all      972.9                937.3              780.2                No data
causes

Source: City of Springdale, Ohio. (2015). Public health assessment and wellness. Retrieved from
http://springdale.oh.networkofcare.org/ph/county-indicators.aspx#cat1.

        It is important to note in Table 24 below that unintentional injuries outrank homicides
and suicides combined in Hamilton County. Furthermore, according to the CDC (2015), the
majority of unintentional deaths are related to drug use. This is a huge concern for public health,
especially considering the current problem that Cincinnati and neighboring cities have with drug
use, particularly heroin. Other injury-related deaths included under this category of unintentional
injuries are falls, drowning, and choking. Based on the significant elderly population that
Springdale has at its numerous retirement homes, such as Maple Knoll, falls would be a big
concern to monitor within the community. However, according to the CDC (2015), the top five
leading causes of death still remain the same nationwide. The top five leading causes of death are
heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, unintentional injuries, and stroke.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                      48

Table 24. Injury in Hamilton Country (rates per 100,000)
Injury Deaths in Hamilton County (rates per 100,000)

                   2000-2002           2003-2005           2006-2008          2009-2010

Homicides          7.2                 10.3                10.8               8/8

Suicides           9.3                 10.7                10.8               10.8

Unintentional      29.5                31.9                38.1               33.7
Injury

Source: Ohio Department of Health: Violence and Injury Prevention Program. (2010). Hamilton
county injury profile. Retrieved from
http://www.healthy.ohio.gov/~/media/HealthyOhio/ASSETS/Files/injury%20prevention/Burdenr
eport/Hamilton%20Profile%20-%20Final.ashx.

        Springdale is not considered an extremely violent community in terms of homicides and
rapes. However, the community experiences a large amount of burglaries and thefts in the area.
Based on our windshield survey, there are certain parts of the City that are not very safe. That
being said, it was surprising to see that the city does not encounter many murders or homicides.
This point was confirmed by one of the City of Springdale police officers, who stated that there
has not been gun violence in the city for quite a few years (Springdale police officer, personal
communication, September 19, 2015).

Table 25. Types and numbers of Crimes in Springdale, OH in 2013
Type of crime                         Number per year in Springdale, OH
                                      in 2013
Murders                               0

Rapes                                    6

Robberies                                24

Assaults                                 11

Burglaries                               89

Thefts                                   654

Auto Thefts                              31

Arson                                    1
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          49

Figure 19. Crimes by Type in Springdale, OH in 2013

Source: Ohio Department of Health: Violence and Injury Prevention Program. (2010). Hamilton
county injury profile. Retrieved from
http://www.healthy.ohio.gov/~/media/HealthyOhio/ASSETS/Files/injury%20prevention/Burdenr
eport/Hamilton%20Profile%20-%20Final.ashx.

City-Data.com - Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, crime, house prices, cost of
living, races, home value estimator, recent sales, income, photos, schools, maps, weather,
neighborhoods, and more. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com.
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                          50

Figure 20. Graphical representation of injury-related deaths for Hamilton County and the state of
   Ohio

Source: Ohio Department of Health: Violence and Injury Prevention Program. (2010). Hamilton
County injury profile. Retrieved from
http://www.healthy.ohio.gov/~/media/HealthyOhio/ASSETS/Files/injury%20prevention/Burdenr
eport/Hamilton%20Profile%20-%20Final.ashx.

City-Data.com - Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, crime, house prices, cost of
living, races, home value estimator, recent sales, income, photos, schools, maps, weather,
neighborhoods, and more. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com.

       The trend in crime index is particularly interesting for Springdale, Ohio as compared to
the United States average, as seen in Table 26. In 2003, the crime index rating in Springdale was
more than 500. Over the next eight years, the crime index gradually decreased to 286.6.
However, it began to escalate quickly just a year later, leading to a most recent crime index of
358.9 in 2013, which is higher than the national average.

Table 26. Crime Index in Springdale from 2003-2013.
Crime Index (higher value means more crime)

Springdale, OH in 2003                          532.8

Springdale, OH in 2006                          482.1

Springdale, OH in 2009                          346.2

Springdale, OH in 2011                          286.6

Springdale, OH in 2012                          327.2
SPRINGDALE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 2016-2017                                                           51

Springdale, OH in 2013                         358.9

United States average in 2013                  294.7

Source: City-Data.com - Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, crime, house
prices, cost of living, races, home value estimator, recent sales, income, photos, schools, maps,
weather, neighborhoods, and more. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com.

Figure 21. Crime Indices for Springdale, OH Compared to the United States Average

Source: City-Data.com - Stats about all US cities - real estate, relocation info, crime, house
prices, cost of living, races, home value estimator, recent sales, income, photos, schools, maps,
weather, neighborhoods, and more. (2015). Retrieved October 22, 2015, from
        http://www.city-data.com

 V.    Health Facilities

    A. Hospitals
         There is currently no hospital within the city limits of Springdale. The closest hospitals
available to the citizens of Springdale are Mercy Fairfield Hospital and Trihealth Evendale
Hospital. These facilities are located on opposite sides of Springdale and offer different services
to their patients.
             • Mercy Fairfield is a 229- bed hospital located northwest of Springdale in
                Fairfield, Ohio (U.S. News and World Report, 2015). It is a short-term acute care
                facility that is under the ownership of Mercy Health, a large health system
                comprised of five Cincinnati-area hospitals. Mercy Health has been named as one
                of the top 15 health systems in the country for the last two years (Truven Health
                Analytics, 2015). Mercy Fairfield Hospital is nationally recognized and is a great
                asset to the Springdale community. The facility is fairly accessible to Springdale
                community members being located a few blocks from the major highway
                connecting Springdale to its neighboring communities.
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