Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
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Contents 03 Contents 05 Introduction 07 Organisational Strategy Overview A Strategic Approach to Change 08 Development of the Tanzania Strategy Previous work in Tanzania Key Achievements 10 Tanzania Contextual Analysis The Wider Context The Specific Context Considerations for Children in Crossfire Vision, Mission and Values for Children in Crossfire Tanzania 15 Strategic Intervention for Tanzania Our School Readiness Approach in Tanzania Programmatic Approach at Multiple levels Targeting Strategy Strategic Outcome Strategic Objectives Strategic Actions Model of Intervention (Logic Model) Our School Readiness Model Geographic Focus Expected Results 22 Annexes Stakeholder Analysis Children in Crossfire approach to Results Based Management Risk Management and Internal Policies Compliance and Codes of Conduct Images sourced from from Mwanza Micro-Finance Programme, Mhonze Primary School, Makaa, Early Childhood Education Centre, Mwanza. 2 3
Introduction From our Founder and Chief Executive, Richard Moore I am delighted to present this Strategic Plan for Children in Crossfire Tanzania for the period 2018-2021. The plan reflects Children in Crossfire’s overall organisational strategy (2015- 2019) which aims to create With more than ten million children aged “A compassionate world where between 0-5 years in Tanzania, both the opportunity, and the challenge, to give children every child can reach his or the best start to life takes on unprecedented her potential”. importance. It is today’s young Tanzania children that will drive this growing economy in the future. Tanzania has been our flagship country Education performance is key to this. Children programme since it was established in 2008. in Crossfire supports children to enter school with Indeed Children in Crossfire Tanzania’s the necessary social, physical and cognitive evolving positioning and programming in early competencies to achieve positive learning childhood development (ECD) has distinctly outcomes, whilst also supporting schools, families, informed the wider organisation’s strategic communities and governments to provide the direction and focus. necessary learning environment so that young In a relatively short space of time in Tanzania children have the best possible chance to we have made important contributions successfully complete their schooling. to the ECD policy space, as well as made Finally, whether we are working in our countries a difference in the lives of thousands of overseas or in Ireland and the UK, children. We have developed strong and we are driven by our unique vision, highly valued partnerships with national “A compassionate world where every child and local organisations in the delivery of can reach his or her potential”. For Children in our programmes. Aligning with Children in Crossfire it is essential that as we work for Change Crossfire’s overall organisational Strategic Plan we nurture Compassion as the underpinning (2015-19), this Tanzanian plan represents a core value that drives people to take actions for commitment to build on our achievements to a better world for all children. As you read this date in Tanzania and to position and focus our strategy, I hope you will see how Children in work in a way that can deliver the most benefit Crossfire works in a results-focused, sustainable for the sector and the thousands of children we and Compassionate way to reach positive are privileged to directly reach. outcomes for every child we encounter. Children in Crossfire’s focus on early childhood development recognises that it is the early years of life that provide the foundations for all that follows. The scientific and economic evidence is Richard Moore, clear that if children have positive early years’ Founder and Chief Executive Officer experiences they will perform better in life. Informed by our programming to date, Children in Crossfire focuses on ‘School Readiness’ 1, a key priority in giving children the opportunity to reach their potential. 4 5
Organisational Vision, Mission and Values Organisational Strategy Overview Vision Children in Crossfire’s ‘Present For Children in Crossfire, sustainable Change can only be fully realised by adopting a for the Future’ Organisational Programmatic approach to our work. This Strategic Plan 2015-2019 is the means that our interventions are driven by A compassionate basis of this Tanzanian strategic national and international development world where every child plan. The organisational initiatives, and specifically aligned to the can reach his or her potential strategy is strongly informed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We integrate our activities and drive collaboration by international evidence of Mission between vulnerable families, Communities, the importance of investing in Civil Society and Government, towards agreed Early Childhood Development needs. We engage with all stakeholders to To work with others to tackle the injustices programmes as well as our tackle key issues that impact young children of poverty affecting children by working towards an over arching Goal. own learning from 20 years of Specifically, in Tanzania we work with implementing programmes in Specifically, this strategy will see us respond developing country contexts. to SDG Goal No. 4 “to ensure inclusive and others to ensure every child in Tanzania equitable quality education and promote life- experiences a positive early childhood long learning opportunities for all.” A Strategic Approach to Change that gives them the best start to life Within Goal 4, we will achieve results and Global inequality and poverty impacts lasting impact within Target 4.2 “by 2030 negatively upon children, and prevents them ensure that all girls and boys have access to from reaching their full potential. It limits the quality early childhood development, care extent to which governments and communities and pre-primary education so that they are can invest in important services for the ready for primary education2 .” development, protection and education of its children. Children in Crossfire’s International Values programmes works to bring positive and sustainable Change to the lives of children in the countries where we work who are caught up in this Crossfire of Poverty. In Tanzania our programme will complement this with targeted interventions focused on supporting young children to reach their full potential. Compassion Accountability A core concern for the well-being Using our resources effectively The early years of life are crucial. of others leading to actions for a and efficiently to build openness When well nurtured and cared for in their earliest years, children are more likely fairer world and trust with our supporters, to survive, to grow in a healthy way, to partners and the communities have less disease and fewer illnesses, where we work and to fully develop thinking, language, Partnership emotional and social skills…and later in life, they have a greater chance of becoming creative and productive Working together to bring about sustainable change Equality members of society. Where everyone is treated fairly UNICEF and respected, and where rights are protected 6 7
Development of the Tanzania Strategy Children in Crossfire take a establishing strong peer support mechanisms Zungumza na Mtoto Mchanga (ZUMM – Talk Key Achievements through women’s groups, with income to your baby) Programme 2012-2014 structured approach to strategic generation tied into ECD initiatives that has During the last 5-Years Children in Crossfire- planning that balances the needs proved to be a strong incentive for ongoing The ZUMM Programme TZ Programmes have made important of the country with our previous engagement. was the first time that achievements, including: research into the links experience and is informed by Nationally, we joined with others to create between a child’s early • Children: reached more than 60,000 current research and best practice significant momentum towards improving language environment, children, helping them towards achieving in the area of Early Childhood investments in young children as a vehicle for early language their potential intellectually, physically and socially; Development. national development. Strengthened policies, comprehension and new initiatives and donor interest has helped long term learning • Teachers and Educators: trained and Children in Crossfire Tanzania’s main goal is improve opportunities for all Tanzanian young outcomes had been mentored more than 300 pre-primary to increase access to quality Early Childhood children to achieve their potential in the long conducted in a sub-Saharan African context. teachers and preschool educators to Development (ECD), supporting children’s term. The Randomised Control Trial engaged over improve delivery of early childhood developmental needs and giving them a 1,000 families with new born children in 5 Fursa kwa Watoto Programme 2014 - 2017 education; chance to reach their fullest potential. districts in Tanzania over a 2 year period. “Fursa kwa Watoto” Evidence suggested an extremely poor • Parents and Caregivers: raised awareness Since its inception in 2008 Children in (‘Opportunities for language environment for very young of the importance of the early years of a Crossfire’s Tanzania programme has focused Children’, hereafter FkW) childcare in Tanzania (baseline of 163 words child’s development among thousands of on young children. Previous strategic was designed to improve per hour compared to the ‘western norm’ parents and caregivers of children; plans have had a broader focus which has school readiness and of around 1500). It also revealed very little narrowed as programme learning and • Community Leadership: oriented in learning outcomes for awareness of the importance of talking to capacity has evolved. During this time ECD and supported hundreds of local children through provision babies, and how to do so. After a simple Children in Crossfire has established itself as government officials at community and of quality pre-primary education in line with intervention results showed significant a key national stakeholder in early childhood council levels to prioritise a range of early Tanzanian policies and systems. FkW delivered improvements in language comprehension development reflected through strong years interventions; a model that was cost effective and scalable amongst the test group including a doubling relationships with government, other civil and was complemented by local and national on how much language babies could society actors and donors. • Local Implementing Partners: entered advocacy and planning on pre-primary. It understand3. Additional to the improved partnerships, and provided dedicated was rolled out in 180 schools in Mwanza and language comprehension, many families capacity-building and programmatic Previous work in Tanzania Kilimanjaro and directly reached over 37,000 reported that when they talked to their support to community-based civil society children. Over 250 teachers and 180 head children, they became happier and fathers Integrated Early Childhood Development organisations to champion the delivery of teachers were also reached. became more involved as they saw how the (IECD) Programme 2012-2016 ECD programmes locally; babies responded to language. As well as This programme took a holistic approach to Crucially, the programme was able to respond informing Children in Crossfire’s own parenting • National Government: engaged very early childhood development, considering quickly to the unexpected introduction of interventions, the research has informed closely with sector and implementing elements of education, health, care and compulsory fee-free pre-primary education international discourse. The findings have been ministries in both the formulation and protection. Geographically it focused on 3 nationally. This resulted in a surge in pre- accepted by the Tanzanian government and implementation of policy targeting districts of Moshi Rural, Ilemela, and Mvomero primary enrolment with many schools have informed a national plan of action on improved ECD delivery nationwide. where we worked through local partners. experiencing class sizes of over 200 children. positive parenting. Over 5-yrs the IECD Programme reached While subject to a wider evaluation, lessons more than 25,000 children, helping them on the ‘process and content’ of the FkW are towards achieving their potential intellectually, informing national pre-primary dialogue and physically and socially. This change occurred scale-up initiatives. through the combination of improving access and quality of early childhood education; strengthening local structures mandated to oversee early childhood services; and 8 9
Tanzania Contextual Analysis GNI PER Drivers of poverty: Rural poor lack basic assets and services CAPITA: with multiple factors causing low human US $2,740 development. The majority of Tanzanians live (World Bank, in rural areas, challenged by poor infrastructure 2016) and limited accessible services. Despite HDI AREA: significant improvements in MDG indicators RANKING: the quality of services in Tanzania remains 945,087 sq km 151 out of 188 low, especially in rural areas. More than half (UNDP, 2015) of poor rural dwellers live in ‘pitiful’ conditions lacking basic assets.1 Meanwhile, Tanzania’s LIFE population is rapidly urbanising, with one-third now living in urban areas.2 Dar es Salaam is EXPECTANCY: POPULATION: Tanzania’s largest city with a population of over 62/66 (m/f) 5 million,3 expected to reach 10 million by 2030. Estimated at years old (WHO, This brings a myriad of problems associated 54million in 2016) with rapid urbanisation including high 2017 unemployment, poor housing and sanitation services, environmental degradation, and poor infrastructure. 70% of Dar residents living in informal high-density settlements with very Gender inequality negatively affects girls and basic services.4 Overall, 74% of children aged CAPITAL: 0-17 years in Tanzania live in multidimensional boys: Tanzania is a largely patriarchal country Dodoma that has made gains in gender equality through poverty; in rural areas this percentage rises to policy, increased female representation in 81%.6 government, and at the level of household social Demographics limit poverty reduction in behaviour change. However, women are still Tanzania has high population growth, declining overburdened with domestic and social roles; mortality levels, and low migration and there females still have limited control of assets such will be a large proportion of working-age people as land and property; girls are still less likely by 2020-30. The population of children aged to attain post-primary education; up to 62% 0-14 in Tanzania is 45%, with 20% aged 15-24, are married before the age of 20.9 There are This Strategic plan presents The Wider Context making Tanzania a ‘youth bulge’ country. There also high levels of violence against children, an overview of the Tanzanian are approximately 8.7 million children under 8 especially girls.10 Tanzania is a politically stable country that years old (20% of the population).7 Such a profile context within which Children gained independence in 1961. In 2017, the UN Poor childhood experiences are linked to means that quality of coverage of health and in Crossfire’s programme will be Human Development Index ranked it 154 out education services for young children remains social and economic status of parents, with of 189 countries, a ‘low human development’ maternal education a variable in outcomes for planned. It is drawn from a more low, ultimately impacting their ability to reach country. The Tanzanian Development Vision young children. Parenting in an environment development milestones. Comprehensive version which is 2025 envisages that Tanzania “will have of poverty, insecurity and stress is incredibly graduated to a middle income country by the Low levels of social protection services and high difficult, and in such an environment children’s available on upon request. year 2025”. Although GDP Annual Growth Rate rights are negatively affected. Approximately levels of poverty negatively affects children in averaged 6.72% from 2002 to 2015 poverty Tanzania meaning the majority of families live 25% of children live with single parents, 14% remains prevalent, with 43.7% of people living in ‘generalised insecurity’.8 A shock such as with grandparents, and 2% in other care- below the international poverty line. The an illness or drought can push many families giving situations such as single child-headed population was estimated at 54 million in 2017, into vulnerability, seriously risking the health households.11 Poor childhood experiences and the average life expectancy at birth is 62 / and welfare of its members, with women and seriously limit human development and are 66 years across men and women respectively. children the most at risk. likely to be repeated in future generations. 10 11
The Specific Context 18 and almost three-quarters experiencing physical violence in childhood. Safe Early childhood indicators in Tanzania highlight parenting remains a challenge, with a recent important progress but also significant pervasive Children in Crossfire baseline16 reporting 94% challenges faced by young children: of caregivers were leaving an under 3 year old child with a child aged 10 years or less. • Health: 90% immunisation coverage achieved, under-five mortality has halved • Stimulation: While 94% of caregivers reported between 2005 and 2015. However, more than engagement with the child in some way 100,000 children under-5 still die every year.12 in past 3 days17, the quality of stimulation remains poor. The overall language • Nutrition: While chronic malnutrition has been environment is very poor, and our own reduced, chronic undernutrition for children baseline19 reveals 79% of households do not under 5-years remains high overall at 35% in have any type of early stimulation play 2014.13 materials, negatively affecting cognitive • Early Education: With the roll-out of development and academic achievement compulsory fee-free pre-primary education in later life. in 2016 enrolment doubled to 1.5 million These statistics combined mean that large children. However access challenges persist numbers of children entering primary education given more than half of all five-year olds are are undernourished and will have had no not enrolled and the quality is extremely access to pre-school, meaning they are not poor. Teacher pupil ratios averaging able or ready to learn. Performance in lower nationally 1:183 in government schools.14 primary school reflects this with more than one- • Child Protection: Violence against children quarter of standard seven students failing to pass has high prevalence, with one third of basic standard two level tests across reading, females experiencing sexual abuse before mathematics, and language in 2015 20. Policy and coordination framework for children Coordination of children’s policy at the national in Tanzania is relatively strong with a range level remains weak, and funding for children’s of policies and laws which, if resourced and services is inadequate.21 The significant implemented could bring significant long term resource constraints affect the delivery of health outcomes for children and the nation. Tanzania and education services and impact efforts has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights to promote ECD.22 The ECD domain stretches of the Child, and the African Charter on the across multiple institutions and Ministries having Rights and Welfare of the Child, domesticated specific government mandates over ECD through the Law of the Child Act (2009). The according to those policy guidelines and laws most critical and frequently cited policies currently in place. In practice, little integration pertinent to ECD include the: Child Development occurs between Ministries, as the structure and Policy (2008); Education and Training Policy budgetary framework for each Ministry focuses (2014); National Multisectoral Nutrition Action exclusively on their core social service provision. Plan (2016); National Roadmap Strategic Plan to Improve Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (2016); and the National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children (2017). A review of current policies relating to ECD in Tanzania confirms that there is no single policy document or Ministry which comprehensively covers all major aspects needed across the five ECD domains for children aged 0-5. As a result, there are some unintended and occasionally ambiguous policy overlaps, and coordination across multiple domains can be complex. 12 13
Figure 1 illustrates the main Ministries leading in each of the five ECD domain areas. Strategic Intervention for Tanzania Pregnancy Birth Age 1 Age 2 Age 3 Age 4 Age 5 Age 6 Age 18 President’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government Our School Readiness Approach in Programmatic Approach at Multiple (implementer of sub-sector policies and strategies) Tanzania levels ECD domains Under the increasingly present 1. At the Micro Level: Health Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children branding of “Watoto Wetu Tunu • Educators/teachers will be trained in best Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children Yetu” (Our Children, Our Greatest practice for working with young children, Nutrition (led by Tanzania Food Nutrition Centre) Treasure), Children in Crossfire’s and schools will be supported to improve overall quality and enrolment. Ministry of Education (pre-primary age 3-5 on) ECD programming and policy Early Learning engagement in Tanzania over this • Management committees / owners of Department of Social Welfare education facilities will be trained to better Day Care centre / Creches next strategic phase will focus on appreciate and support the importance of Department of Social Welfare (also Ministry of Home Affairs, via Police) improving the school readiness early learning in the basic education cycle Child Security of young girls and boys aged 0-6 Department of Social Welfare years, to help them reach their • Parents/caregivers will have improved Day Care centre / Creches knowledge and practice towards young Ministry of Health, Community, potential. children, including providing quality early Responsive Ministry of Education (pre-primary age 3-5 on) Care-giving Gender, Elderly and Children childhood stimulation. Aligned to our Model for School Readiness (see Annexes), we will engage with key • Poverty related barriers to participation will Figure 1: Simplified ministry mandates by ECD domain and child age stakeholders to improve access to quality Early be researched with a view to mitigating Childhood Education (ECE) in our target areas some of the barriers that prevent children through age appropriate quality education in from participating fully in the programme community-based pre-schools and government Pre-Primary Classes. We will also engage the 2. At the Meso Level: most vulnerable families to support strong parenting skills and stimulation in the home • Institutions and local government authorities and widely engage community mechanisms (LGAs) will be supported to more effectively that support young children. Complementing plan for, support and regulate ECD services, all of this we will also address barriers that especially with regards early learning prevent children from being able to benefit and early stimulation.. This will lead to from this. improved standards in pre-primary classes, community pre-schools for children 3-5 Our strategy of implementation engages years, as well as early stimulation support appropriate local and national partners and in health clinics and via home outreach stakeholders to ensure a coordinated approach services, enabling and encouraging that works towards improved School Readiness behaviour change of parents/caregivers for every child in Tanzania in support to and educators to maximise the return on government priorities where possible. We work investment in young children. directly in target regions and with others at national level to advocate for formulation and implementation of relevant laws and policies applicable to School Readiness. 14 15
3. At the Macro Level: Targeting Strategy Strategic Actions • The Tanzanian government and national • Parents and Caregivers of young children institutions will make efficient use of aged 0-5, with particular priority on resources to deliver quality and equitable households of Most Vulnerable Children Early Childhood Development and School (MVC). Readiness at scale. They will better understand the importance of investments • Children aged 3-4 years in community- in young children, and will be accountable to children, parents, schools and based ECD centres36 • Children aged 537 years in Government Pre- Increased School communities. • Research evidence will be used to inform Primary classes Readiness for policy and practice at all levels. This improves planning, coordination, and • Early Years Educators and Management Committees / owners of ECD centres Young Children monitoring mechanisms that increases • Pre-Primary teachers and Management investments for interventions that can have Committees / leadership in government the greatest impact on children, especially primary schools To improve To support our with regards where the greatest inequities to early stimulation partners in • Local government officials across for young performance and access and quality exist. improved decentralised levels with sectoral children sustainability By intervening at all three levels, Children in responsibility for young children Crossfire believes more children will experience quality School Readiness in Tanzania, and • National Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies with sectoral To increase have a higher chance of meeting development To increase knowledge and benchmarks to be ready to thrive at school. responsibility for young children access accountability of to quality early decision makers and childhood key stakeholders • Support parents education with respect to the for young • Build partners’ with skills needs of young children children technical for positive expertise in ECD parenting • Support partners • Strengthen to focus on health systems to sustainability support families and quality. • Improve the quality • Work with local and enrolment government to levels of early years integrate ECD into • Strengthen education local development practices in plans Child Protection, • Support Safeguarding communities • Advocate for and Gender to establish stronger laws and Issues mechanisms that policies affecting promote and protect young children young children • Increase knowledge • Understand and of key decision mitigate ‘barriers’ to makers on the participation in our importance of programme investing in young children 16 17
Logic of Intervention Each core intervention works within • Dodoma: while officially Tanzania’s capital • Dar es Salaam: is the commercial capital of government priorities, with civil society since 1973, it is only most recently that all Tanzania. Dar is the epicentre of a rapidly Children in Crossfire has prioritized two main technical input and coordination where government ministries have relocated to urbanising Tanzania, with a population of ‘boundary partners’ to effect change for appropriate. The intention is that all three Dodoma City, and its increasing role as the over 5 million by 2017 42, and one of Africa’s children – parental figures and educators. All interventions support systemic change, from operating capacity of Tanzania and the seat fastest growing cities, Dar is expected interventions will work to support parental the micro ground level up through meso of government makes Dodoma strategically to reach mega-city status of 10 million figures and educators to practice improved and macro levels of local and national important. Dodoma region itself suffers from population by 2030. Spanning an area of behaviours that are aligned with best practice, government. Considerable efforts in advocacy high levels of poverty and is one of the worst 1,343km², and divided into 5 city councils, global and Tanzanian policy, and past and evidence sharing will be made to performing regions for ECD in the country. Dar experiences a myriad of problems learning. In every community where Children galvanise a movement for ECD among all Dodoma spans a total area of 41,311km², associated with rapid urbanisation. 70% of in Crossfire operates, at least one of the 3 core stakeholders. administrated across 7 district councils, Dar residents live in informal high-density interventions will be available: and with a total population of 2,083,588 in settlements with very basic services,43 2012, while population numbers will rapidly vulnerability is high and thousands of • Early stimulation: Focused on children Geographic Focus increase with the government’s recent move children live in multidimensional poverty, aged 0–3 in the home – Parental and For our Tanzania programme this strategic to Dodoma. and yet there are currently few ECD caregiver behaviour change, supported plan prioritises 4 target regions. Regional programmes implemented in Dar. by community volunteers during home visits, and integrated into RMNCH services selection is a process of assessment of a range at health facilities, drawing from the of ECD indicators, strategic considerations, government’s national Care for Child balanced against the availability of good local Development initiative. partners and Children in Crossfire’s capacity to implement and operate in those areas. • Pre-school (community / private): Focused on children aged 3–5 – Educator behaviour • Mwanza Region: is made up of an area change, managed through centre total of 9,467km² and population in 2012 leadership/owners and local government of 2,772,509, administrated over by seven with focus on government minimum district councils, including Mwanza City. MWANZA quality standards at the pre-school centres, One of the most impoverished regions in particularly quality teaching, appropriate Tanzania, young children in Mwanza face curriculum, availability of learning many challenges across all ECD domains, materials, feeding programme, WASH, and and have poor access to essential services. child protection. Children in Crossfire is looking to build on our existing partnership with TAHEA • Pre-primary (government): Focused on Mwanza since 2012 to deliver high quality PREMBA NORTH children aged 5–6 – Educator (teacher) early years education and introduce early PREMBA SOUTH behaviour change, managed through stimulation into our programming. DODOMA ZANZIBAR NORTH school leadership and local government ZANZIBAR URBAN/WEST with focus on improved learning • Morogoro Region: is an enormous ZANZIBAR SOUTH environment for transition to primary school region spanning an area of 70,624km², (quality teaching, appropriate curriculum administrated over by nine district and town DAR ES SALAAM and materials, engaged leadership and councils. With a population of 2,218,492 in MOROGORO parents). the 2012 census, this is a predominantly agricultural region and yet experiences some of the poorest nutritional indicators for young children. Children in Crossfire is looking to build on our existing partnership with Child Development Organisation (CDO) since 2014 to deliver improve the quality of early years education and introduce early stimulation into our programming.
Expected Results • Strategic media partnership supporting nationwide coverage of quality sub-national Annexes Risk Management and Internal Policies In line with the country logic model spanning journalism on ECD delivery Children in Crossfire operates a comprehensive 2017-2021, Children in Crossfire Tanzania risk management programme, overseen by the programmes are expecting to achieve the Finance and General Purposes Committee (a following reach and results: Children in Crossfire approach to sub-group of our Board of Directors). Local Government: Children Aged 0-5 Years: Results Based Management Throughout the implementation of this strategy, • Clear evidence that ECD resourcing given we will continue to monitor, evaluate and • 20,000 children under 3 years of age priority across 80% of district council plans Children in Crossfire acknowledges that in order implement mitigating actions to manage reached with improved stimulation / within target regions to successfully implement this strategy and risks in the areas of governance, operational, parenting activities deliver on our strategic objectives, there is a need • Regional and district leadership demanding child protection, safeguarding, financial for strong organisational structures in relation • 15,000 children aged 3-4 years enrolled accountability for quality ECD/ECE delivery and regulatory matters. Overall, we will to governance and financial management, across 72 Pre-schools in line with Regional ECD Strategy review existing policies on financial and including sufficient funding streams, human risk management and child protection and resource management and results based • 30,000 children aged 5 years enrolled in • Greater accountability for ECD delivery safeguarding to ensure coherence with the management (RBM). pre-primary classes across 160 primary reported by media across regional and local strategic priorities of this plan. schools government Our approach to RBM is to keep all resources, both financial and human, focused on the Compliance and Codes of Conduct expected changes and results in the Tanzania Parents and Educators: National Government: programmes on a day to day basis. The delivery Children in Crossfire is an active member of a of the strategy and associated objectives will be number of relevant sector networks including • 50,000 parents/caregivers of children 0-5 • Improvement of ECD coverage and quality tracked over the life cycle of the plan using an Institute of Fundraising (IoF), Northern Ireland reached with knowledge, skills and tools for across poorest performing regions RBM system which ensures that all programmes, Community and Voluntary Association parenting projects and support activities will have (NICVA), Coalition of Aid and Development • Harmonised policy environment for early measurable baseline data, outcome indicators Agencies (CADA), Irish Development Education • 96 community volunteers conduct more learning across education and social and annual targets defined in the Results Association (IDEA), and the Irish Association of than 40,000 home parent visits welfare sectors Framework. Non-Governmental Development Organisations • 144 pre-school facilitators achieve quality • Increased domestic and donor resourcing (Dóchas). Children in Crossfire collaborates with of ECD priorities across new 5-Yr sectoral This information will be used to track and these networks to both self-regulate activities, practice across 72 Pre-schools strategies measure results using key tools including: and develop and benchmark our governance • 160 pre-primary teachers achieve quality activities against peer organisations. Children • National ECD Day inaugurated as hallmark • RBM Calendar clearly defining the annual practice across 160 primary schools in Crossfire is also a signatory to the Dóchas annual event of ECD advocacy cyclical process Code on Images and Messages. The Dóchas forum in partnership • Quarterly Board, Sub Committee and Central Code offers a set of guiding principles that can with government Management Meetings to specifically monitor assist organisations in their decision-making Partners: progress about which images and messages to choose • Local implementing in their communication while maintaining full partners demonstrate • Monthly Programme Meetings in country, respect for human dignity. Children in Crossfire significantly improved and monthly meetings through an assigned also adheres to a Child Protection Policy in all capacity across Central Management Country Focus Group of the countries in which we work. We have all organisational aligned our policy, all our training and relevant • Annual Work plans approved and monitored operational areas country implementation procedures to the UN • Annual Strategic Review to ensure ongoing Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), • National civil society relevance Children First Act 2015, and The Children led ECD advocacy Northern Ireland Order 1995. forum revitalised and • Regular Financial Monitoring meeting expectations for medium-term operational • Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) viability and impactful and Learning Plan (IMEP) performance in ECD advocacy The programmes will be reviewed annually with all stakeholders, with an externally facilitated mid-term review planned for 2019, and an external end of term evaluation in 2021. 20 21
Our School Readiness Model Logic Model We believe that only when a society is fully aware of, and practicing high quality caregiving and early learning experiences, can each child be fully ready to achieve at school. Children are Ready for School IMPACT PROGRAMME Children in Children in Crossfire Impact Districts experience Coverage and quality of ECD/ECE OUTCOMES quality Early Stimulation and Early Childhood Education in Tanzania taken to scale Ready Children Ready Families Ready School’s Children Ensuring children have Ensuring parents/ Ensuring schools Parental figures invest Early Years Educators create access to and attend high caregivers are fully implement structured INTERMEDIATE Government takes action to their children and demonstrate a supportive and inclusive improve ECD/ECE outcomes quality ECE services involved in their child’s transition programmes OUTCOMES positive parenting environment for child centered based on evidence early learning and to assist the child’s learning Ensuring children are transition to school progression into formal eager to learn and are Parents and Community Early Years Civil Society Regional Multi-faceted Strategically Accountability education caregivers Volunteers Educators Organisations and district effectively positioned, for ECD/ECE cognitively and socially acquire acquire acquire (CSO’s) govt (LGA’s) packaged active and enhanced ready to enter school knowledge, knowledge knowledge, capacitated regulate and and widely tactful at all levels skills, tools skills and tools skills and tools to support resource ECD/ utilised Advocacy by strategic for parenting for supporting for effective quality ECE initiatives Evidence- movement for support Parents Ensuring parents/ Ensuring parents Ensuring schools liaise with OUTPUTS and ECE ECD/ECE child centered ECD/ECE base for ECD/ECE of quality caregivers are engage with local ECE and possibly mentor local learning interventions ECD/ECE journalism demonstrating good services ECE services Stimulation Practice towards children aged 0-3 Communities Ensuring community Communities assist with Ensuring schools are structures support ECE ensuring our Stimulation accountable to their Cross-cutting issues for programme and M&E Disaggregation services, and create safe Practice programme is communities for creating Eg. Most Vulnerable Children / Child Protection / Gender /Adolescents / Nutrition ‘Stimulation’ environments inclusive and accessible a high quality learning for children to nurture for families with the environment for children, learning through play Most Vulnerable including care and Children protection References aged 0-3 1 Children in Crossfire defines school readiness as: 14 REPOA Gender Statistics, 2010: Accessed 176.06.16 28 World Bank, ECD SABER Country Report, 2012 Frontline Ensuring frontline Ensuring frontline Ensuring schools have children being ready to learn in a formal learning environment. It consists of three pillars – ready at: www.repoa.or.tz/documents/repoa_gender_ English.pdf 29 President’s Office Regional Administration and Professionals professionals have full professionals are fully fully qualified teachers, children, ready schools (to welcome children into 15 Local Government formal learning), and ready families (to support www.unicef.org/tanzania/maternal_child_ awareness of the needs of equipped to support adequate resources, and the transition of children into formal learning). health.html 30 Prime Minister’s Office young children parents towards good the necessary learning 16 2 See: www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg4 Save the Children and Plan International, Child 31 Ministry of Health, Community Development, practice materials Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania, Gender, Elderly and Children 3 Full report available here at 2014; Violence Against Children Report, www.childrenincrossfire.org/what-we-do/ 32 Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology tanzania/completed-programmes 17 UNICEF, cited in McAlpine et al., 2009 What is “resilience” and how does it provide an alternative Local 35 Early childhood stimulation is the interaction Ensuring local government understand the needs Ensuring the 4 World Bank www.data.worldbank.org/country/ perspective on working with vulnerable children? between young children and their caregivers, Government of young children in relation to ECD, and the implementation of legal tanzania accessed 2.6.16 18 ‘Women and Children First’ Countdown to 2015 providing children with the opportunity to learn about their environment from the earliest age importance of investing resources in young children minimum standards for 5 World Bank, Tanzania Mainland Poverty Assessment, 2015 19 Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, National from both a human rights perspective for the child pre-school Nutrition Survey, 2014 36 Also known as preschools, kindergartens, and day-care centres and the long term importance for building human 6 www.statista.com/statistics/455940/urbanization- capital for economic development Ensuring improved in-tanzania/ 20 BEST: Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania, 2017 draft 37 The targeting strategy recognises that there will be children aged ‘rising 4s’ and rising 5s in ECD qualified teacher/pupil 7 “Population of Dar es Salaam 2017” at URL: Centres and PPE classes respectively www.populationof2017.com/population-of-dar-es- 21 UNICEF et al, Violence Against Children in ratios in pre-schools salaam-2017.html Tanzania, Findings from a National Survey 2009 38 See www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/Busan%20 partnership.pdf Ensuring resourcing of pre- 8 Edward Anderson (October 2017): “Improving 22 Baseline Assessment of Integrated School Readiness Programme (ISRP), CiC Tanzania, 2017 Risk Information in Tanzania,” Results in Resilience 39 Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child primary education in line Series, World Bank Group Health (RMNCH) services 23 RTI International (2017, October) Measuring Early with government policy 9 Meaning they are deprived of three or more rights Learning and Quality Outcomes (MELQO) Final 40 The ideal ages have been presented for both such as nutrition, access to water and sanitation Report education interventions, but the reality in Tanzania National Engaging with key decision makers to improve understanding of the importance facilities, access to basic healthcare services, shelter, education, participation and protection. 24 UNICEF ECD Strategy Tanzania, 2016. Also, is that children from age 3–5 and above may be present in both community pre-schools and Government of investments in young children as a contributing factor in national development Townend, J and D., Zumgumza na Mtoto government pre-primary classrooms due to 10 Child Poverty in Tanzania, National Bureau of Mchanga (Talk to your baby) research in three availability of services close to their home. Statistics and UNICEF, 2015 regions in Tanzania showed that only 60 words per Engaging with key decision makers to improve understanding of the importance hour of direct talking occurred (about 2 minutes) 41 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene infrastructure and of investments in young children as a contributing factor in national development 11 World Bank, Tanzania Mainland Poverty practices Assessment, 2015 25 Baseline Assessment of Integrated School Readiness Programme (ISRP), Children in Crossfire 42 Population of Dar es Salaam 2017” at URL: Engaging with education ministries and key stakeholders on the importance of 12 Save the Children and Plan International, Child Tanzania, 2017 www.populationof2017.com/population-of-dar-es- investing in pre-school programmes Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania, salaam-2017.html 2014; UNICEF ECD Strategy for Tanzania, 2016 26 ‘Are our children learning?’ Uwezo Tanzania Annual Learning Assessment Report 2017 43 Edward Anderson (October 2017): “Improving 13 Wuyts, M., ‘Developing Social Protection in Risk Information in Tanzania,” Results in Resilience Tanzania within a Context of Generalised 27 Save the Children and Plan International, Child Series, World Bank Group Insecurity’, 2006. Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania, 2014 22 23
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