Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...

Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Tanzania Country
Strategic Plan
Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...

        03     Contents

        05     Introduction

        07     Organisational Strategy Overview
               A Strategic Approach to Change

        08     Development of the Tanzania Strategy
               Previous work in Tanzania
               Key Achievements

        10     Tanzania Contextual Analysis
               The Wider Context
               The Specific Context
               Considerations for Children in Crossfire
               Vision, Mission and Values for Children in Crossfire Tanzania

        15     Strategic Intervention for Tanzania
               Our School Readiness Approach in Tanzania
               Programmatic Approach at Multiple levels
               Targeting Strategy
               Strategic Outcome
               Strategic Objectives
               Strategic Actions
               Model of Intervention (Logic Model)
               Our School Readiness Model
               Geographic Focus
               Expected Results

        22     Annexes
               Stakeholder Analysis
               Children in Crossfire approach to Results Based Management
               Risk Management and Internal Policies
               Compliance and Codes of Conduct

         Images sourced from from Mwanza Micro-Finance Programme, Mhonze
         Primary School, Makaa, Early Childhood Education Centre, Mwanza.

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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...

    From our Founder and Chief
    Executive, Richard Moore
    I am delighted to present this
    Strategic Plan for Children in
    Crossfire Tanzania for the period
    2018-2021. The plan reflects
    Children in Crossfire’s overall
    organisational strategy (2015-
    2019) which aims to create                           With more than ten million children aged
    “A compassionate world where                         between 0-5 years in Tanzania, both the
                                                         opportunity, and the challenge, to give children
    every child can reach his or                         the best start to life takes on unprecedented
    her potential”.                                      importance. It is today’s young Tanzania children
                                                         that will drive this growing economy in the future.
    Tanzania has been our flagship country
                                                         Education performance is key to this. Children
    programme since it was established in 2008.
                                                         in Crossfire supports children to enter school with
    Indeed Children in Crossfire Tanzania’s
                                                         the necessary social, physical and cognitive
    evolving positioning and programming in early
                                                         competencies to achieve positive learning
    childhood development (ECD) has distinctly
                                                         outcomes, whilst also supporting schools, families,
    informed the wider organisation’s strategic
                                                         communities and governments to provide the
    direction and focus.
                                                         necessary learning environment so that young
    In a relatively short space of time in Tanzania      children have the best possible chance to
    we have made important contributions                 successfully complete their schooling.
    to the ECD policy space, as well as made
                                                         Finally, whether we are working in our countries
    a difference in the lives of thousands of
                                                         overseas or in Ireland and the UK,
    children. We have developed strong and
                                                         we are driven by our unique vision,
    highly valued partnerships with national
                                                         “A compassionate world where every child
    and local organisations in the delivery of
                                                         can reach his or her potential”. For Children in
    our programmes. Aligning with Children in
                                                         Crossfire it is essential that as we work for Change
    Crossfire’s overall organisational Strategic Plan
                                                         we nurture Compassion as the underpinning
    (2015-19), this Tanzanian plan represents a
                                                         core value that drives people to take actions for
    commitment to build on our achievements to
                                                         a better world for all children. As you read this
    date in Tanzania and to position and focus our
                                                         strategy, I hope you will see how Children in
    work in a way that can deliver the most benefit
                                                         Crossfire works in a results-focused, sustainable
    for the sector and the thousands of children we
                                                         and Compassionate way to reach positive
    are privileged to directly reach.
                                                         outcomes for every child we encounter.
    Children in Crossfire’s focus on early childhood
    development recognises that it is the early years
    of life that provide the foundations for all that
    follows. The scientific and economic evidence is     Richard Moore,
    clear that if children have positive early years’    Founder and Chief Executive Officer
    experiences they will perform better in life.
    Informed by our programming to date, Children
    in Crossfire focuses on ‘School Readiness’ 1, a
    key priority in giving children the opportunity to
    reach their potential.

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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Organisational Vision, Mission and Values                                   Organisational Strategy Overview

                                                                                Children in Crossfire’s ‘Present                    For Children in Crossfire, sustainable Change
                                                                                                                                    can only be fully realised by adopting a
                                                                                for the Future’ Organisational                      Programmatic approach to our work. This
                                                                                Strategic Plan 2015-2019 is the                     means that our interventions are driven by
                           A compassionate                                      basis of this Tanzanian strategic                   national and international development
                       world where every child                                  plan. The organisational                            initiatives, and specifically aligned to the
                     can reach his or her potential                             strategy is strongly informed                       Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We
                                                                                                                                    integrate our activities and drive collaboration
                                                                                by international evidence of
                                                                                                                                    between vulnerable families, Communities,
                                                                                the importance of investing in                      Civil Society and Government, towards agreed
                                                                                Early Childhood Development                         needs. We engage with all stakeholders to
             To work with others to tackle the injustices                       programmes as well as our                           tackle key issues that impact young children
                   of poverty affecting children                                                                                    by working towards an over arching Goal.
                                                                                own learning from 20 years of
               Specifically, in Tanzania we work with                           implementing programmes in                          Specifically, this strategy will see us respond
                                                                                developing country contexts.                        to SDG Goal No. 4 “to ensure inclusive and
              others to ensure every child in Tanzania                                                                              equitable quality education and promote life-
               experiences a positive early childhood                                                                               long learning opportunities for all.”
                                                                                A Strategic Approach to Change
                 that gives them the best start to life                                                                             Within Goal 4, we will achieve results and
                                                                                Global inequality and poverty impacts               lasting impact within Target 4.2 “by 2030
                                                                                negatively upon children, and prevents them         ensure that all girls and boys have access to
                                                                                from reaching their full potential. It limits the   quality early childhood development, care
                                                                                extent to which governments and communities         and pre-primary education so that they are
                                                                                can invest in important services for the            ready for primary education2 .”
                                                                                development, protection and education of its
                                                                                children. Children in Crossfire’s International

                                                                                programmes works to bring positive and
                                                                                sustainable Change to the lives of children in
                                                                                the countries where we work who are caught
                                                                                up in this Crossfire of Poverty. In Tanzania our
                                                                                programme will complement this with targeted
                                                                                interventions focused on supporting young
                                                                                children to reach their full potential.

       Compassion                           Accountability
       A core concern for the well-being    Using our resources effectively                                                          The early years of life are crucial.
       of others leading to actions for a   and efficiently to build openness                                                        When well nurtured and cared for in their
                                                                                                                                     earliest years, children are more likely
       fairer world                         and trust with our supporters,                                                           to survive, to grow in a healthy way, to
                                            partners and the communities                                                             have less disease and fewer illnesses,
                                            where we work                                                                            and to fully develop thinking, language,

       Partnership                                                                                                                   emotional and social skills…and later
                                                                                                                                     in life, they have a greater chance of
                                                                                                                                     becoming creative and productive
       Working together to bring
       about sustainable change             Equality                                                                                 members of society.

                                            Where everyone is treated fairly                                                         UNICEF
                                            and respected, and where rights
                                            are protected
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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Development of the Tanzania Strategy

    Children in Crossfire take a                        establishing strong peer support mechanisms       Zungumza na Mtoto Mchanga (ZUMM – Talk            Key Achievements
                                                        through women’s groups, with income               to your baby) Programme 2012-2014
    structured approach to strategic                    generation tied into ECD initiatives that has                                                       During the last 5-Years Children in Crossfire-
    planning that balances the needs                    proved to be a strong incentive for ongoing                               The ZUMM Programme        TZ Programmes have made important
    of the country with our previous                    engagement.                                                               was the first time that   achievements, including:
                                                                                                                                  research into the links
    experience and is informed by                       Nationally, we joined with others to create                               between a child’s early   • Children: reached more than 60,000
    current research and best practice                  significant momentum towards improving                                    language environment,       children, helping them towards achieving
    in the area of Early Childhood                      investments in young children as a vehicle for                            early language              their potential intellectually, physically and
    Development.                                        national development. Strengthened policies,                              comprehension and
                                                        new initiatives and donor interest has helped                             long term learning
                                                                                                                                                            • Teachers and Educators: trained and
    Children in Crossfire Tanzania’s main goal is       improve opportunities for all Tanzanian young                             outcomes had been
                                                                                                                                                              mentored more than 300 pre-primary
    to increase access to quality Early Childhood       children to achieve their potential in the long   conducted in a sub-Saharan African context.
                                                                                                                                                              teachers and preschool educators to
    Development (ECD), supporting children’s            term.                                             The Randomised Control Trial engaged over
                                                                                                                                                              improve delivery of early childhood
    developmental needs and giving them a                                                                 1,000 families with new born children in 5
                                                        Fursa kwa Watoto Programme 2014 - 2017                                                                education;
    chance to reach their fullest potential.                                                              districts in Tanzania over a 2 year period.
                                                                             “Fursa kwa Watoto”           Evidence suggested an extremely poor              • Parents and Caregivers: raised awareness
    Since its inception in 2008 Children in
                                                                             (‘Opportunities for          language environment for very young                 of the importance of the early years of a
    Crossfire’s Tanzania programme has focused
                                                                             Children’, hereafter FkW)    childcare in Tanzania (baseline of 163 words        child’s development among thousands of
    on young children. Previous strategic
                                                                             was designed to improve      per hour compared to the ‘western norm’             parents and caregivers of children;
    plans have had a broader focus which has
                                                                             school readiness and         of around 1500). It also revealed very little
    narrowed as programme learning and                                                                                                                      • Community Leadership: oriented in
                                                                             learning outcomes for        awareness of the importance of talking to
    capacity has evolved. During this time                                                                                                                    ECD and supported hundreds of local
                                                                             children through provision   babies, and how to do so. After a simple
    Children in Crossfire has established itself as                                                                                                           government officials at community and
                                                        of quality pre-primary education in line with     intervention results showed significant
    a key national stakeholder in early childhood                                                                                                             council levels to prioritise a range of early
                                                        Tanzanian policies and systems. FkW delivered     improvements in language comprehension
    development reflected through strong                                                                                                                      years interventions;
                                                        a model that was cost effective and scalable      amongst the test group including a doubling
    relationships with government, other civil
                                                        and was complemented by local and national        on how much language babies could
    society actors and donors.                                                                                                                              • Local Implementing Partners: entered
                                                        advocacy and planning on pre-primary. It          understand3. Additional to the improved
                                                                                                                                                              partnerships, and provided dedicated
                                                        was rolled out in 180 schools in Mwanza and       language comprehension, many families
                                                                                                                                                              capacity-building and programmatic
    Previous work in Tanzania                           Kilimanjaro and directly reached over 37,000      reported that when they talked to their
                                                                                                                                                              support to community-based civil society
                                                        children. Over 250 teachers and 180 head          children, they became happier and fathers
    Integrated Early Childhood Development                                                                                                                    organisations to champion the delivery of
                                                        teachers were also reached.                       became more involved as they saw how the
    (IECD) Programme 2012-2016                                                                                                                                ECD programmes locally;
                                                                                                          babies responded to language. As well as
    This programme took a holistic approach to          Crucially, the programme was able to respond      informing Children in Crossfire’s own parenting   • National Government: engaged very
    early childhood development, considering            quickly to the unexpected introduction of         interventions, the research has informed            closely with sector and implementing
    elements of education, health, care and             compulsory fee-free pre-primary education         international discourse. The findings have been     ministries in both the formulation and
    protection. Geographically it focused on 3          nationally. This resulted in a surge in pre-      accepted by the Tanzanian government and            implementation of policy targeting
    districts of Moshi Rural, Ilemela, and Mvomero      primary enrolment with many schools               have informed a national plan of action on          improved ECD delivery nationwide.
    where we worked through local partners.             experiencing class sizes of over 200 children.    positive parenting.
    Over 5-yrs the IECD Programme reached               While subject to a wider evaluation, lessons
    more than 25,000 children, helping them             on the ‘process and content’ of the FkW are
    towards achieving their potential intellectually,   informing national pre-primary dialogue and
    physically and socially. This change occurred       scale-up initiatives.
    through the combination of improving access
    and quality of early childhood education;
    strengthening local structures mandated
    to oversee early childhood services; and

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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Tanzania Contextual Analysis                                    GNI PER
                                                                                           Drivers of poverty:

                                                                                           Rural poor lack basic assets and services
                                                                     CAPITA:               with multiple factors causing low human
                                                                    US $2,740              development. The majority of Tanzanians live
                                                                   (World Bank,            in rural areas, challenged by poor infrastructure
                                                                      2016)                and limited accessible services. Despite
                          AREA:                                                            significant improvements in MDG indicators
                                         RANKING:                                          the quality of services in Tanzania remains
                      945,087 sq km     151 out of 188                                     low, especially in rural areas. More than half
                                        (UNDP, 2015)                                       of poor rural dwellers live in ‘pitiful’ conditions
                                                                                           lacking basic assets.1 Meanwhile, Tanzania’s
                                                                        LIFE               population is rapidly urbanising, with one-third
                                                                                           now living in urban areas.2 Dar es Salaam is
     POPULATION:                                                                           Tanzania’s largest city with a population of over
                                                                    62/66 (m/f)            5 million,3 expected to reach 10 million by 2030.
     Estimated at
                                                                  years old (WHO,          This brings a myriad of problems associated
      54million in
                                                                       2016)               with rapid urbanisation including high
         2017                                                                              unemployment, poor housing and sanitation
                                                                                           services, environmental degradation, and
                                                                                           poor infrastructure. 70% of Dar residents living
                                                                                           in informal high-density settlements with very
                                                                                                                                                 Gender inequality negatively affects girls and
                                                                                           basic services.4 Overall, 74% of children aged
                     CAPITAL:                                                              0-17 years in Tanzania live in multidimensional
                                                                                                                                                 boys: Tanzania is a largely patriarchal country
                     Dodoma                                                                                                                      that has made gains in gender equality through
                                                                                           poverty; in rural areas this percentage rises to
                                                                                                                                                 policy, increased female representation in
                                                                                                                                                 government, and at the level of household social
                                                                                           Demographics limit poverty reduction in               behaviour change. However, women are still
                                                                                           Tanzania has high population growth, declining        overburdened with domestic and social roles;
                                                                                           mortality levels, and low migration and there         females still have limited control of assets such
                                                                                           will be a large proportion of working-age people      as land and property; girls are still less likely
                                                                                           by 2020-30. The population of children aged           to attain post-primary education; up to 62%
                                                                                           0-14 in Tanzania is 45%, with 20% aged 15-24,         are married before the age of 20.9 There are
     This Strategic plan presents       The Wider Context                                  making Tanzania a ‘youth bulge’ country. There        also high levels of violence against children,
     an overview of the Tanzanian                                                          are approximately 8.7 million children under 8        especially girls.10
                                        Tanzania is a politically stable country that
                                                                                           years old (20% of the population).7 Such a profile
     context within which Children      gained independence in 1961. In 2017, the UN                                                             Poor childhood experiences are linked to
                                                                                           means that quality of coverage of health and
     in Crossfire’s programme will be   Human Development Index ranked it 154 out
                                                                                           education services for young children remains
                                                                                                                                                 social and economic status of parents, with
                                        of 189 countries, a ‘low human development’                                                              maternal education a variable in outcomes for
     planned. It is drawn from a more                                                      low, ultimately impacting their ability to reach
                                        country. The Tanzanian Development Vision                                                                young children. Parenting in an environment
                                                                                           development milestones.
     Comprehensive version which is     2025 envisages that Tanzania “will have                                                                  of poverty, insecurity and stress is incredibly
                                        graduated to a middle income country by the        Low levels of social protection services and high     difficult, and in such an environment children’s
     available on upon request.         year 2025”. Although GDP Annual Growth Rate                                                              rights are negatively affected. Approximately
                                                                                           levels of poverty negatively affects children in
                                        averaged 6.72% from 2002 to 2015 poverty           Tanzania meaning the majority of families live        25% of children live with single parents, 14%
                                        remains prevalent, with 43.7% of people living     in ‘generalised insecurity’.8 A shock such as         with grandparents, and 2% in other care-
                                        below the international poverty line. The          an illness or drought can push many families          giving situations such as single child-headed
                                        population was estimated at 54 million in 2017,    into vulnerability, seriously risking the health      households.11 Poor childhood experiences
                                        and the average life expectancy at birth is 62 /   and welfare of its members, with women and            seriously limit human development and are
                                        66 years across men and women respectively.        children the most at risk.                            likely to be repeated in future generations.

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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
The Specific Context                                   18 and almost three-quarters experiencing
                                                            physical violence in childhood. Safe
     Early childhood indicators in Tanzania highlight       parenting remains a challenge, with a recent
     important progress but also significant pervasive      Children in Crossfire baseline16 reporting 94%
     challenges faced by young children:                    of caregivers were leaving an under 3 year
                                                            old child with a child aged 10 years or less.
     • Health: 90% immunisation coverage
       achieved, under-five mortality has halved          • Stimulation: While 94% of caregivers reported
       between 2005 and 2015. However, more than            engagement with the child in some way
       100,000 children under-5 still die every year.12     in past 3 days17, the quality of stimulation
                                                            remains poor. The overall language
     • Nutrition: While chronic malnutrition has been
                                                            environment is very poor, and our own
       reduced, chronic undernutrition for children
                                                            baseline19 reveals 79% of households do not
       under 5-years remains high overall at 35% in
                                                            have any type of early stimulation play
                                                            materials, negatively affecting cognitive
     • Early Education: With the roll-out of                development and academic achievement
       compulsory fee-free pre-primary education            in later life.
       in 2016 enrolment doubled to 1.5 million
                                                          These statistics combined mean that large
       children. However access challenges persist
                                                          numbers of children entering primary education
       given more than half of all five-year olds are
                                                          are undernourished and will have had no
       not enrolled and the quality is extremely
                                                          access to pre-school, meaning they are not
       poor. Teacher pupil ratios averaging
                                                          able or ready to learn. Performance in lower
       nationally 1:183 in government schools.14
                                                          primary school reflects this with more than one-
     • Child Protection: Violence against children        quarter of standard seven students failing to pass
       has high prevalence, with one third of             basic standard two level tests across reading,
       females experiencing sexual abuse before           mathematics, and language in 2015 20.

                                                                                                               Policy and coordination framework for children    Coordination of children’s policy at the national
                                                                                                               in Tanzania is relatively strong with a range     level remains weak, and funding for children’s
                                                                                                               of policies and laws which, if resourced and      services is inadequate.21 The significant
                                                                                                               implemented could bring significant long term     resource constraints affect the delivery of health
                                                                                                               outcomes for children and the nation. Tanzania    and education services and impact efforts
                                                                                                               has ratified the UN Convention on the Rights      to promote ECD.22 The ECD domain stretches
                                                                                                               of the Child, and the African Charter on the      across multiple institutions and Ministries having
                                                                                                               Rights and Welfare of the Child, domesticated     specific government mandates over ECD
                                                                                                               through the Law of the Child Act (2009). The      according to those policy guidelines and laws
                                                                                                               most critical and frequently cited policies       currently in place. In practice, little integration
                                                                                                               pertinent to ECD include the: Child Development   occurs between Ministries, as the structure and
                                                                                                               Policy (2008); Education and Training Policy      budgetary framework for each Ministry focuses
                                                                                                               (2014); National Multisectoral Nutrition Action   exclusively on their core social service provision.
                                                                                                               Plan (2016); National Roadmap Strategic Plan
                                                                                                               to Improve Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn,
                                                                                                               Child and Adolescent Health (2016); and the
                                                                                                               National Plan of Action to End Violence Against
                                                                                                               Women and Children (2017). A review of current
                                                                                                               policies relating to ECD in Tanzania confirms
                                                                                                               that there is no single policy document or
                                                                                                               Ministry which comprehensively covers all major
                                                                                                               aspects needed across the five ECD domains for
                                                                                                               children aged 0-5. As a result, there are some
                                                                                                               unintended and occasionally ambiguous policy
                                                                                                               overlaps, and coordination across multiple
                                                                                                               domains can be complex.
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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Figure 1 illustrates the main Ministries leading in each of the five ECD domain areas.
                                                                                                                                  Strategic Intervention for Tanzania

                         Pregnancy        Birth      Age 1       Age 2         Age 3     Age 4     Age 5   Age 6       Age 18

                         President’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government                                          Our School Readiness Approach in                  Programmatic Approach at Multiple
                         (implementer of sub-sector policies and strategies)
                                                                                                                                  Tanzania                                          levels
       ECD domains
                                                                                                                                  Under the increasingly present                    1. At the Micro Level:
               Health             Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children
                                                                                                                                  branding of “Watoto Wetu Tunu                     • Educators/teachers will be trained in best
                                  Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children                         Yetu” (Our Children, Our Greatest                   practice for working with young children,
            Nutrition                                           (led by Tanzania Food Nutrition Centre)
                                                                                                                                  Treasure), Children in Crossfire’s                  and schools will be supported to improve
                                                                                                                                                                                      overall quality and enrolment.
                                                                                 Ministry of Education (pre-primary age 3-5 on)   ECD programming and policy
     Early Learning                                                                                                               engagement in Tanzania over this                  • Management committees / owners of
                                                       Department of Social Welfare                                                                                                   education facilities will be trained to better
                                                             Day Care centre / Creches                                            next strategic phase will focus on
                                                                                                                                                                                      appreciate and support the importance of
                                     Department of Social Welfare (also Ministry of Home Affairs, via Police)
                                                                                                                                  improving the school readiness                      early learning in the basic education cycle
      Child Security                                                                                                              of young girls and boys aged 0-6
                                                     Department of Social Welfare                                                 years, to help them reach their                   • Parents/caregivers will have improved
                                                           Day Care centre / Creches                                                                                                  knowledge and practice towards young
                         Ministry of Health, Community,
                                                                                                                                  potential.                                          children, including providing quality early
       Responsive                                                                Ministry of Education (pre-primary age 3-5 on)
       Care-giving        Gender, Elderly and Children                                                                                                                                childhood stimulation.
                                                                                                                                  Aligned to our Model for School Readiness
                                                                                                                                  (see Annexes), we will engage with key
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Poverty related barriers to participation will
     Figure 1: Simplified ministry mandates by ECD domain and child age                                                           stakeholders to improve access to quality Early
                                                                                                                                                                                      be researched with a view to mitigating
                                                                                                                                  Childhood Education (ECE) in our target areas
                                                                                                                                                                                      some of the barriers that prevent children
                                                                                                                                  through age appropriate quality education in
                                                                                                                                                                                      from participating fully in the programme
                                                                                                                                  community-based pre-schools and government
                                                                                                                                  Pre-Primary Classes. We will also engage the      2. At the Meso Level:
                                                                                                                                  most vulnerable families to support strong
                                                                                                                                  parenting skills and stimulation in the home      • Institutions and local government authorities
                                                                                                                                  and widely engage community mechanisms              (LGAs) will be supported to more effectively
                                                                                                                                  that support young children. Complementing          plan for, support and regulate ECD services,
                                                                                                                                  all of this we will also address barriers that      especially with regards early learning
                                                                                                                                  prevent children from being able to benefit         and early stimulation.. This will lead to
                                                                                                                                  from this.                                          improved standards in pre-primary classes,
                                                                                                                                                                                      community pre-schools for children 3-5
                                                                                                                                  Our strategy of implementation engages              years, as well as early stimulation support
                                                                                                                                  appropriate local and national partners and         in health clinics and via home outreach
                                                                                                                                  stakeholders to ensure a coordinated approach       services, enabling and encouraging
                                                                                                                                  that works towards improved School Readiness        behaviour change of parents/caregivers
                                                                                                                                  for every child in Tanzania in support to           and educators to maximise the return on
                                                                                                                                  government priorities where possible. We work       investment in young children.
                                                                                                                                  directly in target regions and with others at
                                                                                                                                  national level to advocate for formulation and
                                                                                                                                  implementation of relevant laws and policies
                                                                                                                                  applicable to School Readiness.

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Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
3. At the Macro Level:                             Targeting Strategy                                    Strategic Actions
     • The Tanzanian government and national            • Parents and Caregivers of young children
       institutions will make efficient use of            aged 0-5, with particular priority on
       resources to deliver quality and equitable         households of Most Vulnerable Children
       Early Childhood Development and School             (MVC).
       Readiness at scale. They will better
       understand the importance of investments         • Children aged 3-4 years in community-
       in young children, and will be accountable
       to children, parents, schools and
                                                          based ECD centres36

                                                        • Children aged 537 years in Government Pre-
                                                                                                                                        Increased School

     • Research evidence will be used to inform
                                                          Primary classes                                                                 Readiness for
       policy and practice at all levels. This
       improves planning, coordination, and
                                                        • Early Years Educators and Management
                                                          Committees / owners of ECD centres                                             Young Children
       monitoring mechanisms that increases             • Pre-Primary teachers and Management
       investments for interventions that can have        Committees / leadership in government
       the greatest impact on children, especially        primary schools                                   To improve                                                           To support our
       with regards where the greatest inequities to                                                      early stimulation                                                        partners in
                                                        • Local government officials across                   for young                                                         performance and
       access and quality exist.                                                                                                                                                    improved
                                                          decentralised levels with sectoral                   children
     By intervening at all three levels, Children in      responsibility for young children
     Crossfire believes more children will experience
     quality School Readiness in Tanzania, and          • National Government Ministries,
                                                          Departments and Agencies with sectoral
                                                                                                                                                              To increase
     have a higher chance of meeting development                                                                                    To increase            knowledge and
     benchmarks to be ready to thrive at school.          responsibility for young children                                            access              accountability of
                                                                                                                                  to quality early       decision makers and
                                                                                                                                     childhood             key stakeholders
                                                                                                       • Support parents             education            with respect to the
                                                                                                                                     for young                                  • Build partners’
                                                                                                         with skills                                        needs of young
                                                                                                                                      children                 children           technical
                                                                                                         for positive                                                             expertise in ECD
                                                                                                                                                                                • Support partners
                                                                                                       • Strengthen                                                               to focus on
                                                                                                         health systems to                                                        sustainability
                                                                                                         support families                                                         and quality.
                                                                                                                              • Improve the quality      • Work with local
                                                                                                                                and enrolment              government to
                                                                                                                                levels of early years      integrate ECD into   • Strengthen
                                                                                                                                education                  local development      practices in
                                                                                                                                                           plans                  Child Protection,
                                                                                                                              • Support                                           Safeguarding
                                                                                                                                communities              • Advocate for           and Gender
                                                                                                                                to establish               stronger laws and      Issues
                                                                                                                                mechanisms that            policies affecting
                                                                                                                                promote and protect        young children
                                                                                                                                young children
                                                                                                                                                         • Increase knowledge
                                                                                                                              • Understand and             of key decision
                                                                                                                                mitigate ‘barriers’ to     makers on the
                                                                                                                                participation in our       importance of
                                                                                                                                programme                  investing in young

16                                                                                                                                                                                                 17
Tanzania Country Strategic Plan 2018-2021 - Children in ...
Logic of Intervention                               Each core intervention works within                • Dodoma: while officially Tanzania’s capital       • Dar es Salaam: is the commercial capital of
                                                    government priorities, with civil society            since 1973, it is only most recently that all       Tanzania. Dar is the epicentre of a rapidly
Children in Crossfire has prioritized two main      technical input and coordination where               government ministries have relocated to             urbanising Tanzania, with a population of
‘boundary partners’ to effect change for            appropriate. The intention is that all three         Dodoma City, and its increasing role as the         over 5 million by 2017 42, and one of Africa’s
children – parental figures and educators. All      interventions support systemic change, from          operating capacity of Tanzania and the seat         fastest growing cities, Dar is expected
interventions will work to support parental         the micro ground level up through meso               of government makes Dodoma strategically            to reach mega-city status of 10 million
figures and educators to practice improved          and macro levels of local and national               important. Dodoma region itself suffers from        population by 2030. Spanning an area of
behaviours that are aligned with best practice,     government. Considerable efforts in advocacy         high levels of poverty and is one of the worst      1,343km², and divided into 5 city councils,
global and Tanzanian policy, and past               and evidence sharing will be made to                 performing regions for ECD in the country.          Dar experiences a myriad of problems
learning. In every community where Children         galvanise a movement for ECD among all               Dodoma spans a total area of 41,311km²,             associated with rapid urbanisation. 70% of
in Crossfire operates, at least one of the 3 core   stakeholders.                                        administrated across 7 district councils,           Dar residents live in informal high-density
interventions will be available:                                                                         and with a total population of 2,083,588 in         settlements with very basic services,43
                                                                                                         2012, while population numbers will rapidly         vulnerability is high and thousands of
• Early stimulation: Focused on children            Geographic Focus
                                                                                                         increase with the government’s recent move          children live in multidimensional poverty,
  aged 0–3 in the home – Parental and
                                                    For our Tanzania programme this strategic            to Dodoma.                                          and yet there are currently few ECD
  caregiver behaviour change, supported
                                                    plan prioritises 4 target regions. Regional                                                              programmes implemented in Dar.
  by community volunteers during home
  visits, and integrated into RMNCH services        selection is a process of assessment of a range
  at health facilities, drawing from the            of ECD indicators, strategic considerations,
  government’s national Care for Child              balanced against the availability of good local
  Development initiative.                           partners and Children in Crossfire’s capacity to
                                                    implement and operate in those areas.
• Pre-school (community / private): Focused
  on children aged 3–5 – Educator behaviour         • Mwanza Region: is made up of an area
  change, managed through centre                      total of 9,467km² and population in 2012
  leadership/owners and local government              of 2,772,509, administrated over by seven
  with focus on government minimum                    district councils, including Mwanza City.                               MWANZA

  quality standards at the pre-school centres,        One of the most impoverished regions in
  particularly quality teaching, appropriate          Tanzania, young children in Mwanza face
  curriculum, availability of learning                many challenges across all ECD domains,
  materials, feeding programme, WASH, and             and have poor access to essential services.
  child protection.                                   Children in Crossfire is looking to build
                                                      on our existing partnership with TAHEA
• Pre-primary (government): Focused on                Mwanza since 2012 to deliver high quality                                                                                                PREMBA NORTH
  children aged 5–6 – Educator (teacher)              early years education and introduce early                                                                                               PREMBA SOUTH

  behaviour change, managed through                   stimulation into our programming.                                                                   DODOMA
                                                                                                                                                                                          ZANZIBAR NORTH
  school leadership and local government                                                                                                                                                    ZANZIBAR URBAN/WEST

  with focus on improved learning                   • Morogoro Region: is an enormous                                                                                                       ZANZIBAR SOUTH

  environment for transition to primary school        region spanning an area of 70,624km²,
  (quality teaching, appropriate curriculum           administrated over by nine district and town
                                                                                                                                                                                            DAR ES SALAAM
  and materials, engaged leadership and               councils. With a population of 2,218,492 in                                                                  MOROGORO

  parents).                                           the 2012 census, this is a predominantly
                                                      agricultural region and yet experiences
                                                      some of the poorest nutritional indicators
                                                      for young children. Children in Crossfire is
                                                      looking to build on our existing partnership
                                                      with Child Development Organisation (CDO)
                                                      since 2014 to deliver improve the quality of
                                                      early years education and introduce early
                                                      stimulation into our programming.
Expected Results                                 • Strategic media partnership supporting
                                                        nationwide coverage of quality sub-national     Annexes                                                Risk Management and Internal Policies
     In line with the country logic model spanning      journalism on ECD delivery                                                                             Children in Crossfire operates a comprehensive
     2017-2021, Children in Crossfire Tanzania                                                                                                                 risk management programme, overseen by the
     programmes are expecting to achieve the                                                                                                                   Finance and General Purposes Committee (a
     following reach and results:                                                                       Children in Crossfire approach to                      sub-group of our Board of Directors).
                                                      Local Government:
     Children Aged 0-5 Years:                                                                           Results Based Management                               Throughout the implementation of this strategy,
                                                      • Clear evidence that ECD resourcing given
                                                                                                                                                               we will continue to monitor, evaluate and
     • 20,000 children under 3 years of age             priority across 80% of district council plans   Children in Crossfire acknowledges that in order
                                                                                                                                                               implement mitigating actions to manage
       reached with improved stimulation /              within target regions                           to successfully implement this strategy and
                                                                                                                                                               risks in the areas of governance, operational,
       parenting activities                                                                             deliver on our strategic objectives, there is a need
                                                      • Regional and district leadership demanding                                                             child protection, safeguarding, financial
                                                                                                        for strong organisational structures in relation
     • 15,000 children aged 3-4 years enrolled          accountability for quality ECD/ECE delivery                                                            and regulatory matters. Overall, we will
                                                                                                        to governance and financial management,
       across 72 Pre-schools                            in line with Regional ECD Strategy                                                                     review existing policies on financial and
                                                                                                        including sufficient funding streams, human
                                                                                                                                                               risk management and child protection and
                                                                                                        resource management and results based
     • 30,000 children aged 5 years enrolled in       • Greater accountability for ECD delivery                                                                safeguarding to ensure coherence with the
                                                                                                        management (RBM).
       pre-primary classes across 160 primary           reported by media across regional and local                                                            strategic priorities of this plan.
       schools                                          government                                      Our approach to RBM is to keep all resources,
                                                                                                        both financial and human, focused on the               Compliance and Codes of Conduct
                                                                                                        expected changes and results in the Tanzania
     Parents and Educators:                           National Government:                              programmes on a day to day basis. The delivery         Children in Crossfire is an active member of a
                                                                                                        of the strategy and associated objectives will be      number of relevant sector networks including
     • 50,000 parents/caregivers of children 0-5      • Improvement of ECD coverage and quality         tracked over the life cycle of the plan using an       Institute of Fundraising (IoF), Northern Ireland
       reached with knowledge, skills and tools for     across poorest performing regions               RBM system which ensures that all programmes,          Community and Voluntary Association
       parenting                                                                                        projects and support activities will have              (NICVA), Coalition of Aid and Development
                                                      • Harmonised policy environment for early
                                                                                                        measurable baseline data, outcome indicators           Agencies (CADA), Irish Development Education
     • 96 community volunteers conduct more             learning across education and social
                                                                                                        and annual targets defined in the Results              Association (IDEA), and the Irish Association of
       than 40,000 home parent visits                   welfare sectors
                                                                                                        Framework.                                             Non-Governmental Development Organisations
     • 144 pre-school facilitators achieve quality    • Increased domestic and donor resourcing                                                                (Dóchas). Children in Crossfire collaborates with
                                                        of ECD priorities across new 5-Yr sectoral      This information will be used to track and             these networks to both self-regulate activities,
       practice across 72 Pre-schools
                                                        strategies                                      measure results using key tools including:             and develop and benchmark our governance
     • 160 pre-primary teachers achieve quality                                                                                                                activities against peer organisations. Children
                                                       • National ECD Day inaugurated as hallmark       • RBM Calendar clearly defining the annual
       practice across 160 primary schools                                                                                                                     in Crossfire is also a signatory to the Dóchas
                                                                  annual event of ECD advocacy            cyclical process
                                                                                                                                                               Code on Images and Messages. The Dóchas
                                                                           forum in partnership         • Quarterly Board, Sub Committee and Central           Code offers a set of guiding principles that can
                                                                                   with government        Management Meetings to specifically monitor          assist organisations in their decision-making
                                                                                                          progress                                             about which images and messages to choose
     • Local implementing                                                                                                                                      in their communication while maintaining full
       partners demonstrate                                                                             • Monthly Programme Meetings in country,               respect for human dignity. Children in Crossfire
       significantly improved                                                                             and monthly meetings through an assigned             also adheres to a Child Protection Policy in all
       capacity across                                                                                    Central Management Country Focus Group               of the countries in which we work. We have
       all organisational                                                                                                                                      aligned our policy, all our training and relevant
                                                                                                        • Annual Work plans approved and monitored
       operational areas                                                                                                                                       country implementation procedures to the UN
                                                                                                        • Annual Strategic Review to ensure ongoing            Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC),
     • National civil society
                                                                                                          relevance                                            Children First Act 2015, and The Children
       led ECD advocacy
                                                                                                                                                               Northern Ireland Order 1995.
       forum revitalised and                                                                            • Regular Financial Monitoring
       meeting expectations for
       medium-term operational                                                                          • Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
       viability and impactful                                                                            and Learning Plan (IMEP)
       performance in ECD advocacy
                                                                                                        The programmes will be reviewed annually with
                                                                                                        all stakeholders, with an externally facilitated
                                                                                                        mid-term review planned for 2019, and an
                                                                                                        external end of term evaluation in 2021.
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                 21
Our School Readiness Model                                                                                Logic Model
     We believe that only when a society is fully aware of, and practicing high quality caregiving and
     early learning experiences, can each child be fully ready to achieve at school.                                                                                                            Children are Ready for School

                                                                                                                    PROGRAMME                  Children in Children in Crossfire Impact Districts experience                                 Coverage and quality of ECD/ECE
                                                                                                                     OUTCOMES                   quality Early Stimulation and Early Childhood Education                                         in Tanzania taken to scale
                       Ready Children               Ready Families              Ready School’s
     Children          Ensuring children have       Ensuring parents/           Ensuring schools                                                Parental figures invest                     Early Years Educators create
                       access to and attend high    caregivers are fully        implement structured               INTERMEDIATE                                                                                                                   Government takes action to
                                                                                                                                           their children and demonstrate                    a supportive and inclusive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 improve ECD/ECE outcomes
                       quality ECE services         involved in their child’s   transition programmes                OUTCOMES                     positive parenting                       environment for child centered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     based on evidence
                                                    early learning and          to assist the child’s                                                                                                 learning
                       Ensuring children are        transition to school        progression into formal
                       eager to learn and are                                                                                               Parents and     Community         Early Years     Civil Society    Regional     Multi-faceted Strategically Accountability
                                                                                education                                                    caregivers      Volunteers        Educators     Organisations and district      effectively   positioned,   for ECD/ECE
                       cognitively and socially                                                                                               acquire          acquire           acquire         (CSO’s)     govt (LGA’s)    packaged      active and      enhanced
                       ready to enter school                                                                                                knowledge,       knowledge       knowledge,       capacitated regulate and      and widely       tactful      at all levels
                                                                                                                                             skills, tools skills and tools skills and tools   to support   resource ECD/      utilised    Advocacy       by strategic
                                                                                                                                           for parenting for supporting for effective            quality    ECE initiatives  Evidence-    movement for      support
     Parents           Ensuring parents/            Ensuring parents            Ensuring schools liaise with         OUTPUTS                  and ECE         ECD/ECE       child centered      ECD/ECE                       base for      ECD/ECE        of quality
                       caregivers are               engage with local ECE       and possibly mentor local                                                                       learning     interventions                   ECD/ECE                      journalism
                       demonstrating good           services                    ECE services
                       Stimulation Practice
                       towards children aged 0-3

     Communities       Ensuring community           Communities assist with     Ensuring schools are
                       structures support ECE       ensuring our Stimulation    accountable to their
                                                                                                                                          Cross-cutting issues for programme and M&E Disaggregation
                       services, and create safe    Practice programme is       communities for creating
                                                                                                                                          Eg. Most Vulnerable Children / Child Protection / Gender /Adolescents / Nutrition
                       ‘Stimulation’ environments   inclusive and accessible    a high quality learning
                       for children to nurture      for families with the       environment for children,
                       learning through play        Most Vulnerable             including care and
                                                    Children                    protection                     References
                                                    aged 0-3
                                                                                                               1    Children in Crossfire defines school readiness as:     14   REPOA Gender Statistics, 2010: Accessed 176.06.16     28   World Bank, ECD SABER Country Report, 2012
     Frontline         Ensuring frontline           Ensuring frontline          Ensuring schools have               children being ready to learn in a formal learning
                                                                                                                    environment. It consists of three pillars – ready
                                                                                                                                                                                at: www.repoa.or.tz/documents/repoa_gender_
                                                                                                                                                                                English.pdf                                           29   President’s Office Regional Administration and
     Professionals     professionals have full      professionals are fully     fully qualified teachers,           children, ready schools (to welcome children into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Local Government
                                                                                                                    formal learning), and ready families (to support            www.unicef.org/tanzania/maternal_child_
                       awareness of the needs of    equipped to support         adequate resources, and             the transition of children into formal learning).           health.html                                           30   Prime Minister’s Office
                       young children               parents towards good        the necessary learning                                                                     16
                                                                                                               2    See: www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg4                 Save the Children and Plan International, Child       31   Ministry of Health, Community Development,
                                                    practice                    materials                                                                                       Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania,           Gender, Elderly and Children
                                                                                                               3    Full report available here at                               2014; Violence Against Children Report,
                                                                                                                    www.childrenincrossfire.org/what-we-do/                                                                           32   Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology
                                                                                                                    tanzania/completed-programmes                          17   UNICEF, cited in McAlpine et al., 2009 What is
                                                                                                                                                                                “resilience” and how does it provide an alternative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      35   Early childhood stimulation is the interaction
                       Ensuring local government understand the needs           Ensuring the                   4    World Bank www.data.worldbank.org/country/                  perspective on working with vulnerable children?           between young children and their caregivers,
     Government        of young children in relation to ECD, and the            implementation of legal             tanzania accessed 2.6.16
                                                                                                                                                                           18   ‘Women and Children First’ Countdown to 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           providing children with the opportunity to learn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           about their environment from the earliest age
                       importance of investing resources in young children      minimum standards for          5    World Bank, Tanzania Mainland Poverty
                                                                                                                    Assessment, 2015                                       19   Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, National
                       from both a human rights perspective for the child       pre-school                                                                                      Nutrition Survey, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36   Also known as preschools, kindergartens, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           day-care centres
                       and the long term importance for building human                                         6    www.statista.com/statistics/455940/urbanization-
                       capital for economic development                         Ensuring improved                   in-tanzania/                                           20   BEST: Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37   The targeting strategy recognises that there will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           be children aged ‘rising 4s’ and rising 5s in ECD
                                                                                qualified teacher/pupil        7    “Population of Dar es Salaam 2017” at URL:                                                                             Centres and PPE classes respectively
                                                                                                                    www.populationof2017.com/population-of-dar-es-         21   UNICEF et al, Violence Against Children in
                                                                                ratios in pre-schools               salaam-2017.html                                            Tanzania, Findings from a National Survey 2009        38   See www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/Busan%20
                                                                                Ensuring resourcing of pre-    8    Edward Anderson (October 2017): “Improving             22   Baseline Assessment of Integrated School
                                                                                                                                                                                Readiness Programme (ISRP), CiC Tanzania, 2017
                                                                                                                    Risk Information in Tanzania,” Results in Resilience                                                              39   Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child
                                                                                primary education in line           Series, World Bank Group                                                                                               Health (RMNCH) services
                                                                                                                                                                           23   RTI International (2017, October) Measuring Early
                                                                                with government policy         9    Meaning they are deprived of three or more rights           Learning and Quality Outcomes (MELQO) Final           40   The ideal ages have been presented for both
                                                                                                                    such as nutrition, access to water and sanitation           Report                                                     education interventions, but the reality in Tanzania
     National          Engaging with key decision makers to improve understanding of the importance                 facilities, access to basic healthcare services,
                                                                                                                    shelter, education, participation and protection.      24   UNICEF ECD Strategy Tanzania, 2016. Also,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           is that children from age 3–5 and above may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           be present in both community pre-schools and
     Government        of investments in young children as a contributing factor in national development                                                                        Townend, J and D., Zumgumza na Mtoto                       government pre-primary classrooms due to
                                                                                                               10   Child Poverty in Tanzania, National Bureau of               Mchanga (Talk to your baby) research in three              availability of services close to their home.
                                                                                                                    Statistics and UNICEF, 2015                                 regions in Tanzania showed that only 60 words per
                       Engaging with key decision makers to improve understanding of the importance                                                                             hour of direct talking occurred (about 2 minutes)     41   Water, Sanitation and Hygiene infrastructure and
                       of investments in young children as a contributing factor in national development       11   World Bank, Tanzania Mainland Poverty                                                                                  practices
                                                                                                                    Assessment, 2015                                       25   Baseline Assessment of Integrated School
                                                                                                                                                                                Readiness Programme (ISRP), Children in Crossfire     42   Population of Dar es Salaam 2017” at URL:
                       Engaging with education ministries and key stakeholders on the importance of            12   Save the Children and Plan International, Child             Tanzania, 2017                                             www.populationof2017.com/population-of-dar-es-
                       investing in pre-school programmes                                                           Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania,                                                                       salaam-2017.html
                                                                                                                    2014; UNICEF ECD Strategy for Tanzania, 2016           26   ‘Are our children learning?’ Uwezo Tanzania
                                                                                                                                                                                Annual Learning Assessment Report 2017                43   Edward Anderson (October 2017): “Improving
                                                                                                               13   Wuyts, M., ‘Developing Social Protection in                                                                            Risk Information in Tanzania,” Results in Resilience
                                                                                                                    Tanzania within a Context of Generalised               27   Save the Children and Plan International, Child            Series, World Bank Group
                                                                                                                    Insecurity’, 2006.                                          Rights Situational Analysis (CRSA) for Tanzania,
22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23
Contact Us
If you would like to find out more about
Children in Crossfire, you can contact us:

Children in Crossfire, Tanzania
Alba House
Rose Garden Road
Dar es Salaam
Tel: +255 22 277 5965
E: info@childrenincrossfire.org

Children in Crossfire, Northern Ireland
2 St Joseph’s Avenue,
Derry/Londonderry, BT48 6TH
T +44 (0)28 7126 9898
E info@childrenincrossfire.org


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