Emissions Inventory, 2006 2008

 
Emissions Inventory, 2006 2008
Tulane University Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Inventory, 2006 ‐ 2008
In March 2008, Tulane University President Scott Cowen joined the American College and University
Presidents Climate Commitment, a commitment of university leaders to engage their university
community in developing solutions to climate change. Tulane University has completed an inventory of
its greenhouse gas emissions in order to assess our impact on global climate change for calendar years
2006, 2007, and 2008.
A greenhouse gas emissions inventory is an emerging tool that has been used by businesses, local
governments, and institutions nationwide to quantify this key aspect of sustainability, to prioritize
actions and to assess their success. Conducting an inventory is likely to become a more widespread
practice as states and regions implement greenhouse gas reduction targets and trading systems, and as
leaders consider a national climate change policy. This and future inventories will serve not only to
benchmark and measure our progress towards reducing our greenhouse gas emissions, but also it will
provide Tulane students with an opportunity to learn methods and principles that will be crucial to
entering careers in this emerging field.
Overall, campus buildings are the largest source of emissions, followed by travel for university business,
employee and student commute, waste, study abroad travel and finally the campus vehicle fleets. Total
emissions for 2006 were 151,641 MTCO2e (Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent), total emissions
for 2007 were 144,107 MTCO2e, and total emissions for 2008 were 144,591 MTCO2e.
Detailed information about the inventory methodology and data collection is included in Appendixes A
and B.

Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse gases absorb heat that would normally leave the earth’s atmosphere, thereby warming the
planet. There are six greenhouse gases that are covered by the Kyoto Protocol, the international treaty
addressing climate change. They are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).

Boundaries
Physically, this inventory covers Tulane’s main campuses in the city of New Orleans, LA ‐‐ Uptown on St.
Charles Avenue, and Downtown in the Central Business District ‐‐as well as satellite campuses and other
administrative and research buildings. The three satellite campuses are in Houston, TX, Harahan, LA and
Biloxi, MS, which house an executive MBA program and 2 branches of the School of Continuing Studies,
respectively. The research centers are located in Covington, LA and Belle Chase, LA. The other
administrative buildings that Tulane rents or owns are scattered throughout the New Orleans area.

1
This inventory covers the period January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008.

Scopes
Scopes are an agreed upon framework developed by the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol,1 an
internationally recognized method of conducting inventories, to classify emissions and who is ultimately
responsible for them. Scope 1 emissions are greenhouse gases that are directly created by an institution.
In the context of this inventory, scope 1 emissions include CO2 created by combustion of fossil fuels in
vehicles and boilers, and greenhouse gases purchased or released by the university, such as fugitive
emissions of refrigerants and other greenhouse gases used in research. Scope 2 emissions are those that
result from the purchase of electricity, steam and chilled water for use by the institution. While the
emissions occur at the utility, as the consumers of the resulting electricity, steam and chilled water, we
are indirectly responsible for these emissions. Scope 3 emissions are other indirect emissions that are a
consequence of University activities and policies but are not directly created or released on the
university campus. Scope 3 emissions at Tulane include travel for university business and study abroad,
employee and student commute, and disposal of solid waste.

Inventory Process
Once the boundaries and scopes of an emissions inventory are decided, the process of calculating
emissions is fairly straightforward. Data on energy use, waste and purchases of greenhouse gases are
gathered from departments across the university. In Tulane’s case, there is no single department that
controls all of the energy, fuel and other data that we needed, and each department keeps their records
differently. Table A below is a list of the types of data that were gathered and the source.
                                                   Table A

    Data
                                                     Source
    Purchased Electricity                            Electricity Bills
    Purchased Steam                                  Steam bills
    Purchased Chilled Water                          Chilled Water bills
    Natural Gas                                      Natural Gas Bills
    Gasoline                                         Fuel Bills, mileage and fuel economy
    Diesel ‐ Vehicles                                Fuel Bills
    Propane                                          Fuel Bills
    Direct Emissions of Greenhouse Gasses            Environmental Health and Safety Reports
                                                     Estimated based on dumpster size and frequency
    Waste
                                                     of pick‐ups
    Directly Financed Outsourced Air Travel          Estimated based on dollars spent on air travel

1
 World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development, The Greenhouse Gas
Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, revised edition, accessed at
http://www.ghgprotocol.org/standards/corporate‐standard on June 2, 2008.

2
Estimated based on 2007/2008 number of
      Study Abroad Travel
                                                          students going abroad by destination
                                                          Estimated based on dollars spent on ground
      Directly Financed Outsourced Ground Travel
                                                          travel
      Employee       and     Off‐Campus        Student Estimated from 2008 Transportation Habits
      Commute                                          Survey and year‐specific population

Data are entered in a calculator tool, which uses a set of emissions factors to calculate the resulting
greenhouse gasses from each activity. The emissions factors are a measure of how much of each
greenhouse gas is emitted per unit of fuel, electricity, steam, waste, etc.
After examining several options, Tulane chose to use the Clean Air – Cool Planet (CA – CP) Campus
Carbon Calculator.2 The CA – CP Campus Carbon Calculator is a Microsoft Excel workbook with input
worksheets and formulae developed specifically for college campuses and based on the widely used
GHG Protocol.

Electricity Emission Factors
The greenhouse gases released for a unit of electricity depend on the fuel source. Because utilities in
different regions of the country rely on different mixes of fuels, a unit of electricity in New Orleans has a
different emission factor from a unit of electricity in Detroit, Los Angeles, or Washington D.C. When
utilities make improvements that reduce the emissions from generating electricity, the Scope 2
emissions of an institution using that electricity are reduced. This inventory uses an electricity emission
factor calculated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the electricity in our regional grid.

2
    http://www.cleanair‐coolplanet.org/toolkit/inv‐calculator.php

3
Results
Table B shows total emissions by sector. Chart A shows the emission profile by scope, and Charts B, C
and D show the overall breakdown of emissions for 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively.
                                                  Table B

      Total Emissions by Sector (MTCO2e)
                                                                             '06 to '07   '07 to '08
                                                                             Percent      Percent
      Sector           2006             2007                2008             Change       Change
      Buildings               105,815           89,731      87,659           ‐15.20%      ‐2.31%
      Travel                   32,931           41,128      43,136           24.89%       4.88%
      Commute                   9,374            9,731      10,276           3.81%        5.60%
      Waste                       955              955      972              0.00%        1.79%
      Study Abroad              1,986            1,986      1,986            0.00%        0.00%
      Fleet                       581              576      562              ‐0.92%       ‐2.31%
      Total                   151,641          144,107           144,591     ‐4.97%       0.34%

                                                  Chart A
    160,000

    140,000

                     52,809
    120,000
                                               59,964                  62,598

    100,000

                                                                                            Total Scope 3
     80,000
                                                                                            Total Scope 2
                                                                                            Total Scope 1
     60,000          77,750
                                               63,899                  64,427
     40,000

     20,000
                     21,082                    20,243                  17,566
         ‐
                     2006                      2007                        2008

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Chart B

                 2006 Emissions by Sector
                   Waste
                    1%     Study Abroad
                                1% Fleet
                 Commute
                                        0%
                   6%

        Travel
         22%

                                             Buildings
                                               70%

                              Chart C

                 2007 Emissions by Sector
     Waste
      1%                          Fleet
                     Study Abroad 0%
             Commute      1%
               7%

    Travel
     29%

                                                Buildings
                                                  62%

5
Chart D

                                 2008 Emissions by Sector
                                           Study Abroad
                                                1%
                                  Commute Waste Fleet
                                    7%     1% 0%

                        Travel
                         30%
                                                                          Buildings
                                                                            61%

  Discussion
  These three years were Tulane’s first calendar years after reopening following Hurricane Katrina in
  January 2006. Table C shows Tulane’s per capita and per 1000 square feet greenhouse gas emissions for
  each year. As the University’s population and infrastructure have rebounded, greenhouse gas emissions
  have not increased significantly, meaning that normalized emissions are showing a downward trend.
                                                 Table C

Normalized Emissions
                                                                                                ACUPCC
                                             2006             2007             2008
                                                                                                Average

Total Population (FTE)                       13,341           13,629           14,359
Per Capita Emissions (MTCO2e/person)         11.37            10.57            10.07            8.79

Total Building Area (sq. feet)                   6,713,508        6,746,734        7,038,007
Emissions (MTCO2e) Per 1000 Square Feet      22.59            21.36            20.54            21.29

  6
The column “ACUPCC average” represents the emissions of the 85 other Doctorate‐Granting Universities
who have signed the commitment and have submitted their inventories as of September 1, 2009.3
It is important to note that between 2006 and 2007 the emission factor for electricity in the SERC
Mississippi Valley eGrid sub‐region decreased significantly, and that was the major reason for the 15.2%
reduction in building sector emissions from 2006 to 2007. The boundaries of the region were changed,
resulting in a change in the electricity emission factor (the greenhouse gas emissions emitted by
electricity generation in that region). The reduction may also be due in part to improvements in the
region’s utilities. As the emission coefficient remained the same for 2007 and 2008, the 2.3% reduction
in building sector emissions seen between 2007 and 2008 is more clearly a result of improvements on
Tulane’s campuses. Because of the significant change in the regional emissions factor between 2006 and
2007, 2007 is a more appropriate year to use as Tulane’s baseline year when determining reduction
goals in our climate action plan and measuring our progress.

Future Inventory Improvements
The current emissions inventory reports all emissions as an institution, but Tulane’s future inventories
will report scope 1 and 2 emissions at the facility level. Tracking scope 1 and 2 emissions by facility will
allow us to better track emission reduction projects, such the campus‐wide energy efficiency retrofits.
Facility‐level tracking of emissions is also consistent with the Climate Registry4 voluntary reporting
protocols and the US EPA’s proposed mandatory reporting protocols5 for large emitters.

Using utility‐specific electricity emission factors will give a more precise, local accounting of the
emissions that result from purchased electricity. Entergy, the utility servicing buildings in New Orleans,
has made a strong commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and Entergy has relatively low
emissions due to their use of natural gas and nuclear power as opposed to coal and oil. Using Entergy‐
specific emission factors, the total emissions from purchased electricity would be significantly lower.

The Tulane University Hospital and Clinic is not included in this inventory, but it could be included in
future updates. HCA (Hospital Corporation of America) owns 82.5% of the Tulane Medical Center and
Tulane University owns 17.5%.6 If the Medical Center were included, it would make the most sense to
use an equity‐share approach where Tulane would only be responsible for the emissions proportionate
to its financial stake in the hospital operations. The current inventory uses an operational control
approach and does not include the Medical Center because HCA is responsible for its day to day
operation.

This inventory does not include any offsets, which are actions taken by Tulane to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions beyond the boundaries of this inventory. Tulane has not purchased any carbon offsets or
renewable energy credits. However, the actions and projects of many faculty, staff and students have

3
  http://acupcc.aashe.org/ghg‐scope‐statistics.php
4
  www.theclimateregistry.org
5
  http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghgrulemaking.html
6
  http://www.tuhc.com/CustomPage.asp?guidCustomContentID={35FDD3E0‐4384‐4AB4‐815A‐48B84AB1C7D7}

7
helped reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the New Orleans area. Future inventories
will include amounts and estimates of both purchased offsets and the greenhouse gas emissions
reductions resulting from service, research and education projects.

Verification
Verification by an independent third party is an integral part of many greenhouse gas reporting
protocols, including the Climate Registry and the EPA Mandatory Reporting Rule. Inventory verifiers
typically look at a subset of the data gathered for the inventory, and they review all of the conversions
and calculations done to prepare that data for input into the calculator tool. In some cases, they also
review the calculation methods. After their review is complete, a verifier issues a report on their findings
and any errors must be corrected by the party responsible for the inventory and submitted for re‐
verification. This inventory has not been verified by an independent third party. We are interested in
developing opportunities for students to learn these methods while verifying Tulane’s inventory.

Conclusion
Completion of this inventory establishes a baseline and a process for measuring our most direct impact
on climate change, the release of emissions that result from campus activities. As a management tool, it
will help identify priority areas for reductions and track the impact of improvement measures. As an
educational tool, it will help individuals understand the relationship between campus activities and
climate change, and it will provide faculty and students with an accessible teaching tool and a starting
point for discussions of climate policy, reduction targets, and environmental management.

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Appendix A:
Tulane University Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Methods
This is a detailed overview of the data and methods used to complete the inventory and a record of all
decisions that impact our results.

Greenhouse Gases
 Even though the results of the inventory are reported as Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent, this
inventory tracks carbon dioxide (CO2) and five additional greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide (N2O),
methane (CH4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). These
five are converted into a unit known as Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (commonly abbreviated as CDE or
CO2e) by multiplying the quantity of each gas by its global warming potential (GWP), a measure of its
ability to trap heat relative to CO2. For example, methane (CH4) has a GWP of 23, which means that one
unit of CH4 counts as 23 units of CO2e. Below is a list of the GWP values included in Tulane’s inventory.

         Chemical Formula      Common Name                                                 GWP
         CO2                   Carbon Dioxide                                              1
         CH4                   Methane                                                     23
         N2O                   Nitrous Oxide                                               296
         HFC‐134a              1,1,1,2‐TETRAFLUOROETHANE                                   1300
         HCFC‐22               CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE                                       1700
         HFC‐404a              R‐404a (refrigerant)                                        3260

The GWP values in this inventory are in the calculator tool and were taken from the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (TAR); all values assume a 100‐year
atmospheric lifetime period.

Calculator Tools
At the most basic level, greenhouse gas emissions are calculated by gathering data, such as purchased
electricity or natural gas, and multiplying that amount by a coefficient that represents the amount of
greenhouse gases emitted per unit of energy or fuel. Various calculators have been developed that
simplify this process by doing the work of compiling coefficients and creating a user friendly interface for
entering data.

The ACUPCC suggests using one of three calculator tools ‐ Clean Air Cool Planet Campus Carbon
Calculator, the Climate Action Registry Reporting Online Tool (CARROT), and the World Resources
Institute (WRI) / World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Greenhouse Gas

i
Protocol (GHG Protocol). 1 The GHG Protocol is by far the most widely used calculator tool, but its main
drawback is that it was designed for use by the business sector and not the unique operations of a
college campus. CARROT is a tool designed for use with the California Climate Action Registry so it does
not apply to Tulane geographically. We decided to use the Clean Air Cool Planet Campus (CA‐CP) Carbon
Calculator because it is based on the GHG Protocol but customized for use in higher education. It is also
recommended by the ACUPCC.

Electricity Emission Factors
The greenhouse gases released for a unit of electricity depend on the fuel source. Tulane’s emission
factors for electricity and chilled water, which is generated with electricity by our utility, are based on
the average for the EPA eGrid sub‐region defined as “SERC Mississippi Valley” in the CA‐CP Campus
Carbon Calculator. Tulane’s emission factor for steam is based on the fuel mix, which is 100% natural gas
as reported by Entergy Thermal. All emissions factors are included in or calculated by the CA – CP
Campus Carbon Calculator.

We chose to base our emissions on the eGrid average for two main reasons. First, all of Tulane’s
campuses and satellite locations fall within the SERC Mississippi Valley eGrid sub‐region, which means
that a consistent emission factor can be used for all campus entities. Second, as signatories of the
ACUPCC, we would like to be able to compare our normalized emissions to other members, especially
those in our region who will be using the same eGrid average.

The CA‐CP calculator changed emission factors between 2006 and 2007 in part because the boundaries
of the defined eGrid sub‐regions changed significantly during that time. The SERC Mississippi Valley sub‐
region boundaries were changed. For 2006, the CA‐CP calculator uses average emission factor for 1998‐
2000 in the SERC Mississippi Valley sub‐region. For 2007 and 2008, it uses 2005 emission factors for a
SERC Mississippi Valley sub‐region with different geographical boundaries.

       Figure 1: Map of eGrid sub‐regions for 2006. (The SERC Mississippi Valley sub‐region is abbreviated “SRMV.”)

1
 World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development, The Greenhouse Gas
Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, revised edition, accessed at
http://www.ghgprotocol.org/standards/corporate‐standard on June 2, 2008.

ii
Figure 2: Map of eGrid sub‐regions for 2007 on. (The SERC Mississippi Valley sub‐region is abbreviated “SRMV.”)

The emission factors for 2007‐2008 are significantly lower than the emission factors for 2006, resulting
in a decrease in Scope 2 emissions from purchased electricity despite the fact that overall University
electric consumption increased. Because of the boundary change, it is difficult to determine if the
emission factor reduction is due to utility improvements and cleaner fuels, or if it is due to the
measurement of a different set of power plants.

Data Collection
One of the biggest challenges involved in completing a greenhouse gas inventory is assembling all of the
required data. Data for the 2006 and 2007 inventory were collected during the period June 2008 to
January 2009 by Shelley Meaux, Senior Program Coordinator in the Tulane/Xavier Center for
Bioenvironmental Research.

Twenty one different departments provided data or assistance. Copies of the data submitted are held
electronically and in hardcopy in the Center for Bioenvironmental Research, 102 Alcee Fortier Hall. TIS is
assisting with the development of a system for each department contact to enter their greenhouse gas
data into a central database.

Buildings
Electricity
A majority of Tulane’s electricity is purchased from utilities: Entergy in New Orleans, Cleco in Covington,
and Mississippi Power in Biloxi. In two cases, at 1555 Poydras in New Orleans and in Houston, electricity
is included in Tulane’s rent and had to be estimated. All electricity purchases are included in scope 2 and
transmission and distribution losses are included in scope 3.

iii
The Uptown campus is metered as two separate units, front campus and back campus, with the
exception of the Reily Student Recreation Center and the Aron Residences. The Uptown campus
electricity data for the front and back campus units are provided in an excel spreadsheet by the Uptown
Facilities Services department. The Reily electric use data are provided as scanned copies of Entergy
invoices by Reily staff. The Aron electric use data are provided by Housing and Residence Life in a
summary table that lists each apartment and its electric use; these are all metered separately because
students living in the Aron Residences pay for their electricity.

The Health Sciences Center and Hebert Research Center buildings are metered and billed for electricity
on a building by building basis. The Health Sciences Center provided photocopies of Entergy bills for
each building. Since our initial request for data in summer 2008, they started to compile their data in an
excel spreadsheet and will provide those files in the future.

The Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) in Covington, LA is billed for electricity on a
building by building basis. Their business office keeps records in an excel spreadsheet that they provided
to us for the greenhouse gas inventory.

The Biloxi, Mississippi satellite campus, which houses programs in the School for Continuing Studies, is
billed for their offices and classrooms by Mississippi Power. Their administrators provided photocopies
of their electric bills.

For 1555 Poydras, the source of data was a document called Utility Usage and Cost Issues Report, Tulane
Lease Premises @ 1555 Poydras St by Finnin & Associates, Inc. The Finnin estimates are based on the
building area leased and a factor of 4.03 kWh per square foot of leased area. An additional electric
meter for the servers housed at 1555 Poydras is billed directly to the Health Sciences Center Facilities
Services department and they included that data with the other Health Science Center figures.

The Houston campus is housed in an office high rise at 1700 West Loop South, which was completed in
1980. Using EIA data,2 we determined that the annual electric energy intensity for a building in
Houston’s Climate Zone is 16.0 kWh/sq. ft. and that figure was multiplied by the area that Tulane rents
to estimate annual usage.

Various other administrative buildings and satellite campuses are billed for electricity through the
Capital Projects and Real Estate Group (CPREG) and Uptown Facilities Services. In addition, the Center
for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) is billed for electric use at A Studio in the Woods. Those data were
provided as scanned copies of electric bills or in excel spreadsheets by the individuals responsible for
paying the bills.

Natural Gas
Tulane University owns and operates a master meter natural gas distribution system on the Uptown
campus. Tulane purchases natural gas from Entergy.

2
    Energy Information Administration. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

iv
Tulane installed a 5MW natural gas fired co‐generation facility in 1999 on the Uptown campus that
simultaneously generates electricity and steam, which is used to heat water and campus buildings.
Natural gas for the co‐generation turbine engine is not metered separately from the natural gas for the
campus boilers. Because of this, all emissions from natural gas burned on Tulane’s Uptown campus are
quantified as “other on‐campus stationary sources.” In 2006, the co‐generation system was run for
about 2000 hours and in 2007 it was run for about 4000 hours; that includes approximately 100‐200
hours of maintenance time each year. A rough calculation indicates that including the co‐generation
system with the other on‐campus boilers in the CA‐CP calculator, instead of separately as a co‐
generation facility, has no impact on the emissions results. Natural gas is also purchased from Entergy
for boilers in several Health Science Center buildings that are used to provide hot water and heating
when needed.

At the TNPRC in Covington, natural gas is purchased from CenterPoint and is used to provide hot water
and heating when needed.

All natural gas use is included in scope 1 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels on campus.

Diesel
In cases where back‐up power is needed, such as a hurricane, Tulane has electric generators at each
major campus and research center that run on diesel. Whenever diesel is used for emergency power it
will be included with scope 1 emissions but counted separately from vehicle diesel use. All diesel use is
included in scope 1 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels on campus.

Propane
A Studio in the Woods (ASITW) is a program of Tulane University dedicated to preserving the
endangered bottomland hardwood forest and providing within it a peaceful retreat where visual,
literary and performing artists can work uninterrupted. The stove and hot water heater at ASITW are run
on propane and photocopies of bills were provided by the CBR. Propane use is included in scope 1
emissions from combustion of fossil fuels on campus.

Purchased Steam
The Health Science Center campus purchases steam for a small number of buildings from Entergy
Thermal’s district in downtown New Orleans. Entergy uses 100% natural gas3 to produce steam in New
Orleans. The HSC Facilities Services Department provided photocopies of the Entergy Thermal bills.
Emissions from purchased steam are included in scope 2 emissions and distribution losses are included
in scope 3.

Purchased Chilled Water
The HSC also purchases chilled water from Entergy Thermal’s downtown New Orleans district energy
system. Entergy uses electric chillers to produce all of its chilled water. The conversion factor provided
by Entergy Thermal3 is 1.208 kWh per ton‐hour. Because the CA‐CP calculator does not give users the
option to choose electricity as part of the chilled water generation mix, we used a separate calculator

3
    Steve Martins, Entergy Thermal, email January 20, 2009.

v
workbook to calculate chilled water emissions in order to differentiate it from actual purchased
electricity use. The resulting emissions are then added to the results of the main emission calculator
workbook to determine total emissions. Purchased chilled water emissions are included in scope 2
emissions and distribution losses are included in scope 3.

Vehicle Fleet
Tulane University does not have a centralized fleet and many departments across campus own and
operate their own vehicles. Because this poses a significant data collection challenge, only the
departments that have several vehicles and use them as an integral part of their operation are included
in this inventory. All vehicle fleet emissions are included in scope 1, except the electric golf carts.

Electricity
Electric golf carts are a common means of transportation on Tulane’s Uptown campus. They use
electricity off of the main campus grid so their emissions are included in scope 2 and 3 with electricity
purchased for buildings and transmission and distribution losses, respectively.

Gasoline
A majority of Tulane’s Uptown vehicle fleet uses gasoline, including all TUPD (Public Safety), Associated
Student Body (ASB) and Center for Public Service (CPS) vehicles. Facilities Services Uptown purchases
gasoline in bulk and operates a fueling station on campus for its vehicles and the TUPD shuttles. When
TUPD is not able to fill up with facilities services, they sometimes purchase gasoline at a retail location.
Uptown Facilities Services provided their total purchases of gasoline in gallons via verbal
communication. TUPD additional purchases for 2006 and 2007 are estimated based on 2008 data
provided in an email and actual figures will be provided annually thereafter. ASB gasoline use is
estimated because each student organization or club purchases gasoline and returns the vans full. Use
was calculated as the distance travelled by each vehicle in miles divided by its fuel economy in miles per
gallon. ASB provided odometer readings and fuel economy figures for 2007 and 2008. Data for 2006 was
unavailable due to a change in staffing; therefore it is assumed to be the same as 2007. Future years will
be based on annual mileage and average fuel economy for each vehicle. CPS provided actual annual
gasoline usage in gallons.

All of Tulane’s Health Science Center and most of the Hebert Research Center vehicle fleet run on
gasoline. Annual fuel purchases in gallons are reported by the Health Science Center Facilities Services
Department in a hard‐copy table.

The TNPRC in Covington also maintains a fleet of gasoline vehicles for public safety and maintenance.
Their Facilities Services Department provided a hand‐written estimate of annual gasoline usage based
on their available records.

Diesel and Biodiesel
The Uptown campus maintains a fleet of diesel fueled tractors and large trucks that are used by the
Facilities Services Department to aid in maintenance of the campus grounds and buildings. Diesel fuel
use in gallons was communicated verbally by the Uptown Facilities Services Department.

vi
The Hebert Research Center has several diesel tractors used to maintain the grounds and buildings. The
Health Science Center Facilities Services Department provided annual diesel use in a hard‐copy table and
will track use in a spreadsheet that they will provide for future updates to the inventory.

The TNPRC also has diesel trucks and tractors in its fleet. A handwritten estimate of annual diesel fuel
use was provided by their Facilities Services Department based on available bills and records.

Propane
There are a few propane fueled forklifts at the TNPRC and the Belle Chasse Research Center. Actual use
data was provided by their respective facilities services departments.

Employee and Student Commute
In order to estimate emissions from faculty, staff and student commute, students from Dr. Rick Duque’s
2008 Sociology classes, including service‐learning students in Environmental Sociology class, conducted
a telephone survey about commute habits. The telephone survey methodology used by Dr. Duque’s
class followed that used in our 2000 greenhouse gas emissions inventory. Faculty, staff and students
were surveyed from all campuses and the average transportation habits were applied across all Tulane
facilities.

We used the survey answers to calculate the percentage of each group using each mode of
transportation and average one‐way commute distance for each mode. On‐campus students are not
included in the commuting greenhouse gas emissions so the number of students living on campus was
subtracted from the total number of students (in FTE) to determine the number of commuting students.
We assume students take 2 trips per day and commute 180 days per year; we assume faculty take 2
trips per day and commute 200 days per year; we assume staff take 2 trips per day and commute 220
days per year. These estimates are identical to those used in the 2000 inventory and were based on the
number of months each group attends class or work and a 5‐day work week. A paper describing the
survey, copies of the survey and an example of our calculations will be available online at
http://green.tulane.edu/climate‐commitment.html.

Data on trip length and mode were entered into the CA‐CP Campus Carbon Calculator to determine
greenhouse gas emissions from commuting. The calculator uses data on average vehicle fuel use,
occupancy, and fuel efficiency to estimate the emissions that result from each unit of travel. The New
Orleans Streetcar system is considered light rail in the category of Heritage/Vintage Trolley Systems by
the American Public Transportation Association4 so we used the CA‐CP light rail category for those
commuters. All student and employee commute emissions are counted in scope 3.

Business Travel
Tulane does not have a centralized system for tracking business travel. Individuals who wish to travel
book their own accommodations and transportation then submit a travel advance or reimbursement to
the accounting department. The accounting department provided a report of expenditures on all travel
related accounts. There are 5 separate account categories for travel reimbursements – local

4
    http://www.apta.com/links/transit_by_mode/lightrail.cfm, accessed April 29, 2009.

vii
transportation, domestic transportation, foreign transportation, recruitment expenses, and visiting
professionals. We assume that expenses in the local transportation category are all for personally
owned vehicle transportation and reimbursed based on GSA (General Services Administration) rates. We
assume that 100% of expenses in the domestic and international travel accounts are for airfare. We
assume that 75% of the expenses in the recruitment and visiting professionals accounts are for airfare
and the remaining 25% is for other accommodations, including hotels and meals. All business travel
emissions are included in scope 3.

Following guidance from AASHE,5 we used statistics on price per passenger air mile from the Air
Transport Association of America (ATA)6 (in current cents per mile) and added 20% to account for taxes.
The total air travel expenses were then divided by that figure to determine air miles travelled. The rates
vary annually, so the total for each quarter of expenses is divided by the calculated price per mile
including tax that corresponds to that year. The resulting calculator input is total air miles.

To calculate business travel emissions from personal vehicles, the total expenditures were divided by an
appropriate GSA mileage reimbursement rate, in dollars per mile. This calculation was done for each
quarter because the mileage rate changes with fuel prices. The resulting calculator input is total vehicle
miles.

All athletics travel is included with business travel because their expenditures are coded the same as
business travel in the accounting system.

Study Abroad Travel
In order to estimate emissions from travel related to the study abroad program, the Center for Global
Education provided their annual report for 2007/2008. It lists all of the study abroad program
destinations and the number of students (FTE) going to each. We used the calculator at Climate
Friendly,7 to determine the distance between New Orleans and each destination. New Orleans was
assumed to be the flight origination because specific data about where each student actually flew from
is not available. We then multiplied the distance by the number of students attending each program.
The sum of all distances, in miles, was entered into the CA‐CP calculator. For 2006, the 07/08 numbers
were used, but future inventories will be estimated from each year’s actual destinations of students.
Study abroad travel emissions are included in scope 3.

Others
Direct Use of Refrigerants and Other Greenhouse Gases
The Office of Environmental Health and Safety maintains records of chemical use on all campuses. They
provided a copy of their database for use in the greenhouse gas inventory. Their database tracks
purchases of chemicals, which are not necessarily actual emissions into the atmosphere. Because of this,
the inventory most likely over‐estimates greenhouse gas emissions from these sources.

5
  http://www.aashe.org/blog/guidance‐scope‐3‐emissions‐pt‐2‐air‐travel
6
  http://www.airlines.org/economics/finance/PaPricesYield.htm
7
  https://climatefriendly.com/flight, accessed April 29, 2009

viii
In addition, the Facilities Services departments provided records of their use of refrigerants. Again, the
inventory most likely overestimates these emissions because the only data available are purchases of
refrigerants for use in equipment, not actual fugitive emissions.

All direct use of refrigerants and other greenhouse gases is included in scope 1.

Waste
Data on waste disposal are estimated. For the Uptown campus, weights from dumpsters are measured
occasionally and then used to estimate annual collection. All other campus waste estimates are based
on the size and type of dumpsters and the frequency of pick‐ups. It is assumed that the dumpsters are
full when they are emptied. All dumpster sizes are volumetric, so we used guidelines 8 from
RecycleMania to convert the volumetric measurements into weight.

Waste from the uptown and downtown campuses, the majority of Tulane’s waste, is landfilled at
Riverbirch, where they capture and flare methane.9 All waste data are included in scope 3.

Transmission and Distribution Losses
Energy lost while transporting purchased electricity, steam and chilled water to campus is counted
under scope 3 indirect emissions as transmission and distribution losses. The owner of the distribution
pipes or power lines is responsible for the energy that is lost. The CA‐CP calculator uses an average
figure of 9% to account for transmission and distribution losses. All T & D emissions are calculated from
the same inputs as emissions from purchased electricity, steam and chilled water.

Omissions
Fertilizer
Fertilizer application was omitted because a rough estimate indicates that it is an insignificant source of
greenhouse gas emissions at Tulane’s mostly urban campuses. According to Tulane’s Uptown grounds
crew superintendent, a total of 1 pound of Nitrogen per 1000 square feet is applied on the Uptown
campus lawns and grounds annually. In order to determine whether we needed to acquire fertilizer
purchase records, we estimated the number of square feet of green space on campus from aerial
images using a GIS. The resulting areal estimate was then used to determine how many pounds of 8‐8‐8
fertilizer would be needed in a year to apply 1 pound of nitrogen per 1000 square feet. The results
showed that approximately 9800 lbs of 8‐8‐8 fertilizer would be needed.

This figure was entered in the CACP Campus Carbon Calculator resulting in approximately 3.3 MT eCO2.
This figure is only 0.003% of preliminary 2006 emissions that did not include outsourced travel. Our
other campuses and research centers do not use fertilizer on their grounds. The estimated contribution
to our overall carbon footprint is so small that we determined that searching for actual fertilizer
purchase records would not add value to our emissions inventory.

8
    http://www.recyclemaniacs.org/doc/measurement‐tracking/conversions.pdf, accessed December 16, 2008
9
    http://www.deq.louisiana.gov/apps/pubNotice/pdf/riverbirch%20‐Transcript%206‐12‐08.pdf, page 15

ix
Superdome Emissions
The Tulane football team plays 5 to 6 home games each year in the Louisiana Superdome. Tulane
commencement is also held in the Superdome. This inventory does not include emissions related to
these activities.

Other Omissions
Emissions from treatment of wastewater and purchase of paper can be calculated with the Clean Air‐
Cool Planet Campus Carbon Calculator, but we chose to omit them because they are not required by
ACUPCC guidelines. Though it would benefit our recycling programs to track emissions related to paper
use, each department and office orders their own paper, and data related to recycled content and
amount purchased were not readily available.

De Minimus Emissions
We did not treat any emissions as de minimus by adding a percentage of our emissions to our total.
There are no sources that we feel are underestimated or missing from the inventory.

Acknowledgements
Shelley Meaux, Senior Program Coordinator in the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research,
has done the analysis and report for this inventory. She would like to thank Liz Davey, Alex Hernandez,
Heike Lueger, and Greg Southworth for their careful review of the inventory.

She would also like to thank the following people for providing the original data sources for the
inventory and answering all of her questions: Wil Adams, Mike Aertker, Jim Balsamo, Mark Beirn, Marty
Brantley, Shirley Buras, Cindy Butler, Joe Cali, John Caradona, Gwen Chavez, Jason Chretien, Mike
Crago, Ann Danos, Liz Davey, Christy Day, Karen Delzell‐Lucas, Jay Folse, Cynthia Foret, Gina Fortado,
Vince Granito, Michael Guidry, Melissa Guidry, Jerry Hagebusch, Doug Harrell, Laura Henry, Rick Jones,
Rickie Kramer, Lisa LeBlanc, Steve Martins, Adrien McElroy, Charlie McGrath, Giselle McKinney, Patty
Oates, LaShanda Robinson, Lawrence Smith III, John Stockwell, Judith Stone‐Collins, Bob Turner, Von
Vargo, Amanda Walters, and Galo Yepez. Special thanks to Professor Duque, Professor Duque’s
sociology students, and David Gray for completing the transportation and commute habits survey.

x
Appendix B:
List of Inventory Inputs

                                                                         Buildings
Data                                      Campus/Location                Source of Data                Unit            2006          2007          2008
Purchased Electricity                     Uptown                         Uptown Facilities Services    kWh        61,031,847    58,730,027    66,988,067
Purchased Electricity                     Reilly                         Reily Center Administration   kWh         3,415,200     3,415,200     2,881,600
Purchased Electricity                     Aron                           Housing and Residence Life    kWh         1,854,129     1,854,129     1,662,293
Purchased Electricity                     Health Science Center          HSC Facilities Services       kWh        33,519,240    36,944,361    34,019,702
Purchased Electricity                     Hebert Center                  HSC Facilities Services       kWh           605,982       552,041       606,581
Purchased Electricity                     900 S. Jeff Davis              Uptown Facilities Services    kWh           915,600       898,000     1,035,680
Purchased Electricity                     900 S. Jeff Davis (recovery)   CPREG                         kWh               N/A           N/A        87,760
Purchased Electricity                     800 E. Commerce                CPREG                         kWh         1,145,700     1,014,000     1,065,000
Purchased Electricity                     University Square              Uptown Facilities Services    kWh           648,336       601,443       656,775
Purchased Electricity                     University Square (EHS)        CPREG                         kWh           503,761       478,275       423,203
Purchased Electricity                     Medical Arts                   Uptown Facilities Services    kWh           467,840       472,080       348,400
Purchased Electricity                     1555 Poydras                   CPREG                         kWh         4,052,827     5,663,479       386,829
Purchased Electricity                     1555 Poydras (servers)         HSC Facilities Services       kWh         1,867,600     2,515,380     2,862,000
Purchased Electricity                     A Studio in the Woods          CBR                           kWh            14,972        14,791        15,753
Purchased Electricity                     Biloxi                         Sch. Of Continuing Studies    kWh           295,960       282,960       289,120
Purchased Electricity                     Houston                        AB F Sch. Of Business         kWh           316,336       316,336       316,336
Purchased Electricity                     Primate Center                 TNPRC Business Office         kWh         8,593,928     9,639,723    11,132,919
Purchased Electricity                     Total                                                        kWh       119,249,258   123,392,225   124,778,018
Natural Gas                               Uptown                         Uptown Facilities Services    MMBtu         307,200       316,044       246,879
Natural Gas                               Downtown                       HSC Facilities Services       MMBtu          10,005         8,426         8,942
Natural Gas                               Primate Center                 TNPRC Business Office         MMBtu          40,554        42,634        49,939
Natural Gas                               Total                                                        MMBtu         357,759       367,103       305,760
Purchased Steam (Downtown Only)           Total                          HSC Facilities Services       MMBtu          42,004        51,893        47,951
Purchased Chilled Water (Downtown Only)   Total                          HSC Facilities Services       MMBtu          54,605        67,026        69,994
Propane                                   A Studio in the Woods          CBR                           gallons           128           288           165
Propane                                   Hebert Center                  HSC Facilities Services       gallons            50            50            50
Propane                                   Primate Center                 TNPRC Facilities Services     gallons            46            44            51
Propane                                   Total                                                        gallons           224           382           265
Diesel ‐ Generators                       Uptown                         Uptown Facilities Services    gallons           N/A           N/A           N/A
Diesel ‐ Generators                          Primate Center              TNPRC Facilities Services        gallons        N/A      N/A           N/A
Diesel ‐ Generators                          Total                                                        gallons          ‐        ‐             ‐
HCFC‐22 (CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE )             Downtown                    HSC Facilities Services          lbs            130      165           676
HCFC‐22 (CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE )             Hebert Center               HSC Facilities Services          lbs             60       90           144
HCFC‐22 (CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE )             Reported to OEHS            OEHS                             lbs          1,555       55            60
HCFC‐22 (CHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE )             Total                                                        lbs           1745      310           880
CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE)                         Total                       OEHS                             lbs            500      550           258
HFC‐134a (1,1,1,2‐TETRAFLUOROETHANE)         Total                       OEHS                             lbs            156        6            96
HFC‐404a (R‐404a)                            Total                       OEHS                             lbs             90                     60
CH4 (METHANE)                                Total                       OEHS                             lbs          13.86      4.77            7
N2O (NITROUS OXIDE)                          Total                       OEHS                             lbs           2.00                      2

                                                                       Vehicle Fleet
Data                       Campus/Location            Source of Data                               Unit              2006       2007           2008
Gasoline                   Uptown                     Uptown Facilities Services                   gallons          16,020     15,900          12,064
Gasoline                   Downtown                   HSC Facilities Services                      gallons             900      1,998           3,206
Gasoline                   Hebert Center              HSC Facilities Services                      gallons             476      1,500    Incl. w/HSC
Gasoline                   Primate Center             TNPRC Facilities Services                    gallons          16,125     16,125          16,125
Gasoline                   Shuttles                   TUPD                                         gallons           1,000      1,000           1,112
Gasoline                   CPS                        CPS                                          gallons           1,450      2,871           2,800
Gasoline                   ASB Vans                   Student Affairs                              gallons           7,343      7,343           7,500
Gasoline                   Total                                                                   gallons          43,314     46,737          42,807
Diesel ‐ Vehicles          Uptown                     Uptown Facilities Services                   gallons           3,900      2,900               ‐
Diesel ‐ Vehicles          Downtown                   HSC Facilities Services                      gallons           5,465      3,400           1,800
Diesel ‐ Vehicles          Hebert Center              HSC Facilities Services                      gallons           1,500      1,000
Diesel ‐ Vehicles          Primate Center             TNPRC Facilities Services                    gallons           8,445      8,445         8,445
Diesel ‐ Vehicles          Total                                                                   gallons          19,310     15,745        10,245
B10 Biodiesel – Vehicles   Uptown                     Uptown Facilities Services                   gallons               ‐          ‐         8,577
B10 Biodiesel – Vehicles   Total                                                                   gallons               ‐          ‐         8,577
Waste
Data         Campus/Location            Source of Data                                Unit                          2006               2007               2008
Waste        Uptown                     Uptown Facilities Services                    short‐tons                   1,956              1,956              2,500
Waste        Downtown                   HSC Facilities Services                       short‐tons                   1,231              1,231                748
Waste        Hebert Center              HSC Facilities Services                       short‐tons                      30                 30                 30
Waste        Primate Center             TNPRC Facilities Services                     short‐tons                     180                180                180
Waste        Total                                                                    short‐tons                   3,397              3,397              3,458

                                                                         Travel
Data                                                         Campus/Location          Source of Data       Unit             2006          2007            2008
Directly Financed Outsourced Air Travel                      Total                    Accounting           Miles    41,947,597       52,458,449      55,025,774
Directly Financed Outsourced Ground Travel                   Total                    Accounting           Miles       905,740          997,781       1,034,172

                                                                      Study Abroad
Data              Campus/Location              Source of Data                                      Unit              2006              2007               2008
Air Travel        Study Abroad                 Center for Global Education                         Miles      2,557,820            2,557,820          2,557,820

                                                                     Commuting Data
Data                                                        Campus/Location          Source of Data         Unit              2006            2007        2008
Off Campus Students                                         Total                    Registrar/Housing      #                6,771         6,433          6,554
Students who commute in personal vehicle                    Total                    Commute Survey         %                 49.5          49.5           49.5
Students who carpool or get a ride                          Total                    Commute Survey         %                  1.1           1.1            1.1
Student one‐way commute distance ‐ vehicles                 Total                    Commute Survey         miles              8.5           8.5            8.5
Students who ride the streetcar (light rail)                Total                    Commute Survey         %                  1.1           1.1            1.1
Student one‐way commute distance ‐ streetcar                Total                    Commute Survey         miles              4.5           4.5            4.5
Students trips per day                                      Total                    Assumption             #                    2             2              2
Students commuting days per year                            Total                    Assumption             #                  180           180            180
Faculty                                                     Total                    WFMO                   #                1,332         1,353          1,356
Faculty who commute in personal vehicle                     Total                    Commute Survey         %                 52.8          52.8           52.8
Faculty one‐way commute distance ‐ vehicles                 Total                    Commute Survey         miles             10.2          10.2           10.2
Faculty who commute by bus                               Total                    Commute Survey            %                1.4        1.4           1.4
Faculty one‐way commute distance ‐ bus                   Total                    Commute Survey            miles           20.0       20.0          20.0
Faculty who ride the streetcar (light rail)              Total                    Commute Survey            %                1.4        1.4           1.4
Faculty one‐way commute distance ‐ streetcar             Total                    Commute Survey            miles            2.0        2.0           2.0
Faculty trips per day                                    Total                    Assumption                #                  2          2             2
Faculty commuting days per year                          Total                    Assumption                #                200        200           200
Staff                                                    Total                    WFMO                      #              2,305      2,635         2,912
Staff who commute in personal vehicle                    Total                    Commute Survey            %               77.0       77.0          77.0
Staff who carpool or get a ride                          Total                    Commute Survey            %                8.1        8.1           8.1
Staff one‐way commute distance ‐ vehicles                Total                    Commute Survey            miles           11.5       11.5          11.5
Staff who commute by bus                                 Total                    Commute Survey            %                0.6        0.6           0.6
Staff one‐way commute distance ‐ bus                     Total                    Commute Survey            miles           40.0       40.0          40.0
Staff who ride the streetcar (light rail)                Total                    Commute Survey            %                1.2        1.2           1.2
Staff one‐way commute distance ‐ streetcar               Total                    Commute Survey            miles            2.3        2.3           2.3
Staff trips per day                                      Total                    Assumption                #                  2          2             2
Staff commuting days per year                            Total                    Assumption                #                220        220           220

                                                                 Institutional Data
Data                            Campus/Location   Source of Data                                  Unit              2006           2007             2008
Full Time Students              Total             Registrar's Website                             #               8,802            8,764            9,024
Part Time Students              Total             Registrar's Website                             #               1,804            1,755            2,133
On Campus Students              Total             Housing and Residence Life                      #               2,932            3,208            3,537
Faculty                         Total             WFMO                                            #               1,332            1,353            1,356
Staff                           Total             WFMO                                            #               2,305            2,635            2,912
Operating Budget                Total             Accting Website (Financial Stmt.)               $         598,683,000      700,436,000      576,215,000
Research Budget                 Total             Accting Website (Financial Stmt.)               $         124,662,000      114,684,000      143,139,000
Energy Budget                   Total             Accounting                                      $          20,000,000       20,000,000       20,000,000
Research Building Area          Total             Draft Cost Studies Database                     sq. ft.       462,737          462,737          462,737
Building Area                   Total             University Architects and Facilities Services   sq. ft.     6,713,508        6,746,734        7,038,007
Select Emission Factors
                              Campus/Locati
Data                                          Source of Data                 Unit                  2006          2007          2008
                              on
                                              CA‐CP Calculator/EPA
Electricity CO2 Coefficent    Total                                          kg CO2 /kWh         0.59882       0.46255       0.46255
                                              eGrid
                                              CA‐CP Calculator/EPA
Electricity CH4 Coefficient   Total                                          kg CH4/kWh      5.03488E‐06   5.03488E‐06   5.03488E‐06
                                              eGrid
                                              CA‐CP Calculator/EPA
Electricity N2O Coefficient   Total                                          kg N2O/kWh      8.70897E‐06   8.70897E‐06   8.70897E‐06
                                              eGrid
Steam CO2 Coefficent          Total           CA‐CP Calculator               kg CO2 /MMBtu   64.57251033   64.57251033   64.57251033
Steam CH4 Coefficient         Total           CA‐CP Calculator               kg CH4/MMBtu    0.006456548   0.006456548   0.006456548
Steam N2O Coefficient         Total           CA‐CP Calculator               kg N2O/MMBtu    0.000129131   0.000129131   0.000129131
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