Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS

Page created by Judith Steele
Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS

Vocational Education
      in Baden-Württemberg

      Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports
Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS

Vocational education: many paths lead to the chosen career                  4

The Vocational School                                                       6

Infobox: The transition area at vocational schools                          8

Vocational preparation courses                                              9

Infobox: Individual support at vocational schools                          10

The full-time vocational school                                            11

Intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate                          13

University entrance qualification (university of applied sciences)         14

Teacher at a vocational school – a profession with a future                15

Educational paths in vocational training in Baden-Württemberg              16

The advanced vocational school                                             19

The higher vocational school for general education                         20

The higher vocational secondary school                                     22

Advanced vocational training and education: the senior vocational school   24

Centre for School Quality and Teacher Training Baden-Württemberg (ZSL) 26

Imprint                                                                    30

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
Vocational education: many paths
        lead to the chosen career

    The vocational training and education of Baden-              qualification for their professional future. By combining
    Württemberg is held in high esteem both in Germany           the competencies of vocational schools and the company
    and abroad. Around 280 public vocational schools make        providing vocational training, the dual system of voca­
    a significant contribution to business and society: they     tional education and training ensures that there are suffi-
    help young people to gain a primary vocational educa-        cient skilled workers ready to take over jobs in the local
    tion and open up ways for them to attain higher general      economy as well as being a tried and tested foundation
    school-leav­ing qualifications. They offer the opportunity   for a successful career. True to the motto „No qualifica-
    to acquire a university entrance qualification and also      tion without continuation“, the so-called „second-chance
    equip their students with advanced vocational training       course of education“, which builds on a completed vo-
    qualifications.                                              cational education, can lead via the „one-year advanced
    The overview of educational paths (pp. 6-7) in Baden-        vocational school to attain an entrance qualification for a
    Württemberg gives a clear picture of the numerous            university of applied sciences“ to such a qualification, or
    opportunities open to anyone wishing to obtain an            to a university entrance qualification via an intermediate
    individ­ually suitable qualification.                        and then higher vocational school for general education.
    One of the key tasks of vocational schools is to ease        Many a university graduate has used this practical path to
    the transition of young people into the world of work        their studies. In total, over half of all university entrance
    and to impart to them a basic vocational education or a      qualifications are attained in vocational schools.

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
Even for young people who do not manage the tran­               to facilitate inclusion in the job market; they stand for
sition to vocational training directly after leaving school,    young people – with or without disability – successfully
the vocational schools can offer significant educational        learning together.
opportunities. The main focus of vocational preparation
courses is on reinforcing the competencies necessary for        The vocational schools are constantly evolving, and
the vocational training. These courses offer a wide range       they react flexibly and swiftly to changes resulting from
of company internships and thus attach great value to           new economic developments and social change. With
proximity not only to the everyday working environ-             their broad spectrum of school types and educational
ment but also to potential companies providing voca-            programmes, they provide an ideal environment for
tional training. It is also important – as far as educational   students to develop and hone their individual aptitudes
goals are concerned – to attain an educational status           and competencies. They ensure that young people find
equivalent to that of a general secondary school-leaving        their place in the world of work and – with their high
certificate.                                                    qualifications – promote the state of Baden-Württem-
                                                                berg as a business location.
Young people who are disabled will also find a special
form of some of the educational offerings at vocational
schools. The vocational schools provide special offers

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
The vocational school

    FO RM AN D CO N TEN T O F TH E T R A I N I N G                 T H E S P E C I A L I S AT I O N L E V E L

    After attending a general-education school, a large            The years of training that follow the basic level are de-
    number of young Germans decide in favour of the dual           signed to deepen the basic knowledge already acquired.
    system for vocational training. The dual system today          The trainees are taught the special skills that make up the
    covers around 330 occupations requiring formal training        profile of the occupation concerned.
    in almost all sectors of the economy, including craft          In parallel to imparting such job-related skills, the
    trades, industry and services and ranging from traditional     vocational school also continues to further the trainees’
    activities through to high-tech areas. As in the past, voca-   general knowledge as a key prerequisite for occupational
    tional training still takes place at two training locations    competence.
    where the joint educational mandate is fulfilled: the
    company and the vocational school. The company takes           T H E C O MP L E T I O N O F T H E T R A I N I N G

    over the practical side of the training, whereas the voca-     At the end of their vocational school training, trainees
    tional school – in addition to extending and deepening         sit a final examination. Those who pass this examination
    their students’ general education – convey the theoretical     receive a vocational school-leaving certificate. Combined
    knowledge required to carry out the occupation they            with a successful conclusion of the in-company training
    are training for. In this context, the learning content is     (in the form of a Chamber of Commerce examination
    meanwhile, for the majority of occupations, no longer          certificate or a journeyman’s/skilled worker’s certificate),
    taught in individual subjects but in what are called fields    these young people have acquired an educational status
    of learning (didactical-curricular organisational units),      equivalent to a general secondary school-leaving cer­
    i.e. within the framework of self-contained subject areas.     tificate. Trainees who have successfully completed their
    These are oriented towards practical, job-related proce­       training with appropriate examination grades can have
    dures. The duration of school attendance depends on the        their educational status recognised as being equivalent to
    duration of the training in the occupation concerned.          an intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate.

    THE BASI C LEVEL                                               After completing their training, young people can:
    In their first year of training, the trainees first of all     • gain practical experience and, after attaining an
    acquire a broad knowledge of the whole occupational              avanced vocational qualification (e.g. as a master
    field. This creates a good basis for specialisation later        craftsperson), take up studies at a university;
    on and ensures that in the various occupations within a        • choose to train for a medium-level administrative career
    particular occupational field “everyone speaks the same          in the service of the state of Baden-Württemberg;
    language” – an essential requirement nowadays as occu-         • choose to train at a senior vocational school for social
    pations become more and more closely intertwined with            pedagogy;
    each other. In many occupations the basic level takes the      • acquire the qualifications to study at a university for
    form of a “one-year, full-time vocational school”.               applied sciences, or
                                                                   • attain a general university entrance qualification via the
                                                                     senior classes of the higher vocational school for
                                                                     general education.

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
The successful completion of vocational training is also       O C C U PAT I O N A L F I E L D S I N T H E V O C AT I O N A L

a sound basis for further vocational qualifications that       SCHOOLS

build on it. For example, engineers who have previously
gained a skilled worker's certificate are in particularly      V O C AT I O N A L S C H O O L S F O R T R A D E A N D

high demand.                                                   I N D U S T RY
                                                               • Metal Technology
                                                               • Automotive Engineering
A DD ITIONAL QUAL I FI CATI O N S AN D                         • Electrical Engineering
UNIVERSITY ENTRAN CE Q U ALI FI CATI O N                       • Information Technology
                                                               • Construction Engineering
                                                               • Wood Technology
Depending on what is offered locally, through par­tici­        • Textile Engineering and Clothing
pation in additional courses and on passing a further          • Chemistry, Physics and Biology
                                                               • Printing and Media Technology
examination, additional vocational qualifications can be
                                                               • Paint Technology and Interior Design
earned. Examples of such qualifications are: "Manage-          • Health
ment Assistant in Skilled Crafts", the "Foreign-Language       • Personal Hygiene
                                                               • Nutrition and Home Economics, Nutritional Field
Certificate of the Standing Conference of Ministers of
Education", or even the university entrance qualification
(university of applied sciences).                              V O C AT I O N A L B U S I N E S S S C H O O L
                                                               • Business and Administration

Further information can be found in the info box entitled
"University Entrance Qualification (university of applied      V O C AT I O N A L S C H O O L S F O R H O ME E C O -

sciences)".                                                    N O MI C S , N U R S I N G A N D S O C I A L P E D A G O G Y

                                                               V O C AT I O N A L S C H O O L S F O R A G R I C U LT U R E
                                                               • Nutrition and Home Economics,
                                                                 Home Economics Field
The vocational schools constitute an important com-            • Agricultural Economics
ponent for the permeability of educational domains in
Baden-Württemberg. The interaction between schooling
and in-company training and the interlocking of theory
and practice mean that the dual system prepares trainees
in the best possible way for the challenges and constantly
increasing demands of the working world.

The wide variety of skilled occupations allows every
young person to choose the occupation that best fits
their personal inclinations and abilities. In the vocational
school, the young people are individually fostered ac-
cording to the job profile of the occupation chosen. This
opens up for them a great variety of career prospects.

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
    The transition area at vocational schools

    The vocational preparation courses at vocational schools       of their own vocational interests and opportunities. The
    ensure that pupils leaving general education schools           concept focuses strongly on improving young people's
    are supported on their path to vocational training.            interdisciplinary competences as well as their self-learn-
    For example, if they do not hold a general secondary           ing competences. By learning in separate groups depend-
    school-leaving certificate, they can acquire one; if they      ing on their level in particular subjects, young people
    already have the certificate, they can improve their grades    obtain maximum freedom to choose between various
    or even acquire an intermediate secondary school-              educational goals in order to be able to exploit their
    leaving certificate. In connection with a basic vocational     potential to the fullest. The concept of AVdual is
    qualification which includes practical elements, this          intended to contribute towards securing the supply of
    increases their chances of getting a training position. This   skilled workers and towards effectively meeting the
    is one of the points that are addressed by the reform of       educational and demographic challenges that lie ahead.
    the transition from school to job, which was passed into       The concept of young people with different educational
    law by the education alliance of our federal state. The        goals learning together will be introduced not only in
    reform provides for the establishment of AVdual (the           the AVdual school trial but also in vocational training
    preparation for dual vocational training) in the field of      preparation (AV). Both AVdual and AV will be run as
    vocational preparation. AVdual incorporates not only           all-day classes.
    teaching based on individualised learning but also the
                                                                                     Further information can be obtained from
    increasing use of company internships. These internships
                                                                                  the Departments 7 of the Regional Councils
    are designed to make young people acquainted with the                         or directly from the individual schools and at
    realities of working life and give them a clearer picture                         www.km-bw.de/uebergangsbereich

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
Vocational preparation courses






see infobox "The transition area at vocational schools" on page 8

Young people who, after completing their compulsory           their individual ability to learn and perform. One special
education, do not start with vocational training can          feature of the pre-qualification year for work / profession
obtain specific preparation for entering the world of         compared to the vocational introductory year is that,
work by completing a prequalifying year or a vocational       like in the vocational school, there are not the traditional
introductory year. The flexible timetables of such courses    subjects but fields of learning instead. These compre-
mean that they can be geared precisely to the specific        hensively interlock theory and practice with each other
areas in which the young people need support. For             and put a strong emphasis on learning by doing.
example, those attending a prequalifying year who do
not have a sufficient knowledge of German receive a           In the vocational introductory year the pupils are taught
greater number of German lessons. Young immigrants            the job-related contents equivalent to approximately half
without any knowledge of German are, as a rule, offered       of what is normally taught in the first skilled occupation.
teaching in separate classes specifically to improve their    In the vocational introductory year sub-qualification,
language skills in a special form of the prequalifying year   which is a special form of the vocational introductory
which focuses on acquiring a knowledge of German.             year, they can acquire a sub-qualification certified by the
                                                              chamber of commerce if they serve a 90-day company
FR OM THE F IRST PRACTI CAL EXPERI EN CES                     internship, if they keep a record book of things they have
T H R OUGH TO PREQU ALI FI CATI O N I N A                     learned during the internship, and if the internship
V O C ATIONAL AREA                                            contract is registered with the chamber of commerce.
The goal of the pre-qualification year for work / profes-
sion is to give young people vocational orientation and       G E T T I N G A TA S T E O F D A I LY L I F E I N T H E

to provide them with job-related competences and skills       WORKING WORLD

in up to three vocational fields, such as Metal Technol­      Many schools offer internships in the form weekly
ogy, Electrical Engineering, Wood Technology, Con-            practical days in various companies. Parallel to their
struction Engineering, Nutrition and Home Economics,          school lessons and supervised by a teacher, the pupils
Personal Hygiene as well as Business and Administration.      can – on one or two days a week over a fairly long period
In addition, this helps the young people to get to know       – continually try out the serious side of working life and
specific vocational requirements, to find out what their      gather a lot of concrete job-related experience.
personal preferences are, and to gauge and improve

Vocational Education in Baden-Württemberg - FOR PARENTS FOR LEARNERS
I N DI VI DU AL SU PPO RT AN D A D VA N C E ME N T              schools, such as a two-year full-time vocational school
     Individual support plays a key role in the vocational           leading to a university entrance qualification (university
     preparation courses. An important basis for this is the         of applied sciences). After completion of the special
     implementation of a "competence profile analysis".              prequalifying year for young people with no knowledge
     This analysis is instrumental in precisely recognising the      of German, pupils can do the regular prequalifying year
     individual strengths of the young people concerned. It          or, with the appropriate qualification, continue with
     serves as a basis for further support and advancement           other vocational training options. The certificate gained
     throughout the school year.                                     after successful completion of the preparation for dual
                                                                     vocational training (AVdual) is equivalent to that of the
     THE SCHO O L- LEAVI N G CERT I F I C AT E I S A N               prequalifying year.
     I M PO RTAN T G O AL                                            The vocational introductory year (BEJ) certificate is a
     If pupils fulfil the requirements of the prequalification       qualification in its own right and builds on the general
     year for work / profession, they receive a school-leav-         secondary school-leaving certificate. It also requires a
     ing certificate. If they pass a centralised school-leaving      central final examination in German, mathematics and,
     examination in German, mathematics and possibly                 as a rule, English. Here, too, it is possible to go on to
     English, they also attain an educational status equivalent      study at other vocational schools such as a one-year or
     to a general secondary school-leaving certificate. This         two-year full-time vocational school, with the two-year
     substantially increases the odds of getting a training po-      option leading to a university entrance qualification
     sition. It is also possible to continue at other vocational     (University of Applied Sciences).


     Pupils in our vocational schools not only differ from           schools. At the same time, didactically based, subject-ori-
     each other with regard to previous knowledge and cap-           ented support is just as important as the development of
     ability, social background and mother tongue, interests         the pupils' personality. With increasing action compet-
     and aptitudes, but they also learn in totally different ways.   ence, the pupils should be able to be responsible for and
     At vocational schools they are individually supported           to steer their own learning.
     in their development, for example by the competence
                                                                      Further information can be found in the brochure "Basic
     analysis Profil AC, by individual support systems in the
                                                                     model for individual support at vocational schools" and at
     vocational school, by the promotion of self-organised
     learning, by seminar courses or project work in the                   www.schule-bw.de/themen-und-impulse/
     vocational full-time schools, and many others. Individual                    individuelles-lernen-und-individuelle-
     support is a basic pedagogical principle of vocational                                foerderung/berufliche-schulen

The full-time vocational school

T H E ORY AND PRAC TI CE U N DER O N E RO O F                   time vocational school, young people who are interested
There are various options open to young people on how           in this field obtain the basic training that is important for
to start their careers. Instead of choosing a part-time         this occupation. After that it's a question of the young
vocational school in the dual system, they can attend           person choosing the vocational qualification that is the
a predominantly full-time vocational school without             right one for them. Possible options are, for example, the
in-company training. There are several forms of full-time       state-recognised qualification as a professional house-
vocational schools for young people to choose from.             keeper or geriatric nurse in the home economics/nursing
                                                                care sector.

S C H OOL (1BF S)                                               T H E T W O - Y E A R F U L L - T I ME V O C AT I O N A L

The one-year full-time vocational school can be seen            SCHOOL (2BFS)

as complementary to the dual system. This school type           For school-leavers from general education schools
teaches according to the relevant training regulations and      who want to improve their career prospects using their
according to the formal curricula and syllabuses for the        general secondary school-leaving certificate as a basis, the
first year of training. It imparts the occupation-oriented      two-year vocational school (2BFS) represents a con-
specialist and practical competences either in one specific     tinuation option that is highly regarded by parents and
skilled occupation (e.g. architectural draughtsperson) or       companies. With its entrance qualification for a senior
over the range of an occupational field (e.g. automotive        vocational school, which is equivalent to an interme-
engineering). On top of that, such schools also promote         diate secondary school-leaving certificate, the 2BFS
general education.                                              also provides a basic vocational qualification which,
                                                                experience has shown, gives graduates easier access to the
This means that in many occupations both the theoret-           vocational training market.
ical and the practical vocational training in the first year
frequently take place at school. There are good reasons         In the timetable of the different types of 2BFS, not only
for this: not every company can offer the same training         the occupation-related subjects but also the occupation-
facilities. Furthermore, many companies are so highly           oriented specialist and practical competences play a
specialised in their industry that they cannot offer trainees   special role. Companies that offer training can recognise
the full range of basic vocational training necessary for       the attendance of the 2BFS as the first year of training; at
the corresponding occupational field. The one-year full-        the same time, the students are buying a ticket for their
time vocational school, however, makes this possible.           journey towards professional development. With a good
One occupational field for which there are only few             qualification from the 2BFS, the young people can also
training positions on the job market is home economics.         continue their school career, for example, with the goal
That is why in this case the State complements the dual         of achieving an entrance qualification for a university
system by offering the contents of the practical side of the    of applied sciences or a general university entrance
training in the vocational schools. In the one-year full-       qualification.

To do this they can go various ways after attending the 2BFS:   lead directly to employment. Some examples of this are:
     • Via vocational training or via attendance of an ad-           state-certified classical dancer or state-recognised child
      vanced vocational school they can achieve a university         care worker.
      entrance qualification (university of applied sciences)
     • High-performing pupils can attend a higher vocational         The occupation of state-recognised geriatric nurse can
      secondary school and acquire a general university              be learned in a three-year full-time vocational school. In
      entrance qualification.                                        trade and industry as well, committed young people can
                                                                     achieve a qualification in a recognised skilled occupation
     FU RTHER TW O - O R THREE- Y E A R F U L L - T I ME             (e.g. watchmaker).

     PATH TO A CAREER                                                Compared with the large number of normal teaching
     There are also special solutions for some special training      conditions, these special forms may not weigh heavily.
     situations. For example, in the arts, nursing and office        But these special paths show the variety of options and
     sectors, some two-year full-time vocational schools             make the vocational education landscape complete.



     Vocational trade school for                                     Commercial/technical field
     • Automotive Engineering                                        • Metal Technology
     • Metal Technology (precision engineering and metal             • Electrical Engineering
       working technology, installation technology)                  • Automotive Engineering
     • Wood Technology                                               • Construction Engineering
     • Electrical Engineering (electronics, information              • Wood Technology
       electronics)                                                  • Textile Engineering
     • Construction Engineering                                      • Laboratory Technology (offered mainly by schools for
     • Paint Technology and Interior Design                            home economics)
     • Personal Hygiene                                              • MINTec (Maths, IT, Natural Sciences and Technology
     • Printing and Media Technology                                   excellence centre)
     • Architectural Draughtsperson
     • Textile Engineering and Clothing                              Commercial/business field (business school)
     • Photography                                                   Vocational school for the field of nutrition and health
     • Glazier                                                       with the profiles:
     • Home Economics and Nutrition, industrial occupations          • Home Economics and Nutrition
       (bakery production, meat processing)                          • Nutrition and Gastronomy
     • Make-up Artist                                                • Health and Nursing

     Full-time vocational school for home economics

Intermediate secondary
               school-leaving certificate

                      IN TERM EDI ATE SECO N DARY S C H O O L - L E AV I N G C E RT I F I C AT E

  2-year full-time          Intermediate voca-      Alternative I (Baden-Württemberg    Alternative II
 vocational school        tional school for gen-    model or "9+3" model)              • Vocational school
leading to a senior       eral education (1 year)   • General secondary school-leaving   certificate (average grade
 vocational school                                    certificate                        3.0)
qualification (FSR)                                 • Vocational school certificate    • Knowledge of foreign
                                                    • Certificate from the competent     languages
                           Vocational training/
                                                      authority (Chamber examination) • Professional qualification
                            vocational school
                                                      Average grade overall 2.5

                         G EN ERAL SECO N DARY SCH O O L - L E AV I N G C E RT I F I C AT E

University entrance qualification
     (University of Applied Sciences)
            U N I VERSI TY EN TRAN C E Q U A L I F I C AT I O N ( U N I V E R S I T Y O F A P P L I E D S C I E N C E S )

        2-year           3-year                  1-year advanced                    2-year senior
      advanced         advanced                vocational school to                  vocational
      vocational       vocational             achieve the university                   school
        school           school               entrance qualification
                                              (University of Applied

                                                                                    Employment                  Vocational school with
                                                                                                               an additional qualification
                                                                                                              for entrance to a university
                                                             Vocational training                                  of applied sciences

                        I N TERM EDI AT E S E C O N D A RY S C H O O L - L E AV I N G C E RT I F I C AT E

     School type       1 BKFH*                        A D VA N C E D                  SENIOR                            V O C AT I ONA L
                                                      V O C AT I O N A L              V O C AT I O N A L                SCHOOLS
                                                      SCHOOLS                         SCHOOLS

     Entrance          intermediate                   intermediate                    completed vocational              intermediate
     require-          secondary school-              secondary school-               training and relevant             secondary school-
     ments             leaving certificate            leaving certificate             work experience (see              leaving certificate
                       and completed                  (see also the section           also the section on
                       vocational training            on "The Advanced                "Advanced Vocational
                       or equivalent                  Vocational School")             Training and Education:
                       employment                                                     the Senior Vocational

     Duration          1 year of full-time or depends on the                          2 years of full-time or           3 years (additional
                       2 years of part-time type of advanced                          up to 4 years of part-            programme parallel
                       teaching               vocational school                       time teaching                     to vocational training)

                      * 1-year advanced vocational school to achieve the university entrance qualification (University of Applied Sciences)

Teacher at a vocational school
– a profession with a future

• work with young people
• close professional contact to the world of work
• cooperative working atmosphere
• creative ways to structure your work
• good employment perspectives
• ample in-service and advanced training opportunities
• a secure job
• fair pay
• mobility assistance with the JobTicket BW
• chance to be taken on as a public servant if you fulfil the criteria


• teacher training programme at university
• lateral entry
  special path for graduates of universities of applied sciences after subject-specific
  courses with a consecutive Master's degree or an equivalent qualification
• direct entry
  special path for those with professional experience who have absolved
  a subject-specific course of studies


• ocational education courses at universities (technical and engineering education,
  business education)
• cooperative study programmes at universities for applied science and at teacher
  training colleges
• course of studies "Gerontology, Health and Care" at the University of Heidelberg
• courses of studies at universities for teaching positions at higher academic
  secondary schools (for general education subjects which are taught at
  vocational schools)


Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports

Teacher recruitment portal of the Ministry of Education

Advertising campaign for the teaching profession conducted
by the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts


                                                                                   Q U AQ
                                                                                        LUI FAILZI FI EI ERDT EE MBP

                                    UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE QUALIFICATION

                                                          allg./fachgeb.HSR                 FHSR
                                                    Higher Vocational School   Senior Vocational
                  Advanced Vocational                 for general education          School
                                              Intermediate Vocational School (e.g. technical school)
                           1 year               for general education 1 year       1 or 2 years

                                VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION /
                              VOCATIONAL SCHOOL CERTIFICATE                                   ZQ FHSR

            In-Company Training + Vocational School
                                                                     1-year Full-Time Vocational School
                        V O C A T I O N A L T RAI N I N G I N T HE DU AL SYST E M


                                                                                     1, 2 and 3-year                              Co
                                                                              Full-Time Vocational School                  VAB, BEJ,
                                                                                  + In-Company Training


                                                                                                           Vocational Preparation
                                                                                                           VAB, BEJ, AVdual, BFPE

                                                                                                no school-leaving certificate

                               Schools for general education

     Wichtiger Hinweis:        Vocational schools                                             Allgemein bildende Schulen
     Diese Grafik kann aus Vereinfachungsgründen nicht
                                                                                              Berufliche Schulen
     sämtliche Übergangsmöglichkeiten darstellen.
     Für einige Übergangsmöglichkeiten gelten zusätzliche                                     Abschlüsse


                      HSZB                                          UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE QUALIFICATION

               FHSR             FHSR                                            allg. HSR                                     allg. HSR

 3-year Full-Time               Advanced                    Higher Vocational Secondary School                               General
 Vocational School          Vocational School                                                                               education
                                  1, 2, 3 years                     6 years                 3 years                          schools
                                                                                                                         Higher Academic
                                                                                                                        Secondary School,
                                                                                                                         Joint Secondary

TE SECONDARY SCHOOL-LEAVING                                                                                  CERTIFICATE

al Preparation                                                                                    General education schools
                                                                                            Intermediate Secondary School with
ourses                      2-year Full-Time                                                    focus on vocational orientation,
  AVdual, BFPE              Vocational School                                                      Joint Secondary School,
                                                                                               Intermediate Secondary School,
                                                                                             Higher Academic Secondary School,

    SECONDARY SCHOOL-LEAVING                                                                                 CERTIFICATE

                                                                                             General education schools
                                                                                       General Secondary School/Intermediate
                                                                                      Secondary School with focus on vocational
                                                                                         orientation, Joint Secondary School,
                                                                                           Intermediate Secondary School,
                                                                                        Higher Academic Secondary School,

        FHSR           University Entrance Qualification 		              BEJ      Vocational Introductory Year
                    (University of Applied Sciences)                     AV       Preparation for Vocational Training
        allg. HSR FHSRUniversity Entrance Qualification (general)        AVdual   Preparation
                                                                                   BEJ        for Dual Vocational Training
        fachgeb. HSR University Entrance Qualification (specific)        BFPE     Full-Time Vocational School Pilot Project
                 allg. HSR          allgemeine Hochschulreife                      AV          Ausbildungsvorbereitung
        HSZB           University Entrance Qualification                 ZQ       Additional Qualification
                 fachgeb.  HSR fachgebundene Hochschulreife              SBBZ
                                                                                   AVdual Ausbildungsvorbereitung dual
                                                                                  Special-Needs Education and Advisory Centre
        VAB           Prequalification Year for Work/Profession
                 HSZB               Hochschulzugangsberechtigung                   ZQ          Zusatzqualifikation
                 VAB                Vorqualifizierungsjahr Arbeit/Beruf            SBBZ        Sonderpädagogisches Bildungs-              17
                                                                                               und Beratungszentrum

The advanced vocational school

A C LOSE LINK BETWEEN THEO RY AN D                              O V E RV I E W O F A D VA N C E D V O C AT I O N A L

P R ACTICE                                                      SCHOOLS

Technological developments and the advance of global
specialisation at work are leading to occupations with          • Educational programmes
much higher demands in the theoretical specialist field.        • Technical advanced vocational schools
With their close link between theory and practice,              • Commercial advanced vocational schools
advanced vocational schools impart the appropriate vo-          • Advanced vocational schools for home economics,
cational qualifications while at the same time expanding         nursing, social pedagogy

their pupils' general
educational background.

Admission to an advanced vocational school requires not
only an intermediate secondary school-leaving certi-
ficate but also the fulfilment of further criteria (e.g. an

The advanced vocational school normally ends with a
final examination. In the case of training courses lasting at
least two years (also in stages), graduates can acquire not
only a university entrance qualification for universities of
applied sciences but also a professional qualification (e.g.
state-certified assistant).

The higher vocational school
                 for general education

     The higher vocational schools for general education          U P P E R L E V E L ( T E C H N I C A L U P P E R S E COND -

     offer talented young people who have already com-            A RY S C H O O L , C O MME R C I A L U P P E R SECOND -

     pleted their vocational training a chance to broaden         A RY S C H O O L , U P P E R S E C O N D A RY SCH OOL

     their general and specialised theoretical knowledge.         F O R S O C I A L S E RV I C E S )

     This opens up paths to further educational institu-          Those who have completed vocational training or have
     tions.                                                       equivalent work experience can attain a university en-
     The higher vocational school for general education is        trance qualification restricted to specific courses in two
     divided into an intermediate level and an upper level.       years via the upper level of the higher vocational school
                                                                  for general education. If they also meet the requirements
     I N TERM EDI ATE LEVEL ( I N TE R ME D I AT E                regarding a second foreign language, it is even possible
     VO CATI O N AL SCHO O L FO R G E N E R A L                   for them to attain a general (i.e. unrestricted) university
     EDU CATI O N )                                               entrance qualification. After that, they are free to study.
     In the intermediate vocational school for general            In addition to the professional qualification evidenced by
     education, pupils who have a general secondary               completed vocational training or by equivalent profes-
     school-leaving certificate and have completed their          sional experience, applicants for the higher vocational
     vocational training or have comparable work exper-           school for general education require one of the following
     ience are able to acquire an intermediate secondary          qualifications:
     school-leaving certificate (entrance qualification for       • intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate
     senior vocational school) within a year.                     • senior vocational school entrance qualification
     For the respective vocational fields there are corres-       • certificate from an intermediate secondary school with
     ponding intermediate vocational schools for general            focus on vocational orientation
     education:                                                   • school report of promotion to Grade 10 of an eight-
     • with an industrial orientation                               year higher academic secondary school
     • with a commercial orientation                              • school report of promotion to Grade 11 of a nine-year
     • with an agricultural orientation                             higher academic secondary school (or of a six-year
     After attaining a qualification to attend a senior voca-       higher vocational secondary school)
     tional school, young people can enrol at an advanced         • school report of promotion to the higher secondary
     vocational school to attain a university entrance quali-       level of a joint secondary school (E level = extended
     fication for universities of applied sciences or – via the     level) in each case with an average mark of 3.0 in the
     upper level of the higher vocational school for general        subjects German, English, Mathematics and one of the
     education – even achieve a general university entrance         subjects or subject combinations Biology, Chemistry,
     qualification.                                                 Physics, MNT (Matter-Nature-Technology) or Natural
     As long as they have not yet reached the age limit for         Science Work and with a mark no lower than "fair/
     admission (see table on page 26), they can also attend         pass" in any of these subjects. Graduates from the "9+3"
     a higher vocational secondary school.                          model can be admitted on the basis of an entrance

Particularly well qualified young people with a uni-
versity entrance qualification (University of Applied
Sciences) and a professional qualification can take up free
places in the second year of existing classes at a higher
vocational school for general education, but only on the
following conditions: the requisite university entrance
qualification was achieved with an average mark of at
least 2.5 in the relevant subjects and a better level than
"fair/pass" was achieved in each of the subjects German,
English and Mathematics as well as in the vocational
focus subject. A counselling interview is obligatory.
The higher vocational school for general education
lasts two years in all and leads to a specific or general
university entrance qualification. Both qualifications
are recognised in whole of Germany. The upper level
of the higher vocational school for general education
specialises either in the fields of technology (technical
upper secondary school), commerce (commercial upper
secondary school) or social services (upper secondary
school for social services). The written final examination
is taken in German, English and mathematics as well as in
the corresponding specialist subject.

The higher vocational
                           secondary school

     Young people with a special interest in the world            for their studies at university and – in a special way – for
     of business and work and with specific skills and            their working life.
     aptitudes definitely deserve one thing: special paths        In the course of three years, the following pupils can
     to the universities. Vocational education and general        acquire a university entrance qualification at a higher
     education are of equal value. This fact was recognised       vocational secondary school:
     early on in Baden-Württemberg, the consequence               • pupils with an appropriate school-leaving certificate
     being that in the past decades a highly differentiated         from an intermediate secondary school or from an
     offering of courses of education at higher academic            intermediate secondary school with focus on
     secondary school level has been created at vocational          vocational orientation,
     schools. For many young people capable of studying           • particularly high-achieving pupils with a general
     the path to university is nowadays via the higher voca-        secondary school-leaving certificate who have attained
     tional secondary schools.                                      an intermediate secondary school-leaving certificate
                                                                    via a two-year full-time vocational school or via an
     THE HIGHER VOCATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS                        intermediate vocational school for general education
     Higher vocational secondary schools are full-time            • pupils with a school report of promotion to Grade 10
     schools. They lead to a general university entrance            of an eight-year higher academic secondary school
     qualification. Above and beyond that, they offer a           • pupils with a school report of promotion to Grade 11
     good basis for completing demanding vocational train-          of a nine-year higher academic secondary school
     ing outside of the universities.                             • pupils of a joint secondary school, either on the basis
                                                                    of a qualified intermediate secondary school-leaving
     THE THREE- YEAR HI G HER VO C AT I O N A L                     certificate from that school (M level = intermediate
     SECO N DARY SCHO O L ( 3BG )                                   level) or on the basis of a promotion to the higher
     The three-year higher vocational secondary school pre-         secondary level that reached an advanced level in a
     pares pupils in the first year and in the two upper grades     joint secondary school (E level)

The job-related subjects also influence the general sub-      a general education both in the language and social
jects. What are the advantages of this? The pupils receive    fields as well as in the mathematical and scientific fields
a broad and in-depth education and also acquire the           which is supplemented by a vocational focus. This whole
ability to think and act in system contexts.                  spectrum is covered by the compulsory syllabuses of the
                                                              subjects taught.
The higher vocational secondary schools differ in their
focus on occupational fields, each of them concentrating      The six-year higher vocational secondary school is
on a specific area:                                           geared towards:
• Agricultural science                                        • pupils form higher academic secondary schools
• Biotechnology                                               • pupils from joint secondary schools (E level)
• Nutritional science                                         • good pupils from intermediate secondary schools and
• Social and health science                                     from joint secondary schools (M level)
• Technical                                                   • very good pupils from general secondary schools, from
• Economics                                                     intermediate secondary schools with a focus on
These specific areas are defined by six lessons per             vocational orientation, from intermediate secondary
week in the major field of studies, which are subject           schools and from joint secondary schools (G level =
to compulsory attendance.                                       basic level) who, at an early stage, have shown a special
                                                                interest in or talent for individual specialist fields and
T H E SIX-YEAR HIGHER VO CATI O N AL                            for whom it would therefore make sense to change
S E C ONDARY SCHOO L ( 6BG )                                    from the eighth grade to a vocational training
The six-year higher vocational secondary schools offer          programme. Here they can obtain a general university
pupils – to a particularly high degree – the opportunity        entrance qualification after a total of 13 school years.
to occupy themselves at an early stage with technical,          This course of education is offered with a focus on
economic, scientific, nutritional or social and health          economics (6WG), technology (6TG), nutrition, social
issues.                                                         and health sciences (6ESG).
In the six-year higher vocational secondary schools
(6BG) the corresponding job-related specialist subjects
are taught in four weekly lessons as early as Grade 8, with
two weekly lessons at intermediate level reserved for
practice-oriented tasks in the laboratory, in the work-
shop or in the training company. At upper level there
are then six weekly lessons in each specialist subject.
Even with this job-related focus, it is possible for pupils
to learn together longer. As in the case of the three-year
vocational secondary schools, the specialist subjects
radiate into the general subjects – thus the pupils receive

Advanced vocational training
                     and education:
              the senior vocational school
     The one- and two-year senior vocational schools offer         Together with these qualifications they can also acquire
     employed persons who have completed their vocational          – with the exception of those in the hotel and catering
     training the opportunity to prepare for a position in         industry – a university entrance qualification. As long as
     middle management or to qualify for self-employment in        state regulations are fulfilled, graduates may also choose
     their profession. To this end, the qualifications acquired    to become self-employed. Attendance of a senior voca-
     in vocational school and on the job are expanded and          tional school is also eligible for financial support under
     developed in more depth. Since 2006, students gradu-          the Federal Education Assistance Act (BAföG) or under
     ating from senior vocational schools have also – under        the Advanced Further Training Assistance Act (AFBG).
     certain circumstances – had the possibility of studying at    Part-time courses are also offered to allow students to
     university.                                                   attend school and also continue working. Those who
                                                                   graduate from senior vocational schools have attained
     TW O - YEAR SEN I O R VO CATI ON A L S C H O O L S            a university entrance qualification for universities of
     FO R EN G I N EERI N G , DESI G N A N D B U S I N E S S       applied sciences.
     There are two-year senior vocational schools for engin-
     eering and design in the field of trade and industry and      S C H O O L S F O R MA S T E R C R A F T S P E R SON

     for economics in the commercial field (covering the spe-      Apprentice – journeyman – master that is still the classic
     cialist fields of business administration and management      course of training in the craft industry. The examination
     as well as the hotel and catering industry). The require-     for the master craftsperson's certificate with its four parts
     ments for admission are vocational training in the inten-     – practical, theoretical, economic and legal, and profes-
     ded field of specialisation and subsequent professional       sion- and work-educational – is an established, well-bal-
     activity in this field. During the course, an independent     anced programme. One of the advantages of the master
     project must be prepared and presented. This helps the        training is that it offers the opportunity to start one's own
     students gain specialised qualifications that extend far      business. As a rule, the course for master craftspersons
     beyond what is learned in vocational training and that        lasts one year, in part-time programmes proportionately
     are widely acknowledged in the business world. On             longer. The requirement for admission is vocational
     passing the final examination, the graduates of the senior    training corresponding to the intended field of specialisa-
     vocational schools for engineering and for design earn        tion. The examination itself is taken before the appropri-
     the professional title "State-certified Technical Engineer"   ate master craftsman's examination board of the chamber
     and "State-certified Designer" respectively, while a grad­    of trade, the chamber of commerce and industry, or the
     uate from the senior vocational school for economics          Regional Council. On passing the examination, graduates
     becomes a "State-certified Business Economist".               acquire a university entrance qualification.

A C A DEMIES                                                      Professional". By taking an additional course and passing
The academies of business administration in the craft indus-      an additional examination, they qualify for studying at a
tries prepare students in a two-year course for the master        university of applied sciences.
craftsperson's examination and provide further qualifica-
tion in the technical and, especially, managerial areas. The      S E N I O R V O C AT I O N A L S C H O O L F O R

requirement for enrolment is generally at least two years of      O R G A N I S AT I O N A N D MA N A G E ME N T

work experience in a related field. In all areas of specialisa-   Further education in the two-year part-time senior
tion, it is possible to enrol in the second year of an academy    vocational schools for organisation and management
of business management in the craft industry after passing        qualifies respective professionals to discharge managerial
the master craftsperson's examination. On passing the exam-       tasks, above all in socio-pedagogical facilities. On
ination, graduates acquire a university entrance qualification    successful completion of the entire course, graduates
for universities of applied sciences.                             attain the professional title "State-certified Specialist
                                                                  for Organisation and Management – with a focus on
S E N IOR VOCATIONAL SCHO O L FO R FU RTHER                       social services". In addition to vocational training in the
E D U CATION IN HEA LTH CARE                                      respective field, the requirements for admission are,
The two-year part-time senior vocational school of                generally, two years of related work experience.
further education in health care (with the additional             Applicants who have already acquired university
qualification of university entrance qualification for a          entrance qualifications require at least one year of
university of applied sciences) offers a course that focuses      related work experience.
on leading a nursing and functional unit or on geriatric
psychiatry. A pass in the former area of focus qualifies the
student to take on a leadership position.
The admission requirements are: completed training as
a geriatric nurse, as a nurse, as a paediatric nurse, or as
a disability nurse and at least two years of related work
experience. In addition, a minimum of 400 hours of
training-related practice is required during the course
of further training and education. When graduates pass
the final examination, they acquire the professional title
of "State-certified Specialist for Leading a Nursing and
Functional Unit" or "State-certified Geriatric Psychiatry

Center for School Quality and Teacher
     Education Baden-Württemberg (ZSL)
      – training, advanced training and support for all schools

     The ZSL was established on March 1, 2019 and is an             • optimal equipment (iPads, servers, computer rooms,
     authority that is responsible for the whole of the federal       etc.) and know-how for training courses that are digital-­
     state of Baden-Württemberg. The ZSL consists of the              ly supported or, in part, organised as web conferences
     headquarters in Stuttgart, where the conceptual tasks          • state-of-the-art IT infrastructure with support (on-site
     are bundled together and processed by a total of five de-        system support)
     partments. The training, further education and advisory        • further training as part of the Cisco Networking
     services are decentralised and provided to the teachers          Academy Program on the subjects of "Digital Infras-
     locally in the various regions of the federal state. The ZSL     tructure", "Digital Devices and Operating Systems" and
     therefore consists not only of the headquarters but also         on application development for the classroom
     of six regional offices in Freiburg, Karlsruhe, Mannheim,      • further training on the subject of Industry 4.0
     Schwäbisch Gmünd, Stuttgart and Tübingen. In addition            (electronic laboratory, intensive cooperation with
     to the regional offices, the ZSL also has five branch of-        Festo)
     fices in Bad Wildbad, Comburg, Esslingen, Ludwigsburg          • impulses and tailor-made advanced training events for
     and Rotenfels Castle. At the branch offices, courses are         the "Learning Factory 4.0"
     primarily held for central advanced training courses.          • further training events on subject-specific digital
                                                                      applications and the use of digital devices in specialist
     O nline presence                                                 teaching
     The ZSL provides information on its website
     www.zsl-bw.de about the ZSL and its services. In particu­      I nternational collaborations

     lar, the pages “lernen über@ll” (www.zsl-bw.de/,Lde/           The education system of the state of Baden-Württem-
     Startseite/lernen+ueberall) focus on digital teaching and      berg with its diversity and permeability is attracting
     learning. At www.lehrerfortbildung-bw.de numerous              a lot of international attention. Vocational training in
     teaching materials are published that cover all subjects       particular, with its differentiated system of teacher train-
     and that have been developed in and for advanced train-        ing and further education, is receiving great recognition
     ing courses.                                                   and attracting great international interest. This makes
                                                                    the federal state of Baden-Württemberg an important
     Branch office Esslingen                                        point of contact for cooperation with those responsible
     With around 600 events annually, teachers in partic-           for education and with institutions from many countries
     ular at vocational schools in Esslingen receive innov-         around the world.
     ative impulses and current specialist input. It is here
     that, every year, around 10,000 teachers from all over         The structuring and implementation of the international
     Baden-Württemberg enhance their technical and meth-            collaborations is handled by Subdivision 45 of the ZSL,
     odological-didactic skills on over 25,000 training days.       which is responsible for international cooperation
     Particular stress is laid on consistent quality assurance      projects in teacher training for vocational and general
     and the constant optimisation of the training offers as        schools. In the field of vocational training, Subdivision 45
     well as in the area of d​​ igitisation/Industry 4.0:           seamlessly continues the good work of the former State

Academy for Further Education and Personnel Develop-           T he main focus of this work is , among

ment in Esslingen. The international partnerships, which       other things :

have often been in existence for decades, for example          • to give detailed insights into the vocational training
with educational authorities, educational institutions           system in Baden-Württemberg;
and schools – in France, Singapore and Beijing/China –         • to develop individually tailored concepts/curricula for
speak for the quality of the cooperation, especially in the      the advanced training of teachers and managers in
professional area.                                               coordination with the international cooperation
In cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Youth           • to advise on the further development of the education
and Sports Baden-Württemberg, the ZSL initiates,                 system in the various countries and also in individual
designs and coordinates a wide range of international            schools;
projects in the field of vocational training. In many          • to support the establishment of new courses
projects, the ZSL cooperates with partners from business,        (e.g. senior vocational school) in different countries;
administration and science. Subdivision 45 is the central      • to advise on the introduction and further
point of contact in Baden-Württemberg for international          development of quality management systems;
teacher training projects and educational cooperation          • to implement current vocational training policy issues
with other countries.                                            as a partner or initiator (e.g. in EU projects);
                                                               • to support schools in developing their international
In this context, Subdivision 45 is always geared towards         vocational training projects.
the needs of the respective international partners,
regardless of whether the projects are in direct cooper-       Subdivision 45 cooperates with different countries and
ation with institutions of the educational administra-         regions, for example with Egypt, China (Beijing, Jiangsu,
tion, at the level of training and further qualification of    Liaoning), France, The Gambia, Israel, Austria, Palestine,
teachers or at school level in the form of an exchange of      Switzerland, Singapore, Spain, Italy (South Tyrol),
teachers or pupils.                                            Thailand, Vietnam

Subdivision 45 relies on experienced and qualified
specialist consultants and teachers from schools in
Baden-Württemberg, who use their experience in inter-
national projects to further develop the way the
vocational education system works in Baden-Württem-
berg. As a result, in the context of globalisation, topics
such as sustainable education, flexibility and mobility are
clearly included in the educational canon for both the
international partners and the schools in the federal state.

Examples of projects:

     France                                                    S ingapore

     On 22 January 2005, the state of Baden-Württemberg, the   The successful partnership between the Republic of
     Alsace region and the French academies of Strasbourg,     Singapore and Baden-Württemberg has existed for over
     Dijon and Lyon signed a declaration of intent to found    30 years. Since January 2007, the ITE (Institute for Tech-
     the Academy of Vocational Education and Training          nical Education, Singapore) has been offering a state-cer-
     (ABB). In 2015, the Academy of Besançon joined the        tified technician in the fields of mechanical engineering
     partnership.                                              and automotive technology. The cooperation with five
                                                               other schools from the commercial, housekeeping and
     The goals of the cooperation are :                        technical sectors has proven the successful relationship
     • promotion of exchanges in the professional field        with Singapore for years.
     • improving mobility in cooperation with business
       partners                                                A ims of cooperation:

     • strengthening the professional skills of trainees       • technical support for the establishment and
     • development and implementation of joint training          continuation of senior vocational schools for
       courses                                                   mechanical engineering and automotive technology
                                                               • training of the Singaporean teachers in accordance
     Since 2005, over 3,500 students and 150 teachers have       with the Baden-Württemberg education plan and the
     participated in ABB's projects.                             applicable examination regulations
                                                               • examination and certification according to Baden-
                                                                 Württemberg standards with professional support
                                                                 on site

                                                               As part of the partnership with the ITE Academy, multi-
                                                               pliers have been trained for teacher training.

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