3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations

Cover Photo:
IOM / Muse Mohammed

Design Credit:
UNHCR / Julia Klement
UNHCR / Özgür Savaşcıoğlu

For further information, please visit:   Photo:
www.3rpsyriacrisis.org                   UNHCR / E. Gürel

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020


Current Situation      5

Needs    7

Response     9

Social Protection      10

Durable Solutions Strategy      11

Partnerships and Coordination         12

Accountability Framework        13

    Protection Sector response        14

    Food Security and Agriculture Sector response        30

    Education Sector response         44

    Health Sector response       58

    Basic Needs Sector response            72

    Livelihoods Sector response        84

Country Requirments Summary (by Agency)         96

List of 3RP partners       97

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
    UNDP / Mustafa Bilge Satkın

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020

Turkey is home to the largest refugee                       Current prospects and sustainability of             Turkey, thanks to the Law on Foreigners
population in the world. During 2018,                       voluntary, safe and dignified repatriation          and International Protection3, as well
the number of Syrians under temporary                       to Syria remain challenged by persisting            as the Temporary Protection Regulation
protection reached 3.6 million1, almost                     obstacles to return, such as insecurity,            adopted on the basis of the law, continues
half of whom are children. Only around                      housing, land, and property issues, and             to provide Syrian refugees with access to
four per cent of Syrians live in the 13                     ongoing displacement within the country             national systems such as health, education,
official    Temporary        Accommodation                  due to violence. Syrians under temporary            employment and social services. The 3RP
Centres2, while 96 per cent reside among                    protection who make a free and informed             has been developed within this framework
the host community in urban, peri-urban                     choice to return are processed under                and will support the Government of Turkey
and rural areas. The majority of Syrians                    voluntary return procedures regulated               in implementing it.
under temporary protection live in the                      by Turkey’s legal framework. Monitoring
southeast of Turkey. However, substantial                   movements back to Syria remains a priority          The Temporary Protection Regulation4
populations are also found in large cities of               for the Government and 3RP partners                 allows Syrians to access health care under
Turkey such as Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara.                  alike. However it is not expected that the          the same premises as Turkish nationals.
In Istanbul alone, it is estimated that there               numbers will increase to a level that will          Over time, local hospitals scaled up to
are over 500,000 Syrians under temporary                    have a significant impact on the planning           respond to the most acute needs but areas
protection, making it the largest refugee-                  figures for 2019. Support to Syrians under          hosting large numbers of Syrians faced high
hosting city in Turkey. In addition, there                  temporary protection as well as the                 demands on resources and ultimately the
are significant numbers of Syrians under                    communities who host them thus remains              quality of services was impacted. The health
temporary protection in cities such as                      a priority for 2019.                                sector worked to expand health services for
Hatay, Mersin, Adana and Konya.                                                                                 Syrians under temporary protection through
                                                            The Government of Turkey has shouldered             the integration of Syrian health personnel
In 2018, the Government of Turkey decided                   the bulk of the financial burden of the             working alongside Turkish doctors and
to consolidate and close a number of                        refugee response in Turkey. According to            nurses in migrant health centres and units.
Temporary Accommodation Centres (TACs).                     the latest estimates, the Government of             These migrant health centres operate
Six have been closed so far. According to                   Turkey has invested more than US$ 37                as part of the Turkish community health
their preferences, the population residing in               billion in hosting Syrians under temporary          centres system and provide a network of
these centres relocated to urban locations                  protection. With the crisis in Syria continuing     primary health care services that alleviate
or to other Temporary Accommodation                         and the refugee situation remaining                 the pressures placed on hospitals. Through
Centres. As a result of the relocation process,             increasingly protracted, Turkey is calling          the opening of 151 out of 179 planned
some 45,000 Syrian and a number of Iraqi                    for increased international responsibility          migrant health centres, access to health
nationals have moved to provinces located                   sharing to ensure that the needs of Syrians         care has continued to increase by reducing
predominantly in the southeast of Turkey.                   under temporary protection and the host             language barriers and increasing human
The majority have opted for settling in                     communities are met.                                resource capacity and the threats to quality
host communities and staying in provinces                                                                       reduction have slowed down.
where their Temporary Accommodation                         The 3RP works in support of this investment
Centres were. This is an important step                     and is complementary to support provided            Similar advancements are seen in the
towards a reduction in dependency on                        by development partners such as the                 education sector with the Ministry of
assistance and a positive development in                    international financial institutions (IFIs).        National Education (MoNE) continuing to
addressing specific vulnerabilities caused                  Since its introduction in 2015, US$ 2.83            promote the inclusion of Syrians under
by displacement.                                            billion have been received through the 3RP          temporary protection in the national
                                                            for the Turkey response. Available data             education system. More than 646,000
Unless significant developments occur in                    shows that US$ 3.5 billion have been made           Syrian children of school age (5-17 years)
Syria, it is assumed that the current number                available in support to public institutions         are enrolled in formal education and just
of Syrians under temporary protection will                  for the refugee response since the start            over 20,000 students are attending tertiary
remain relatively stable. The Government                    of 2017 through the 3RP, international              education. Syrian volunteer education
of Turkey maintains its open door policy                    financial institutions and bilateral support.       personnel continue to play a key role in
towards Syrians, while continuing the strict                This includes support to municipalities,            the education of Syrian children. Socio-
management of the borders in response                       the public health, education and social             economic factors have a marked effect
to security concerns. Self-organized,                       service system as well as ISKUR, the Turkish        on school enrolment, attendance and
spontaneous returns are expected to                         employment agency.                                  retention. The Conditional Cash Transfer for
1 Directorate General of Migration Management, http://www.goc.gov.tr/icerik3/gecici-koruma_363_378_4713
  )access date: 04/01/2019(
2 Directorate General of Migration Management, October 2018
3 Law no. 6458 on Foreigners and International Protection, O.J. no. 28615 (dated 11.04.2013)
4 Temporary Protection Regulation, O.J. no. 29153 (dated 22.10.2014)

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
                                                                                                                          UNHCR / E.UNHCR/
                                                                                                                                     Gurel Emrah Gürel

Education (CCTE) programme, the provision       The Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN) is                between 2016 and 2018 tripled in value
of subsidized school transportation and         a multi-purpose cash assistance scheme                   from US$ 8M in 2016 to 25M for 2018-2019.
other complementary services such as the        for the most vulnerable Syrians under
provision of dorms all help to address some     temporary protection to cover essential                  In addition to access to health, education,
of these barriers. The CCTE programme           needs like food, rent and utilities. Since               social and municipal services, the legal
aims to promote regular school attendance       the inception of the ESSN in 2016, over                  framework also grants Syrians under
and provides higher cash amounts for girls      1.44 million vulnerable individuals have                 temporary protection access to the labour
and for secondary school students enrolled      benefited from the programme as of October               market and employment services. In
in formal education. The programme has          2018. The ESSN, when combined with other                 January 2016, the Regulation on Work
taken a unique approach integrating social      complementary cash-based assistance                      Permits of Refugees under Temporary
protection, child protection, education,        interventions, supported over 1.5 million                Protection    (hereafter     Work     Permit
social    cohesion     and     sustainability   Syrians under temporary protection with                  Regulation) was adopted, granting all
components.                                     cash transfers aligned with the national                 beneficiaries of temporary protection the
                                                social welfare system. In addition, the                  right to apply for work permits and access
People with specific needs, in particular       expansion of the national CCTE programme                 to formal employment. This is expected
women and children at risk, continue to         to include all refugee children in 2017 was              to enable an increasing number of Syrians
be a priority for the 3RP. 3RP partners have    a significant achievement and during the                 under temporary protection to become
worked to strengthen capacities to provide      2017/2018 school year, 368,0905 Syrian                   more self-reliant and resilient. As of 31
targeted protection assistance, including       children (61 per cent of those enrolled)                 October 2018, a total of 60,822 work permits
in preventing and responding to Gender          benefited from the CCTE programme. The                   have been issued to Syrian nationals (of
Based Violence (GBV), providing protection      CCTE programme also includes a strategic                 which 32,199 are granted to Syrians under
responses and psychosocial support to           child protection component to ensure                     temporary protection), while the rest are
children and supporting Syrians under           the continued school enrolment and                       Syrian nationals who have a residence
temporary protection in accessing legal and     attendance of the most vulnerable refugee                permit)6.     Syrians under temporary
other specialized services. The expansion       children as well as their referral to child              protection are mainly engaged in the
of safe spaces for women, youth and             protection services, when needed.                        informal sector of the economy, including
children has been prioritized as well as the                                                             due to administrative and social barriers
provision of primary and secondary child        Municipalities have acted as first responders            such as language barriers. According to a
protection services. The Ministry of Family,    in addressing the impact of the population               study conducted in 2017, only 15 per cent of
Labour and Social Services (MoFLSS) has         increase. The increase in demand continues               Syrian women reported that they worked in
continued to respond to identified needs        to strain infrastructure and accessibility               income generating jobs.7
and has strengthened its outreach capacity      of services, in particular waste and waste
to manage protection cases. This includes       management, public transportation and
specialized services for women and children     fire-fighting services. Since 2014, US$
such as safe spaces and shelters.               53M have been mobilized by 3RP partners
                                                to support municipalities. The support

                                                5 As per MoFLSS (July 2018), 184,568 girls and 183,522 boys have been reached to date by the CCTE Programme
                                                6 MoFLSS database
                                                7 UN Women: Needs Assessment of Syrian Women and Girls Under Temporary Protection Status in Turkey, June 2018

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020

NEEDS                                                         visible across all sectors. In areas of high
                                                              concentration of Syrians under temporary
                                                              protection, such as the provinces in the
                                                                                                                            their children or help when facing violence,
                                                                                                                            harassment or ill-treatment in their daily
The Syria crisis is now in its eighth year and                southeast and Istanbul, the needs of
the refugee situation in the neighbouring                     people outweigh the ability of institutions                   A large number of school-aged children
countries remains protracted. The generosity                  to respond to these needs. This is often                      are enrolled in schools across the country,
of the Turkish population continues and the                   due to the sheer number of people that                        however up to 38 per cent are still out-
public system is stepping up to the challenge                 need to be served as well as the lack of                      of-school (OOS) and not accessing any
of delivering services to refugees in line with               specialized capacity required to meet some                    education opportunities. Enrolment rates
the principle of harmonization put forward                    of the specific vulnerabilities created by                    are high in primary education but drop
by the Law on Foreigners and International                    displacement. Public institutions, therefore,                 dramatically in lower- and upper-secondary
Protection. The law stipulates that services                  need additional resources to strengthen                       education levels. A very low number of
should be provided in a way that facilitates                  their infrastructure and expertise to adjust                  children are able to complete 12 years of
mutual harmonization between foreigners,                      their programmes and services to respond to                   schooling. Out-of-school children are not a
international protection beneficiaries and                    the specific needs of Syrians.                                homogeneous group, have different profiles
the Turkish society. In February 2018, the                                                                                  and are in need of bespoken approaches to
Government of Turkey adopted the National                     Given the protracted nature of the Syria                      increase their chances of entering a relevant
Strategy on Harmonization and a National                      crisis, Syrians under temporary protection                    form of learning. In addition, teachers
Action Plan. As part of the 2019 Programme                    continue to deplete their assets and face high                who provide education in mixed classes
of the Turkish Presidency, the Government                     levels of economic insecurity. Rising costs                   of the Turkish schools that teach foreign
is furthermore planning to draft a National                   of living8, such as rising costs for housing,                 and Turkish students together should be
Migration Policy for policy-making in areas                   utilities and food have negatively affected                   supported with capacity building on inter-
deemed necessary for foreign nationals                        vulnerable households and their ability                       cultural learning and communication skills.
under international protection with legal                     to meet their basic needs.9 Assessments
residence in Turkey.                                          indicate that over 64 per cent of urban Syrian                In participatory assessments held with
                                                              households live below the poverty line,                       Syrians under temporary protection
With 95 per cent of Syrians under temporary                   including 18.4 per cent who live below the                    throughout 2018, the Syrian community
protection in Turkey living within host                       extreme poverty line. According to a recent                   voiced concern over difficulties in accessing
communities, municipalities are among                         study, single, female headed households                       the labour market. They mentioned the
the primary responders in addressing the                      (widowed, single mothers or single women)                     language barrier, lack of information about
impact of the Syria crisis, and have played                   have been severely affected.10                                their rights and competition for jobs as the
an essential role in meeting the increase                                                                                   main challenges.12
in demand for services. Besides the need                      Language remains the largest barrier for
for basic services, the presence of refugees                  Syrians under temporary protection to                         While the Regulation on Work Permits allows
has also called for the development of new                    access services and integrate into local                      for access to work, obstacles such as the
services at the municipal level, both to                      communities. This is largely visible in                       work permit fees that employers have to
address their specific social and protection                  health and education where, even though                       pay and the lack of Turkish language skills
needs and to foster social cohesion between                   the services continue to be provided free of                  make it difficult for Syrians to integrate
communities. Syrians under temporary                          charge, Syrians under temporary protection                    into the labour force. Many legislative and
protection need to engage with the host                       face difficulties in understanding procedures                 administrative arrangements have been
community through participatory processes                     and instructions. Conversations with Syrian                   made to overcome these barriers and
and consultative structures at local and                      women indicate that they are particularly                     increase Syrian participation in formal
municipal levels, in order to express these                   poorly informed about their rights to                         employment. For example, in 2018 annual
specific needs and to foster dialogue with                    protection and legal support services.                        work permit fees were subsidized by 40
host communities and local authorities.                       Research brings out that one of the most                      per cent for employers of Syrians under
                                                              significant obstacles for Syrian women is                     temporary protection.13 In addition, Syrians
Increased demands for public services are                     not knowing where to seek assistance for                      under temporary protection can work in

8 http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=30848
   Data from the Turkish Statistical Institute indicates that the Minimum Expenditure Basket (MEB) for refugees costs 1,942 TL for a household of six, or 324 TL per capita. The
   latest ESSN Post-Distribution Monitoring Report shows that when faced with recent high levels of inflation (15.85 per cent in July but 25.24 per cent in October according to the
   Consumer Price Index, Turkish Statistical Institute), refugees are increasingly forced to resort to coping strategies in order to meet their needs, including through household
   borrowing, withdrawing children from school, sending children to work, and reducing health expenditure. While the results are still better than the pre-assistance baseline (2017),
   any decline in the results achieved so far through ESSN assistance is a concerning trend.
10 & 11 UN Women: Needs Assessment of Syrian Women and Girls Under Temporary Protection Status in Turkey, June 2018
12 Participatory Assessment on Livelihoods and Access to Job Market, conducted by UNHCR and partners in 12 provincial locations in Turkey, in September-October, 2018
13 For the year of 2018, the annual work permit fee is 615,20 TL for regular foreigners, but for the Syrians under temporary protection, the work permit fee for the employer
   is charged as 228,90 TL

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
seasonal agricultural or animal husbandry         of the National Action Plan and Strategy on
within the scope of work permit exemptions.       Combating Early and Forced Marriages is
There is a need to continue supporting the        required. Harmful cultural and traditional
effective implementation of the Work Permit       practices, coupled with the lack of livelihoods
Regulation, reduce barriers and increase          and self-reliance opportunities, perpetuate a
incentives for employers to employ Syrians.       situation of risk as many families see child
While Syrians under temporary protection          marriage as the only way to secure a future
have gradually managed to access some work        for their children. The lack of self-reliance
opportunities (86 per cent of households          opportunities is also leading families to
report having a working family member),           engage their children in the labour force.
only 2 per cent of working refugees are doing     Children are found working in exploitative
so formally, and 71 per cent of households        and hazardous conditions, including in
are unable to access skilled or reliable work.    street-based work and in industrialized
14 A recent analysis shows that efforts of
                                                  areas of large cities like Istanbul. Field
3RP partners have contributed directly and        observations also reveal that an increasing
indirectly to supporting 27,100 jobs. This        number of Syrian children are engaged in
has been achieved through job creation,           seasonal agricultural work.
job placement efforts, and recruitment of
volunteer teachers and other health and           In southeast Turkey, over 1.3 million Syrians
outreach staff in public institutions. However,   under temporary protection are hosted
considering the unemployment rate of both         within host communities. This is a 20 per
the Syrian population and that of the host        cent increase in population which has
community, there is a need to create new          contributed to an extra consumption of 70bn
jobs. Similarly, in order to achieve economic     litres of water and one million tons of solid
sustainability Syrians under temporary            waste per year. Currently the 3RP support
protection must be supported to acquire           to municipalities only covers 10 per cent of
Vocational Qualification Certificates, which      the additional needs. Therefore, it remains
are evaluated as an important tool for a          critical to expand support to infrastructure
qualified labour force.                           development and public transportation
                                                  and strengthen the technical capacities of
In conversations with Syrians under               municipalities to plan and budget for the
temporary      protection     during     the      increased service and infrastructure needs.
participatory assessments in 2018, the need
to support youth in their transition from         Sector interventions within the 3RP
education to the job market was raised            framework are designed to support
as a priority for the Syrian community.           meeting these needs in a cross-cutting,
The assessments underlined the need for           complementary fashion. Special attention is
youth empowerment, with a strong gender           duly given to people with specific needs such
perspective to ensure equal access to             as the elderly, individuals with disabilities,
services for women, men, girls and boys.          children and women at risk. While the 3RP
                                                  explicitly covers the needs of Syrians under
On an individual level, protection concerns       temporary protection, Turkey hosts 350,000
continue. Safe accomodation opportunities         conditional refugees and international
for survivors of sexual and gender-based          protection applicants of other nationalities
violence (SGBV) are limited for male and          and partners also serve these populations in
female survivors of GBV. The lack of shelter      a non-discriminatory manner.
services for survivors is a gap, despite good
coordination and cooperation with the
authorities at national and local levels.

Early and forced marriage remains a
critical concern. Despite ongoing efforts,
an expansion of programming in support
                                                  14 WFP, Livelihoods Survey, Early Results Presentation, July 2018 and Comprehensive Vulnerability Monitoring Exercise,
                                                    May 2018

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020

                                                            RESPONSE                                        • Provide targeted temporary assistance
                                                                                                            where the demand in services exceed
                                                                                                            availability and promote a strategy to
                                                            The response is implemented within              integrate into national services
                                                            the framework of the national asylum
                                                            system. The legal framework in Turkey           • Undertake outreach activities to raise
                                                            provides for Syrians under temporary            awareness and connect the people in need
                                                            protection to access services in the national   to available services
                                                            system alongside Turkish nationals. The
                                                            government has risen to this challenge and      • Strengthen referrals between service
                                                            the public system and national institutions     providers and support the necessary
                                                            have expanded their services to enable          institutional capacity to follow up on
                                                            Syrian families to access health, education     referrals
                                                            and social services and to pursue self-
                                                            reliance through work opportunities             • Provide training (for example, language,
                                                            made possible through the Work Permit           vocational and skills training) with a clear
                                                            Regulation. Further policies and actions        objective to increase prospects for self-
                                                            outlined in the 2019 Programme of the           reliance (access to job market, access to
                                                            Turkish Presidency are expected to              higher education, social engagement and
                                                            strengthen the legislative and operational      participation)
                                                            framework. The 3RP partners work in
                                                            support of the government to enable the         3RP Partners have assessed that, moving
                                                            inclusion of Syrians under temporary            forward, focusing on the following strategic
                                                            protection without having a negative impact     objectives is necessary to achieve durable
                                                            on the quality of service provision, while      solutions for Syrians under temporary
                                                            continuing to address immediate needs of        protection.
                                                            Syrians under temporary protection.
                                                                                                            • Continue to contribute to the protection
                                                            Throughout 2018, 3RP partners and               of Syrians under temporary protection by
                                                            sector working groups continued to invest       supporting national protection systems,
                                                            efforts in long-term solutions, sustainable     including child protection systems to
                                                            planning and resilience in their response.      identify and provide tailored services to
                                                            This priority of the response is best           children in need
                                                            reflected by the rapidly increasing amount
                                                            invested by 3RP partners to provide             • Continue to support the provision of basic
                                                            support to public institutions, both in         services (health, education, social services)
                                                            terms of additional financial, human, and       through national and local systems
                                                            infrastructure resources or in terms of
                                                            support to strengthen systems and boost         • Ongoing provision of targeted immediate
                                                            existing capacities. While US$ 183 M had        assistance to Syrians under temporary
                                                            been invested in such efforts in 2017, this     protection     and    vulnerable     Turkish
                                                            amount increased to approximately US$           individuals to reduce exposure to the effects
                                                            245 M in 2018, or a 33 per cent increase.15     of poverty and displacement and address
                                                                                                            specific needs
                                                            The following principles of implementation
                                                            have been agreed upon and will continue         • Support the expansion of livelihoods
                                                            guiding the 3RP strategic direction.            and job opportunities for Syrians under
                                                                                                            temporary protection and vulnerable
                                                            • Prioritize support to assistance and          Turkish individuals
                                                            service delivery through national and local
          UNDP / Mustafa Bilge Satkın

15 3RP Inter-Agency, Support to Public Institutions in the 3RP 2017-2018, September 2018

3RP COUNTRY CHAPTER 2019/2020 - TURKEY - Situations
SOCIAL                                          and social premiums provided for some
                                                vulnerable groups. The social services
                                                                                                              protection coverage. Unemployed persons
                                                                                                              as well as those working informally -
                                                and assistance system aims at alleviating                     with a focus on youth - will be provided
PROTECTION                                      poverty and providing social care for
                                                people with specific needs and groups.
                                                                                                              with the necessary skills and knowledge
                                                                                                              to empower them to seek services that
Social protection and social security16                                                                       can bridge their way into the formal
are defined as a set of policies and            Considering that formal work opportunities                    labour market. Further, employers will
programmes designed to reduce and               and work permits have only been granted                       be supported to hire employees formally
prevent poverty, vulnerability and social       to a limited number of Syrians under                          and affiliate them to the social insurance
exclusion stemming from poverty or other        temporary protection, social protection is                    system.
vulnerabilities throughout the life cycle.      a key elements of the 3RP response. 3RP
It supports access to basic services and        Partners are largely engaging in supporting                   People with specific needs will be
strengthens the capacity of families to         the provision of social services and                          empowered to seek services contributing
care for their children and other vulnerable    targeted assistance while also providing                      to an increase in the inclusion of children,
family members. Social protection plays         support to strengthening the social                           adolescents, people living with disabilities
a vital role in achieving greater equity        protection system in general. The Law on                      and the elderly in specific social services
and social cohesion as well as supporting       Social Assistance and Solidarity allows                       targeting their needs. The community will
human and economic development.                 for foreigners legally residing in Turkey to                  be empowered to identify people with
Social protection policies regularly include    access social assistance through existing                     specific needs and assist them in accessing
nine main areas, which are child and            infrastructure and processes. 3RP Partners                    appropriate services.
family benefits, maternity protection,          work closely with the Ministry of Family,
unemployment support, employment                Labour and Social Services (MoFLSS) to
injury benefits, sickness benefits, health      provide cash-based assistance through
protection (medical care), old-age benefits,    the locally based Social Assistance and
disability benefits, and survivor benefits.     Solidarity Foundations, as well as access to
                                                social and employment services through
The Turkish social protection system has        IŞKUR and the MoFLSS Social Service
both social insurance and social services       Centres and other local institutions.
and assistance components. The social
insurance system aims at providing              In 2019, 3RP partners will continue to
insurance to society at large, in the form of   prioritize increased access to formal
national health care services, pensions and     employment and, as such, provide
unemployment insurance. Self-financing is       individuals with access to the social
the principal modality of social insurance,     insurance system resulting in formal social
except for general health care services

                                                16 Social protection systems cover all policy areas through a mix of contributory schemes (social insurance) and
                                                  non-contributory (tax-financed) benefits, including social assistance.

TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020

DURABLE                                                   and skills required to be independently
                                                          active and contribute to society as well as
                                                                                                          In 2018, a total of 18,69017 interviews
                                                                                                          with Syrians under temporary protection

                                                          their self-reliance.                            intending to return have been observed in
                                                                                                          Gaziantep, Kilis, Sanliurfa, Hatay, Istanbul
                                                          Resettlement continues to be an option          and Izmir in 2018. In collaboration with

STRATEGY                                                  only for some of the most vulnerable
                                                          refugees in Turkey. In Turkey, for 2019,
                                                                                                          DGMM, voluntary repatriation processes
                                                                                                          will continue to be observed and capacity
                                                          advocacy will continue to ensure that the       to do so to be further increased. Increased
A refugee response generally aims to find                 resettlement quota is maintained and            dialogue with Syrian communities on their
solutions that allow refugees to rebuild                  complementary pathways are expanded             concerns and intentions in relation to
their lives and live in dignity and peace.                despite a reduction of resettlement places      return as well as mapping of population
These solutions can include voluntary                     globally. While complementary pathways          movements will ensure that actors
repatriation, resettlement and local                      have the potential to bring durable             responding to the refugee situation in
integration, with efforts aimed at enhancing              solutions options, refugees frequently face     Turkey remain informed and can prepare
resilience and self-reliance being a                      legal, administrative and practical barriers    adequately should the current situation
precursor to any durable solution.                        in accessing these pathways.                    change.

The legal framework in Turkey provides for                The Law on Foreigners and International
social and economic inclusion. The Law on                 Protection and secondary legislation
Foreigners and International Protection                   incorporate provisions regulating voluntary
provides a framework on rights and                        repatriation procedures and support
services, complementing other legislation,                offered to DGMM aims to strengthen these
defining the safeguards for social and legal              procedures, including with a view for returns
protection of individuals, for applicants and             to take place on a voluntary basis through
status holders of international protection                well-informed decisions. In preparation
and persons under temporary protection.                   of returns, the Government of Turkey and
In defining ‘harmonization’, the Law’s                    3RP partners cooperate in addressing
objective is to reduce dependency on third                identified obstacles, such as access to civil
party support and create an environment                   status documentation and documentation
where foreigners and international                        of educational or professional qualification
protection beneficiaries live in harmony                  certificates.
with the host community. All activities
should equip refugees with the knowledge

                                                                                                                   UNDP / Mustafa Bilge Satkın

17 Voluntary Repatriation interviews observed by UNHCR as of October 2018

The aim of the 3RP is for partners to work        institutions (IFIs). In areas of livelihoods,                   Standardized service provision is known
under the direction of the Government             municipal infrastructure support and                            to have larger, more effective impact.
of Turkey to achieve better outcomes              education, IFIs and 3RP partners jointly                        The collaboration created under the
for Syrians under temporary protection            contribute to achieving the priorities set                      umbrella of the 3RP provides for further
and host communities alike. The 3RP               out by the Government of Turkey and the                         harmonization and for common standards
provides a platform for enhancing                 respective line ministries.                                     in interventions. Examples from 2018
existing partnerships that combine and                                                                            include the harmonization of standards for
leverage resources by working together            The UN and NGO partners all bring individual                    psycho-social support provided through
in a transparent, respectful and mutually         expertise to support the response. The                          Social Service Centres and the initiation of
beneficial way.                                   3RP coordination is based on six sectors:                       an inter-agency referral form for protection
                                                  Protection, Food Security and Agriculture,                      cases.
Under the national legislation, the               Education, Health, Basic Needs, and
Directorate      General     of    Migration      Livelihoods. Coordination structures are
Management (DGMM) is the main entity in           established in Ankara, Gaziantep, Istanbul
charge of the implementation of policies and      and Izmir. These sectors engage in joint
processes for all foreigners in Turkey.18 It is   needs analysis, strategic planning and
also the sole responsible authority in Turkey     coordination of activities developed to
for procedures and proceedings regarding          address these needs. Cross-cutting issues
temporary protection beneficiaries and            and information sharing takes place in
international      protection     applicants      the sector working groups as well as in
(including registration, documentation and        thematic groups such as the Child Labour
refugee status determination), stateless          Task Force, the Information Management
persons and other foreigners.                     Working Group and the Communication
                                                  with Communities Task Force.
The line ministries, namely the Ministry of
National Education, the Ministry of Health,
the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social
Services, the Ministry of Forestry and
Agriculture, the Ministry of Interior, the
Ministry of Youth and Sports, Directorate of
Religious Affairs and the Ministry of Justice
all define and coordinate sector priorities in
line with the policies devised and activities
planned under the 2019 Programme of the
Turkish Presidency. These priorities serve
as a basis for 3RP sector plans.

Government leadership in Turkey enables
3RP partners to support and work closely
with national and local institutions
in responding to the most immediate
needs of refugees and in supporting their
inclusion in national systems, thereby
directly contributing to the priorities
set out in the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs). These efforts are sustained
through engagement with development
actors such as international financial
                                                  18 The Directorate General of Migration Management has been established under the Ministry of Interior in order to
                                                    implement migration policies and strategies, ensure coordination among relevant agencies and organizations, and
                                                    carry out functions and actions related to the entry into, stay in and exit from of foreigners in Turkey as well as their
                                                    deportation, international protection, temporary protection and the protection of victims of human trafficking.
                                                    (Presidential Decree no. 4, OJ no. 30479, dated 15 July 2018, Article 158)

TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020

All 3RP partners are committed to ensuring      suggestion boxes, SMS systems and teams         mechanisms have been established through
that the response engages beneficiaries in      of community feedback assistants (for           call centres and community centres giving
programme design and implementation. In         example, help desks) have been established      refugees an opportunity to provide feedback
line with interagency standing principles       around the country and refugees and             and launch complaints and appeals with
(IASC) and core humanitarian standards          asylum-seekers are informed about existing      regards to services provided. The ESSN
mechanisms to ensure accountability             feedback mechanisms through SMS, leaflets,      programme has ensured accountability
to affected populations have been               posters and verbally at points of service       towards its beneficiaries through the
established to provide individuals with the     delivery. Outreach networks continue to         launching of a call centre managed by
information they need to access services        operate and a national counselling line for     the Turkish Red Crescent (TRC) as well as
and communicate feedback.                       refugees and asylum-seekers continues           associated websites.
                                                to be operational. While the network of
As a basis for addressing its key priorities,   community centres continues to provide          Feedback received from beneficiaries is
strengthening partnership and enhancing         refugees with counselling, social and           continuously used to improve the quality
the overall effectiveness of the Turkey 3RP,    cultural services, the Social Service Centres   of programming and services that 3RP
all partners have committed to aligning         under management of the Ministry of             partners provide and agencies inform
3RP efforts with existing national strategies   Family, Labour and Social Services are          beneficiaries on how their feedback has
and to working closely with the Turkish         increasingly expanding to provide these         been utilized through community networks.
and Syrian communities. Accordingly, this       services to refugees and asylum-seekers,
plan has been prepared based on observed        adding up to a large, localized network of      3RP coordination mechanisms have now
local needs and through consultation with       service providers.                              been operational for two years covering
all stakeholders including government                                                           multiple locations across the country.
authorities, NGO partners, donors, and          A service advisor application is being          Dedicated coordinators and information
refugees.                                       rolled out across the country to improve        management staff support the six sector
                                                the understanding of refugees of available      working groups and the inter-sector
Communication        with    communities        services, where to access them and what         coordination mechanism. The Syria
continues to be strengthened and hotlines,      can be expected of the provider. Complaints     response group carries the ultimate
                                                                                                responsibility for partners’ implementation
                                                                                                of the plan.

                                                                                                A specialized mechanism to address
                                                                                                prevention of sexual exploitation and
                                                                                                abuse (PSEA) has been developed to handle
                                                                                                sensitive complaints around staff behaviour.
                                                                                                To protect both beneficiaries and staff
                                                                                                members from exploitation, trainings have
                                                                                                been provided to staff throughout 2018 and
                                                                                                in 2019 partners are planning to further
                                                                                                educate beneficiaries on their rights and

                                                                                                To ensure a comprehensive, predictable
                                                                                                and appropriate monitoring and evaluation
                                                                                                of the response in Turkey, a comprehensive
                                                                                                monitoring and evaluation framework
                                                                                                accompanies this plan and supplements
                                                        UNHCR / Kıvanç Ayhan                    sector result frameworks.

UN Women / Diego Cupolo

TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020


                         SECTOR RESPONSE



                           Directorate General of Migration Management (DGMM), Ministry of Family, Labour and
OTHER PARTNERS             Social Services (MoFLSS), Ministry of Youth and Sports (MoYS), Ministry of Justice (MoJ),
                           Union of Turkish Bar Associations (UTBA), and NGO partners

                         1. Access to territory and protection: Syrians under temporary protection are able to
                            access the territory and receive effective protection under the Temporary Protection
                         2. Community based protection: Community members are able to identify and access
                            protection solutions, particularly the most at-risk groups and individuals;
OBJECTIVES               3. Prevention and response to gender based violence (GBV): Risks and consequences of
                            GBV against women, girls, men and boys and those with specific needs are reduced
                            and mitigated and access to quality GBV services is improved;
                         4. Child protection: Girls and boys affected by the Syria crisis have increased and more
                            equitable access to quality child protection interventions and are protected from
                            violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect.

GENDER MARKER              2A

FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS                     2019                                             2020

                                     US$ 203,269,731                                  US$ 189,528,674

                                      US$ 86,682,412                                  US$ 88,895,560

                                    US$ 289,952,143                                  US$ 278,424,233

The response and strategic direction of         DGMM, key line ministries, as well as                       under temporary protection, the provision
the Protection sector is firmly anchored in     provincial and local authorities, in particular             of support to vulnerable children and
sustaining support to the Government of         municipalities, have continued to bear the                  their families (including identification,
Turkey and its primary role in the provision    brunt of providing protection and assistance                assessment, referral and follow up) and
of protection and assistance to persons         to Syrians under temporary protection. The                  support to Syrians under temporary
seeking international protection within         capacity of service providers in areas with a               protection in accessing justice and gender
its borders. The Temporary Protection           high refugee population density continues                   and age-sensitive legal services. People
Regulation (TPR), effective since October       to be stretched which, at times, leads to                   with specific needs, in particular women
2014, provides Syrians with a legal status      incidents and social tension. A key area of                 and children at risk, continue to be a priority
pursuant to the relevant provision of the Law   focus for the sector is supporting efforts to               for the Protection sector. The expansion of
on Foreigners and International Protection      enhance social cohesion activities, including               safe and child-friendly spaces for children,
(LFIP) and ensures their access to a wide       through effective information dissemination                 youth and the provision of child protection
range of services provided by national          and through initiatives such as promoting                   services across the continuum of care,
systems. Admission and access to Turkey         positive interaction between refugees and                   has been prioritized. While the Ministry of
has been strictly managed throughout 2018.      host communities.                                           Family, Labour and Social Services (MFLSS)
Visa requirements, introduced in 2016 for                                                                   has continued to respond to needs and
Syrians arriving from third countries by        3RP partners continue to work in close                      strengthened the coverage and quality of
air or sea, are in place. As a consequence,     collaboration with public institutions                      its outreach capacity, efforts to enhance
Syrians continue to resort to irregular means   to maintain and expand the quality and                      the capacities of Social Service Centres and
of entry into Turkey, exposing themselves       coverage of outreach, identification and                    complementary centres (including those
to serious protection risks in the process.     referrals of Syrians with specific needs                    run by municipalities) continues. This will
Turkey continues to grant admission             under temporary protection. In this                         build on achievements from previous years.
on humanitarian grounds, including for          capacity, 3RP partners aim to strengthen                    In 2018, Protection partners significantly
medical treatment, in specific humanitarian     the capacity of public institutions and other               increased their support to public institutions
circumstances and for family reunification.     partners to provide targeted protection                     such as DGMM, MFLSS, the Ministry of Justice
                                                assistance, including in the prevention                     and municipalities with over US$ 37m of
Registration of Syrians under temporary         of and response to GBV, the provision of                    support invested in strengthening public
protection continued throughout 2018            psychosocial support to Syrian children                     systems (compared to US$ 30m in 2017).
by the Directorate General of Migration
Management (DGMM). Simultaneously, the
DGMM ‘Verification Exercise of Syrians with
Temporary Protection in Turkey’ continued
with the aim of supporting continuous
registration of Syrians under temporary
protection in 2019 and beyond. The process
of verification has been successful in
updating information related to education,
livelihoods and special needs of Syrians
under temporary protection and, in the
process, has strengthened the capacity
of Provincial Directorates of Migration
Management (PDMMs) to identify protection
needs and vulnerabilities amongst Syrians
under temporary protection and refer
persons with specific needs, such as
survivors of gender-based violence (GBV),
separated or unaccompanied children,
persons with disabilities, and others, to
other public institutions.
Turkey continues to host the highest number                                                                                   WFP / Ozan ToptasEmrah Gürel
of refugees in the world, of whom nearly
96 per cent live within host communities.
                                                19 3RP Inter-Agency, Support to Public Institutions in the Turkey 3RP 2017-2018, September 2018

TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020



                                                                                  2019                                                    2020
      Group                                                     Population                   Target                     Population                  Target
                                                                 In Need                   Population                    In Need                  Population

                                          Men                    1,056,957                   1,056,957                   1,056,957                 1,056,957

      Syrians under                    Women                      833,594                     833,594                     833,594                   833,594
      protection                         Boys                     891,828                     891,828                     891,828                   891,828

                                         Girls                    809,335                     809,335                     809,335                   809,335

      Sub Total                                                  3,591,714                   3,591,714                   3,591,714                 3,591,714

      Members of
      Impacted                        Sub Total                  8,000,000                    118,000                    8,000,000                 118,000

                      Grand Total                               11,591,714                   3,709,714                  11,591,714                 3,709,714
     The columns for target population are only for direct beneficiaries where accurate numbers are available.
     Directorate General of Migration Management (DGMM) as of November 2018. http://www.goc.gov.tr/icerik6/gecici-koruma_363_378_4713_icerik

Similar to previous years but compounded                     Within this context, implementing a                      To address information gaps and enhance
by an increasingly protracted situation,                     comprehensive approach to protection                     accountability, a renewed focus on two-
Syrians under temporary protection have                      will continue to be imperative. Continued                way communication with populations
continued to face protection risks and                       identification efforts of those most                     of concern will be implemented and
obstacles in accessing protection services,                  vulnerable and those with specific needs,                further investments made in efficient
including language barriers, insufficient or                 linking them to specialized government                   communication tools and approaches.
lack of access to (formal) employment and                    services through established referral                    This will allow for broader dissemination
livelihood opportunities, increased cost                     pathways or to complementary service                     and fine-tuning of information on available
of living, lack of information about rights                  providers for those unable to access                     services, procedures, rights and obligations.
and available services (including legal                      national systems will continue to be
counselling and legal aid services), and                     prioritized and implemented. To that end,                To achieve the above, greater efforts will
challenges posed by restrictive procedures                   the identification and implementation of                 be made to support national, provincial
on internal movement. This, in turn, has                     protection solutions at the local level will             and municipal service delivery capacity, as
resulted in negative coping mechanisms that                  be of particular importance for the sector.              well as specialized complementary services
have included, among others, child labour,                   In addition to the provision of protection               provided by humanitarian actors, including
child marriage and informal employment.                      through established mechanisms, the sector               national NGOs.
                                                             will sustain, and expand where needed, the
                                                             delivery of specialised protection services
                                                             to those with specific needs to ensure equal
                                                             access to services for women, men, girls
                                                             and boys. Further efforts will be invested in
                                                             strengthening the provision of alternative
                                                             care services for Syrian children lacking
                                                             parental care (including unaccompanied
                                                             and separated children).

The      Protection     sector    aims    to    and networking between justice-focused          close cooperation with the Communicating
comprehensively contribute to responding        stakeholders including NGOs, improving          with Communities Task Force. Accurate
to both the individual needs of Syrians         infrastructure of justice and legal-aid         information        on    available      services,
under temporary protection and the              provision offices, increasing knowledge         including transparency on selection
institutional needs of service providers.       about legal aid schemes and enhancing           criteria of assistance will contribute to
The sector focuses on expanding access          accessibility of counseling and legal aid.      addressing misinformation that may affect
to, maintaining, and broadening support                                                         social cohesion. Additionally, the various
for the quality of national services, as well   At community level, age, gender and             Protection sector platforms at central and
as to contribute to effective protection        diversity-sensitive protection interventions    field levels will continue facilitating dialogue
interventions for those unable to avail         will remain of key importance. 3RP partners     with state institutions, local authorities,
themselves of the services provided by          will focus on strengthened identification       municipalities and host and Syrian refugee
national and local systems. By supporting       and referrals of persons with specific          communities. Through this dialogue,
the broadening of quality services to           needs to specialised national and local         protection issues specific to a location will
Syrians under temporary protection and          service providers or to complementary           be identified, social cohesion promoted and
host communities alike, the sector aims to      services at dedicated centres. To that end,     efforts by communities to protect women,
mitigate the risk of social tensions between    increased community-engagement with             men, boys and girls supported.
communities, and, at the same time,             local networks and structures, including
strengthen the resilience of the refugee        services provided at municipal centres,         Throughout 2019-2020, 3RP partners
population.                                     will be critical. Networks and structures at    will continue to advocate for consistent
                                                community level will ensure the safe and        implementation         of   the     Temporary
Concretely, to promote access to quality        meaningful participation of populations of      Protection Regulation and access to rights
national protection services, 3RP partners      concern (including children, adolescents        and assistance. In addition, advocacy for
will continue supporting DGMM in the            and youth) in designing and implementing        increased international responsibility-
continuous registration of Syrians under        protection solutions. These initiatives will    sharing through resettlement and other
temporary protection as well as key line        also work towards incorporating a longer-       alternative pathways and increasing efforts
ministries and local administrations in the     term lens in the protection interventions,      in the area of family tracing and reunification
delivery of specialised protection services.    including through exploring linkages with       will be pursued. The Protection sector will
Capacity support will not only include          livelihoods opportunities and to social         continue to monitor the voluntariness
material and human resources to enhance         protection mechanisms.                          of spontaneous returns, and increase
access to and availability of these services,                                                   dialogue with refugee communities on their
but also technical support to ensure that       Specialized services for people with specific   intentions. Collaboration and information
the quality of the services delivered is        needs continues to be a priority for the        sharing with humanitarian actors in
maintained. Support will also be provided to    Protection sector. Enhanced awareness-          Syria will be enhanced to understand the
DGMM to carry out interventions to promote      raising on prevention of GBV and access         movements of spontaneous refugee returns
and sustain social cohesion in communities      to quality services are aimed at mitigating     and populations across the border and
and with a particular focus on children and     against - and responding to - GBV incidents,    within Syria, which may serve as indications
adolescents. 3RP partners will also continue    including human trafficking. 3RP partners       of future return movements.
to strengthen capacities of the MoFLSS and      will work towards improving the protection
Social Services Centres to increase outreach    environment for boys and girls impacted by      The Protection sector will strengthen its
and, in turn, the identification of Syrians     the Syria crisis and towards the inclusion of   work with other sectors to mainstream
under temporary protection with specific        children at risk into the existing protection   protection principles, particularly to
needs. 3RP partners will also continue to       mechanisms and childcare services. Youth        enhance access to services across sectors
provide dedicated support to municipalities     and adolescents will be targeted to address     for the most vulnerable, to promote safe
to enhance protection-oriented service          issues such as child marriage and child         and dignified service delivery, and work to
provision. To support access to justice, 3RP    labour. Psychosocial support will be a key      strengthen coordination across partners
partners will focus on working with the         protection intervention and an internal part    and avoid duplication of efforts. Integrated
Ministry of Justice, the Union of Turkish Bar   of protection programming.                      programming with other sectors to address
Associations, Provincial Bar Associations,                                                      root causes of protection concerns, such as
the judiciary, law enforcement institutions     To address gaps in information, 3RP partners    child labour, will be particularly important,
and local actors providing legal assistance.    will emphasise information dissemination        alongside the prevention of violence.
This will include strengthening justice         on available services by diversifying
sector institutions, improving coordination     dissemination methods and pathways, in

TURKEY | Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan (3RP) 2019-2020


The sector objectives reflect an age,          correction when and if needed. Monitoring          integration of PSEA standards and principles
gender and diversity lens and will continue    and evaluation will continue to involve            more thoroughly within the Protection
facilitating    two-way     communication      communities through consultations with             sector in specific and the 3RP in general.
between       Syrians   under     temporary    different segments of the population and
protection and host communities in order       other feedback mechanisms to increase              3RP partners will be engaged to strengthen
to identify priorities and needs. This         responsiveness to the needs of refugees            adherence to core humanitarian standards,
includes safe and meaningful participation     and to enhance accountability within the           which will be incorporated in regular
of women, children, adolescents and            Protection sector. The evidence-building           and specialized protection trainings and
youth. Gaps and needs as well as existing      of the support provided, through research          capacity building efforts to a wide array of
capacities and solutions identified by         and solid documentation of its impact, will        humanitarian and governmental actors.
the impacted communities themselves            furthermore be put forward as central.             Furthermore, synergy and harmonization
will form the basis for programming                                                               between national level coordination
strategies and interventions. In addition to   The sector will pay particular attention           mechanisms and field level platforms will
community needs, the sector strategy and       to prevention of sexual exploitation and           be prioritized, including extracting best
its objectives are designed to contribute      abuse (PSEA) mechanisms, with a view to            practices emanating from field level, and,
significantly towards gender equality across   go beyond community-based complaint                where feasible, nationalizing these efforts
communities.                                   mechanisms and work towards ensuring               according to the specific context of each
                                               actors engaged in humanitarian response            field location. Effective coordination and
The monitoring and evaluation framework        have minimum safe guards in place to               exchange of information among relevant
will include modalities and responsibilities   receive and manage response to sexual              stakeholders, including between UN-
for reporting under each objective and         exploitation and abuse (SEA), and that this        agencies and NGOs, will continue to be
support data collection and analysis. The      is mainstreamed across sectors. In this            prioritised. Lastly, complementarity of
indicators are set not only to measure         regard, the initiatives emanating from the         action, avoiding duplication and reinforcing
progress, but also to serve as a proxy         Protection sector such as agency specific          positive impact while adhering to the do no
indicator aimed at informing the strategic     SEA representatives and the development            harm principle, will continue to drive the
direction of the response plan. Regular        of an inter-agency SEA reporting protocol,         activities and interventions of the Protection
progress reviews will allow for course         will serve a cross-sectoral utility allowing for   sector throughout 2019-2020.

                                                                                                                 UNHCR / Claire Thomas

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