A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition

 
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
    # first climate law             #phasing out nuc lear

                                # renewables sh are overtakes coal

      A Reporter’s Guide
      to the Energy Transition
             #climate ch ange
          # coa l exit                                      #green start up s
                                                   # grid expansion

                                                 Journalism for the
                                                 energy transition
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

Sven Egenter             Kerstine Appunn   Sören Amelang       Julian Wettengel   Benjamin Wehrmann     Freja Eriksen       Carel Carlowitz Mohn
Editor in Chief          Correspondent     Correspondent       Correspondent      Correspondent         Correspondent       Dir. Media Programmes

                                                   The repercussions of the Energiewende          funders’ commitment to work towards a
            A Note from CLEW                       (energy transition) are felt across            climate-neutral economy in order to limit
                                                   society and the business sector, offer-        the impact of man-made climate change.
The global energy transition to stem               ing journalists a wealth of exciting and
harm­ful man-made climate change is                important stories. But researching this        CLEW’s “A Reporter’s Guide to the En-
gain­ing momentum. As part of this, Ger-           massive event from outside the coun-           ergy Transition”, now in its eighth edi-
many aims to be greenhouse gas neutral             try is no easy task, even for the most         tion, offers journalists a useful starting
by 2050. The country’s decades-long effort         seasoned reporter. The huge complexity         point by outlining the main story lines of
to fundamentally shift its energy supply           of the technology and economics behind         the energy transition, providing contact
and to run the world’s fourth-largest              energy policy make things harder. Yet          details for experts, as well as links to key
economy without fuelling global warming            strong fact-based and critical journalism      literature and articles.
provides valuable lessons on weaning a             is essential to inform the international
major economy off fossil fuels.                    debate on ways to decarbonise the glob-        Our website, cleanenergywire.org,
                                                   al economy.                                    offers lots more in-depth information
                                                                                                  and contacts. Our daily newsletter and
                                                   This is why Clean Energy Wire (CLEW)           our Twitter feed @cleanenergywire
                                                   supports journalists in their work.
                                                                                                  keep readers in the loop about Energie-
                                                   Fully funded by two non-profit foun-           wende-related debates and events.
                                                   dations – Stiftung Mercator and the
                                                   European Climate Foundation – we enjoy         Our growing CLEW Journalism Network
                                                   independence from any business or              (@ClewNetwork) allows 200 journalists
                                                   political interests. Rather, we share our      around the world to find colleagues work-

2
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Energiewende history – the first four
                                                                                                                                                                 decades  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .          18
                                                                                                                                                                 Power grid expansion .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                               20
      Eva Freundorfer       Milou Dirkx        Renato Malaga   Yannick Haas                                                                                      Transforming the transport sector  .  .  .  .                                                  22
      Programme Officer     Network Manager    Assistant       Research Assistant                                                                                The car industry and the energy
                                                                                                                                                                 transition .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .           24
                                                                                                                                                                 Renewables: Wind, solar and bio­-
      ing on energy transition and climate sto-                                                                                                                  energy .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .      26
      ries, to collaborate on cross-border stories,                                      Contents
                                                                                                                                                                 CO2 pricing and renewables support .  .  .                                                     28
      exchange tips and views or collect back-                                                                                                                   Nuclear phase-out .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                         30
                                                                   What is the Energiewende? And where
      ground information from other countries.                     did it come from? .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                   4    Industry and jobs .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                      32
      We invite all reporters and editors with an                  Targets of the Energiewende .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                    6    Start-ups and utilities .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                            34
      interest in the energy transition and cli-                   Greenhouse gas emissions .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                 7    Heating and efficiency  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                               36
      mate policy to join.                                         The Energiewende in figures .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                    8    Finance .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .        38
                                                                   Renewables and fossil fuels .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                10    Society  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .       40
      We also organise workshops for journa­                       Energiewende dates 2020/2021 .  .  .  .  .  .                                           11    Agriculture .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .             42
      lists, offering a first-hand account of the                  Contacts .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   12    Technology, storage and digitalisation  .                                                      44
      Energiewende. But, most importantly,                         Reading in English .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                 13    Natural gas as a bridging technology?  .                                                       46
      we provide assistance, answer your                           Green pioneer Germany .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 14                                Cities .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   48
      questions, and put you in touch with ex-                     Green Deal – a joint European project  . 16                                                   Green Deal: A joint European project .  .                                                      50
      perts and fellow journalists across the
      globe – so don’t hesitate to ask CLEW.                                                                                                               Energiewende in Germany: Timeline

      Sven Egenter and
                         		 1973-1975                                                                                                                                                                           1979/1980

                          the Clean Energy Wire team                                                                                                         “Nuclear power?                                    Enter the Greens
                                                                                                                                                             No thanks!” Birth of                               Germany’s Green
                                                                                                                                                             Germany’s anti-nuclear                             Party is founded, with
                                                                                                                                                             movement as protests                               an exit from nuclear
                                                                                                                                                             force plans for a nuclear                          energy and a renew-
                                                                                                                                                             power plant in Wyhl to                             able future as key
                                                                                                                                                             be aborted                                         demands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Activists first use the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                term “Energiewende”                                  3
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

What is the Energiewende?
And where did it come from?

T   he energy transition, known in Ger-
    many as the Energiewende, is the
country’s planned transformation into
                                                           The process involves:

                                                                 phasing out nuclear power by 2022
                                                                                                                     1990s, the Energiewende has been
                                                                                                                     radically reshaping Germany's energy
                                                                                                                     system as a whole. The traditional model
a greenhouse gas-neutral, nuclear-free                            and coal by 2038; and reaching                     of generating electricity in large power
economy.                                                          climate neutrality by 2050                         plants is being replaced by a system
                                                                 the phase-in of renewable energy                   dominated by millions of renewable
                                                                  and low-carbon technologies                        power installations dependent on the
                                                                 increased energy efficiency                        weather. But the project’s influence now
                                                                                                                     goes well beyond the electricity system,
                                                           Since the introduction of financial                       because creating a decarbonised econo-
                                                           support for renewable energy in the                       my also entails using renewable energy

… Energiewende in Germany: Timeline

 1986                       1991                     1997/2005               2000                       2007                   2010                       2011

 Chernobyl disaster         Kick-starting renew-     Kyoto Protocol          Renewable Energy Act       EU targets             Extending nuclear          Nuclear phase-out #2
 solid­if­ies Germans’      ables                    Germany, the world’s    Renewables granted         EU sets 2020 climate   The nuclear consensus is   Merkel government
 resist­ance to nuclear     New legislation intro-   sixth largest emitter   feed-in tariffs and grid   targets: 20% renew­    reversed by a conserva-    formulates new nuclear
 energy                     duces feed-in tariffs    at the time, has to     priority                   ables share, 20% GHG   tive government            phase-out by 2022 with
                            for renewable power      reduce CO2 emissions                               reduction, 20% more                               large parliamentary
  Climate change                                     under the agreement     Nuclear phase-out #1       efficiency             Energy concept             majority after Fukushi-
  enters the discourse –                                                     SPD-Green government                              Govt. sets out renewa-     ma disaster
  a magazine story leads                                                     and utilities agree                               bles and climate targets
  parliament to establish                                                    to phase out nuclear                              for 2020 and 2050
4 an advisory council                                                        by 2022
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Energiewende

  to replace coal, oil, and gas wherever                           been hit hard and Germany's mighty car
  they are burned – be it in industry,                             industry struggles to shift gears, many
  heating, transport, or other sectors.                            innovative businesses have turned the
                                                                   upheaval to their advantage. Since the
  The transformation unleashed by the                              energy transition turned into a truly
  energy transition has already produced                           global enterprise with the Paris Climate
  many winners and losers. Electricity                             Agreement and the European Commis-
  costs have risen for most consumers, but                         sion's Green Deal, new markets have
  have fallen for many energy-intensive                            opened up for low-emission technolo-
  companies, thanks to industry rebates.                           gies – and many made in Germany brands
  While traditional power companies have                           see opportunities for growth.

2014                          2015                      2016                       2017                     2018                       2019		                       2020

New EEG & climate             Slow progress             Spin-off                   Renewables               New government             Climate action package       Coal exit law
action                        The Energiewende          Utilities E.ON and RWE     Reform                   Wants to focus on grid     Climate cabinet presents     Cabinet adopts coal
Govt. lowers feed-in          monitoring report         split to separate renew­   Auctions determine       expansion and sector       major policy package         exit law including
tariffs, starts PV auctions   shows climate targets     ables from fossil plants   renewables payments      coupling                   in­­clud­ing national car-   timetable
and introduces plan to        are “in serious danger”                                                                                  bon price
achieve 2020 climate                                    Climate Action Plan        G20 & COP23              Utilities shakeup
targets                                                 Govt. adopts ambitious     Germany tries to main-   RWE and E.ON split up Climate action law
                                                        2030 emission targets      tain climate             utility innogy, separating Germany’s first climate
                                                        for individual economic    leadership, but emis-    grids from generation      law makes emissions
                                                        sectors                    sions stagnate                                      reduc­tion legally binding                          5
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

                                                                                                     Sector targets for greenhouse gas reductions

Targets of the Energiewende                                                                   Sector

                                                                                              Energy
                                                                                                             2019 status
                                                                                                             cut from 1990 levels
                                                                                                                   45.5 %
                                                                                                                                       2030 target
                                                                                                                                       cut from 1990 levels
                                                                                                                                               62.5 %
                                                                                              Buildings            41.9 %                      66.7 %
                                                                                              Transport             0.6 %                       42 %

T  he overall objectives of the Energie-
   wende are to phase out nuclear power
and eliminate Germany’s greenhouse
                                               and ending the use of fossil fuels in all
                                               sectors of the economy. Germany has al-
                                               ready exceeded its 2020 target of covering
                                                                                              Industry
                                                                                              Agriculture
                                                                                              Other
                                                                                                                   33.8 %
                                                                                                                   24.4 %
                                                                                                                   76.3 %
                                                                                                                                               50.7 %
                                                                                                                                               35.6 %
                                                                                                                                               86.5 %
gas emissions.                                 35 percent of power use with renewables,       Total                35.7 %                 "at least" 55 %
                                                                                                                            Source: UBA (2020), Climate Action Law.
                                               as their share rose to above 40 percent in
The nuclear exit is proceeding according       2019, and is now taking aim at 65 percent     country would miss its original 2020 target
to schedule and Germany will switch            by 2030. However, renewables’ share           of cutting emissions by 40 percent by a
off its last nuclear power plant in 2022.      of total energy use, currently at around      wide margin, and threatening the entire
Dealing with radioactive waste will,           17 percent, remains comparatively low.        project’s credibility. But significant reduc-
however, take many decades. As regards                                                       tions in 2018 and 2019 pushed the country
emissions reductions, the pic­ture is more     Germany's first Climate Action Law made       closer to the target than expected – and an
complex. Germany plans to cut CO2 output       emissions reduction legally binding as        economic slump caused by the coronavirus
by at least 55 percent by 2030 compared        part of a comprehensive climate action        now makes it look extremely likely that
to 1990 levels. By 2050, the country aims      package that forms the bedrock of Ger-        Germany will meet the 2020 goal.
for greenhouse gas neutral­ity, in line with   many's long-term policy. The strategy
the new EU goal. The gov­ern­ment has          includes a coal exit by 2038 at the latest,   The country is still struggling to cut emis-
translated the national targets into annual    support for electric vehicles, and a CO2      sions in the transport and heating sectors,
emissions budgets for individual sectors,      price for transport and heating to com-       however, and is facing a slow-down in the
such as transport and industry, to make        plement the EU emissions trading system       roll-out of renewable energy. These trends
progress more measurable.                      covering industry and the power sector.       indicate that it will require continued
                                                                                             efforts to meet Germany’s future climate
The most important tools for reaching          Progress toward the climate targets was       targets, even in the event of a severe reces-
the targets are the roll-out of renewable      initially slow. Emissions remained stub-      sion caused by the coronavirus pandemic
energies, reducing energy consumption,         bornly high for years, suggesting the         and consequent steep drop in emissions.

6
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Energy transition data

                                                                                                                                                                  35.7 % green house gas reduction
Emission trends for Germany by sector 1990-2019
                                                                                                                                                                  since 19 90
                                             1251

                                    1200
                                                                        1123
                                                                                                   1045
                                                                                                                                993
                                    1000                                                                                                                    942
CO2 equivalents in million tonnes

                                                                                                                                                                                      906 909 894
                                                                                                                                                                                                     858         2020 target1
                                                                                                                                                                                                           805 (-35%)
                                    800

                                                                                                                                                                                                           68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Original 2020 target2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (-40%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 813

                                                                                                                                                                                                           163
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2030 target1
                                    600                                                                                                                                                                                751                                (at least -55%)

                                                                                                                                                                                                           122
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               543
                                    400

                                                                                                                                                                                                           188
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2050 goal:
                                    200                                                                                                                                                                                                                                green-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     house gas

                                                                                                                                                                                                           254
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     neutrality

                                      0
                                           90
                                                91
                                                      92
                                                           93
                                                                 94
                                                                      95
                                                                            96
                                                                                 97
                                                                                       98
                                                                                            99
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                       19
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20
                                                                       Energy industries                     Industry                  Buildings                  Transport                Agriculture                   Waste and other

                                           1 Targets as stated in Climate Action Law.
                                           2 The German government abandoned its original 2020 target with the introduction of the Climate Action Law in 2019.

                                           Note: Without emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), 2019 data preliminary.                                                                                                             Source: UBA, 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

         © Mwelwa Musonko.

8
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
Energy transition data

The Energiewende in Figures                                                                             € 62 billion Volume           € 25 per tonne
                                                                                                        of German government's        CO2 price in building and
                                                                                                        climate package               transport sector starting
                                                                                                        (2020-2023)                   from 2021
3.6 % Renewables’ share
in gross German power
generation in 1990                           47.7 million passenger       136.617 pure electric         1st rank for Germany          17th rank
                              data

40.1 % Renewables’                           cars registered in Germany   cars registered = 0.3 %       in energy efficiency policy   for Germany in the overall
                          *preliminary

share in gross power                         (01/2020)                    (01/2020)                     and performance score-        “Energy Transition Index”
generation in 2019*                                                                                     card (ACEEE, 2018)            (WEF, 2019)
14 minutes
Average power outage
in Germany 2018                             89 % of Germans believe € 22.9 billion Renew-               316,700 people                20,336 people
USA: 470 mins (2017)                        increased use and ex­pan­sion able surcharge paid by        employed in the               employed in the lignite
GB:     47 mins (2016)                      of renewables is very impor- power consumers in 2019        renew­ables sector (2017)     industry
Poland: 192 mins (2016)                     tant or important (2019)                                                                  (12/2019)

15 % Renewables’ share                   42 % Renewables’ share           73.8 % of homes heated     € 17 billion Energy effi­        23.7      31.4 ct/kWh
in primary energy con-                   in gross power consump-          with oil and gas in 2019   cien­cy and renewable heat-      Average household power
sumption in 2019                         tion in 2019                                                ing investments by economy       price 2010 and 2020 –
(up from 1.3 % in 1990)                  (up from 3.4 % in 1990)                                     ministry (2020-2024)             there­of 6.8 ct/kWh re­new­­­
                                                                                                                                      able surcharge in 2020

                                                                                                                                      5.1      3.7 ct/kWh
96 % of natural gas                      97 % of crude oil                54 % rise in GDP           14 % fall in primary en-         Average electricity spot
used in Germany                          is imported (2018)               since 1990 (2019)          ergy consumption since           market price in 2010
is imported (2018)                                                                                   1990 (2019)                      and 2019

                                                                                                                                                                       9
A Reporter's Guide to the Energy Transition
renewables share has overtaken coa l
      Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

Development of gross power production in Germany 1990-2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mineral oil      Others
                                                                                                                        Other                                            21.4 21.7 21.5                                                               0.9%           3.4%
                                                                                                                                                                 21.1                        20.7
                         600                                                                                                                                                                        20.4
                                                                                                             Renewables
                                                                                                                                                                                 216.3
                                                                                                         Mineral oil                                                         189.7   224.8 242.6
                                                                                                                                                                        188.8                                                               Natural gas                                          Wind onshore    16.8%
                         500                                                                           Natural gas                                              162.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             15.1%
terawatt-hours (TWh)

                         400                                                                                                                                     61.1 62.0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  % shares in 2019
                                                                                                  Nuclear power                                                            81.3
                                                                                                                                                                                      86.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                     5.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nuclear
                                                                                                                                                                 97.1                        82.5                                     12.4%
                                                                                                                                                                        91.8                                                                                          Renewables                 Wind offshore    4.1%
                         300                                                                                                                                                   84.6                 91.3
                                                                                                                                                                                      76.3                                                                              40.1%                    Hydro power      3.1%
                                                                                                                                                                                             76.0
                                                                                                        Hard coal                                               118.6 117.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Biomass          7.4%
                         200                                                                                                                                              112.2                     75.2                             Hard coal
                                                                                                                                                                                      92.9
                                                                                                                                                                                             82.6                                      9.4%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    56.9                                                                                         Solar            7.7%
                                                                                                                                                                155.8
                         100                                                                             Lignite
                                                                                                                                                                     154.5
                                                                                                                                                                          149.5
                                                                                                                                                                               148.4                                                               Lignite
                                                                                                                                                                                    145.6 114.0                                                                                                  Others             1%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      18.8%
                          0
                               1990      1992       1994       1996      1998      2000         2002      2004       2006       2008     2010         2012       2014       2016        2018 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Source: AG Energiebilanzen (2019).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Share of energy sources
Germany’s power export balance 1990-2019                                                                                                                                                                                 in primary energy consumption 2019
                         675                                                                                                                                                                  60
                                                   Power export balance                                                                                                                                                                                                       Others
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mineral oil

                                                                                                                                                                                                     Net export
                         650                       Gross power generation                                                                                                                     50                                                                               0.7%              Waste            1.0%
                                                   Gross power consumption                                                                                                                                                                           35.3%                                       Hydro power      0.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Wind power       3.6%
                         625                                                                                                                                                                  40
  terawatt-hours (TWh)

                         600                                                                                                                                                                  30                                                                                                 Solar            1.6%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Platzhalter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Renewables                Biomass          7.6%
                         575                                                                                                                                                                  20                                     Natural gas                          x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25%
                         550                                                                                                                                                                  10

                         525                                                                                                                                                                  0      Net import
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hard         Lignite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    coal           9.1%        Nuclear           Geothermal        0.5%
                         500                                                                                                                                                                  -10                                                    8.8%                       6.4%
                               90
                                    91
                                         92
                                              93
                                                   94
                                                        95
                                                             96
                                                                  97
                                                                       98
                                                                            99
                                                                                 00
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                                                                                                                                                                           Source: BMWi (2019).                                                                                        Source: AG Energiebilanzen (2019).

10                                                                                                                                                                                           Germany remains net electricity exporter
Calendar

Energiewende Dates 2020/2021                                                                    *

2020                                                                                                2021
20-21 April: Global Solutions Summit,                        9 – 19 November: 2020 UN Climate       13 – 15 January: Handelsblatt Energy
BERLIN. ONLINE                                               Change Conference (COP26),             Conference 2021, BERLIN.
                                                             Glasgow, UK. POSTPONED
27 – 28 April: 11th Petersberg Climate                                                              9 – 11 February: E-World energy & water
Dialogue, BERLIN. ONLINE                                     16 – 17 November: dena Kongress,       trade fair, ESSEN.
                                                             conference by German Energy Agency
4 - 6 May: Berliner Energietage 2020,                                                               14 March: State elections in Rhineland-
                                                             (dena), BERLIN.
BERLIN. MOVED TO SUMMER – ONLINE                                                                    Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg.

17 – 18 June: BDEW Kongress, energy                                                                 6 June: State elections in Saxony-Anhalt.
conference by German Association of
Energy and Water Industries (BDEW),
BERLIN.

17 – 19 June: Intersolar Europe, trade
fair, MUNICH. CANCELLED

                                                                                   Calendar
13 - 15 September: EU-China Summit,
LEIPZIG.

28 September: European Sustainable
Finance Summit, FRANKFURT.

* Many events may yet be cancelled due to the coronavirus.

                                                                                                                                              11
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

Contacts

… for official statements                               Institute for Applied Ecology (Öko-Institut),         … for industry comment
                                                        Sustainable development consultancy and research
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs                   institute. +49 30 405085-334, m.schossig@oeko.de,     German Association of Energy and Water Indus-
and Energy (BMWi), +49 30 18 615 6121,                  www.oeko.de/en                                        tries (BDEW), Germany’s largest energy industry as-
pressestelle@bmwi.bund.de, www.bmwi.de/en                                                                     sociation. +49 30 300 199-1160, presse@bdew.de,
                                                        Agora Energiewende, think tank focusing on            www.bdew.de
Federal Ministry for the Environment,                   dialogue with energy policymakers in the pow-
Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU),           er sector. +49 30 700 1435-110,                       German Association of Local Utilities (VKU),
+49 30 18 305 2010, presse@bmu.bund.de,                 christoph.podewils@agora-energiewende.de,             representing the many local and regional utilities
www.bmu.bund.de/en                                      www.agora-energiewende.de                             (Stadtwerke) in Germany. +49 30 58580-226,
                                                                                                              luig@vku.de, www.vku.de/en
Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastruc-   German Institute for Economic Research (DIW),
ture (BMVI), +49 30 18300-7200, www.bmvi.de/en,         DIW’s energy, transportation and environment, and     Federation of German Industries (BDI)
neuigkeitenzimmer@bmvi-bund.de                          climate policy departments study the economics        +49 30 2028-1565, j.wiskow@bdi.eu, www.bdi.eu
Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Com-     and politics of climate change and energy.            German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE)
munity, +49 30 18681 11022, presse@bmi.bund.de          Petra Jasper, +49 30 89789-152, pjasper@diw.de,       +49 30 275 81 70-16, presse@bee-ev.de,

                                                                                                              the experts
                                                        www.diw.de/en                                         www.bee-ev.de
… for latest data and research                          Fraunhofer ISE, solar energy research institute and
                                                        publisher of electricity production data. Also see
Agora Verkehrswende, Think tank focusing on             their data and graphs at www.energy-charts.de,
the energy transition in the transport sector.          +49 761 4588-5147, www.ise.fraunhofer.de
+49 30 700 1435-000, info@agora-
                                                        German Renewable Energies Agency (AEE)
verkehrs­­wende.de, www.agora-verkehrswende.de
                                                        +49 30 200 535 52, a.schwalbe@unendlich-
AG Energiebilanzen, Energy market research group.       viel-energie.de, www.unendlich-viel-energie.de
+49 30 8913987, www.ag-energiebilanzen.de,
h.g.buttermann@ag-energiebilanzen.de

12
Contacts & Sources

Reading in English

cleanenergywire.org Our website provides in-depth       Federal Foreign Office                                              AG Energiebilanzen (2019) Evalua-
analyses (dossiers), factsheets, news articles, an      (2018) The German Ener-                                             tion Tables of the Energy Balance for
expert database, and more.                              giewende; (2019) Who is                                             Germany 1990 to 2018.
                                                        Who of the Energiewende
Agora Energiewende (2020) The German Power                                                                                 Federation of German Industries (BDI)
                                                        in Germany. Online database
Market: State of Affairs in 2019; (2020) The Euro-                                                                       (2018) Climate Paths for Ger­many – Exec-
                                                        of contact partners in politics,
pean Power Sector in 2019; (2013) 12 Insights on                                                                      utive Summary.
                                                        industry and society.
Germany’s Energiewende.
                                                        Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (2017) Data on       Centre on Regulation in Europe (2015) The energy
International Energy Agency (2020) Germany 2020:
                                                        the Environment.                                      transition in Europe: initial lessons from Germany,
Energy Policy Review.
                                                                                                              the UK and France.
Agora Verkehrswende (2017) Transforming Trans-          Hager, Carol and Christoph H. Stefes (eds.) (2016)
port to Ensure Tomorrow’s Mobility.                     Germany’s Energy Transition. A Comparative Per-       World Economic Forum (2019) Fostering Effective
                                                        spective.                                             Energy Transition.
The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and
Energy (BMWi) website offers a wide range of            Ecologic Institute (2020) Climate laws in Europe;
publications in English, including the newsletter       (2016) Understanding the Energy Transition in
’Energiewende direkt‘.                                  Germany.
Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) (2019)
Federal Climate Change Act; (2019) Climate Action       Energy Research and Social Science (2016) Putting
in Figures. Facts, Trends and Incentives for German     an energy system transformation into practice: The
Climate Policy; (2016) Climate Action Plan 2050.        case of the German Energiewende.

energytransition.org A website/blog, funded by the      German Institute for Economic Research (2015)
Green Party-affiliated Heinrich Böll Foundation, ex-    Deep Decarbonisation in Germany. A Macro-Analy-
plaining what the energy transition is, how it works,   sis of the Economic and Political Challenges of the
and what challenges lie ahead.                          ‘Energiewende’.

                                                                                                                                                                13
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

     #Climate
     xxx      and CO2 #Fossil Fuels

     xxx
     Green  pioneer Germany adds carbon
     price and coal exit to climate policy push

                                  T   hanks to its early embracing of
                                      renewable energy, Germany is con­
                                  sidered a pioneer in the fight against
                                                                             2020 climate target and instead pre­
                                                                             sented a longer-term strategy to reach
                                                                             the country’s 2030 goals and achieve
                                  man-made climate change. Despite           climate neutrality by 2050. Ironically,
                                  a rapid rise in power generation from      the impacts of the coronavirus mean
                                  wind, solar, and bioenergy, the coun­      the country is almost certain to reach
                                  try’s track record on cutting greenhouse   the 2020 target after all. Germany has
                                  gas emissions is, however, mixed.          decided to cut its reliance on burning
                                  Germany expected to miss its original      coal for power production by 2038 at the
© RWE AG.

14
#Climate and CO2 #Fossil Fuels

   Contacts                                  Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons            On cleanenergywire.org
                                             and Climate Change (MCC)
Fraunhofer ISE, +49 761 4588-5147,           +49 30 3385537-201, lampe@mcc-berlin.net               Dossiers:
karin.schneider@ise.fraunhofer.de                                                                Europe's largest economy aims to exit coal to reach
                                             Climate Alliance Germany, +49 30 780 899 -514,
IKEM – Institute for Climate Protection                                                          climate goals
                                             julia.dittmann@klima-allianz.de
and Mobility                                                                                     Germany's targets under scrutiny in year of global
+49 30 408187-024, dominik.dicken@ikem.de    Stiftung 2°                                         climate action
                                             +49 30 204 537 34, laura.toerkel@2grad.org
The Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact                                                           Article:
Research (PIK)                               Patrick Graichen, Agora Energiewende
                                             +49 30 700 1435-110,                                Transport and heating tarnish Germany's emission
+49 331 288 25 07, press@pik-potsdam.de                                                          cuts in 2019 – researchers
                                             christoph.podewils@agora-energiewende.de
Camilla Bausch, Ecologic Institute                                                                  Factsheets:
+49 30 86880-0, berlin@ecologic.eu           Claudia Kemfert, German Institute for Economic
                                             Research (DIW)                                      Germany’s greenhouse gas emissions and climate
Corinna Seide, WWF Germany                   +49 30 89789-663, sekretariat-evu@diw.de            targets
+49 30 311777-422, corinna.seide@wwf.de                                                          Germany's Climate Action Law
Germanwatch                                     Reading                                          Germany's Climate Action Programme 2030
+49 228 60492-23, presse@germanwatch.org                                                         Germany's carbon pricing system for transport and
                                             IEA (2020) Energy Policy Review Germany
                                                                                                 buildings
                                             Agora Energiewende (2017) The Energiewende
                                                                                                 Spelling out the coal exit – Germany's phase-out plan
                                             in a nutshell

very latest, is about to introduce a price
                                             Agora Energiewende (2019) European Energy
                                             Transition 2030: The Big Picture
                                                                                                  “Now it's perfectly clear.
                                                                                                                               .
                                                                                                  all sectors are well advised
on carbon to clean up transport and
                                             Agora Energiewende (2014) The German Energie-
heating, and has started to devise a
                                             wende and its Climate Paradox

                                                                                                   to prepare in time for the
strategy to wean industry off fossil fu-
els. But a slow-down in the renewables       Fraunhofer ISE (2020) Energy Charts
roll-out and recurring squabbles over        Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) (2019)
policy suggest it will be a bumpy ride to
turn Germany’s climate ambition into
                                             Climate Action in Figures
                                             Germanwatch / Climate Action Network (2019)
                                                                                                   post-fossil age.”
practice over the long run.                  The Climate Change Performance Index 2020
                                                                                                      		          Svenja Sc hulze,
                                                                                                     Environ ment M inister (SPD party)               15
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

     #Coal

     Hard fought coal exit to set economy
     on course for climate neutrality

                                  G   ermany, following the example
                                      of other advanced economies
                                  in Europe, has decided to end coal-
                                                                          to exit coal, Germany faces the dual
                                                                          challenge of simultaneously phas-
                                                                          ing out nuclear power and providing
                                  fired power production for good and     an economic perspective for mining
                                  gradually remodel its power sector to   regions that still rely heavily on the
                                  become fully decarbonised over the      coal industry. A compromise found by
                                  next decades. While a large majori-     a government-appointed commission
                                  ty of citizens welcomed the decision    paved the way for an official phase-
© RWE AG.

16
#Coal

              “The planned phase-out roadmap will probably
              be up for debate after the next election.”
                                                                                                       German Institute for Economic Research – DIW
                                                                                                       (2019) Whole-of-Government Strategies on Coal
                                                                                                       Transition in Major Coal Using Countries

   Contacts    			                               Patrick Graic hen, head of energy policy              WWF Germany (2020) Just transition to climate

BDEW – German  			Association of Energy and Water       think tank Agora Energiewende                  neutrality – doing right by the regions
                                                                                                       International Energy Agency (2020) – Energy Policy
Industries, +49 30 300 199 1160, presse@bdew.de                                                        Review Germany 2020
                                                   Reading
DEBRIV – Federal German Association for
Brown Coal, +49 30 315 182 -22, uwe.maassen@    German government (2020) Draft Law for Reducing
braunkohle.de                                   and Ending Coal-Fired Power Production (in German)          On cleanenergywire.org

Institute for Applied Ecology (Öko-Institut)    Commission on Growth, Structural Change and              Dossiers:
+49 30 405085-334, m.schossig@oeko.de           Employment (2019) Final report (in German)             Germany’s coal phase-out
                                                Ecologic et al. (2019) Phasing out coal in the Ger-    Climate cabinet to put Germany back on track for
BMWi – Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs
                                                man energy sector                                      2030 targets
and Energy, +49 30 18 615 6121 and -6131,
pressestelle@bmwi.bund.de                       Agora Energiewende (2019) The German Coal Com-           Articles:
                                                promise and its Significance for the Energy Industry
Barbara Praetorius, co-chair of coal exit                                                              German government adopts coal exit, fixes hard coal
commission,                                     Aurora Energy Research (2019) Coal exit auctions:      compensation
 +49 30 5019-2532,                              Design options, opportunity costs and clearing         "Historic compromise" or "pact of unreason"? –
barbara.praetorius@htw-berlin.de                prices for Germany's hard coal phase-out               media reactions to Germany's coal exit deal
                                                                                                       Former coal commission members say German gov-
                                                                                                       ernment breached landmark exit compromise
out plan that includes billions of euros       the government’s planning, arguing
in support payments for coal regions           that it postpones plant closures to the                   Factsheets:
and compensation for plant operators.          latest possible date and lacks provi-                   Spelling out the coal exit – Germany's
                                                                                                       phase-out plan
However, it is uncertain whether the           sions for ensuring that decommis-
plan, which was announced in early             sioned coal power capacity is substitut-                German commission proposes coal exit by 2038
2020, will put the country’s coal debate       ed with the renewable energy sources                    Germany's three lignite mining regions
to a rest. Many of the former commis-          needed as the bedrock of a climate-
sion members are not satisfied with            neutral economy.

                                                                                                                                                          17
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

      #Energiewende #History

      Energiewende – the first four decades

                                               F  or many observers, the energy
                                                  transition in Germany began with
                                               Chancellor Angela Merkel’s decision
                                                                                      before, in the 1970s. A long process,
                                                                                      deeply rooted in German history and
                                                                                      society, led to policies that boosted
                                               to phase out nuclear power, follow-    renewable energy in Germany, which
                                               ing the accident at the Fukushima      are now at the heart of the move to a
                                               nuclear plant in Japan in 2011. But    climate-neutral economy. The Ener-
                                               the societal project started decades   giewende – a full-scale transformation
© Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen Baden-Württemberg.

18
#Energiewende #History

                                            Contacts                                            On cleanenergywire.org
                                         Institute for Applied Ecology (Öko-Institut)        Dossier:
                                         +49 30 405085-334, m.schossig@oeko.de             The history of the Energiewende

 “ The renewable energy act              Heinrich Böll Foundation
                                         +49 30 285 34 217, lorenz@boell.de
                                                                                             Factsheets:
                                                                                           Milestones of the German Energiewende

 sparked a real grassroots               Green Party
                                         +49 30 284 42 130, presse@gruene.de
                                                                                           The history behind Germany’s nuclear phase-out

citizens’ movement.                      Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND)
                                         +49 30 27586 425, sigrid.wolff@bund.net

Germans turned the                       Greenpeace Germany
                                         +49 40 306 18 340, presse@greenpeace.de

Energiewende into their                  Nina Scheer, Social Democratic Party MP
                                         +49 30 227 73538, nina.scheer@bundestag.de

own project.” Nina Scheer,                  Reading
       Social Democratic Party MP        energytransition.de Timeline Energiewende
                                         Carbon Brief (2016) The history of the Energie-
                                         wende

of society and the economy – arose out
of enduring grassroots movements,
evidence-based discourse, concern
about climate change, and key techno-
logical advances, as well as hands-on
experience garnered along the way in
Germany and elsewhere.

                                                                                                                                            19
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

      #Grid

      Energiewende’s success hinges
      on unblocking the power grid

                                  G    ermany must update its electricity
                                       network to handle the fluctuat-
                                  ing supply of power from decentral-
                                                                            much power can be as big a problem
                                                                            for the stability of the grid as too little.
                                                                            Bottlenecks on the network currently
                                  ised sources, while pursuing the          cause stabilisation procedures costing
                                  shift to a renewable energy system. The   Germany more than a billion euros per
                                  rapid expansion of wind power capac-      year. Public protests against build-
                                  ity in the north has supplied bounti-     ing the power lines which will carry
                                  ful low-cost electricity there. But too   electricity to Germany’s industrial
©[Freja Eriksen] CLEW.

20
#Grid

   Contacts                                          TransnetBW (grid operator)                                 On cleanenergywire.org
                                                     +49 711 21858-3155 r.koenig@transnetbw.de
Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur)                                                                   Dossier:
+49 228 14 9921, pressestelle@bnetza.de              Chambers of Commerce and Industry (DIHK)              The energy transition and Germany’s power grid
                                                     +49 30 20308-1607, renner.thomas@dihk.de
Andreas Jahn, Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)                                                             Article:
+49 30 700 1435 421, ajahn@raponline.org                                                                   German parliament passes law on faster grid expan-
                                                        Reading                                            sion to ensure renewables growth
Oliver Brückl, OTH Regensburg
+49 941 943-9881, oliver.brueckl@oth-regensburg.de   Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur)              Factsheets:
                                                     (2018) Annual Report 2018: 20 years of responsibil-
Institute of Energy Economics at the University of                                                         Set-up and challenges of Germany’s power grid
                                                     ity for networks
Cologne (EWI)                                                                                              Interconnectors & blockages – German grid at odds
+49 221 277 29-108,                                  Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy      with EU power market
claudia.pichonnier@ewi.uni-koeln.de                  (BMWi) (2020) An electricity grid for the energy
                                                                                                           Setting the power price: The merit order effect
                                                     transition
50Hertz Transmission (grid operator)                                                                       Re-dispatch costs in the German power grid
+49 30 5150 -2878, volker.gustedt@50hertz.com        German Institute for Economic Research (DIW)
                                                                                                           Germany’s electricity grid stable amid energy
                                                     (2015) Electricity grids and climate targets:
TenneT (grid operator)                                                                                     transition
                                                     New approaches to grid planning
+49 921 50740 4045, ulrike.hoerchens@tennet.eu                                                             Power grid fees – unfair and opaque?
                                                     Pentalateral Energy Forum (2018) Second regional
Amprion (grid operator)                                                                                    How can Germany keep the lights on in a renewable
                                                     generation adequacy assessment report
+49 231 5849-13785, andreas.preuss@amprion.net                                                             energy future?
                                                     German TSOs Grid development plan – power             Volatile but predictable: Forecasting renewable
                                                                                                           power generation
south mean grid expansion is lagging                                                                       Germany’s renewable generation peaks remain
behind schedule. In 2019, parlia-                                                                          shrouded in data fog
ment passed an ‘acceleration law’ to
ensure that the necessary lines are
completed swiftly, and agreed with                         “Grid expansion remains
states that long stretches should be
placed underground to increase pub-
lic acceptance.
                                                           the Energiewende’s ma in ch allenge.”
                                                               Jochen Homann, head of Federal Network Agency (BNetzA)
                                                                                                                                                               21
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

      #Transport

      Car giant Germany struggles to spark
      Energiewende in transport

                                      A    utomobile-proud Germany has
                                           made little headway in extend-
                                      ing the Energiewende to transport,
                                                                               after several driving bans were imple-
                                                                               mented to reduce local pollution in
                                                                               the wake of the dieselgate scandal,
                                      a crucial step in the country’s quest    public and politics alike are acknowl-
                                      for a low-carbon economy, resulting in   edging that the shift to a sustain­
                                      stubbornly high sector emissions. But    able transport system will involve
© [Wolfgang Klee] Deutsche Bahn AG.

22
#Transport

                                             Contacts                                           Reading

“Decarbonisation isn’t                    Urs Maier, Agora Verkehrswende
                                          +49 30 700 1435-302,
                                                                                             Agora Verkehrswende (2019) Implications of the
                                                                                             Paris Agreement for the German transport sector

happening anyw here in                    urs.maier@agora-verkehrswende.de
                                          Andreas Knie, Berlin Social Science Center (WZB)
                                                                                             Agora Verkehrswende (2017) Transforming Trans-
                                                                                             port to Ensure Tomorrow’s Mobility – 12 Insights
the sector. Measures are                  +49 30 25491-588, andreas.knie@wzb.eu
                                                                                             Transport & Environment (2019) Less is more: how

expensive and interfere
                                          Peter Kasten, Institute for Applied Ecology        to go from new to sustainable mobility
                                          (Öko-Institut)
                                          +49 30 405085 349, p.kasten@oeko.de                Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastruc-

with our daily life.                      Oliver Lah, Wuppertal Institute for Climate,
                                          Environment and Energy
                                                                                             ture (BMVI) The future of mobility is electric
                                                                                             Arthur D Little (2018) The Future of Mobility

Thus, it just hasn’t been                 +49 30 2887458-16, oliver.lah@wupperinst.org
                                          Werner Reh, Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND)
                                                                                             McKinsey (2016) Urban Mobility 2030: Berlin

pushed by either                          +49 176 45719292, w.reh@bund.net
                                                                                                  On cleanenergywire.org

politicians or industry.”
                                          Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infra­
                                          structure (BMVI), +49 30 183 00-7200,                Dossiers:
                                          neuigkeitenzimmer@bmvi.bund.de                     The energy transition and Germany’s transport sector
       Peter Kasten,                      Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH)
                                          +49 30 2400867-20, presse@duh.de
                                                                                             How Germany is greening its growing freight sector
                                                                                             to meet climate targets
     Institute for Applied Ecology                                                              Article:
                                                                                             Renewable fuels will not solve aviation's climate
                                                                                             dilemma – industry experts
much more than replacing conven­          tative discussions about phasing out
                                                                                               Factsheets:
tional cars with electric models. In      conventional cars are gaining ground.
                                                                                             Rail cargo emissions in Germany
a slow rethink of decades’ worth of       Policymakers have also started to make
                                                                                             "Dieselgate" – a timeline of Germany's car emissions
car-centred policy, there is a new        proposals on how aviation and ship­                fraud scandal
emphasis on sharing concepts, public      ping could eventually become more
transport, cycling and walking, as ten­   climate-friendly.

                                                                                                                                                  23
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

     #Cars

     BMW, Daimler, and VW vow to fight
     in green transport revolution

                                  I n Germany, the birthplace of the
                                    automobile, three iconic carmakers –
                                  BMW, Daimler, and Volkswagen – are
                                                                           Tarnished by the dieselgate scandal and
                                                                           facing new and powerful competitors
                                                                           in Google, Tesla, Apple, and Uber, the
                                  facing the greatest challenge in their   future of Germany’s horsepower-proud
                                  history: the mobility revolution that    carmakers is more uncertain than ever,
                                  is turning the transport system green.   especially in this age of decarbonisa-
© BMW Group.

24
#Cars

   Contacts                                       Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA)            Alix Partners (2019) Global Automotive Outlook
                                                  +49 461 316-1293, pressestelle@kba.de
Kerstin Meyer, Agora Verkehrswende                                                                   McKinsey&Company (2019) Mastering new mobility
+49 30 700 1435-303,                              German Association of the Automotive
                                                  Industry (VDA)                                     Roland Berger (2020) The car will become a com-
kerstin.meyer@agora-verkehrswende.de
                                                  +49 30 897842-124, nikolaus.doll@vda.de            puter on wheels
Ferdinand Dudenhöffer, Center Automotive
                                                  Henning Kagermann, National Platform for
Research, University of Duisburg-Essen
                                                  Electric Mobility                                       On cleanenergywire.org
+49 203 379-1111,
                                                  +49 30 2063096-86, huss@acatech.de
ferdinand.dudenhoeffer@uni-due.de                                                                      Dossier:
                                                  BMW Group
Stefan Bratzel, Center of Automotive                                                                 BMW, Daimler and VW vow to fight in green trans-
                                                  +49 89 382-72652, wieland.bruch@bmw.de
Management (CAM), University of Applied Scienc-                                                      port revolution
es Bergisch Gladbach, +49 22 02 2 85 77-0,        Daimler
                                                  +49 151 586 282 85,                                  Articles:
stefan.bratzel@auto-institut.de
                                                  madeleine.herdlitschka@daimler.com                 Anxious carmakers forced to tread 'arduous' path to
Peter Mock, The International Council on Clean                                                       e-mobility in 2020
Transportation (ICCT)                             Volkswagen
                                                  +49 5361 9-77639, tim.fronzek@volkswagen.de        Carmakers highlight climate ambitions at auto show
+49 30 847 129-102, peter@theicct.org                                                                in response to protest wave
Nicolai Müller, McKinsey&Company                                                                       Factsheets:
                                                     Reading
+49 211 136-4516,
martin_hattrup-silberberg@mckinsey.com                                                               Reluctant Daimler shifts gear in race to sustainable
                                                  Transport & Environment (2019) How carmakers can
                                                                                                     mobility
                                                  reach their 2021 CO2 targets
Wolfgang Bernhart, Roland Berger                                                                     Early e-car starter BMW has lost ground in clean
+49 711 3275-7421,                                Institute for Applied Ecology (2018) Electro­      mobility race
wolfgang.bernhart@rolandberger.com                mobility – Fact check
                                                                                                     Huge EV bet could turn diesel pariah VW into
                                                                                                     "game-changing" pioneer
tion, self-driving vehicles, and carshar-         VW, all three firms have now launched              "Dieselgate" – a timeline of Germany's car emissions
ing. The carmakers have lobbied hard –            ambitious plans to expand their e-mo-              fraud scandal
and with some success – against stricter          bility offerings, and experts say it is far
European emissions limits, and have               too early to write off these automotive
fallen behind in the global clean mo-             powerhouses in the global race to the
bility competition. But spearheaded by            future of mobility.

                                                                                                                                                        25
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

     #Renewables #Wind #Solar #Bioenergy

     Renewables growth way ahead of schedule
     but slump in wind power spells trouble

                                  T   he share of wind power, solar power
                                      and other renewable energy sources
                                  has been growing much quicker than
                                                                            risen from a niche technology to be-
                                                                            come the dominant player in the power
                                                                            mix. On some days, they already cover
                                  planned in Germany and stood at over      about three quarters of the electricity
                                  40 percent of gross power production      demand of Europe’s largest economy.
                                  in 2019. Since the launch of support      The country’s solar power industry had
                                  payments in the country’s Renewable       to cope with fierce price competition
                                  Energy Act in 2000, renewables have       from Asia and only regained its busi-
© RWE AG.

26
#Renewables #Wind #Solar #Bioenergy

“Policymakers need to support the energy industry to make sure
that the success we've had so far is not short-lived (...)                                                  Reading
                                                                                                         Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy
 Otherwise the goal of reaching a share of 65 percent renewables                                         (BMWi) (2019) Renewable Energy Sources in Fig-
                                                                                                         ures: National and International Development, 2018
 in power consumption by 2030 cannot be achieved.”                                                       International Renewable Energy Association (IRENA)
                                                                                                         (2019) Renewable Energy Auctions – Status and
            Kerstin Andreae, head of the German Association of Energy and Water Industries               Trends Beyond Price
     Contacts
                                                                                                         Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)
  German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE)       Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and               (2018) Recent Facts about Photovoltaics in Germany
  +49 30 275 8170 16, presse@bee-ev.de           Energy (BMWi), +49 30 18615 6133,
                                                                                                         German Wind Energy Association (BWE)
  German Wind Energy Association (BWE)           philipp.jornitz@bmwi.bund.de
                                                                                                         Year Book Wind Power 2018
  +49 30 212341-210, presse@wind-energie.de      Renewable Energy Research Association
                                                 +49 30 288 7565-72, fvee@helmholtz-berlin.de            Frankfurt School of Finance / UN Environment
  Federal Association for Bioenergy                                                                      Programme (2019) Global Trends in Renewable
  +49 228 81 002 58, info@bioenergie.de          Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innova­tion        Energy Investment 2019
  German Solar Industry Association (BSW)        Research (ISI), +49 721 6809-100,
  +49 30 29 777 88-30, francke@bsw-solar.de      anne-catherine.jung@isi.fraunhofer.de
                                                 Citizens’ Energy Alliance (BBEn), +49 30 30 88 17 89,        On cleanenergywire.org
  Volker Quaschning, University of Applied
  Sciences Berlin, +49 30 5019-3656,             presse@buendnis-buergerenergie.de                         Dossiers:
  volker.quaschning@htw-berlin.de                                                                        Bioenergy – the troubled pillar of the Energiewende
                                                                                                         Onshore wind power in Germany
  ness confidence in the past two years.        aims to bring the share of renewables                    Offshore wind power in Germany
  Meanwhile, Germany’s most impor-              in power consumption to 65 percent by                    Solar power in Germany
  tant renewable power source - onshore         2030, but renewable energy companies,                      Factsheets:
  wind - faces a severe slump in expan-         as well as other industry actors and                     Solar power in Germany
  sion after years of remarkable growth         environmental groups in the country,                     Bioenergy in Germany
  due to licensing hurdles and quarrels         fear that this goal might become hard
                                                                                                         Onshore wind power in Germany
  over minimum distances for turbines           to attain if the nosedive of wind power
                                                                                                         Offshore wind power in Germany
  near residential areas. The government        is not stopped soon.

                                                                                                                                                          27
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

     #Cost & Prices #EEG/Law

     National carbon price heralds reshuffling
     of entire energy pricing system

                                  S  ince 1990, Germany has made visible
                                     progress in bringing down greenhouse
                                  gas emissions in the power sector. How-
                                                                            cision to introduce a price on CO2 emis-
                                                                            sions accruing in sectors that are not
                                                                            yet subject to the European Union’s
                                  ever, its achievements in other major     emissions trading system (ETS), namely
                                  sectors of the economy have been much     transport and heating. The carbon price
                                  more modest. That's why in 2019 the       will take effect from 2021, and gradually
                                  government took the momentous de-         increase the costs of using oil, gas or
© [Bergmann] Bundesregierung.

28
#Cost & Prices #EEG/Law

                                                                                                        “We currently fund the transformation
   Contacts
Matthias Kalkuhl, Mercator Research Institute on
                                                      Reading
                                                   Federal Government of Germany (2019) Climate
                                                                                                         of our energy supply only with
Global Commons and Climate Change,
+49 30 33 85 537 -243, kalkuhl@mcc-berlin.net
                                                   Action Programme 2030 of the German government
                                                   to implement the Climate Action Plan 2050
                                                                                                          a surcharge on the power price.
Christoph M. Schmidt, RWI – Leibniz Institute
                                                   (in German)
                                                                                                         This cannot go on. Our target has
                                                                                                        to be to make fossil energy sources
for Economics,                                     International Emissions Trading Association (2019)
+49 201 8149 -227, praesident@rwi-essen.de         The economic potential of article 6 of the Paris
                                                   Agreement and implementation challenges
Linus Herzig, Germanwatch,
                                                                                                        pay for it much more in all sectors.
+49 30 28 88 356 -93, herzig@germanwatch.org       Ottmar Edenhfoer et al. (2018) A framework for as-
                                                   sessing the performance of cap-and-trade systems:                                        ”
Jobst-Hinrich Wiskow, Federation of German
Industries – BDI,
                                                   Insights from the European Union emissions trading
                                                   system
                                                                                                        Svenja Schulze, Environ ment Minister
+49 30 20 281-565, j.wiskow@bdi.eu
                                                   Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research – PIK
                                                                                                       			                      (SPD party)
Clearingstelle EEG / KWKG,                         (2019) Options for a carbon pricing reform
+49 30 206 14 16 -0,
post@clearingstelle-eeg-kwkg.de                    Federal Environment Agency – UBA
                                                                                                             On cleanenergywire.org
                                                   Greenhouse-Gas-Neutrality in Germany until 2050
                                                                                                           Dossiers:
                                                                                                        Climate cabinet to put Germany back on track for
                                                                                                        2030 targets
                                                                                                        The reform of the Renewable Energy Act

                                                                                                          Factsheets:
coal for driving cars and heating homes.           turing of energy pricing systems, where-             Germany's carbon pricing system for transport and
While critics have said the starting price         by electricity becomes cheaper. Funding              buildings
of 25 euros per tonne of CO2 is too low to         the expansion of renewables, currently               Germany ponders how to finance renewables
trigger meaningful effects, the govern-            done with auctioned feed-in tariffs                  expansion in the future
ment argues a slow start helps people              under the German Renewable Energy Act                20 years on – German renewables pioneers face end
adapt to higher prices and, moreover,              (EEG), could ultimately be aided by the              of guaranteed payment
will also be followed by a deeper restruc-         proceeds from the carbon price.                      Defining features of the Renewable Energy Act (EEG)

                                                                                                                                                           29
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

      #Nuclear phase-out

      Managing the nuclear legacy –
      a project into the next century

                                  T   he last nuclear power plant in Ger­
                                      many will go offline at the end of
                                  2022, marking the end of a decades-long
                                                                            until 2011, when the Fukushima nuclear
                                                                            disaster in Japan led Chancellor Ange­
                                                                            la Merkel’s government to im­ple­ment
                                  dispute over the use of the technolo­     a phase-out plan already agreed on
                                  gy that offers emissions-free power       a decade earlier by the Social Demo­
                                  production but comes with unresolved      cratic-Green government and initially
                                  challenges regarding waste storage and    postponed by Merkel. While some propo­
                                  safety. The fight against nuclear power   nents of nuclear power today endorse it
                                  was one of the triggers of Germany’s      as an effective tool for climate action,
                                  environmental movement in the 1970s,      the broader society still widely rejects
                                  and arguments over its use continued      ‘Atomkraft’ and no former nuclear plant
© [Daniel Meier-Gerber] EnBW.

30
#Nuclear phase-out

   Contacts                                        Forschungszentrum Jülich                                 BMWi / Warth & Klein Grant Thornton (2015) Evalua-
                                                   +49 2461 61-2388, a.stettien@fz-juelich.de               tion of nuclear clean-up provisions (in German)
Wolfgang Irrek, Ruhr West University of Ap-
plied Sciences                                     German Institute for Economic Research (DIW)             Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and
+49 208 88254-838, wolfgang.irrek@hs-ruhrwest.de   +49 30 89789-152, pjasper@diw.de                         Energy (2007) Comparison of Different Decommis-
                                                                                                            sioning Fund Methodologies for Nuclear Installations
Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN)
+49 38354 4-8030, marlies.philipp@ewn-gmbh.de         Reading
                                                                                                                 On cleanenergywire.org
Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)      Heinrich Böll Stiftung (2019) The world nuclear waste
+49 30 18 333-11 30, presse@bfs.de                 report 2019 – Focus Europe                                 Dossier:
                                                   German Institute for Economic Research (DIW)             The challenges of Germany’s nuclear phase-out
Becker Büttner Held energy law firm (BBH)
+49 30 611 28 40-179, ines.zenke@bbh-online.de     (2019) High-priced and dangerous: Nuclear power is          Articles:
                                                   not an option for the climate-friendly energy mix
Green Budget Germany (FÖS)                                                                                  Germany's env min and plant operators dismiss call
+49 30 7623991-41, andrea.woerle@foes.de           Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature             for nuclear lifetime extensions
                                                   Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (2020)             German utilities buy out of nuclear waste liability
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature
                                                   Nuclear Safety: An information portal of the Federal     for 23.6 bln euros
Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
                                                   government and the Länder
+49 30 18 305-2010, presse@bmu.bund.de                                                                      Germany’s constitutional court backs speedy
                                                   Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) Online     nuclear exit
                                                   information on nuclear safety and nuclear waste
                                                   management                                                 Factsheets:
operator in Germany has any intention                                                                       The history behind Germany’s nuclear phase-out
to seek a resumption, not least due to             Brunnengräber et. al. (2015) Nuclear Waste Govern-
                                                   ance – An International Comparison                       What to do with the nuclear waste
the technology’s high generation costs.
                                                                                                            Nuclear clean-up costs
As of 2019, nuclear plants still contrib-          BBH (2014) Financial provisions in the nuclear sec-
                                                   tor – Possible risks of the status quo and options for   Securing utility payments for the nuclear clean-up
uted over 12 percent to Germany’s power
                                                   reform (in German)                                       Legal disputes over the nuclear phase-out
mix, but the government says decom-
missioning the remaining facilities will
not threaten power supply as nuclear                “Nuclear energy is economically dead (...) why should I build
capacity will be replaced by renewables,
gas plants, and power imports from
                                                     nuclear power stations, which carry an inherent risk, if I can
neighbour countries.
                                                    already harvest the sun's energy for less than half the price today ? ”
                                                                                    Rolf Martin Schmitz, CEO of energy company RWE                                31
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

       #Industry #Jobs

      German industry embraces
      transformation challenge

                                  A   fter balking at the Energiewende for
                                      many years, German industry is now
                                  fervently embracing the energy transi-
                                                                                largest economy – both among compa-
                                                                                nies and regions. But businesses increas-
                                                                                ingly see new opportunities and profits in
                                  tion. There is no doubt that the efforts to   the global move to a low-carbon future.
                                  curb climate change through a far-reach-      Many say it is now time for Germa-
                                  ing shift to clean energy will produce        ny to ensure it remains a global eco-
                                  winners and losers in the world’s fourth      nomic pow­­er­house – not by shunning
© Salzgitter AG.

32
#Industry #Jobs

   Contacts                                         German Industry Initiative for Energy                         On cleanenergywire.org
                                                    Efficiency (DENEFF)
Ulrike Lehr, Institute of Economic Structures       +49 30 364 097-01, christian.noll@deneff.org               Dossiers:
Research (GWS)                                                                                               The energy transition’s effect on the economy
+49 541 40933-280, lehr@gws-os.com                  Kirsten Best-Werbunat, McKinsey & Company
                                                    +49 211 136-4688, kirsten_best@mckinsey.com              Industry bets on gas as last trump card in
German Institute for Economic Research (DIW)                                                                 Energiewende
+49 30 89789-152, pjasper@diw.de                    Frank Peter, Agora Energiewende
                                                    +49 30 700 1435-123,                                       Articles:
Sebastian Bolay, Chambers of Commerce and           frank.peter@agora-energiewende.de                        German industry needs policy trigger for deep
Industry (DIHK)                                                                                              emission cuts
+49 30 20308-2202, bolay.sebastian@dihk.de          Achim Wambach, President of the Mannheim Cen-
                                                    tre for European Economic Research (ZEW)                 Can Salzgitter cut Germany's CO2 emissions with
Federation of German Industries (BDI)               +49 621 1235-100, achim.wambach@zew.de                   low-carbon steel project?
+49 30 2028 1565, j.wiskow@bdi.eu
                                                                                                             Germany must beat Asia in hydrogen technology
Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA)                Reading                                               race – government
+49 228 3894 223, fallak@iza.org                                                                             Energy-intensive industry must jump-start low-CO2
                                                    Federation of German Industries BDI (2018) Cli-
Institute for Employment Research (IAB)             mate paths for Germany                                   technologies to reach climate targets – study
+49 911 179-1946, wolfgang.braun@iab.de
                                                    German Energy Agency (2018) Integrated Energy              Factsheets:
Institute for Economic Research (Ifo)               Transition                                               Industry power prices in Germany: Extremely
+49 89 9224-1218, schultz@ifo.de                                                                             high – and low
                                                    Energy Systems of the Future (2018) Coupling the
Institute for Futures Studies and Technology As-    different energy sectors – options for the next phase    What business thinks of the energy transition
sessment (IZT) +49 30 80 30 88-45, b.debus@izt.de   of the energy transition                                 Siemens: a case study in Energiewende industry
                                                                                                             upheaval
                                                    Agora Energiewende (2019) Climate-Neutral
                                                    Industry                                                 Where the Energiewende creates jobs
the Energiewende, but by harnessing its
                                                    BMWi (2019) Macroeconomic effects and distribu-          How much does Germany’s energy transition cost?
innovative momentum. This includes
                                                    tional issues of the energy transition

                                                                                                            “The Energiewende will turn
industries hardly involved yet, such as
steelmaking, chemicals, and cement,                 Studies by the BMWi (2020) on the energy tran-

                                                                                                             the German economy inside out.”
which have all tabled proposals as to               sition and its impact on investment, growth and jobs
how they could become climate neutral,              United Nations Environment Programme (2019)
given the right government support.                 Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2019
                                                                                                             Achim Wambach, President of the Centre
                                                                                                             for European Economic Research (ZEW)              33
Clean Energy Wire | CLEW 2020

      #Start-ups #Utilities

      Energiewende start ups –
      cutting emissions as a business model

                                              P   olicy has a crucial role to play in
                                                  the shift to a low-carbon future,
                                              but ultimately it is businesses that will
                                                                                          sectors from renewables to heating,
                                                                                          and industry to mobility. Some have
                                                                                          referred to Germany’s lively start-up
                                              make the energy transition happen.          scene as a ‘Green Energy Valley’. In
                                              In Energiewende home country Germa-         sectors such as storage and hydrogen,
                                              ny, many start-ups take advantage of        young German companies are among
                                              the transformation by bringing novel        the world’s leaders, and could be key
                                              business ideas to market, and taking        to cleaning up polluting industries.
                                              market shares from incumbents in            The country's embattled utilities, who
© [renedeutscher.de] Sunfire GmbH, Dresden.

34
#Start-ups #Utilities

   Contacts                                     E.ON                                                McKinsey (2018) How utilities can keep the lights on
                                                +49 201 184 -42256, markus.nitschke@eon.com
Klaus Fichter, Borderstep Institute                                                                 Bain & Company (2018) Digital Strategy for Utilities
+49 30 306 45 100 -0, fichter@borderstep.de     Vattenfall
                                                +49 30 8182 -2320, stefan.mueller@vattenfall.de
Pia Dorfinger, German Energy Agency (dena)
                                                                                                         On cleanenergywire.org
+49 30 66 777-737, dorfinger@dena.de            EnBW
                                                +49 721 63 -14320, je.schreiber@enbw.com               Dossiers:
German Startups Association
+49 30 609 8959 -101,                           innogy                                              Germany's Energiewende start-ups – cutting emis-
paul.wolter@deutschestartups.org                +49 201 12 -15250,                                  sions as a business model
                                                alexander.stechert-mayerhoefer@innogy.com           Battered utilities take on start-ups in innovation race
Thorsten Lenck, Agora Energiewende
+49 30 700 1435 -134,                           Uniper                                              Digitalisation ignites new phase in energy transition
thorsten.lenck@agora-energiewende.de            +49 211 4579 -3570, leif.erichsen@uniper.energy       Articles:
German Association of Energy and Water Indus-   Gerard Reid, Alexa Capital                          Energy transition start-ups shake up the busi-
tries (BDEW)                                    +44 20 3011 5566, info@alexa-capital.com            ness world
+49 30 300 199 -1160, presse@bdew.de                                                                Dedicated engineers have made Germany a "Green
RWE AG                                                                                              Energy Valley" – start-up expert
+49 201 1222088, stephanie.schunck@rwe.com         Reading
                                                                                                      Factsheets:
                                                Borderstep Institute (2019) Green Startup Moni-     'Green Energy Valley' – Germany's green start-up
                                                tor 2018                                            scene in numbers
were far too slow to recognise the              EY (2020) How net-zero emissions present the pow-   Germany’s largest utilities at a glance
renewables revolution, now bet on               er sector with an opportunity
start-up innovation to cut emissions.           EY (2019) Start-up-Barometer Germany
In the innovation race against agile
                                                Cleantech Group (2020) Global Cleantech 100 List
new players, the overhaul of the for-
mer monopolies is far from over – as            IEEFA (2017) Global Electricity Utilities in
evidenced by the landmark asset                 Transition
swap of major energy companies RWE              Deloitte (2018) Power Market Study 2030 – A new
and E.ON.                                       outlook for the energy industry

                                                                                                                                                         35
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