AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy

 
AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
BUILDING BLOCKS
  FOR THE NEW
    STRATEGY
AMSTERDAM
 CIRCULAR
         2020-2025
  Directions for a thriving city within
      the planetary boundaries

            Date: 19.06.2019

                                          1
AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
COLOPHON
Building blocks for the new strategy Amsterdam Circular 2020-2025
This report is the joint product of a collaboration between the City of Amsterdam, Circle
Economy and Kate Raworth.

Publication date:
Amsterdam, 19 June 2019

Circle Economy
Ilektra Kouloumpi (Senior Project Manager), Jurn de Winter (Project Manager), Annerieke Douma
(Director Cities and Regions), Max Russell (Researcher), Pien van Berkel (Researcher), Josefine
Köhler (Researcher), Inge ter Laak (Graphic Designer), Alexandru Grigoras (Graphic Designer).

At Circle Economy, we believe in a visionary future for our planet — one in which we do not
have to compromise in order to achieve economic, social, and environmental prosperity. As an
impact organisation, we connect and empower a global community to create the conditions
for systemic transformation. With nature as our mentor, we work alongside businesses, cities
and governments to identify opportunities to make the transition to the circular economy and
provide a powerful combination of practical and scalable solutions to turn these opportunities
into reality. Our mission is to empower a global community of businesses, cities and
governments to accelerate the transition to the circular economy through practical and scalable
insights and solutions that address humanity’s greatest challenges.

www.circle-economy.com

We would like to thank Kate Raworth in particular for her contribution.

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
TABLE OF       Colophon									P2

                   Reader’s Guide							P5

    CONTENTS   1
               2
                   Introduction								P6

                   The Ambition								P7

               3   The Doughnut Economy					P8

               4   Circular Economy Directions for Amsterdam

                   4.1 Seventeen circular economy directions 		     P10

                   4.2 Levers and instruments for the circular city P11

                   4.3 Construction							P12

                   4.4 Biomass and food						P26

                   4.5 Consumer goods						P40

                   Footnotes									P52
                   References								P54
                   Appendices								P56

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
READER’S GUIDE

CHAPTER 1                                                        CHAPTER 4
INTRODUCTION                                                     CIRCULAR ECONOMY DIRECTIONS
The first chapter gives an introduction into the current state
                                                                 FOR AMSTERDAM
of the circular economy in the city of Amsterdam: where are
we now? This marks the starting point for the development        The fourth chapter presents the seventeen directions for a
of the circular economy strategy for Amsterdam for the           circular economy that were developed for three value chains
period 2020-2025 and a forward view to 2030. Also, insights      - Construction, Biomass and food, and Consumer goods.
from Kate Raworth’s Doughnut economics model are                 For each direction, a description and an analysis of its main
explained.                                                       impacts in Amsterdam is provided. Moreover, the current
                                                                 state of the city, and the different roles and responsibilities
                                                                 of stakeholders to bring this direction to reality are also
CHAPTER 2                                                        described. Additionally, important levers and policy
                                                                 instruments that can be used as enabling tools for these
THE AMBITION                                                     directions are presented. An indicative icon shows what
The second chapter describes the ambition of the city of         levers can be used for which direction.
Amsterdam to become a thriving, regenerative and inclusive
city for all its citizens, within the planetary boundaries.

CHAPTER 3
THE DOUGHNUT ECONOMY
The third chapter describes the Doughnut economy, and
why the city of Amsterdam has chosen this model to shape
its future circular economy strategy.

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
1. INTRODUCTION
Systemic transformation of Amsterdam
                                                                  has prioritised the value chains of Construction, Biomass
Amsterdam wants to be a fully circular city by 2050. To           and Food, and Consumer goods, following the report
realise this ambition, systemic change is needed. The city of     Amsterdam Circular: Evaluation and Action Perspectives. In
Amsterdam is the first city in the world to use the Doughnut      the transition towards circularity, these three value chains
economics model. With this model, Amsterdam is building           are key. Currently, the construction sector creates 40% of
an integral circular economy strategy for the period 2020-        total municipal waste, consumer goods represent the largest
2025; creating a point on the horizon where environmental,        environmental impact of households and one-third of all
societal, and economic priorities take centre stage. This         food goes to waste. By pursuing circularity in these value
report is the first outcome of this process. It outlines the      chains, Amsterdam will contribute to substantially decrease
building blocks for a holistic circular economy strategy for      their associated environmental impacts. On top of that,
the period 2020-2025 with a forward view to 2030.                 circularity presents an opportunity for the creation of added-
                                                                  value and jobs in the local economy, for instance through the
                                                                  repair of products.
The future of Amsterdam’s economy is circular
The municipality of Amsterdam wants to transition towards
a circular economy as soon as possible. Over the last few         Global momentum for a circular economy
years, the city has already completed over 70 projects that       The transition towards a circular economy is not only under-
contribute towards a circular economy. The evaluation of          way in Amsterdam, but in numerous cities and countries
these projects has proven that the circular economy is both       throughout the world. The circular economy contributes to
realistic and profitable. To bring the circular economy into      achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the
mainstream practice as soon as possible, Amsterdam is             Paris Climate Agreement,3 while creating positive effects on
now focused on upscaling and accelerating these existing          themes such as employment, industrial innovation and the
circular projects. To do this, the municipality aims to employ    social agenda.4 This is why both the European Union (EU) and
all of its municipal instruments available. On top of that, the   China have prioritised the circular economy in their trade
municipality lobbies on the national and European level for       and development strategies.5 Recognising this potential, the
fitting financial, fiscal and legal frameworks.                   Dutch government aims to become 50% circular by 2030,
                                                                  and fully circular by 2050.6

Priorities for Amsterdam
The city of Amsterdam plans to move towards a circular
economy as quickly as possible - and by 2050 at the very
latest.1 The municipality has adopted various circular
programmes, including Amsterdam Circular: Learning by
doing, and the Circular Innovation Programme.2 To realise a
circular economy, a fundamental shift in our present ways of
producing and consuming is necessary. This is why the city

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
‘’
A thriving,
regenerative and
inclusive city
for all citizens,
                    2. THE AMBITION
                    Amsterdam wants to be, and continue to be, a thriving and
                    equitable city; to ensure a good life for everyone - for all
                    citizens and visitors - without compromising the natural
                    boundaries of the Earth. In the pursuit of equality, the city
                    has set a specific focus on wellbeing, next to welfare.

                    A finite Earth does not have an infinite supply of resources.

while respecting    This is why it is crucial to work towards creating a more
                    circular economy. The city of Amsterdam is aware of the

the planetary       impacts that its modes of consumption and production
                    generate, both within and far beyond the boundaries of

boundaries.
                    the city. Ultimately, Amsterdam recognises the potential of
                    circular measures towards realising its climate goals. To this
                    end, the city of Amsterdam is challenging all citizens and
                    visitors to be aware of their personal impact and to actively
                    work on decreasing this cumulative impact.

                    To realise its ambition, the municipality focuses on becoming
                    a circular and climate-neutral city.

                    The circular city: The city of Amsterdam wants to become
                    a circular city, and aims to use 50% fewer primary raw
                    materials by 2030 and become 100% circular by 2050 at the
                    latest.7

                    The climate-neutral city: The city of Amsterdam has
                    adopted the objective of the Paris Agreement and strives
                    to cut its CO2 emissions by 55% by 2030. Before 2050, CO2
                    emissions should be decreased by 95% in comparison with
                    1990 levels. The city wants to be natural gas-free by 2040.

                    Amsterdam’s motto is, and remains, “learning by doing”.
                    This encapsulates the innovative character of the city and its
                    citizens, companies and knowledge institutions.

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
3. THE DOUGHNUT                                                    THE DOUGHNUT MODEL
                                                                                                                                                                                                       the municipality to develop a holistic vision for a circular
                                                                                                                                                                                                       economy, design relevant strategic directions and measure

ECONOMY                                                            The social foundation
                                                                                                                                                                                                       progress. The model gives insight into the dynamics
                                                                                                                                                                                                       between material flows and social and environmental issues,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       showcasing the deep interconnectedness of our system. On
                                                                   The inner boundary of the Doughnut represents the                                                                                   top of that, the model helps in preventing trade-offs when
                                                                   social foundation. The twelve categories are derived from
To safeguard the future of the Earth; its flora, fauna and                                                                                                                                             implementing a new circular economy.
                                                                   internationally agreed minimum social standards, such as
humanity as a whole, it is crucial to create a system that does    access to adequate water, health, and peace and justice.
                                                                   These standards were internationally established through
not overshoot the planet’s ecological ceiling. In the meantime,
                                                                   the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015.9                                                                                         The process towards creating the first City
the wellbeing of all people must be guaranteed. To realise
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Doughnut
the vision of a thriving city, the municipality of Amsterdam
has adopted the Doughnut economics model. This model of                                                                                                                                                To create a strategy for a Circular Amsterdam 2020-2025,
                                                                   The ecological ceiling                                                                                                              Kate Raworth’s Doughnut model was used as a powerful
the Doughnut brings together environmental sustainability
and social justice topics under the same umbrella, in an easy-     The outer boundary of the Doughnut represents the                                                                                   tool. A participatory trajectory was designed to bring
to-grasp framework. It provides a way for the nations, cities,     ecological ceiling of our planet. This ceiling consists of nine                                                                     together all involved stakeholders. Together, they formulated
                                                                   categories. Each category presents a threat to a system
businesses and citizens alike, to work towards creating a                                                                                                                                              the directions for a circular Amsterdam. Over 50 officials
                                                                   or process that is important to maintaining the stability of
safe and just space - creating the building blocks towards the     the planet. We cannot go beyond these limits if we want to
                                                                                                                                                                                                       from the various departments in the city and region, and
circular economy, and guiding the radical transition towards a     ensure prosperity for future generations.                                                                                           over 100 stakeholders from three value chains were brought
new economic system.                                                                                                                                                                                   together.
                                                                   A safe and just space for humanity
                                                                   Between the social foundation and the ecological ceiling lies                                                                       The process comprised of four steps:
The Doughnut model                                                 a safe and just space in which humanity can thrive.
The Doughnut model, developed by the British economist                                                                                                                                                 1.   Mirroring the current targets of the city with the
Kate Raworth, highlights the inadequacies of the current                                                                                                                                                    Doughnut model
global economic system and the dichotomy between social                                                                                                                                                2.   Developing holistic circular economy directions for the
wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Obsessively                                                                                                                                                     three priority value chains
focused on producing, consuming, and discarding waste, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       3.   Enhancing the current targets to align them with the
global system is driving global environmental crises, while
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ambitions in the circular economy directions and the
also increasing social inequality - welfare is distributed in an                                                                  climate
                                                                                                                                  change                                                                    Doughnut model
increasingly unequal way. With the Doughnut model, Kate                                                r
                                                                                                    ye                           G I CAL CEI L IN                    ac oc
Raworth describes how we can operate in a safe and just                                         e
                                                                                                  la on
                                                                                                    ti                EC
                                                                                                                           OLO                        G                id ea
                                                                                                                                                                         ifi n                         4.   Enriching and validating the directions with knowledge
                                                                                             on ple                                                                         ca
                                                                                                                     just space for
                                                                                               e                                                                              t
                                                                                                                                                                                                            from the ground
                                                                                        oz

space for humanity; a place that allows societies to thrive                                                      and                 hu
                                                                                       d

                                                                                                                                                                             io
                                                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                              fe                       m                                                     OO
                                                                                                                                                                                                   T
                                                                                                             a        I AL FOUNDATIO    a                                                 SH
without harming our planet.8                                                                                s       C
                                                                                                                       SO water                       N                            O VE
                                                                                                                                                                                        R

                                                                                                                                                                 ni
                                                                                                                                         food
                                                                                                    e
                                                                                                  th

                                                                                                                                                                   ty
                                                                                                                 energy                             health                                             For each step, a workshop was organised with the various
                                                                                 ion

                                                                                                                                                                                        chem n
                                                                                                                                                                                         pollu
                                                                                                                                                                                                       stakeholders.
                                                                       air pollut

                                                                                                                                                  A   LL
                                                                                                                                                TF

                                                                                                                                                                                              ical
                                                                                                                                                                                              tio
Why a City Doughnut for Amsterdam?                                                                           networks                      SH
                                                                                                                                              OR education

                                                                                                             housing                                  income
The city of Amsterdam decided to work together with                                                                                                   & work

Kate Raworth and Circle Economy to develop the first City                                                        gender
                                                                                                                 equality
                                                                                                                                                peace &
                                                                                                                                                 justice                                    ding
                                                                            bio los

                                                                                                                               social   political
Doughnut. With the Doughnut, Amsterdam can develop
                                                                                                                                                                                   or n &
                                                                                                                                                                                         loa

                                                                                                                               equity    voice
                                                                               div s

                                                                                                                                                                         Y
                                                                                                    RE

                                                                                                                                                                                 ph oge
                                                                                                                                                                     M

                                                                                                           EN
                                                                                                                                                                                      us
                                                                                  er

                                                                                                       G

                                                                                                                                                                 O

                                                                                                                                                                     N
and shape the city of the future. The Doughnut enables                                                          ER                                               O
                                                                                                                                                                               os itr
                                                                                     s it

                                                                                                                     AT                                     EC
                                                                                                                                                                             ph n
                                                                                         y

                                                                                                                        IV                              E
                                                                                                                             E AN
                                                                                                                                  D DIS TRIB U      TIV

                                                                                                                                                           r
                                                                                                           co land                                      ate ls
                                                                                                                                                    hw
                                                                                                             nve
                                                                                                                 rsio                           fres rawa
                                                                                                                                                      d
                                                                                                                     n                           with

8
AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
The outcome                                                     “Around the world, ambitious places are starting to
The outcome of the four workshops was a set of seventeen        ask a crucial question: how can we thrive here, while
directions for pursuing circularity in the key value-chains     respecting the rights of all people and the whole planet?
of Construction, Biomass and food, and Consumer goods.          Amsterdam is at the forefront of asking this very 21st
Together they form the building blocks for an inclusive and     century question and has begun a pioneering journey of
thriving Amsterdam.                                             putting its implications into practice.
The directions are built upon existing initiatives, best
practices and (inter)national policies, as well as strategies
                                                                It has been a huge pleasure for me to work with the
that have been pursued over the past years in Amsterdam.
                                                                officials and residents of this city over the past five
Besides environmental issues, the directions cover
                                                                months, using the Doughnut to start answering this
social topics, such as social equality and employment
opportunities.                                                  question. Together we have turned the Doughnut into
                                                                a creative tool for big-picture thinking, exploratory
                                                                discussions and strategic planning, and I know that the
The seventeen directions form the building blocks towards       innovations made here will inspire many other places
creating a holistic strategy for the city of Amsterdam -        to start asking similar questions, and to find their own
towards the first City Doughnut.                                place-specific answers.

                                                                Amsterdam has of course already shown clear leadership
                                                                with the city’s existing circular economy ambitions.
                                                                Through this project, in collaboration with the team at
                                                                Circle Economy, the city is forging ahead once again,
                                                                drawing up a transformative roadmap for circularity
                                                                that sets it on course to become one of the world’s most
                                                                regenerative and inclusive cities. I have no doubt that the
                                                                impacts of this work will ripple far beyond the city limits,
                                                                spurring others to summon such vision, ambition and
                                                                momentum towards the future that we want and need to
                                                                create.”

                                                                Kate Raworth
                                                                June 2019

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AMSTERDAM CIRCULAR BUILDING BLOCKS - FOR THE NEW STRATEGY - Circle Economy
4. CIRCUL AR ECONOMY
DIRECTIONS FOR                                                  LEVERS FOR THE CIRCULAR CIT Y12
AMSTERDAM
                                                                  DIGITALISATION                                         E XPERIMENTATION

4.1 Seventeen circular economy                                    Digitalisation relates to the incorporation of smart
                                                                  sensors and technologies to collect and monitor
                                                                                                                         The circular economy requires space to
                                                                                                                         experiment, test and prototype new innovations.
directions                                                        data. This enables the tracking and monitoring of      Testing with future users helps to validate
                                                                  material and resource flows in the city. Capturing     innovations and identifies those that are ready
In the transition towards a circular economy, Amsterdam           this data makes it possible for the city to identify   to be scaled up. Such places could be living labs,
has prioritised the three value chains of Construction,           where resources are located and distributed, and       incubators or festivals that the city can provide
Biomass and food, and Consumer goods, following                   further extends the possibilities to close material    and (co-)create.
                                                                  cycles.
the report Amsterdam Circular: Evaluation and Action
Perspectives.10 The three value chains have the potential                                                                LOGISTICS
                                                                  TRUE AND FAIR PRICING
to create positive environmental and economic impacts,                                                                   The circular economy demands an efficient
                                                                  In a circular economy, the prices of products          logistics system in which materials can be
and drive the transition towards a more circular and
                                                                  and services must reflect their true and full          transported to users, producers, and processors.
equitable economy. To realise circularity in these priority       costs. This also includes the indirect social and      A city-wide (reverse) logistics networks reduce
value-chains, seventeen circular economy directions were          environmental costs, such as CO2 emissions, that       transportation and enable the efficient recovery
                                                                  are incurred to produce the product or service.
formulated.                                                                                                              of resources.
                                                                  The city can stimulate true and fair pricing with
                                                                  municipal instruments such as procurement. Also,
                                                                  the city can lobby the national government and
                                                                                                                         JOBS AND SKILLS
The seventeen directions presented in the following               the EU.                                                The circular economy creates new possibilities
chapters are built upon existing initiatives, activities, and                                                            for employment and also demands new skills.
strategies that have been pursued over the past years in          INNOVATION NET WORK S                                  Preparing the labour market, for example through
                                                                                                                         education and training programmes, is essential
Amsterdam. (Inter)national policies, best practices and the                                                              to accelerate the circular economy.13
                                                                  Innovation networks connect diverse groups of
recommendations presented in the report Amsterdam                 innovative stakeholders (e.g. startups, corporates,
Circular: Evaluation and Action perspectives have also            knowledge institutes and artists) to ideate new
                                                                  circular solutions. Fostering innovation networks
been taken into account while designing the seventeen
                                                                  secures the provisioning and mainstreaming of
directions.                                                       new circular products and services in the future.

                                                                  SYSTEMS THINKING
Each circular direction was designed and tested in a
participatory process with over 50 representatives from           Systems thinking, in practice, is about systemically
                                                                  addressing collaboration issues. It is about good
the municipality of Amsterdam. In addition, the directions        intentions that go wrong, about patterns that
were validated by over 100 external stakeholders,                 trap people and about interventions that have
including businesses, experts and knowledge institutions.         an effect on the system as a whole. Systems
                                                                  thinking is a holistic approach that aims to tackle
For each of the circular economy directions presented             major issues by analysing and exploring the
in the next section, the following is described:                  interrelations of spheres of influence in a system.
                                                                  In order to achieve systemic change towards a
•    Description of the circular economy direction:               circular economy, we need to embrace systems
                                                                  thinking. It demands involvement, participation
     What is the direction, why is it relevant for Amsterdam?
                                                                  and alignment of all stakeholders in the city.

10
•   Main impacts of the circular economy direction
                                                                                                                                         for Amsterdam: What are the key Doughnut
POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR THE CIRCULAR CIT Y14                                                                                              themes (social foundation and planetary boundaries)
                                                                                                                                         impacted by the direction?
                                                                                                                                     •   Current state in Amsterdam: What are the
   DIGITALISATION                                                     E XPERIMENTATION                                                   current activities in Amsterdam? And where is the
REGUL ATION                                                        ECONOMIC FR AMEWORK S
                                                                         The circular economy requires space to                          city currently at with reference to developing this
       Digitalisation relates to the incorporation of smart
Regulation  is anand
       sensors    instrument   that to
                      technologies   thecollect
                                          city can
                                                andleverage
                                                      monitorto
                                                                         experiment,
                                                                   Economic  frameworks  testare
                                                                                              andeconomic
                                                                                                  prototype    new innovations.
                                                                                                            incentives   to              direction?
set requirements    for citizens and  businesses.    The city of         Testing  with  future  users  helps  to validate
                                                                   guide and foster the market towards circularity. The
       data. This enables the tracking and monitoring
can steer, for instance,
       material           spatialflows
                 and resource      planning  orcity.
                                        in the  landCapturing
                                                      issuing,           innovations and
                                                                   Dutch Government,         identifies
                                                                                          as well as thethose  that
                                                                                                          EU, are    are ready
                                                                                                                  developing         •   Who needs to be involved and what should
                                                                         to be scaled
                                                                                to holdup.   Such places could    be living labs,
but also monitoring    or permitting   (environmental-    or
       this data makes it possible for the city to identify        agreements             manufacturers    and importers                 be done?: Which stakeholders need to be involved
parkingwhere
         permits).                                                       incubators
                                                                   responsible  for theortreatment
                                                                                          festivals that the city
                                                                                                     of their      can provide
                                                                                                              products.   The city
               resources are located and distributed, and                                                                                (e.g. businesses, governments and civil society)?
                                                                         and  (co-)create.
                                                                   can use these agreements for local policy. Furthermore,
       further extends the possibilities to close material
                                                                   the city can strengthen collaboration between the public              What should the different stakeholders do in order to
    cycles.
LEGISL ATION                                                       and private sectors (public-private-partnerships, PPPs).              implement the direction?
                                                                          LOGISTIEK
Legislation consists of legal rules that the city can use
        TRUE AND FAIR PRICING                                             The circular economy demands an efficient
to change behaviour. Technology standards or labelling
                                                                          logistics system in which materials can be
        In a circular
(for example    energyeconomy,
                        labels forthe  prices can
                                    houses)   of products
                                                  stimulate        KNOWLEDGE,             ADVICE AND
                                                                          transported to users, producers, and processors.
                                                                                                                                     4.2 Levers and instruments for the
        and towards
behaviour    services amust
the citycosts.  Thiscertain
          can ban
                              reflect
                         circular
                     also includes
                                      their true
                                  economy.
                                    theor
                            activities,  indirect
                                           remove
                                                 and full
                                              Additionally,
                                                  social and
                                                    barriers
                                                                   INFORMATION
                                                                          A city-wide (reverse) logistics networks reduce            circular city
                                                                          transportation and enable the efficient recovery
        environmental     costs, such   as CO2  emissions,
(for instance in waste legislation), that hinder a circular that   The instrument of knowledge, advice and information               How can the city of Amsterdam give effect to the circular
                                                                          of resources.
economy.are incurred to produce the product or service.            describes the way the city can directly influence the
        The city can stimulate true and fair pricing with          creation of knowledge. For example, the city can expand
                                                                                                                                     economy directions? Levers and policy instruments
        municipal instruments such as procurement. Also,           research  and development
                                                                          BANEN                  activities, initiate education
                                                                                       EN VA ARDIGHEDEN                              support the successful realisation of the seventeen
FISC AL      FR AMEWORK
        the city                   S
                 can lobby the national     government and         programmes and increase information campaigns (such               circular economy directions. In some cases, they even
        the EU.                                                           The circular
                                                                   as marketing         economy creates new possibilities
                                                                                  for good).
Fiscal frameworks are positive and negative price                         for employment and also demands new skills.
                                                                                                                                     act as a prerequisite for a circular city. To support
incentives to stimulate the circular economy. The city                    Preparing the labour market, for example through           the circular transition, relevant levers and policy
can useINNOVATION
          positive incentives,NET
                                suchWORK      S
                                     as tax exemptions   or        COLLeducation
                                                                           ABOR ATION           PL ATFORMS
                                                                                      and training  programmes, is   AND
                                                                                                                       essential     instruments are presented next to each direction. Levers
credits, to stimulate desirable products and services. On
                                                                   INFR A STRUC TURE
                                                                          to accelerate  the circular economy.
                                                                                                                                     apply to all actors in the circular economy, whereas
the contrary, the city can apply negative incentives, such
        Innovatienetwerken Innovation networks connect
as taxes, penalties or levies, to disincentivise undesired
        diverse groups of innovative stakeholders (e.g.            Through collaboration platforms and infrastructure,               policy instruments are to be used by the municipality
activities.
        startups, corporates, knowledge institutes and             the city can enable the sharing of knowledge, data, best          specifically.
        artists) to ideate new circular solutions. Fostering       practices and information amongst stakeholders. This
DIREC      T FINANCIAL
        innovation              SUPPORT
                     networks secures    the provisioning          can increase government transparency and empower
        and mainstreaming of new circular products and             entrepreneurs and academics.
        services in the future.
                                                                                                                                     Levers: Levers are enabling elements that facilitate the
Financial instruments are a direct means to overcome
                                                                                                                                     transition to a circular economy. The box “Levers for the
financial barriers for businesses or citizens. The city can        GOVERNANCE
support   businesses through
        SYSTEMS         THINKING debt financing and projects                                                                         circular city” presents the levers for all actors in a circular
and programmes with grants, while procurement can                  Cities can utilise instruments of governance to shape             Amsterdam. The levers are applicable to all value-chains.
leverage the purchasing power and large material                   actions and decision-making in practice. With lobbying,
        Systems thinking, in practice, is about systemically                                                                         They form the foundation for the transition and are
portfolios of the city.                                            for instance, the city and its partners can work in favour
        addressing collaboration issues. It is about good
                                                                   or against an activity.
                                                                                                                                     necessary to achieve a circular economy.
        intentions that go wrong, about patterns that
        trap people and about interventions that have                                                                                Policy Instruments: Policy instruments are
        an effect on the system as a whole. Systems                                                                                  interventions that the city can leverage to stimulate the
        thinking is a holistic approach that aims to tackle
        major issues by analysing and exploring the
                                                                                                                                     transition towards a circular economy. They are explained
        interrelations of spheres of influence in a system.                                                                          in the box “Policy instruments for the circular city”.11
        In order to achieve systemic change towards a
        circular economy, we need to embrace systems
        thinking. It demands involvement, participation
        and alignment of all stakeholders in the city.

                                                                                                                                                                                                   11
4.3 CONSTRUCTION
     CIRCUL AR ECONOMY
     DIRECTIONS
     • Foster circular area development through        • Scale-up circular dismantling and mono-
       flexible zoning, climate adaptation and           stream collection
       regenerative urban design
                                                       • Support the use of renewable and secondary
     • Incorporate circular criteria into the land       construction materials
       issuing and tendering of all construction and
       infrastructural projects and in the public
                                                       • Stimulate circular retrofitting in private and
       space
                                                         social housing

     • Enable the construction of adaptable and
       modular buildings

12
13
Impact visualisation of the direction                                                                                                Moving towards a circular construction chain occurs on
                                                    according to the doughnut economy model                                                                                              multiple scales; from the construction element, to the
                                                                                                                                                                                         building or to the neighbourhood.15 16 Buildings need
                                                                                                                                                                                         to be embedded in circular infrastructure and urban
                                                     1          CLIMATE CHANGE                                                                                                           systems to opera te in a fully circular way. It is important
                                                                                                                                                                                         that the planning and development of buildings are able
 Foster circular area
                                                                Climate-adaptive neighbourhoods are better
                                                                capable to adapt to the effects of climate change.                                                                       to adapt to area-specific needs that can change over time.

 development through                                                                                                                                                                     Flexible zoning can, for instance, allow for ‘hubs’ that can
                                                                                                                                                                                         support circular activities. Hubs for reuse and repair,

 flexible zoning,                                    2          NET WORKS
                                                                Developing circular districts demands new ways
                                                                                                                                                                                         or local nutrient recovery facilities, could be integrated
                                                                                                                                                                                         within residential areas to enable the everyday realisation

 climate adaptation                                             of collaboration within the municipality and with
                                                                businesses. Moreover, circular areas will enable
                                                                                                                                                                                         and uptake of circular practices.

                                                                networks due to their physical properties, e.g.                                                                          At the same time, designing districts or buildings around
 and regenerative                                               flexibility.                                                                                                             mixed-uses can enable more efficient use of space, while
                                                                                                                                                                                         minimising the impacts of transportation, and overall
 urban design                                                                                                                                                                            negative climate impacts. Furthermore, mixed-use
                                                                                                                                                                                         districts within the city have the potential to be more
                                                     3          PEACE & JUSTICE
                                                                                                                                                                                         cohesive and enable more collaborative and sustainable
                                                                By developing more heterogeneous and resilient
                                                                                                                                                                                         behaviour.
 Regardless of how circular a single building                   neighbourhoods, they will become more inclusive
                                                                and decrease the rate of conflicts and crimes.
 may be, it should be embedded in a circular
                                                                                                                                                                                         Impacts of the direction on Amsterdam
 urban environment in order to be fully circular.
                                                                                                                                                                                         Creating climate adaptive and regenerative areas goes
 The design of an area is crucial in creating
                                                                                                                                                                                         hand-in-hand with fostering a healthy and sustainable
 a socially inclusive and regenerative urban                                                                                                                                             Amsterdam.17 18 Applying the learnings from projects
 system. The planning and development of                                                                                                                                                 that already use a holistic circular approach (such as
 districts should be able to adapt to evolving                                                                                                                                           Buiksloterham) to upcoming large area developments
 area-specific demands. At the same time, area                                                                            1                                                              (such as Haven-Stad), is crucial in embedding circularity in
                                                                                                                    climate
                                                                                                                                                                                         the city of Amsterdam.
 developments should embrace regenerative
                                                                                                                    change
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 circular economy in the city.
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CURRENT STATE OF                                           CIT Y OF AMSTERDAM                                 ROLES OF OTHER                                  NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS AND

AMSTERDAM                                                                                                     STAKEHOLDERS                                    INTEREST GROUPS
                                                                                                                                                              Environmental organisations and social
                                                                                                                                                              associations: bring their knowledge and
There are already a few examples of
                                                           Regulation                                         REGIONAL, NATIONAL AND                          relevant content on environmental and
neighbourhoods in Amsterdam that embed circular            •   Spatial planning should allow for flexible     INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS                       social concerns into new area development
principles. Future area developments should ensure                                                                                                            projects
                                                               zoning.                                        •   Regional government: enable circular area
that mixed-use criteria are also taken into account                                                               development through flexible zoning;
and are based on a zoning plan that allows a               •   Challenge the market by adopting criteria          provide support and data to housing
degree of flexibility to adjust to future changes and          on climate adaptation and circular systems         corporations, urban planners, architects,
                                                                                                                                                              UTILIT Y AND PUBLIC SERVICE
changing needs in the area.                                    in land issuing.                                   and construction firms for the planning     PROVIDER
                                                                                                                  of new districts
Examples of existing initiatives:                                                                                                                             •   Housing associations: explore the
                                                           Collaboration platforms and                        •   National and international governments:         potential for mixed-use concepts;
                                                           infrastructure                                         adjust the legal framework to facilitate        collaborate with developers and other
•   The Haven-Stad area, where 40,000-70,000 new                                                                                                                  parties that operate in the area
                                                                                                                  circular development projects; offer
    houses will be built, aims for 75% reduction in        •   Share knowledge to adopt circular
                                                                                                                  advice, supporting services and
    CO2 emissions, emission-free mobility, rainproof           principles in construction through                 guidelines to municipalities and
    districts, 50% reuse of resources and 65% waste
                                                               collaboration and co-creation. Best                businesses                                  KNOWLEDGE/EDUC ATIONAL
    separation.19
                                                               practices and knowledge in the fields of                                                       INSTITUTIONS
                                                               biophilic23 design and biomimicry24 can                                                        •   Universities, and other research institutions:
•   Stadstuin Overtoom, developed by housing                                                                  BUSINESSES
    association Eigen Haard, is the first climate-             expand knowledge of architecture and                                                               develop and assess new approaches and
                                                                                                                                                                  technologies for regenerative energy,
    neutral district in Amsterdam with energy-                 construction firms.                            •   Financial advisors: develop investment          water and waste management systems;
    efficient residential buildings, a green and car-
                                                                                                                  strategies and financial means to               conduct research about local social and
    free environment, and space for businesses.20
                                                                                                                  support circular area development               environmental impacts of different
                                                           Knowledge, advice and information
                                                                                                              •   Startups and advisors: bring innovations,       urban planning approaches; collect and
•   Bajeskwartier will be a car-free district with a mix   •   Research the application of flexible zoning,       new ideas and inspirational pilots for          evaluate best practice cases in circular
    of rented and private housing, providing a green           by using shorter leasehold (“erfpacht”)                                                            area development
                                                                                                                  circular area development into new
    and healthy environment for living, work and
                                                               periods.                                           district planning; develop innovative
    recreation.21
                                                                                                                  approaches and technologies for
                                                                                                                                                              CIVIL SOCIET Y
                                                                                                                  regenerative energy, water and waste
•   Buiksloterham is a sustainable and circular                                                                   management systems; communicate the         •   Private homeowners and tenants:
    district for living and working.22                                                                            impact of new approaches; shape new             engage in the design and continuous
                                                                                                                                                                  improvement of circular areas
                                                           LEVERS                                                 visions for future area developments
                                                                                                              •   Companies in industrial and office areas:   •   Community initiatives: collaborate with
                                                                  DIGITALISATION          SYSTEMS THINKING        collaborate with other companies, local         local companies and other actors in the
                                                                                                                  communities and civil society; practice         district to create a green and healthy
                                                                                                                  an open work environment                        environment

                                                                                                              •   Urban planners, developers, architects,
                                                                                                                  engineers and construction firms:
                                                                                                                  incorporate circularity in new area
                                                                                                                  development projects; incorporate local
                                                                                                                  needs into design and planning

                                                                                                                                                                                                              15
Impact visualisation of the direction                                                                                                Despite the growing global recognition of the potential of
                                                   according to the doughnut economy model                                                                                              the circular economy, mainstream adoption of circularity
                                                                                                                                                                                        in the construction sector is still yet to be achieved. The
                                                                                                                                                                                        development and the use of circular criteria in public
                                                    1          CLIMATE CHANGE                                                                                                           tendering and procurement processes can change this.
                                                                                                                                                                                        The criteria can play an essential role to accelerate the
 Incorporate circular
                                                               Using circular tendering criteria increases the
                                                               share of reused and renewable materials. with a                                                                          demand, innovation, and wide-scale adoption of circular
                                                               lower carbon impact, which leads to a reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                        principles in the construction sector.25 Circular tendering
 criteria into the land                                        in CO2 emissions during the production of new
                                                               construction materials.                                                                                                  criteria should target topics such as energy, water and
                                                                                                                                                                                        material usage, but also regenerative and resilient design,
 issuing and tendering                              2          INCOME & WORK
                                                                                                                                                                                        in harmony with ecosystems and biodiversity.

 of all construction                                           Circular tendering will stimulate businesses in the
                                                               circular economy, which can lead to additional jobs.                                                                     By incorporating circular criteria in public tendering
 and infrastructural                                           However, jobs in the conventional construction
                                                               sector may be lost.
                                                                                                                                                                                        and procurement processes for construction, cities can
                                                                                                                                                                                        contribute to the creation of a thriving and sustainable
 projects and in the                                3          HOUSING
                                                                                                                                                                                        city. As such, all public construction projects can be
                                                                                                                                                                                        realised in an economically responsible way that also
 public space                                                  The houses built and renovated according to
                                                               circular criteria contribute to more environmentally
                                                                                                                                                                                        contributes to the wellbeing of people and the biosphere,
                                                                                                                                                                                        and that prevents unnecessary resource depletion,
                                                               and socially friendly housing.
                                                                                                                                                                                        environmental pollution and ecosystem degradation.26
 Circular criteria in land issuing and tendering                                                                                                                                        The national transition agenda for a circular construction
 processes enable construction projects to                                                                                                                                              economy mentions that from 2023 on, all governmental
                                                                                                                                                                                        tenders - on the national, provincial and municipal level -
 be evaluated on their economic, social and
                                                                                                                                                                                        will be circular, unless this is not (fully) possible. Following
 environmental performance. The criteria                                                                                                                                                this, by 2030, all governmental tenders are circular. 27
 should be incorporated into all public
 procurement and tendering processes, from
                                                                                                                         1                                                              Impacts of the direction on Amsterdam
 the renovation of a building, redevelopment                                                                       climate
                                                                                                                                                                                        Amsterdam is in a unique position to issue land on a
 of neighbourhoods, to the construction of new
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Amsterdam area. This can be used to provide circular
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 spaces.                                                                                                                                                                                guidelines for new buildings.28 29 Using circular criteria

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                                                                                                                                                                                        for land issuing could ensure a resilient and low-carbon

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                                                                                                                                                                                        indoor living conditions and contribute to a better quality
                                                                                                                                        & work
                                                                                                                                                                                        of life for citizens of Amsterdam.30 By incorporating
                                                                                                  gender                            peace &
                                                                                                  equality                           justice                                 ding       circular criteria in its tendering processes, Amsterdam
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                                                                                                                                                                                        could operate as a launching customer for circular
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                                                                                                                                                                                        infrastructural projects. In this way, the city can provide
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                                                                                                                                                                                        businesses with an incentive to develop, apply and use
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CURRENT STATE OF                                         CIT Y OF AMSTERDAM                                  ROLES OF OTHER                                     UTILIT Y AND PUBLIC SERVICE

AMSTERDAM                                                                                                    STAKEHOLDERS                                       PROVIDER
                                                                                                                                                                •   Omgevingsdienst Noordzeekanaalgebied
                                                                                                                                                                    (environmental services): ensure
There are already some examples of successful
                                                         Direct financial support                            REGIONAL, NATIONAL AND                                 compliance with legal obligations
circular procurement and tendering in Amsterdam.         •   Stimulate demand by including uniform           INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS
Acknowledging these examples, circular criteria
                                                             circular criteria into the procurement of all
need to be further developed and incorporation                                                               •   Regional government: develop circular          KNOWLEDGE/EDUC ATIONAL
of circular tendering criteria needs to become               construction-related projects.                      tendering criteria for procurement
                                                                                                                                                                INSTITUTIONS
mainstreamed.                                                                                                    of construction-related projects and
                                                                                                                 land-issuing; guide investors to invest in     •   BIM Loket, CROW: provide a technology
                                                         Regulation                                              circular construction and infrastructural          platform for transport, infrastructure
Examples of existing initiatives:                                                                                                                                   and public space
                                                         •   Incorporate circular criteria into all new          projects; initiate public-private
                                                                                                                 collaborations                                 •   PIANOo: share knowledge about
•   The Roadmap Circular Land Tendering is used
                                                             land-issuing.
                                                                                                             •   National government (e.g. Rijkswaterstaat):        procurement
    by the municipality of Amsterdam to issue
                                                                                                                 incorporate circular criteria in national      •   Universities: conduct research about
    residential and non-residential building plots,
    and for tendering transformation, renovation
                                                         Collaboration platforms and                             infrastructural and public construction            the effectiveness of regulations and
                                                                                                                 projects; change fiscal system to facilitate
    and demolition projects.31                           infrastructure                                                                                             policies; collect and assess example
                                                                                                                 circular construction                              cases; develop and assess new business
                                                         •   Share knowledge between government and                                                                 models, construction techniques and
•   Rapid Circular Contracting (RCC) is a method             market about innovative circular tendering                                                             materials for circular construction
    developed by Stichting Circulaire Economie to                                                            BUSINESSES
                                                             procedures through exchange platforms.
    accelerate the tendering of innovative projects
                                                                                                             •   Consultancies (e.g. Copper8), innovators:
    with circular ambitions.32                           •   Facilitate new types of collaboration                                                              CIVIL SOCIET Y
                                                                                                                 develop services and support regarding
                                                             between developers and owners, of                   circular tendering criteria and processes      •   Tenants: demand and appreciate circular
•   The Port of Amsterdam is using circular public           areas where land is not owned by the                                                                   criteria integrated into their homes
                                                                                                             •   Construction companies and architects:
    procurement for a cycle lane.33
                                                             municipality, to allow for experimentation          integrate circular principles into their
                                                                                                                 work
•   The redevelopment of Comeniusstraat Oost was
    the first circular building tender in Amsterdam.34   Knowledge, advice and information
    Other projects include Bijlmerbajes and                                                                  NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS AND
                                                         •   This direction requires specific and
    Stadstuin Overtoom.35                                                                                    INTEREST GROUPS
                                                             customised inputs w ith capacity from the
                                                             municipality to facilitate different types      •   Green Office: create a platform for
                                                             of construction and area development                exchange and collaboration between
                                                             projects.                                           private and public actors around
LEVERS                                                                                                           construction
                                                         •   The city can track and measure progress
                                 JOBS AND                                                                    •   Material passports (e.g. Madaster
      TRUE AND                                               on resources that are sourced circular.             Foundation): give insight into and provide
      FAIR PRICING               SKILL S
                                                                                                                 data about the composition of buildings
                                                                                                                 and materials
      EXPERIMENTATION                                    Governance
                                                                                                             •   Associations and other collaboration
                                                         •   Lobby to change the fiscal system towards           initiatives (e.g. Cirkelstad, Platform31,
                                                             increasing tax on resources and decreasing          CB’23): provide a platform for
                                                                                                                 collaboration and knowledge
                                                             tax on labour, as well as for more adaptive
                                                                                                                 exchange among different actors
                                                             regulations.                                        in the construction sector; develop
                                                                                                                 new initiatives and standards in the
                                                                                                                 construction sector

                                                                                                                                                                                                              17
Impact visualisation of the direction                                                                                                The existing built environment is one of the biggest barriers
                                                 according to the doughnut economy model                                                                                              to circular construction. This is because these buildings
                                                                                                                                                                                      have not been constructed with future purposes in mind.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Adaptable buildings (commercial real estate, municipal real
                                                  1          CLIMATE CHANGE                                                                                                           estate, as well as housing) are essential in ensuring that
                                                                                                                                                                                      these will also be suitable for other functions in the future.
 Enable the
                                                             Adaptable and modular buildings have a longer
                                                             lifetime, which means that less materials are
                                                             needed for rebuilding.                                                                                                   The adaptability of buildings is dependent on, amongst

 construction of                                                                                                                                                                      other things, floor to floor height, wall insulation, space for
                                                                                                                                                                                      installations or fire safety. Requirements for office space
                                                  2          HOUSING
 adaptable and                                               Adaptability and modularity will prolong the
                                                                                                                                                                                      are different from living space, and again for specialised
                                                                                                                                                                                      functions. Therefore, the level of adaptability is determined
                                                             lifetime of a building as it can be rearranged or its
 modular buildings                                           purpose can be changed according to changing
                                                             circumstances or needs.
                                                                                                                                                                                      mostly by the inner skeleton of the building, meaning
                                                                                                                                                                                      its structural layers (load-bearing and floor structures).
                                                                                                                                                                                      The inner structure of new buildings should meet the
                                                                                                                                                                                      requirements to be adaptable for future use.
                                                  3          L AND CONVERSION
 To meet the ever-changing societal needs                                                                                                                                             In a fast-changing economy, the functional demands of a
                                                             Adaptable and modular buildings will lead to
 of the city (such as housing and recreation),               more efficient use of land, because buildings can                                                                        building can change over time, and the future building stock
 buildings should be designed from the ground-               change their function and can be used for multiple                                                                       has to be made ready for this. What is more, modular design
                                                             purposes.                                                                                                                reduces the time of construction and consequently reduces
 up to be adaptable and modular. This avoids
                                                                                                                                                                                      the construction costs.
 unnecessary (de-)construction. The city of
 Amsterdam can take the lead by incorporating
                                                                                                                                                                                      Impacts of the direction on Amsterdam
 flexibility and adaptability into all new
                                                                                                                                                                                      Ensuring the design of modular and adaptable buildings
 construction projects.
                                                                                                                                                                                      could give Amsterdam the opportunity to meet the demands
                                                                                                                                                                                      for sufficient and affordable housing. Moreover, modular-
                                                                                                                                                                                      and adaptive design contribute to meeting the occupants’
                                                                                                                       1                                                              individual needs, which increases their quality of life.
                                                                                                                 climate
                                                                                                                 change                                                               Furthermore, more efficient use of land could be achieved
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CURRENT STATE OF                                         CIT Y OF AMSTERDAM                                  ROLES OF OTHER                                  UTILIT Y AND PUBLIC SERVICE

AMSTERDAM                                                                                                    STAKEHOLDERS                                    PROVIDER
                                                                                                                                                             •   Housing associations: ensure mono-
                                                                                                                                                                 stream collection in all buildings
There is a need for flexible and adaptable buildings     Regulation                                          REGIONAL, NATIONAL AND                              constructions and renovations
to prevent a decrease of value in the future.36          •   Provide greater flexibility for modular and     INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS
There are a few examples of modular and flexible
                                                             adaptable design in regulations for land
buildings. However, such buildings are exceptions to                                                         •   Regional government: support and reward     KNOWLEDGE/EDUC ATIONAL
the rule, as most buildings are constructed in a rigid       use. The function of buildings should be
                                                                                                                 the modular design of buildings through     INSTITUTIONS
and linear way.                                              enabled to change according to temporary            adapted or new regulations and taxation
                                                             needs.                                              schemes                                     •   Universities: conduct research about
                                                                                                                                                                 new innovations of high-value material
Examples of existing initiatives:                                                                            •   National and international governments:         processing and more effective ways to
                                                                                                                 adjust relevant regulations to foster           dismantle buildings; include supply-
                                                         Governance
                                                                                                                 modular and flexible building practices;        driven architecture and design for
•   Finch Buildings develops wooden modular
    buildings.37                                         •   Lobby for fitting legislation and regulation.       create demand and best practices                disassembly in their curriculum
                                                                                                                 through public construction projects

•   Sustainer Homes provides prefabricated homes         Knowledge, advice and information                                                                   CIVIL SOCIET Y
                                                                                                             BUSINESSES
    made from wood.38
                                                         •   Stimulate the development of the skills                                                         •   Private homeowners: consider mono-
                                                                                                             •   Construction firms, planners, and               stream collection in all buildings
•   In the Sluis-neighbourhood, a flexible building
                                                             required for innovative design (design for
                                                                                                                 architects: incorporate modularity and          constructions and renovations
    will be designed.39                                      deconstruction) as well as repair.
                                                                                                                 adaptability into design and construction
                                                         •   Investigate the broad application of flexible   •   Businesses: invest in modular building
•   Crossover is a mixed-use building with office            and modular building design to improve              design for their offices
    space and facilities and homes for students and
                                                             adaptivity and resilience to future changes.    •   Associations and other collaboration
    residence permit holders, in which also 40% of
    materials are circular and 98% are reusable.40                                                               initiatives (e.g Bouwend Nederland
                                                                                                                 (association of construction companies)):
                                                         Fiscal frameworks                                       provide a platform for collaboration and
•   Superlofts represents a flexible design and                                                                  knowledge exchange among different
    development framework merging hybrid                 •   Provide positive price incentives, such as          actors; develop new initiatives and
    urban programmes, designing participatory                subsidies to individuals and corporate real         standards regarding modular and
    sustainable and adaptable lofts, offering its
                                                             estate owners to financially support their          adaptive buildings
    members the freedom to personalise.41
                                                             investment into adaptable and modular
                                                             construction.                                   NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS AND
                                                                                                             INTEREST GROUPS

LEVERS                                                                                                       •   Public-private innovation partnerships
                                                                                                                 and networks: build collaboration and
       INNOVATION
                                                                                                                 knowledge exchange about innovative
       NET WORKS
                                                                                                                 modular building solutions; support the
                                                                                                                 development of innovative business
                                                                                                                 models; raise awareness and spread
                                                                                                                 knowledge about advantages and
                                                                                                                 impacts

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19
Impact visualisation of the direction                                                                                                In the Netherlands, most of the construction and demolition
                                                   according to the doughnut economy model                                                                                              waste is reused for low-value purposes such as in the
                                                                                                                                                                                        foundation of roads.42 The lack of mono-stream collection,
                                                                                                                                                                                        resulting in the contamination of resource flows, prevents
                                                    1          CLIMATE CHANGE                                                                                                           high-value applications, such as repurposing. There is a great
                                                                                                                                                                                        opportunity in the reuse of materials and components, such
 Scale-up circular
                                                               Circular dismantling and reuse of materials
                                                               decreases the demand for new materials. This                                                                             as insulation, timber frames, bitumen, doors, metals and
                                                               entails that emissions during extraction, processing
                                                                                                                                                                                        stone.
 dismantling and                                               and transport can be avoided.
                                                                                                                                                                                        One of the largest constraints to the large-scale reuse

 mono-stream                                        2          INCOME & WORK
                                                                                                                                                                                        of construction materials is the lack of insight into the
                                                                                                                                                                                        existing stocks materials that are already stored in the built
                                                               Circular dismantling and mono-stream collection
 collection                                                    creates new business opportunities.This provides
                                                               new job opportunities. Contrary, jobs in more
                                                                                                                                                                                        environment.43 A thorough mapping and tracking of all
                                                                                                                                                                                        materials in the existing and new (building) stock can help
                                                               conservative sectors might get lost.                                                                                     to predict where and when certain materials will become
                                                                                                                                                                                        available to the market. Technologies such as material
 To enable the high-value reuse and recovery        3          NET WORKS                                                                                                                passports can assist in doing so. These insights can allow for
 of construction materials, it is essential to                                                                                                                                          matching future demand with available demolition materials.
                                                               Linking residual streams with new clients demands
                                                                                                                                                                                        Furthermore, in order to facilitate the transportation
 dismantle buildings in a circular way. In doing               new forms of cooperation in the value chain.
                                                                                                                                                                                        and exchange of secondary materials and components,
 so, building components and material streams                                                                                                                                           Amsterdam can make use of transport over water and
 should be collected separately (in mono-                                                                                                                                               electric transport. In this way, the city can minimise its
 streams) to avoid contamination. A variety of                                                                                                                                          contribution to climate change, congestion and particulate
                                                                                                                                                                                        pollution.
 digital innovations, such as material passports
 and online marketplaces, can enable these
 circular practices in the construction sector.                                                                                                                                         Impacts of the direction on Amsterdam

 These innovations should be stimulated by the                                                                                                                                          In Amsterdam, there are several initiatives that focus on
                                                                                                                                                                                        the mono-stream collection of construction waste and
 city.                                                                                                                   1
                                                                                                                   climate                                                              early findings are now collected.44 Circular dismantling and
                                                                                                                   change
                                                                                        r
                                                                                                                                                                                        mono-stream collection could contribute to the reduction
                                                                                     ye                           G I CAL CEI LIN                     ac oc
                                                                                   la on                    OLO                                         id ea
                                                                                 e
                                                                              on ple
                                                                                     ti                EC                               G                 ifi n
                                                                                                                                                             ca                         of virgin material use and associated climate impacts of
                                                                                                        just space for
                                                                                e                                                                              t
                                                                         oz

                                                                                                  and                    hu                                                             the construction sector, as well as economic value losses.
                                                                        d

                                                                                                                                                              io
                                                                                                                                                                n
                                                                                               fe                          m                                                  OO
                                                                                                                                                                                    T
                                                                                              a          I AL FOUNDATIO     a                                              SH
                                                                                             s     S O C                N                                           O VE
                                                                                                                                                                         R
                                                                                                                                                                                        Circular dismantling and mono-stream collection of

                                                                                                                                                  ni
                                                                                                                water        food
                                                                                     e
                                                                                   th

                                                                                                                                                    ty
                                                                                                  energy                             health                                             construction materials should be combined with digital
                                                                  ion

                                                                                                                                                                         chem n
                                                                                                                                                                          pollu
                                                                                              3                                                                                         tracking and matching of resources, to enable the exchange
                                                        air pollut

                                                                                                                                         LL
                                                                                                                                      FA

                                                                                                                                                                               ical
                                                                                                                                   RT

                                                                                                                                                                               tio
                                                                                              networks                           O
                                                                                                                              SH      education
                                                                                                                                                                                        of materials amongst the different stakeholders in the
                                                                                                                               2        income
                                                                                              housing
                                                                                                                                        & work                                          Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (AMA). The implementation
                                                                                                  gender
                                                                                                  equality
                                                                                                                                    peace &
                                                                                                                                     justice                                 ding
                                                                                                                                                                                        of the direction has the potential to establish connections
                                                                                                                                                                                        between various stakeholders and strengthen the networks
                                                             bio los

                                                                                                                social   political
                                                                                                                                                                    or n &
                                                                                                                                                                          loa

                                                                                                                equity    voice
                                                                div s

                                                                                                                                                          Y
                                                                                     RE

                                                                                                                                                                  ph oge
                                                                                                                                                      M

                                                                                            EN
                                                                                                                                                                       us

                                                                                                                                                                                        in the AMA, while also providing opportunities for new
                                                                   er

                                                                                        G

                                                                                                                                                  O

                                                                                                 ER                                                   N
                                                                                                                                                  O
                                                                                                                                                                os itr
                                                                      s it

                                                                                                      AT                                     EC
                                                                                                                                                              ph n
                                                                          y

                                                                                                         IV                              E
                                                                                                              E AN                   TIV
                                                                                                                   D DIS TRIB U                                                         circular business models and circular employment.
                                                                                                                                               r
                                                                                            co land                                         ate ls
                                                                                                                                        hw
                                                                                              nve
                                                                                                  rsio                              fres rawa
                                                                                                                                          d
                                                                                                      n                              with

20
CURRENT STATE OF                                         CIT Y OF AMSTERDAM                                        ROLES OF OTHER                                   NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS AND

AMSTERDAM                                                                                                          STAKEHOLDERS                                     INTEREST GROUPS

                                                                                                                                                                    •   Public-private innovation partnerships
Digital material passports, disassembly plans and
                                                         Regulation                                                REGIONAL, NATIONAL AND                               and networks (e.g. Climate-KIC,
digital material exchange platforms are already          •   Large-scale adoption of circular dismantling and      INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS                            Stroomversnelling): create awareness
being developed in the city of Amsterdam. The                mono-stream collection should take place in all                                                            about the importance of mono-stream
next phase in the transition towards a circular              new construction, transformation and renovation                                                            collection to enable high-value reuse;
                                                                                                                   •   Regional government: foster the
Amsterdam should focus on the further exploration            projects (locally and regionally). Align with the         consideration of mono-stream collection          create collaborations and knowledge
of the applicability and profitability of mono-streams
                                                             companies to scope whether specified areas for            of demolition materials through new              exchange about innovative solutions to
collection during the demolition, retrofitting and
                                                             materials hubs are required in zoning plans.              regulations; provide physical space              foster the use of secondary materials in
renovation of buildings.
                                                                                                                       for processing and storage of reusable           buildings; support the development of
                                                         Direct financial support                                      materials; create demand and best                innovative business models; share data
Examples of existing initiatives:                                                                                      practices through public procurement of          and knowledge
                                                         •   Include circular criteria related to deconstruction
•   Amsterdam Logistic Cityhub in the Port of                and reuse of mono-streams into each tender of             construction and retrofitting projects
    Amsterdam aims to create a distribution centre           municipal real estate (see direction related to       •   National and International government:
    where goods and materials for construction
                                                                                                                                                                    UTILIT Y AND PUBLIC SERVICE
                                                             circular procurement).                                    formulate regulations and guidelines;
    are transported over water. Reverse logistics                                                                      advise municipalities and businesses;        PROVIDER
    are used to obtain residual flows, goods and
                                                         Governance                                                    provide taxation incentives for mono-        •   Promotion commission: advertise and
    materials of construction projects from the
                                                                                                                       stream collection and digital resource           communicate best practice examples
    city.45                                              •   Intensify the conversation with the national
                                                                                                                       tracking
                                                             legislator on how to create a new standard for                                                         •   Public service provider: provide support
•   REPAiR (Resource Management in Peri-Urban                circular deconstruction using Amsterdam as                                                                 services for the construction and
    Areas) is a European project in which a
                                                             exemplary projects.                                                                                        maintenance of modular buildings and
    geodesign approach is used to turn (construction
                                                                                                                                                                        their components
    and demolition) waste into value.46                  •   Lobby for changes in the fiscal system to decrease    BUSINESSES
                                                             tax on labour and increase taxes on material                                                           •   Housing associations: invest in modular
•   Madaster provide insights and data regarding
                                                             consumption, and the need for material passports.     •   Demolishers, collectors of demolition            and adaptive new buildings
    the composition of buildings and materials.47
                                                                                                                       waste: exploit the full potential of
•   Material Passports are applied through (Building     Collaboration platforms and                                   mono-streams in the deconstruction of
    Information Modeling) BIM at new and current
                                                         infrastructure                                                structures                                   KNOWLEDGE/EDUC ATIONAL
    buildings at the Vondeltuin project.48                                                                                                                          INSTITUTIONS
                                                         •   Use data and information sharing platforms            •   Construction companies, planners, and
•   In the redevelopment of the former Bijlmerbajes          to collect data and make resources flows more             architects: consider using secondary         •   Universities: carry out research about
    prison into the new district called Bajeskwartier,                                                                 materials and modularity in the design           adaptable and modular construction
                                                             publically available.
    98% of the materials from the former prison will                                                                                                                    approaches, materials, and components
                                                                                                                       and construction of new buildings
    be reused.49
                                                         Economic frameworks                                       •   Material passports (e.g. Madaster
•   New Horizon and the Urban Mining Collective
                                                         •   Support public-private partnerships that engage           foundation): give insight into and provide   CIVIL SOCIET Y
    enable high-value reuse and upcycling of
                                                             in smart waste management solutions. This way             data about the composition of buildings
    products and resources that are released in the                                                                                                                 •   Private homeowners: invest in flexible
                                                             innovative and circular waste treatment can be            and materials
    renovation, transformation and demolition of                                                                                                                        building design
    buildings.50 51                                          fostered in the whole city (both for public and       •   Associations and other collaboration
                                                             commercial construction waste).                           initiatives (e.g Bouwend Nederland
•   Insert is a platform to create collaboration
                                                                                                                       (association of construction companies):
    between demolition companies, civil
                                                                                                                       provide a platform for collaboration and
    engineering, and green business to stimulate
    material reuse.52                                                                                                  exchange knowledge and experiences
                                                         LEVERS                                                        among different actors; develop
•   Oogstkaart is an online marketplace for                                                                            new initiatives and standards in the
    redundant and secondary materials.53                         DIGITALISATION              SYSTEMS THINKING          construction sector
•   Netwerk Betonketen strives for sustainable
    construction projects by closing the concrete               INNOVATION
    loop, preventing the use of virgin concrete and             NET WORKS
    reducing CO2 emissions.54

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