AND THE CITY THE UNIVERSITY - Uni Frankfurt

 
AND THE CITY THE UNIVERSITY - Uni Frankfurt
APRIL 2015
Supplement to Times Higher Education

                                        THE UNIVERSITY
                                        AND THE CITY
                                        GOETHE UNIVERSITY FRANKFURT

                                       Political sphere            Economic sphere               Civic engagement Networks and alliances
                                       Includes lead article by Lesley Wilson, European University Association          university-and-city.com
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2                                                                                                                                                UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                 The university and the city

                                 Autonomy of universities,
                                 autonomy of cities?
                                 New insights
                                 A university can only thrive in an attractive location, and if      cities and universities, citing the examples of EUROCITIES,
                                 cities want to succeed in today’s global knowledge economy,         of which Birmingham was a founding member, as well as
                                 they need good universities and their graduates. Surprising-        Universitas 21 and a set of strategic partnerships that the
                                 ly, the symbiotic relationship between cities and universities      University of Birmingham entertains. They conclude that
                                 has received little attention in both research and practice. As     the university and city are of immense mutual benefit.
                                 an autonomous institution that is firmly grounded in the City of         With the examples of Shanghai, Krakow and Frank­
                                 Frankfurt, Goethe University brought together ten prominent         furt, The economic sphere demonstrates the symbiotic rela­
                                 partner universities and their host cities to discuss the role of   tionship between universities and city-regions. A universi­
Rainer Klump,                    autonomy in the university–city link.                               ty facilitates the production of knowledge and innovation,
University of Luxembourg,                                                                            produces a highly skilled workforce and helps market the
formerly Goethe University
                                 W     ithin these pages, we set out the main ideas discus­
                                       sed at this conference. The secretary general of the
                                 Euro­pean University Association sets the scene and makes
                                                                                                     host city as a global centre in the knowledge economy. In
                                                                                                     turn, cities ought to provide a favourable environment for
                                                                                                     higher education to prosper. A piece on Prague focuses on
                                 a compelling case for autonomy as a vital precondition for          related issues of economic transition for Eastern European
                                 the success of Europe’s universities. Only with financial           universities and cities, and the economic opportunities and
                                 sustainability, legislative stability and freedom from short-       pressures for their students.
                                 term political interference can higher education help pro­               The relationship between the university and a city’s resi-
                                 duce educated citizens and economic success for their re­           dents and institutions is at the heart of Jenny Phillimore’s
                                 gions.                                                              analysis. In Whose university? Whose city? Universities and civic
                                     The political sphere highlights the role of universities        engagement, she identifies possible domains of civic engage­
Martin Bickl                     as contributors to social and territorial cohesion. Experts         ment with examples from the universities of Vilnius, Tel
Goethe University                from the European level and Japan demonstrate how                   Aviv and Birmingham, including public access to univer­
                                 funding priorities and mechanisms have improved the po­             sity-owned facilities, academic outreach, widening partic­
                                 tential for partnerships between cities, regions and uni­           ipation and collaboration with local businesses. Smith and
                                 versities, with a case study from the Lithuanian govern­            Summers explore UPenn’s Challenges and opportunities for
                                 ment and its main university, Vilnius. The case study from          university civic engagement, where the goals of defending a
                                 Prague reveals a shared development trajectory between              position as a world-leading research university and being
                                 the city and its main university.                                   an accessible institution that actively seeks to create op­
                                     The co-authored paper by the leader of Birmingham               portunities for its local communities may be reconciled.
                                 City Council and the university’s pro-vice-chancellor il­                Synergies, cooperation and competition: Alliances among cit-
                                 lustrates the role of the two institutions in Alliances among       ies and universities identifies policy learning and political
                                                                                                     lobbying as the main rationales behind inter-city and in­
                                                                                                     ter-university networks, and the challenges to these net­
                                                                                                     works, including a limited steering capacity and the un­
                                                                                                     easy relationship between competition and collaboration.
                                                                                                     A new breed of university–city networks is evolving, ex­
                                                                                                     emplified by the alliance between Goethe University and
                                                                                                     the City of Frankfurt, which have realigned their sets of
                                                                                                     international partnerships to achieve political, social and
                                                                                                     economic synergies.
                                                                                                          While this was the third event in a bi-annual confer­
Front cover: Goethe University                                                                       ence series in Frankfurt (2010) and Toronto (2012), some
campus and City of Frankfurt                                                                         of the opportunities in the collaboration between cities
skyline                                                                                              and universities are still not fully understood, making this
                                                                                                     supplement compelling reading for academics and practi­
                                                                                                     tioners alike.                                                          
                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                    Rainer Klump, former Vice-President of Goethe University,
Riedberg Campus, Goethe                                                                                                                is now Rector, University of Luxembourg.
University                                                                                               Martin Bickl is Director of the International Office, Goethe University.
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UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                                                                                                                                          3

                                                                                                                           Autonomy
                                                                                                          A vital precondition for the
                                                                                                      success of Europe’s universities

Lesley Wilson                                                    many European countries. The state is tightening its belt
                                                                 while demanding more efficiency and introducing more
University autonomy is at the heart of the often complex re-     targeted, performance-based funding mechanisms. At the
lations between universities and the state, which in Europe      same time, demands are growing for widening access and
still provides over 70% of university funding. The challenges    increasing the number of highly qualified graduates with
that our societies and universities face are considerable, and   broad employability and skills to meet the demands of the
make it more necessary than ever before to find a good bal-      knowledge economy.
ance between autonomy and accountability – one that gives            This new era of globalisation also means a highly com­
universities the necessary freedom to pursue their increas-      petitive world market for universities in teaching and re­
ingly diverse missions.                                          search and innovation. This is reflected in the growing             “Autonomy is never a
                                                                 importance of international rankings, which receive con­          given, but is permanently

Indeed, university autonomy is a complicated concept
 that evolved with changes in cultural, political, legal and
historical circumstances. The first universities started as
                                                                 siderable attention from the public, policy makers and
                                                                 universities, and greatly impact systems and institution­
                                                                 al behaviour.
                                                                                                                                      under pressure and
                                                                                                                                    needs to be constantly
feudal institutions in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries,            Major changes have also taken place in the last 10–15
                                                                                                                                        renegotiated.”
                                                                                                                                             Wilson
focusing on a limited number of classical subjects until the     years in European higher education, leading to the Bologna
19th century, when the research university emerged – this        reforms and the creation of the European Higher Education
was linked to the Industrial and Scientific Revolution and       Area (EHEA). More recently, there have been increased
the recognition that the state needed investment in practi­      efforts to finalise the European Research Area (ERA), one
cal knowledge and higher learning.                               important element of which is the creation of a European
    A century later, post-1945, the growth of the welfare        labour market for researchers. While higher education
state and strong economic development gave way to a ma­          policy remains in the hands of each member state, the
jor expansion of universities in North America, and then in      Bologna reforms and European mobility programmes have
                                                                                                                                                         Photo by Stuart Watson Photography, © University of Pennsylvania

different waves across Europe. These changes led to enor­        resulted in the creation of common structures and frame­
mous increases in participation and completion rates in Eu­      works that have an influence on all systems and individ-
rope and are now reflected in the EU-wide benchmark for          ual institutions.
2020 that 40% of young people should have a tertiary edu­            In this context, two key conditions are important for
cation diploma – a figure that many countries have already       universities to be able to fulfil their role. First, university
met. There is now more focus on leadership and manage­           autonomy is a necessary precondition for the consolidation
ment and more centralised administration of large, public        of the EHEA and ERA. Second, advocacy on behalf of
higher education systems and institutions; in some cases, at     universities is as important at the European level as it is at
the expense of more collegial models of governance.              the national level. The role of multiple players at the Euro-
    However, the economic slowdown has resulted in sub­          pean level, including the European University Association
stantial cuts in higher education and research budgets for       (EUA), complements the work of national associations in
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4                                                                                                                                                  UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                             promoting the interests of universities at the European          sities cannot select their quality assurance mechanism,
                                             level and making sure that their voice is heard in the con­      although this is slowly changing due to European legisla­
                                             struction of the European project.                               tion. There are also differences in the extent to which stu­
                                                  The existence of the EHEA and ERA is leading to the         dent numbers are regulated, and only in one-third of sys­
                                             establishment of common frameworks at the European               tems surveyed can universities select their students.
                                             level that affect national and regional actors and univer­            Looking ahead, there are four major challenges that
                                             sities. With regard to the EHEA, aside from implementing         will impact university autonomy – first, the effects of the
                                             the European Qualifications Framework and reaching the           financial crisis. The autonomy study shows the high de­
Lesley Wilson                                agreed benchmark of 20% for mobility and 40% target for          gree of diversity of the rules and conditions under which
European University                          graduate attainment, of particular importance for univer­        Europe’s universities operate. Improvements have been
Association                                  sities are the commonly agreed principles set out in its Eu­     made, but autonomy is increasingly under threat as a re­
                                             ropean Standards and Guidelines for Quality (ESGs).              sult of the drastic public funding cuts of the past six years,
                                                  As far as the ERA is concerned, one major objective is      with salaries and benefits for staff being affected and ex­
                                             to build an open European labour market for researchers          penses linked to infrastructure maintenance and develop­
                                             by fostering mobility and improving young researchers’           ment being reduced.
                                             training and career prospects. Underpinning these two                 Second, while international collaboration and mobili­
                                             developments is the so-called “Modernisation Agenda”,            ty are beginning to affect how research is funded and or­
                                             which was originally conceived to encourage EU member            ganised, the great paradox remains that despite the op­
                                             states to grant more autonomy and more funding to uni­           portunities offered by new technologies and the growing
                                             versities.                                                       importance of internationalisation, universities still re­
                                                  The relationship between university autonomy and            main anchored in their national legal frameworks, tra­
                                             performance has, of course, been widely discussed. How­          ditions and practices. National regulation of staff status,
                                             ever, it is difficult to measure autonomy according to any       recruitment, promotion, salaries and pension affects in­
                                             objective index, even if several studies1 have shown that        ternational mobility, as some regulations may be difficult
                                             there are correlations between the degree of autonomy            for non-nationals to comprehend fully and can become a
                                             and university performance – for example, in terms of im­        competitive disadvantage.
                                             proved quality, extent of income differentiation, efficien­           Third, the need for efficient and effective management
                                             cy and effectiveness and successful internationalisation.        and leadership and for new technical and specialist exper­
                                             Even the laws enshrining university autonomy differ from         tise in a variety of areas must be addressed if universities
                                             country to country.                                              are to respond to the new demands placed on them. For
                                                  In a changing political and economic context, auton­        example, the recent development of so-called “HEPROs”
                                             omy is never a given, but is permanently under pressure          or “third space” professionals, who sit somewhere be­
                                             and needs to be constantly renegotiated. In this context         tween academic and administrative personnel, represents
                                             and as a service to its members, the EUA developed a so-         a new breed of professionals.
                                             called “Autonomy scorecard” to reflect the degree of au­              Finally, there is an increased burden on universities
                                             tonomy that European universities presently enjoy. The           that often arises from accountability demands from gov­
                                             scorecard looks at four dimensions of autonomy: organ­           ernments and other stakeholders. The increase in different
                                             isational, financial, staffing and academic. The tool anal­      funding sources, while important for financial sustainabil­
                                             ysed data from 29 European systems to provide a compre­          ity, as well as the increase in performance-based and proj­
                                             hensive picture.                                                 ect-related funding, often brings with it greater reporting re-
                                                  As far as organisational autonomy is concerned, the         quirements at regional, national and European levels; thus,
                                             last decade has brought many changes, including in the           simplifying the application and administration of these di­
                                             legal status of some universities. One of the major trends       verse schemes becomes an important issue.
                                             has been a decrease in direct state intervention in return            One of the trickier areas for universities concerns the
                                             for the (increased) participation of external members in         demands for more information on the employability of
                                             often newly constituted governing bodies. This is now the        graduates. While this is also important information for in­
                                             norm in most systems.                                            stitutions, and much is being done, there is always the
                                                  Financial autonomy remains of crucial importance,           danger that simplistic or merely linear links will be made
                                             and in almost all countries, universities now receive their      between graduate employability and institutional perfor­
                                             core public funding through block grants. The most com­          mance.
                                             plex financial issue is, of course, tuition fees  –  where the        In conclusion, based on their culture of autonomy and
                                             situation is often dependent on social compacts and taxa­        growing culture of quality  –  and their ability to endure,
                                             tion systems.                                                    but also to change in response to external developments
                                                  As for staffing autonomy, while universities now have       –  universities will surely continue to contribute to society
                                             greater flexibility in dealing with staffing issues, all or a    in a major way. But in order to do so, they need financial
                                             majority of staff still have civil servant status, and there     sustainability and legislative stability, as well as to be more
References                                   are differences in the way staff are recruited in almost half    independent of short-term political agendas. This will al­
1
    Estermann, T., Nokkala, T., & Steinel,   of European countries  –  ranging from a considerable de­        low them to do their job of looking to the longer term in
    M. (2011). University Autonomy in        gree of freedom to formalised procedures that require ex­        educating citizens and ultimately creating and disseminat­
    Europe II: The Scorecard. Belgium:
                                             ternal approval, sometimes by the country’s highest au­          ing new knowledge.                                          
    European University Association
    (www.eua.be/Libraries/Publications/      thorities.
    University_Autonomy_in_Europe_                Finally, with academic autonomy, there are often con­                              Lesley Wilson is the Secretary General of the
    II_-_The_Scorecard.sflb.ashx).           cerns about reporting requirements. In general, univer­                                       European University Association (EUA).
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UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                                                                             5

The political sphere
Autonomy and interconnection

Martin Bickl                                                        that this concept of “university social responsibility” should   Osaka University campus
                                                                    play a key role in guiding partnerships between universi­
The rise of the city within national and international political    ties and cities, in order to help them become interconnect­
systems is undisputed, and some observers1 contend that cit-        ed in more meaningful and effective ways.
ies have now largely assumed the nation-state’s role as prob-           Interestingly, just as Hoshino notes there has been a
lem-solvers. Similarly, universities have risen to prominence       sea change in how the government of Japan awards fund­
for their actual (or expected) role as contributors to economic     ing to universities, Lesley Wilson, European Universi­
growth and social and territorial cohesion.2 It seems that the      ty Association, points out that the European Union has
fortunes of universities and their host cities are closely tied     made efforts to shake things up by strengthening the in­
to one another. Does increased autonomy and accountabili-           teractions between cities and their universities in a way
ty for both kinds of institutions help foster collaboration? Con-   that emphasises – and rewards – innovation. Wilson ex­
versely, can close collaboration help achieve greater degrees       plains how within the structure of the EU, the “regional
of autonomy?                                                        level has not been taken into account sufficiently in the
                                                                    past, in the way European decision-making and European

T  oshiya Hoshino, Osaka University, notes that while pre­
   vious leadership in Japan felt that increasing deficits
and declining youth populations were making Japanese
                                                                    priorities have been set. And now that’s changed.” Now,
                                                                    she says, “A very large part of the very large budget for re­

universities less beneficial to the nation, Japan’s current
                                                                                     “The university has to be
prime minister, Shinzo Abe, has broken from the tradi­
tional governmental view of universities as a heavy bur­                        a very important citizen of the city.”
                                                                                               Hoshino
den on the federal government’s shoulders. With the new
philosophies of “Abenomics”, universities are now seen
as having the potential to be “a very important part of the         gional development will only be spent on supporting re­
growth strategy” for Japan.                                         search and innovation at the local level.”
    Abe altered the way in which funding is provided to                 This is indeed a new concept at the European level
universities, making it more competitive and research               and requires the leadership – both at the city and univer­
based, thus stimulating innovation. Hoshino points out              sity levels – to come together to identify their own unique
that “The university has to be a very important citizen of          characteristics. Only then can the community uncover its
the city” by not only promoting research and innovation             competitive advantages and devise a productive strategy
within the city, but also by accepting a moral obligation to        for growth. One intended consequence of this is that cities
operate according to the principles commonly associated             must pursue the cooperation of their universities; effective
with corporate social responsibility. Hoshino emphasises            strategizing “can only be done by bringing in the major
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6                                                                                                                                                 UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                                                                                              bers are defined merely as “external”. Furthermore, they
                                                                                                              are appointed by the minister of education and science
                                                                                                              rather than being elected by members of the community.
                                                                                                              Galginaitis asks, “What is, or rather should be, the politi­
                                                                                                              cal and legal model of university governance that would
                                                                                                              enable the optimal involvement of the highest possi­
                                                                                                              ble number of stakeholders in the strategic governing of
                                                                                                              the university?” Certainly, it is one that gives voice to the
Lenka A. Rovna                               Juozas Galginaitis               Hans-Jürgen Puhle               community in which the university resides. Yet Galginai­
Charles University, Prague                   Vilnius University               Goethe University               tis reminds us that “The absence of any mention of stake­

                                             city universities”, tying the interests of all regional stake­
                                                                                                                “Thanks to involvement of students in the change of the
                                             holders together in a concrete way involving monetary in­
                                             centives. Wilson notes that thus far, there have been few
                                                                                                                  regime in 1989, Charles University is now enjoying a
                                             real partnerships, but “we hope this will push them to in­          very high level of self-governance and independence.”
                                                                                                                                          Rovna
                                             teract more effectively.” This shift in research and innova­
                                             tion funding is truly in the experimental stage, with many
                                             watching closely.                                                holders in the law is not likely to prevent the University
                                                 Rimantas Vaitkus, Lithuanian Ministry of Education           of Vilnius from taking initiative in order to resolve the is­
Toshiya Hoshino                              and Science, agrees wholeheartedly , agrees wholeheart­          sue, or at least to try to start dealing with this important
Osaka University                             edly with Hoshino on the importance of a “healthy inter­         problem by means of internal legislation.”
                                             dependence” between universities and their cities, empha­             The importance of understanding a city within the
                                             sising this point by saying that “Vilnius City and Vilnius       context of its university (or universities) and vice versa,
                                                                                                              as mentioned by Vaitkus, is also revealed by Charles Uni­
                                                                                                              versity in Prague representative Lenka A. Rovna’s discus­
                                                      “Vilnius City and Vilnius University cannot             sion of the shared history of Prague and Charles Univer­
                                                         be understood without each other.”                   sity. Rovna notes that, “The history of the university and
                                                                         Vaitkus
                                                                                                              the city was shared and reflected the milestones of the de­
                                                                                                              velopment of the state and the nation(s).” Over a span of
                                             University cannot be understood without each other.”             many years, university leadership and students participat­
Rimantas Vaitkus                             As an example, Vaitkus explains how Vilnius University’s         ed in important political movements within both the city
Lithuanian Ministry                          historical importance not only benefits the university it­       and nation, working to provide the university with more
of Education and Science                     self, but also works to bring revenue to the City of Vilnius     autonomy while establishing important and meaningful
                                             from students, faculty and even tourism dollars – an im­         connections within the city. “Thanks to involvement of
                                             portant                                                          students in the change of the regime in 1989,” Rovna ex­
                                             factor for a city trying to recover from a deficit of N300       plains, “Charles University is now enjoying a very high
                                             million.
      “The absence of any                         At present, the significant student population is not
                                                                                                                   “The autonomies of the city and of the university
    mention of stakeholders                  counted towards city population, decreasing the amount
                                             of federal funding. Vilnius also does not enjoy the advan­            depend on the groups running them, and also on
     in the law is not likely
                                             tage of the incentives Wilson mentions since the EU has                 the various relevant groups of civil society in
    to prevent the University
                                             determined there is only one region for the entire coun­                        between and around them.”
      of Vilnius from taking                 try. In this case, the city and university have come togeth­                                 Puhle
      initiative in order to                 er of their own accord and to their mutual benefit, coop­
       resolve the issue.”                   erating on the development of research and technology            level of self-governance and independence.” With a gov­
                Galginaitis                  parks, coordination of tourism efforts, establishment of         ernance structure that includes an academic senate giving
                                             student internships and organisation and hosting of con­         voice to a group of (relatively young) elected faculty and
                                             ferences, thereby compensating for lack of funding from          students, science and research is taking the front seat – an
                                             the higher levels of government and forming a strong and         advantage for both the university and the city. And while
                                             mutually beneficial bond.                                        the state continues struggling to regain power and influ­
                                                  Juozas Galginaitis, Vilnius University, adds another di­    ence, it has thus far been unsuccessful.
                                             mension to the struggles of cities and universities in Lith­          As Chair Hans-Jürgen Puhle, Goethe University, ob­
                                             uania. As Galginaitis explains, the federal government           serves, “The autonomies of the city and of the university
                                             seems to neglect the interests of the city within the very       depend on the groups running them, and also on the vari­
                                             legal language defining the composition of the Univer-           ous relevant groups of civil society in between and around
                                             sity Council. “Unfortunately,” Galginaitis notes, “law on        them.” Interaction (and further communication) are in­
                                             higher education and research of the Republic of Lithu­          tegral in producing “optimum synergies”. It does indeed
References
1
                                             ania still neglects to give any attention to those societal      seem that the more interconnected cites and their univer­
    Barber, B. (2013). If Mayors Ruled the
    World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising
                                             groups that are most interested in the activity of the Uni­      sities become, the more voice each party has in determin­
    Cities. Yale University Press.           versity – the stakeholders.” While the law outlines specific     ing the direction of its future.                          
2   European Commission (2011).              details regarding the composition of the internal members
    Connecting Universities to Regional      of the council (teaching staff, research staff, administra­                                            Martin Bickl is Director of the
    Growth (Working Paper).                  tion and student body, for example), the external mem­                                       International Office, Goethe University.
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UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                7

                                     Albert Bore & Michael Whitby
                                     From the City of Birmingham …
                                     City networking at the European and international levels is a
                                     valuable means for sharing good practice, joint learning and
                                     forming alliances to effect policy change. Like many cities,
                                     Birmingham works bilaterally with its partner cities of Chica-
                                     go, Frankfurt, Guangzhou, Johannesburg, Leipzig, Lyon and
                                     Milan. The most publicly visible cornerstone of Birmingham’s
                                     city relations is the annual Frankfurt Christmas Market. Each
                                     year, Birmingham welcomes 100 stalls from Frankfurt for six

Alliances among cities               weeks, which attract over three million visitors and bring an
                                     average associated spend of £85 million into the city.

                                     T
and universities
                                         he City of Birmingham also has a long-established pres­
                                         ence in the EU, notably through the EUROCITIES net­
                                     work, which links major European cities. This started
                                     from humble, albeit ambitious, beginnings with six cities,
                                     but today brings together over 130 of Europe’s largest cit­
The case of Birmingham               ies and 40 partner cities that between them govern 130
                                     million citizens across 35 countries.
                                          EUROCITIES originated at a conference held in Rotter-
                                     dam in 1986 on the theme of cities as the engine of eco­
                                     nomic recovery. At that time, cities across Europe were
                                     dealing with the fallout of sharp industrial decline and
                                     restructuring across the continent. After the conference,
                                     informal discussions between the mayors of Barcelona,
                                     Frankfurt, Lyon, Milan, Rotterdam and Birmingham paved
                                     the way for cities to come together to drive policies to
                                     secure economic growth and recovery at the EU and local
                                     level. Albert Bore was one of the founding members of
                                     EUROCITIES and is proud still to be active within it today.
                                     EUROCITIES aims to shape the opinions of Brussels stake­
                                     holders and to shift the focus of EU legislation and fund­
                                     ing in ways that allow cities to tackle strategic challenges
                                     at the local level.
                                          Bore is also a member of the EU Committee of the
                                     Regions, an EU institution set up through the Maastricht
                                     Treaty. This body is effectively an interlocutor between
                                     cities and local authorities with the European Commission
                                     and the European Parliament. This is particularly import­
                                     ant as it gives cities and local authorities a formal role in
                                     the EU policy-making process.
                                          Some ask why cities choose to cooperate when they
                                     are in competition with one another. First, by working
                                     collectively through EUROCITIES and the Committee of
                                     the Regions, cities can have a stronger voice in shaping
                                     opinion in EU institutions. This is particularly relevant
                                     given it is estimated that some 70  –  80% of legislation that
                                     impacts local government has its origins in EU law.1 Second,
                                     for cities, success is as much about collaboration as compe­
                                     tition. Collaboration between cities can help us learn from
                                     each other: cities do not need to reinvent the wheel. Cities,
                                     like other major institutions such as universities, have to
                                     be looking beyond their horizons and learn from others
                                     to continue to thrive and improve. EUROCITIES and the
                                     Committee of the Regions networks help do just that.

                                     … To the University of Birmingham
                                     One important aspect of Birmingham’s partner city rela­
                                     tions is the opportunities they open up for other institu­
                                     tions. Thus the counterpart in Frankfurt for the Christ­
                                     mas market in Birmingham is the strategic partnership
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UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                                                                                       and Ironbridge, in cementing links, although the partner­
                                                                                                       ship spans the breadth of our comprehensive universities.
                                                                                                       Granted the vitality of Birmingham’s cultural scene, there
                                                                                                       is considerable potential for exploiting the reputations of
                                                                                                       the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, Birming­
                                                                                                       ham Repertory Theatre and Birmingham Royal Ballet to
                                                                                                       create and uphold relationships; aligning these cultural re­
                                                                                                       sources with the city’s commercial and industrial strength
                                                                                                       and the university’s research base will unlock further op­
                                                                                                       portunities.
                                                                                                            In China, Guangzhou – the country’s third-largest city
                                                                                                       – is sister to Birmingham. Here, the university has spear­
                                                                                                       headed the connection with a long-running epidemiolog­
                                                                                                       ical study in manufacturing, power systems, liver disease,
                                                                                                       brain cognition and a major collaborative genetics insti­
                                                                                                       tute in a special agreement with the Guangzhou Munic­
                                                                                                       ipal Government. In addition, we have a programme of
                                                                                                       professional development for employees of the Guang­
                                                                                                       zhou Municipality. Beyond Guangzhou, we have two ma­
                                                                                                       jor joint research centres in Hefei on intelligent computing
                                                                                                       and railway safety and technology.
                                                                                                            Other university collaborations bring potential bene­
Aerial view of the Edgbaston          between the University of Birmingham and Goethe Uni­             fit for the city. For example, in Brazil, the strategic part­
Campus and the City of Bir-           versity. This is developing closer cooperation in teaching       nership between the Universities of Birmingham and
mingham                               and research between the two institutions in fields rang­        Nottingham has generated considerable opportunities in
                                      ing from particle physics and pharmacy to African stud­          several partner universities across the country in fields as
                                      ies and ancient history. The universities also collaborate       diverse as energy, the legacy of sporting events, fMRI im­
                                      on researching effective local democracy and the challeng­       aging and translation studies. Universitas 21 brings a net­
                                      es of complex urban communities, topics that will direct­        work of leading global universities into contact with Bir­
                                      ly benefit their cities – the most diverse in their respective   mingham, enabling collaborations on, for example,
                                      countries. The two universities will be pooling resourc­         projects like digital heritage that link the resources of the
                                      es to enhance their presence in Brussels, where the Uni­         West Midlands with the world. In Malaysia and Indonesia,
                                      versity of Birmingham has now maintained an office for
                                      three years, to ensure that their policy advice has maxi­
                                                                                                         "The close alignment of the University of Birmingham
                                      mum impact.
                                           The close alignment of the University of Birmingham           and its city is unsurprising: the university was founded
                                      and its city is unsurprising: the university was founded                        as an expression of civic pride."
                                      as an expression of civic pride at the instigation of Joseph                                Bore & Whitby

                                      Chamberlain, the former mayor, and through the philan­
                                      thropic generosity of the businessmen and citizens of the        we work with partners on transportation and reliance. We
                                      city. It was created to provide graduates in both the arts       have over 900 students based in Singapore studying busi­
                                      and sciences to underpin the city’s prosperity. It still ful­    ness. The University’s Centre for Railway Research and
                                      fils this role with distinction, generating over £1 billion of   Education provides expertise on new approaches to traffic
Albert Bore                           economic activity in the region annually and supporting          management, track construction and propulsion to met­
Birmingham City Council               almost 12,000 jobs; most of this impact is, naturally, with­     ro and other railway projects around the world, notably
                                      in the City of Birmingham. The university is also a major        in China, India and North America; this rich experience is
                                      catalyst for inwards investment, by ensuring that the West       contributing to planning for high-speed rail developments
                                      Midlands is a region with both the skilled workforce to          in the UK and helped Birmingham to be selected as joint
                                      support the likes of Deutsche Bank or Jaguar Land Rover          host for the national HS2 College.
                                      and the cutting-edge research to enable Rolls Royce to de­           City and university are both superdiverse communities,
                                      velop new forms of high-temperature casting for the next         as Jenny Phillimore’s contribution to the conference
                                      generation of jet engines.                                       demonstrated. The university brings to the city students
                                           It is always a challenge for universities to determine      from over 150 different countries around the world and
                                      how many strategic partnerships they can effectively sus­        sends out its alumni to at least that number, thereby
Michael Whitby                        tain. In this respect, alignment with the international sis­     maintaining our global connections. The Birmingham ex­
University of Birmingham              ter-cities for Birmingham supports enhanced activity. In         perience, of both Edgbaston campus and city-centre cul­
                                      the USA, where Chicago is Birmingham’s twinned “sec­             tural life, ensures that together we are constantly creating
                                      ond-city”, the university has recently confirmed a stra­         new ambassadors for the city-region, thereby laying the
                                      tegic partnership with the University of Illinois Urbana         foundations for our future prosperity.                    
                                      Champaign. Here, themes such as international cultur­
References                            al heritage management, or the Global Shakespeare Video                              Albert Bore is Leader of Birmingham City Council.
1   www.local.gov.uk/eu-policy-and-   & Performance Archive project, underline the importance                     Michael Whitby is Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Head of College
    lobbying.                         of the Birmingham region’s cultural assets, like Stratford                    for the College of Arts & Law, University of Birmingham.
AND THE CITY THE UNIVERSITY - Uni Frankfurt
UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                                                                                     9

                                                                     The economic sphere
Paul Bernd Spahn                                                     cities, where scholars and students are a substantial share         The relationship between
                                                                     of the population. But even in larger cities, such as Berlin,       Fudan University and the
The relationship between the university and the city is highly       Munich or Frankfurt, universities attract income and sus­           City of Shanghai thrives on
ambiguous. On the one hand, there is, especially in the Unit-        tain high-value purchasing power. They also play an im­             mutual support.
ed States, “an impulse to build campus environments, even in         portant role as investors and consumers of services from
cities, with ‘an affinity with the purified, safe and calm life of   third parties, adding clout to local income generation and
the suburbs’”.1 Here, the university is exalted for its intellec-    the creation of wealth.
tual independence, but risks becoming a somewhat alienated
and disconnected institution with an anti-urban and anti-eco-        The role of the city
nomic stance. On the other hand, the university can never be         The city, as the physical, economic and cultural environ­
“self-contained”, as it thrives within an intellectually and cul-    ment that shelters the university, has a responsibility in
turally challenging city. A fruitful interaction will produce new    supporting its endeavour to attract high-caliber faculty and
knowledge, not for its own contemplation, but for social and         students, similar to attracting high-value–adding industries
economic development.                                                and services. A successful university needs a favourable
                                                                     regional environment, in particular, a qualified, open and
The role of the university                                           internationally oriented education system, first-class cul-
The interconnections of a city with its universities and col­        tural institutions and programmes and attractive surround­
leges are particularly relevant to social and economic de­           ings for leisure activities. Without that, it is quasi impossible
velopment. Economic synergies thrive where there is will­            to attract top-notch academics and students, as they expect
ingness to match the structures of the university and the            such an environment for themselves and their families
local economy, and to engage in a candid dialogue on the­            and children. Real estate development is just one such
ory and practice. The university should facilitate original,         dimension. The provision of decent local infrastructure             “A university’s humanistic
relevant research; transfer knowledge by fostering two-              and adequate local services are key.                                    spirit and scientific
way “data pipelines”; develop tools for analysis and ap­                 Yet the city can go beyond this narrow set of essential           research makes the city
plication; create permanent platforms for discussions; and           local public services and also engage in creating synergies
                                                                                                                                         friendlier to human beings
work collaboratively with officials, city planners, entrepre­        between academic institutions, and between these institu­
neurs, lawyers, technicians and other practitioners.                 tions and the local business community. In Frankfurt, we
                                                                                                                                          and nature, and helps the
    In addition to its search for knowledge and engage­              are fortunate that the city, in concordance with the state          city to develop in a balan-
ment, the university plays a crucial role in academic train­         government, has fostered an economic infrastructure that            ced and sustainable way.”
ing and cultivation. To reach new generations, the study             responds to global economic challenges, whether as an                            Ding
ought to reflect both theoretical concepts and methods               important European transport hub, as the core of a pio­
and real-world needs of local public, social and econom­             neering high-speed data network or as a synergetic mix of
ic agents. This benefits students, expecting decent job op­          institutions of higher learning, economic services and in­
portunities after graduation, and local employers, await­            dustries. These complementary synergies between the city
ing highly qualified and motivated staff.                            administration, local economy and academia are crucial
    Furthermore, the university plays a key role as a top            for successful regional economic and social development.
employer of highly qualified staff, an international mag­
net for visiting fellows and researchers, a focal point of in­       Effective cohabitation between the city and its university
formation networks and a catalyst for a large body of sem­           Four panelists from Frankfurt’s partner universities and
inal students. This is particularly important for smaller            cities address some of the key economic questions of how
AND THE CITY THE UNIVERSITY - Uni Frankfurt
10                                                                                                                                             UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                                                                                         Krakow
                                                                                                         Magdalena Sroka, Krakow’s deputy mayor, notes that as
                                                                                                         one of the world’s oldest universities, Jagiellonian Univer­
                                                                                                         sity plays an important promotional role for both the uni­
                                                                                                         versity milieu (by now 21 higher education institutions)
                                                                                                         and the city, since its large student population makes Kra­
                                                                                                         kow one of the youngest cities in Poland. At the same
                                                                                                         time, the Jagiellonian acts as a magnet for new business,
                                                                     Paul Bernd Spahn                    with tourism playing an ever-increasing role. Sroka ex­
                                                                     Goethe University                   plains, “Aware of the importance of new investments in
                                                                                                         the knowledge-based sector, city authorities cooperate
                                                                                                         with the university to shift the economy from essential to
                                                                                                         sophisticated services where new technologies play a role.
                                                                                                         Moreover, the city matches supply of qualified graduates
                                                                                                         with demand in various areas through an annual ‘balance
                                                                                                         of competences’.” The cultural fund allows new cultural
                                                                                                         initiatives in, for example, audio-visual design, supported
                                                                                                         by the university’s innovative technologies.

                                                                 Ding Chun
                                                                 Fudan University                              “In 2008, a milestone decision returned Goethe
                                                                                                               University’s status as a foundation university –
                                                                                                                  the first such in contemporary Germany.”
                                                                                                                                        Eick
Jagiellonian University, among the oldest universities in the
world, attracts many students to Krakow.                                                                     Sroka emphasises the significance of effective city –
                                                                                                         university cooperation in promoting a positive image, at­
                                                                                                         tracting new investments, employing knowledge-based
best to fulfill these roles, giving overviews on city–univer­                                            ventures in direct city development and advancing new
sity relations for their respective institutions in this con­                                            technologies. Not necessarily requiring the city’s financial
text. Their key messages can be summarised as follows:               Magdalena Sroka                     support, this does involve creative thinking, competence
                                                                     City of Krakow                      matching and friendly cooperation.
Shanghai
Professor Ding Chun, Fudan University, stresses that the                                                 Prague
relationship between the university and city thrives on                                                  Wadim Strielkowski discusses Charles University in Prague,
mutual support and joint development initiatives. In par­                                                founded in 1348, hence even older than Jagellonian Uni­
ticular, the city supports the university through finan­                                                 versity. Strielkowski notes the historical roles of universi­
                                                                                                         ties in the lives of their cities and what the implications of
                                                                                                         easier access to academic formation and globalisation are
   “Aware of the importance of new investments in the                                                    for the future. His in-depth article on the subject follows
 knowledge-based sector, city authorities cooperate with                                                 this contribution.
 the university to shift the economy from essential to so-           Gabriele Eick
phisticated services where new technologies play a role.”            Goethe University and               Frankfurt
                               Sroka                                 Executive Communications            Gabriele Eick, having worked for both the City of Frank­
                                                                                                         furt and on the Board of Goethe University, summaris­
cial grants, the provision of land for new campuses and                                                  es her key points as follows: “In 2008, a milestone deci­
care for the establishment of a high-tech park. The con­                                                 sion returned Goethe University’s status as a foundation
tributions of the university to this fruitful relationship are                                           university – the first such in contemporary Germany. The
manifold, but involve supplying qualified graduates, con­                                                university has since established a private endowment and
sultancy services (the university has created five research                                              enjoys full administrative autonomy in matters such as
hubs or think tanks for that purpose) and healthcare ser­                                                faculty appointments. This is crucial for development, as
vices to citizens.                                                                                       seen in the 2014 centenary, showcasing the remarkable
    Ding emphasises that the relationship between Fudan                                                  trust and engagement of many private donors.
and Shanghai has demonstrated that “A good university                                                        “Still, it remains a challenge for a university in a bust­
should be not only a city’s calling card and think tank hub,                                             ling city like Frankfurt to remain relevant. Ideally, Goethe
                                                                 References
but also a centre for innovation and a resource for human                                                University should become a ‘love mark’,”2 Eick notes, via
                                                                 1    Perry, D. C., & Wiewel, W. (Eds,
capital. A university’s humanistic spirit and scientific re­                                             a long-term commitment to city businesses and organisa­
                                                                     2005). The University as Urban
search makes the city friendlier to human beings and na­                                                 tions that positions Goethe University as a central part of
                                                                     Developer. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln
ture, and helps the city to develop in a balanced and sus­           Institute of Land, p. 4.
                                                                                                         the city economy in a way that continues to bring pride to
tainable way. The city, in return, plays an ever more            2                                       the city and its citizens long after the 2014 centennial cel­
                                                                      Saatchi & Saatchi. Lovemarks:
signi­ficant and irreplaceable role in promoting the univer­         The Future Beyond Brands.           ebration.                                                   
sity’s academic development and therefore fosters this hu­           http://www.lovemarks.com/index.
manistic spirit.”                                                    php?pageID=20020                               Paul Bernd Spahn is Professor Emeritus, Goethe University.
UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                                                                      11

  Universities and their cities
  An economic perspective
Wadim Strielkowski                                               ic benefit for cities is in preparing future business leaders    The Old Town Square
                                                                 likely to run companies located in the same cities or re­        in Prague
The history of the interaction between the university and the    gions as their universities.
city goes back to medieval ages.1 From their very origins in
medieval Europe, universities had two main economic pur-         Universities and cities in the changing world
poses: giving representatives of the powerful political and      However, the world is changing, and universities are
business elites a place to network (and become even more         changing with it. Globalisation has altered the structure
powerful), and preparing the offspring of those elites to take   and shape of the academic crowd.4 Many students are
over the family business.                                        now coming from another part of the world in pursuit of
                                                                 a high-quality degree (especially relevant for universities

T  he first purpose is quite straightforward and is still ful­
   filled by the majority of universities (particularly busi­
ness schools) nowadays. The second purpose is less ob­
                                                                 in North America and the EU), and therefore start con­
                                                                 tributing to these cities in different ways. For instance, in­
                                                                 ternational students spend more on housing, food and
vious and allows universities to regulate the numbers of         supplies than locals, who often have their own housing or
young entrepreneurs and educate them to become good              live with family.
caretakers of established businesses, in order to sustain            Another important issue is that the rapidly changing
the balanced development of the world’s economy.                 world – fueled by global information technologies, open
     The economic benefits for cities are obvious: the tar­      borders and cheaper travel, easier transfer of knowledge
gets of many powerful economic alliances created within          and information and higher volumes of production and
the universities’ walls are often in the immediate proxim­       trade – is posing new demands on students. Ten years
ity.2,  3 Students create start-ups and provide services with­   ago, it was not common for students to have full-time
in the cities where they reside, which means higher tax          jobs. Nowadays, students tend to work and spend more
revenues and employment rates, positively affecting the          because there are more ways to spend money on fashion,
quality of life in these cities. Another important econom­       housing, technological gadgets, leisure and travelling.
12                                                                                                                                                   UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015

                                                                                                 agglomerates of universities specialising in, for example,
                                                                                                 energy or agricultural studies and envisaged to serve
                                                                                                 specific areas of the Communist economy had been estab­
                                                                                                 lished throughout the 1930s.
                                                                                                      The situation changed abruptly in the early 1990s,
                                                                                                 during the first 10 years of economic transition. All of a
                                                                                                 sudden, many private universities sprang up, the quality
                                                                                                 of university education went down and many state-owned
                                                                                                 universities attempted to engage themselves in various
                                                                                                 forms of (often dubious) business activities (such as rent­
                                                                                                 ing university property to businesses like bars, restaurants
                                                                                                 and hotels, or as offices for enterprises of all sorts).
                                                                                                      While the universities from CEE quickly adjusted to
                                                                                                 the shock from the transformation and adopted educa­
                                                                                                 tional standards from the “old” EU countries, Russian uni­
                                                                                                 versities are struggling with the declining quality of edu­
                                                                                                 cation, unclear goals and pressure from the government
                                                                                                 to adapt to Western norms and standards.6 Until recent­
                                                                                                 ly, most universities from the Russian Federation were
                                                                                                 obliged to cooperate with local industries to prepare their
                                                                                                 students as future “on-demand” employees. Many Rus­
                                                                                                 sian universities even had or have compulsory “work
                                                                                                 placement” for their students during their final year of
                                                                                                 studies.7 However, this work placement is often fictional
                                                                                                 and does not contribute to the development of the work­
                                                                                                 force, or it helps local businesses access a cheap and quali­
                                                                                                 fied labour force.
Charles University, among the oldest universities in the world                                        The situation differs from city to city, of course. In
                                                                                                 some small CEE and Russian cities where universities con­
                                                                                                 stitute one of the largest employers and most powerful
                                   They are also expected to demonstrate at least several        players in municipal development, their role in the local
                                   years of work experience at graduation in order to quali­     economies is enormous (very often, high-ranking univer­
                                   fy for well-paid jobs. Many universities have noticed these   sity administrators and local politicians share friends and
                                   trends and have therefore allied with their cities and lo­    business ties). However, the situation might be different
                                   cal economies in order to help both the supply and de­        in larger cities, where universities are often less influen­
                                   mand sides. In North America, cooperative education           tial. One such example is Prague, which is considered to
                                   programmes combining students’ academic studies and           be the EU’s seventh wealthiest city (with the GDP per cap­
                                   relevant work experience have gained wide popularity          ita being at about 175% of the EU’s average) and is there­
Wadim Strielkowski                 and allowed students to build the required experience and     fore ineligible to receive money from EU funds or to take
Charles University, Prague         contribute to the regional economies.                         part in operational programmes improving university ed­
                                       And this is not to mention university spin-offs, busi­    ucation in the Czech Republic.                              
                                   ness incubators and start-ups. Students are becoming
                                   more entrepreneurial as their universities provide them                  Wadim Strielkowski is Lecturer at the Faculty of Social Sciences,
                                   space and time for developing their ideas, leading to im­                                                    Charles University in Prague.
                                   portant discoveries and business solutions that impact re­
                                   gional economies. Take pharmaceutical research, for ex­       References
                                   ample. It would have been impossible to develop and test      1    Bender, T. (Ed., 1988). The University and the City: From Medieval Origins to the
                                   so many medicines without the research conducted in               Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
                                   university labs.5                                             2   Charles, D. (2003). Universities and Territorial Development: Reshaping the
                                                                                                     Regional Role of UK Universities. Local Economy, 18(1), pp. 7 – 20.
                                   Universities in Central and Eastern Europe                    3    Puukka, J., & Marmolejo, F. (2008). Higher Education Institutions and Regional
                                   and the Russian Federation                                        Mission: Lessons Learnt from the OECD Review Project. Higher Education Poli-
                                                                                                     cy, 21(2), pp. 217 – 244.
                                   Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Russian Fed­
                                                                                                 4    Gunasekara, C. (2006). Reframing the Role of Universities in the Development
                                   eration have a slightly different path for cooperation and
                                                                                                     of Regional Innovation Systems. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(1), pp.
                                   interaction between universities and their cities. The
                                                                                                     101 – 113.
Acknowledgements                   Communist heritage predominant there limited the in­          5    Ischinger, B., & Puukka, J. (2009). Universities for Cities and Regions: Lessons
I would like to thank Neal         volvement of universities in the economic sphere in their
                                                                                                     from the OECD Reviews. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 41(3), pp.
Eiserman for his help and          cities. University education was provided free of charge,         8 – 13.
ideas regarding the role of        and the only source of income for universities was govern-    6    Strielkowski, W., &  Čábelková, I. (Eds., 2012). Educational Systems of European
the universities, and Evgeny       mental subsidies. The educational system created under            Union and Russian Federation. Prague: Charles University, Faculty of Social Sci-
Lisin for his ideas on the         Communist rule focused on the creation of large-profiled          ences.
transition of universities         universities that would cover the main areas of the           7    Krotova, A., Abramova, E., Lisin, E., & Strielkowski, W. (2013). Strategic Planning
in the Russian Federation.         socialist economy, especially in the USSR, where giant            in Education. Prague: Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY APRIL 2015                                                                                                                                 13

                                                Whose university?
                                             Whose city?

                                                                   Universities and civic engagement
Jenny Phillimore                                                   and bring tangible benefits to local residents, businesses      The city of Tel Aviv, home to
                                                                   and institutions. These include public access to univer-        the ethnically and socially
In the increasingly marketised world of higher education           sity-owned facilities such as libraries, museums, sports        diverse Tel Aviv University
(HE), many universities are trying to balance income gener-        facilities and spaces and access to knowledge through en­
ation and competitiveness with civic or public engagement.         gagement in events and involvement in research. Student
The National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement1 de-        engagement often involves volunteering as a part of uni-
scribes public engagement as the sharing of HE benefits and        versity curricula, but can also relate to student-led activi­
activities with the public for mutual benefit. Rogers Smith,       ties and practice placements, while faculty engagement sees
University of Pennsylvania, warns that US universities are at      staff offering their expertise as volunteers or advisors.
a critical juncture wherein their legitimacy and relevance to      Widening participation programmes are probably the most
wider publics are in question – enhanced civic engagement          well-known engagement domain. Such approaches seek
may offer a means by which to reclaim legitimacy. Such in-         to improve recruitment and success rates of students from
teraction is generally portrayed as positive for staff, students   traditionally excluded backgrounds. Many universities col-
and universities, bringing wide-ranging opportunities. Yet the     laborate with local businesses around research and develop­
benefits of engagement for local communities are largely as-       ment, particularly in relation to technology transfer and
sumed with little empirical evidence available about the ways      provision of business advice. The final engagement do­
actions impact those engaged.                                      main encompasses developing institutional relationships and
                                                                   partnerships with communities, often involving the de­

C   ritical voices from within HE have raised concerns that
    engagement is more of a brand-management exercise
emerging from institutional self-interest rather than an ef­
                                                                   velopment of collaborative research projects intended to
                                                                   meet community needs.
                                                                        Juras Banys, Vilnius University, is clear about the im­
fort to pursue social justice goals within university hinter­      portance of public access to its facilities, viewing the uni­
lands. The idea of engagement with a single community is           versity’s historic buildings as “a gateway to both Vilnius
contested: cities have always been socioeconomically di­           and Lithuania”. The campus welcomes local citizens and
verse and are increasingly becoming superdiverse as peo­           high-profile visitors from across the globe as the univer­
ple arrive from across the globe. So who exactly should            sity hosts key events for both city and nation. Looking to
universities engage with? And is engagement the responsi­          the future as Vilnius University embarks on an ambitious
bility of institutions or the individuals within them? These       development programme, the university is building new
were just two of the questions addressed at the Goethe             campuses “with a high concentration of researchers, stu­
University centenary conference, from the perspectives of          dents and businesses, which will inevitably only increase
universities located in cities with different publics, geog­       its impact on the city”.
raphies and traditions of civic engagement: Pennsylvania,               Rogers Smith and Mary Summers point to work with­
Vilnius, Tel Aviv and Birmingham. In this article, I briefly       in the University of Pennsylvania, wherein staff and stu­
examine the ways in which universities might engage with           dents engage with local people (detailed further in Smith
their public(s), using examples from the four universities.        & Summer’s co-authored article, immediately following
     According to Hart & Northmore,2 there are seven pos­          this piece). Activities involve interdisciplinary, problem-
sible domains of civic engagement that universities might          oriented teaching and research that is “rigorous, intellec­
utilise in order to enhance the relevance of their work            tually path-breaking and also pertinent to pressing human
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